Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3578

Search results for: theory

3578 Sustainable Enterprise Theory: A Starting Point for Reporting Sustainable Business Values

Authors: Arne Fagerstrom, Gary Cunningham, Fredrik Hartwig

Abstract:

In this paper, a theory of sustainable enterprises, sustainable enterprise theory (SET), is developed. The sustainable enterprise theory can only be a valid theory if knowledge about life and nature is complete. Knowledge limitations should not stop enterprises from doing business with a goal of better long-term life on earth. Life demands stewardship of the resources used during one’s lifetime. This paper develops a model influenced by (the classical) enterprise theory and resource theory that includes more than money in the business activities of an enterprise. The sustainable enterprise theory is then used in an analysis of accountability and in discussions about sustainable businesses.

Keywords: sustainable business, sustainability reporting, sustainable values, theory of the firm

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3577 A Note on Decidability of the Theory of Natural Numbers

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami

Abstract:

The additive theory or (the multiplication theory) of a set of natural numbers is the first theory of the structure of that set with the addition or (multiplication) operation that set is taken be additive(multiplicative),i.e., closed under addition or (multiplication). In this paper, decidability (i.e.,there exists an algorithm that decides whether a given sentence is derivable from the theory )of the structures of natural numbers study in different languages and introduce ways that it allows quantifier elimination (for the theory ) and review some classical theorems and will give new proofs for old results.

Keywords: Decidability, Incompleteness, Number Structure, First Order Logic

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3576 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha

Abstract:

Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

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3575 A Study on Game Theory Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: M. Shoukath Ali, Rajendra Prasad Singh

Abstract:

Game Theory approaches and their application in improving the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are discussed in this paper. The mathematical modeling and analysis of WSNs may have low success rate due to the complexity of topology, modeling, link quality, etc. However, Game Theory is a field, which can efficiently use to analyze the WSNs. Game Theory is related to applied mathematics that describes and analyzes interactive decision situations. Game theory has the ability to model independent, individual decision makers whose actions affect the surrounding decision makers. The outcome of complex interactions among rational entities can be predicted by a set of analytical tools. However, the rationality demands a stringent observance to a strategy based on measured of perceived results. Researchers are adopting game theory approaches to model and analyze leading wireless communication networking issues, which includes QoS, power control, resource sharing, etc.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, game theory, cooperative game theory, non-cooperative game theory

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3574 Identifying Chaotic Architecture: Origins of Nonlinear Design Theory

Authors: Mohammadsadegh Zanganehfar

Abstract:

Since the modernism, movement, and appearance of modern architecture, an aggressive desire for a general design theory in the theoretical works of architects in the form of books and essays emerges. Since Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown’s published complexity and contradiction in architecture in 1966, the discourse of complexity and volumetric composition has been an important and controversial issue in the discipline. Ever since various theories and essays were involved in this discourse, this paper attempt to identify chaos theory as a scientific model of complexity and its relation to architecture design theory by conducting a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary critical approach through architecture and basic sciences resources. As a result, we identify chaotic architecture as the correlation of chaos theory and architecture as an independent nonlinear design theory with specific characteristics and properties.

Keywords: architecture complexity, chaos theory, fractals, nonlinear dynamic systems, nonlinear ontology

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3573 Inverse Matrix in the Theory of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Renata Masarova, Bohuslava Juhasova, Martin Juhas, Zuzana Sutova

Abstract:

In dynamic system theory a mathematical model is often used to describe their properties. In order to find a transfer matrix of a dynamic system we need to calculate an inverse matrix. The paper contains the fusion of the classical theory and the procedures used in the theory of automated control for calculating the inverse matrix. The final part of the paper models the given problem by the Matlab.

Keywords: dynamic system, transfer matrix, inverse matrix, modeling

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3572 Chinese Fantasy Novel: New Word Teaching for Non-Native Learners

Authors: Bok Check Meng, Goh Ying Soon

Abstract:

Giving additional learning materials such as Chinese fantasy novel to non-native learners can be strenuous. Instructors have to understand the underpinning theories about cognitive theory for new word instruction. This paper discusses the underpinning theories. Relevant literature reviews are given. There are basically five major areas of cognitive related theories mentioned in this article. These include motivational learning theory, Affective theory of learning, Cognitive psychology theory, Vocabulary acquisition theory and Bloom’s cognitive levels theory. A theoretical framework has been constructed. Thus, this will give a hand in ensuring non-native learners might gain positive outcomes in the instruction process. Instructors who are interested in teaching new word from Chinese fantasy novel in specific to support additional learning might be able to get insights from this article.

Keywords: Chinese fantasy novel, new word teaching, non-native learners, cognitive theory, bloom

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3571 Disintegration of Deuterons by Photons Reaction Model for GEANT4 with Dibaryon Formalism

Authors: Jae Won Shin, Chang Ho Hyun

Abstract:

A disintegration of deuterons by photons (dγ → np) reaction model for GEANT4 is developed in this work. An effective field theory with dibaryon fields Introducing a dibaryon field, we can take into account the effective range contribution to the propagator up to infinite order, and it consequently makes the convergence of the theory better than the pionless effective field theory without dibaryon fields. We develop a hadronic model for GEANT4 which is specialized for the disintegration of the deuteron by photons, dγ → np. For the description of two-nucleon interactions, we employ an effective field theory so called pionless theory with dibaryon fields (dEFT). In spite of its simplicity, the theory has proven very effective and useful in the applications to various two-nucleon systems and processes at low energies. We apply the new model of GEANT4 (G4dEFT) to the calculation of total and differential cross sections in dγ → np, and obtain good agreements to experimental data for a wide range of incoming photon energies.

Keywords: dγ → np, dibaryon fields, effective field theory, GEANT4

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3570 A Study of Chinese-specific Terms in Government Work Report(2017-2019) from the Perspective of Relevance Theory

Authors: Shi Jiaxin

Abstract:

The Government Work Report is an essential form of document in the government of the People’s Republic of China. It covers all aspects of Chinese society and reflects China’s development strategy and trend. There are countless special terms in Government Work Report. Only by understanding Chinese-specific terms can we understand the content of the Government Work Report. Only by accurately translating the Chinese-specific terms can people come from all across the world know the Chinese government work report and understand China. Relevance theory is a popular theory of cognitive pragmatics. Relevance Translation Theory, which is closely related to Relevance Theory, has crucial and major guiding significance for the translation of Chinese-specific. Through studying Relevance Theory and researching the translation techniques, strategies and applications in the process of translating Chinese-specific terms from the perspective of Relevance Theory, we can understand the meaning and connotation of Chinese-specific terms, then solve various problems in the process of C-E translation, and strengthen our translation ability.

Keywords: government work report, Chinese-specific terms, relevance theory, translation

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3569 Value from Environmental and Cultural Perspectives or Two Sides of the Same Coin

Authors: Vilem Paril, Dominika Tothova

Abstract:

This paper discusses the value theory in cultural heritage and the value theory in environmental economics. Two economic views of the value theory are compared within the field of cultural heritage maintenance and within the field of the environment. The main aims are to find common features in these two differently structured theories under the layer of differently defined terms as well as really differing features of these two approaches, to clear the confusion which stems from different terminology as in fact these terms capture the same aspects of reality and to show possible inspiration these two perspectives can offer one another. Another aim is to present these two value systems in one value framework. First, important moments of the value theory from the economic perspective are presented, leading to the marginal revolution of (not only) the Austrian School. Then the theory of value within cultural heritage and environmental economics are explored. Finally, individual approaches are compared and their potential mutual inspiration searched for.

Keywords: cultural heritage, environmental economics, existence value, value theory

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3568 Exploring the Nature and Meaning of Theory in the Field of Neuroeducation Studies

Authors: Ali Nouri

Abstract:

Neuroeducation is one of the most exciting research fields which is continually evolving. However, there is a need to develop its theoretical bases in connection to practice. The present paper is a starting attempt in this regard to provide a space from which to think about neuroeducational theory and invoke more investigation in this area. Accordingly, a comprehensive theory of neuroeducation could be defined as grouping or clustering of concepts and propositions that describe and explain the nature of human learning to provide valid interpretations and implications useful for educational practice in relation to philosophical aspects or values. Whereas it should be originated from the philosophical foundations of the field and explain its normative significance, it needs to be testable in terms of rigorous evidence to fundamentally advance contemporary educational policy and practice. There is thus pragmatically a need to include a course on neuroeducational theory into the curriculum of the field. In addition, there is a need to articulate and disseminate considerable discussion over the subject within professional journals and academic societies.

Keywords: neuroeducation studies, neuroeducational theory, theory building, neuroeducation research

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3567 Towards Establishing a Universal Theory of Project Management

Authors: Divine Kwaku Ahadzie

Abstract:

Project management (PM) as a concept has evolved from the early 20th Century into a recognized academic and professional discipline, and indications are that it has come to stay in the 21st Century as a world-wide paradigm shift for managing successful construction projects. However, notwithstanding the strong inroads that PM has made in legitimizing its academic and professional status in construction management practice, the underlining philosophies are still based on cases and conventional practices. An important theoretical issue yet to be addressed is the lack of a universal theory that offers philosophical legitimacy for the PM concept as a uniquely specialized management concept. Here, it is hypothesized that the law of entropy, the theory of uncertainties and the theory of risk management offer plausible explanations for addressing the lacuna of what constitute PM theory. The theoretical bases of these plausible underlying theories are argued and attempts made to establish the functional relationships that exist between these theories and the PM concept. The paper then draws on data related to the success and/or failure of a number of construction projects to validate the theory.

Keywords: concepts, construction, project management, universal theory

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3566 Policy Compliance in Information Security

Authors: R. Manjula, Kaustav Bagchi, Sushant Ramesh, Anush Baskaran

Abstract:

In the past century, the emergence of information technology has had a significant positive impact on human life. While companies tend to be more involved in the completion of projects, the turn of the century has seen importance being given to investment in information security policies. These policies are essential to protect important data from adversaries, and thus following these policies has become one of the most important attributes revolving around information security models. In this research, we have focussed on the factors affecting information security policy compliance in two models : The theory of planned behaviour and the integration of the social bond theory and the involvement theory into a single model. Finally, we have given a proposal of where these theories would be successful.

Keywords: information technology, information security, involvement theory, policies, social bond theory

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3565 Principles of Teaching for Successful Intelligence

Authors: Shabnam

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to see importance of successful intelligence in education which can enhance achievement. There are a number of researches which have tried to apply psychological theories of education and many researches emphasized the role of thinking and intelligence. While going through the various researches, it was found that many students could learn more effectively than they do, if they were taught in a way that better matched their patterns of abilities. Attempts to apply psychological theories to education can falter on the translation of the theory into educational practice. Often, this translation is not clear. Therefore, when a program does not succeed, it is not clear whether the lack of success was due to the inadequacy of the theory or the inadequacy of the implementation of the theory. A set of basic principles for translating a theory into practice can help clarify just what an educational implementation should (and should not) look like. Sternberg’s theory of successful intelligence; analytical, creative and practical intelligence provides a way to create such a match. The results suggest that theory of successful intelligence provides successful interventions in classrooms and provides a proven model for gifted education. This article presents principles for translating a triarchic theory of successful intelligence into educational practice.

Keywords: successful intelligence, analytical, creative and practical intelligence, achievement, success, resilience

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3564 A New Developed Formula to Determine the Shear Buckling Stress in Welded Aluminum Plate Girders

Authors: Badr Alsulami, Ahmed S. Elamary

Abstract:

This paper summarizes and presents main results of an in-depth numerical analysis dealing with the shear buckling resistance of aluminum plate girders. The studies conducted have permitted the development of a simple design expression to determine the critical shear buckling stress in aluminum web panels. This expression takes into account the effects of reduction of strength in aluminum alloys due to the welding process. Ultimate shear resistance (USR) of plate girders can be obtained theoretically using Cardiff theory or Hӧglund’s theory. USR of aluminum alloy plate girders predicted theoretically using BS8118 appear inconsistent when compared with test data. Theoretical predictions based on Hӧglund’s theory, are more realistic. Cardiff theory proposed to predict the USR of steel plate girders only. Welded aluminum alloy plate girders studied experimentally by others; the USR resulted from tests are reviewed. Comparison between the test results with the values obtained from Hӧglund’s theory, BS8118 design method, and Cardiff theory performed theoretically. Finally, a new equation based on Cardiff tension-field theory proposed to predict theoretically the USR of aluminum plate girders.

Keywords: shear resistance, aluminum, Cardiff theory, Hӧglund's theory, plate girder

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3563 PhD Research Design and Descriptive Theory: Theoretical Framework for Development of Integrated Management System

Authors: Samuel Quashie

Abstract:

The importance of theory for PhD construction management research cannot be underestimated, as it requires a sound theoretical basis. Theory efficiency reduces errors in the research problem, solving it by building upon current theory. Provides a structure for examination, enables the efficient development of the construction management field and to it practical real world problems. The aim is to develop the theoretical framework for the application of descriptive theory within the PhD research design To apply the proposed theoretical framework using the case of the topic of ‘integrated management system,’ classifying the phenomena into categories, explore the association between the category–defining attributes and the outcome observed. Forming categorization based upon attributes of phenomena (framework and typologies), and statement of association (models). Predicting (deductive process) and confirming (inductive process). The descriptive theory is important and provides a structure for examination, enables the efficient development of construction management field and to it practical real world problems. In conclusion, the work done in management presents fertile ground for research and theory development.

Keywords: descriptive theory, PhD research design, theoretical framework, construction management

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3562 Study on Robot Trajectory Planning by Robot End-Effector Using Dual Curvature Theory of the Ruled Surface

Authors: Y. S. Oh, P. Abhishesh, B. S. Ryuh

Abstract:

This paper presents the method of trajectory planning by the robot end-effector which accounts for more accurate and smooth differential geometry of the ruled surface generated by tool line fixed with end-effector based on the methods of curvature theory of ruled surface and the dual curvature theory, and focuses on the underlying relation to unite them for enhancing the efficiency for trajectory planning. Robot motion can be represented as motion properties of the ruled surface generated by trajectory of the Tool Center Point (TCP). The linear and angular properties of the six degree-of-freedom motion of end-effector are computed using the explicit formulas and functions from curvature theory and dual curvature theory. This paper explains the complete dualization of ruled surface and shows that the linear and angular motion applied using the method of dual curvature theory is more accurate and less complex.

Keywords: dual curvature theory, robot end effector, ruled surface, TCP (Tool Center Point)

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3561 Codifying the Creative Self: Conflicts of Theory and Content in Creative Writing

Authors: Danielle L. Iamarino

Abstract:

This paper explores the embattled territory of academic creative writing—and most focally, the use of critical theory in the teaching and structuring of creative practice. It places creative writing in contemporary social, cultural, and otherwise anthropological contexts, and evaluates conventional creative writing pedagogies based on how well they serve the updated needs of increasingly diverse student congregations. With continued emphasis on student-centered learning, this paper compares theoretical to practical applications of discipline-specific knowledge, examining and critiquing theory in terms of its relevance, accessibility, and whether or not it is both actionable and beneficial in the creative writing classroom.

Keywords: creative writing, literary theory, content, pedagogy, workshop, teaching

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3560 Research Analysis in Eclectic Theory (Kaboudan and Sfandiar)

Authors: Farideh Alizadeh, Mohd Nasir Hashi

Abstract:

Present research investigates eclecticism in Iranian theatre on the basis of eclectic theory. Eclectic theatre is a new theory in postmodernism. The theory appeared during 60th – 70th century in some theatres such as “Conference of the Birds”. Special theatrical forms have been developed in many geographical- cultural areas of the world and are indigenous to that area. These forms, as compared with original forms, are considered to be traditional while being comprehensive, the form is considered to be national. Kaboudan and Sfandiar theatre has been influenced by elements of traditional form of Iran.

Keywords: eclectic theatre, theatrical forms, tradition, play

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3559 Capital Punishment as a Contradiction to International Law and Indonesian Constitution

Authors: Akbar

Abstract:

Pros and cons of the capital punishment in Indonesia have been out of the date. The discourse of capital punishment has no relevance to the theory of punishment and theories of cultural relativism. In fact, the provisions of exceptions to the right to life by administering the death penalty against the perpetrators of serious crimes in Indonesia is a narrow perspective that does not pay attention to the development of the punishment of the crime. This thing is aggravated by an error to understand the natural right and legal right where the prohibition of those rights is result from a failure to distinguish the characteristic of the rights and to remember the raison d’être of law. To parse the irrational above, this paper will try to analyze normatively the error referring to the complementary theory between the sources of international law and the sources of municipal law of Indonesia. Both sources of the law above should be understood in the mutually reinforcing relationship enforceability because of false perceptions against those will create the disintegration between international law and municipal law of Indonesia. This disintegration is explicit not only contrary to the integrative theory of international law but also integrative theory of municipal law of Indonesia.

Keywords: capital punishment, municipal law, right to life, international law, the raison d’être of law, complementary theory, integrative theory

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3558 Thermal Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams with Various Boundary Conditions

Authors: Gholamreza Koochaki

Abstract:

This paper presents the buckling analysis of functionally graded beams with various boundary conditions. The first order shear deformation beam theory (Timoshenko beam theory) and the classical theory (Euler-Bernoulli beam theory) of Reddy have been applied to the functionally graded beams buckling analysis The material property gradient is assumed to be in thickness direction. The equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, classical theory and first order shear deformation theory assumption. The temperature difference and applied voltage are assumed to be constant. The critical buckling temperature of FG beams are upper than the isotropic ones. Also, the critical temperature is different for various boundary conditions.

Keywords: buckling, functionally graded beams, Hamilton's principle, Euler-Bernoulli beam

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3557 Inferring Cognitive Skill in Concept Space

Authors: Rania A. Aboalela, Javed I. Khan

Abstract:

This research presents a learning assessment theory of Cognitive Skill in Concept Space (CS2) to measure the assessed knowledge in terms of cognitive skill levels of the concepts. The cognitive skill levels refer to levels such as if a student has acquired the state at the level of understanding, or applying, or analyzing, etc. The theory is comprised of three constructions: Graph paradigm of a semantic/ ontological scheme, the concept states of the theory and the assessment analytics which is the process to estimate the sets of concept state at a certain skill level. Concept state means if a student has already learned, or is ready to learn, or is not ready to learn a certain skill level. The experiment is conducted to prove the validation of the theory CS2.

Keywords: cognitive skill levels, concept states, concept space, knowledge assessment theory

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3556 Ultimate Shear Resistance of Plate Girders Part 2- Höglund Theory

Authors: Ahmed S. Elamary

Abstract:

Ultimate shear resistance (USR) of slender plate girders can be predicted theoretically using Cardiff theory or Hӧglund theory. This paper will be concerned with predicting the USR using Hӧglund theory and EC3. Two main factors can affect the USR, the panel width “b” and the web depth “d”, consequently, the panel aspect ratio (b/d) has to be identified by limits. In most of the previous study, there is no limit for panel aspect ratio indicated. In this paper theoretical analysis has been conducted to study the effect of (b/d) on the USR. The analysis based on ninety-six test results of steel plate girders subjected to shear executed and collected by others. New formula proposed to predict the percentage of the distance between the plastic hinges form in the flanges “c” to panel width “b”. Conservative limits of (c/b) have been suggested to get a consistent value of USR.

Keywords: ultimate shear resistance, plate girder, Hӧglund’s theory, EC3

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3555 Modelling Mode Choice Behaviour Using Cloud Theory

Authors: Leah Wright, Trevor Townsend

Abstract:

Mode choice models are crucial instruments in the analysis of travel behaviour. These models show the relationship between an individual’s choice of transportation mode for a given O-D pair and the individual’s socioeconomic characteristics such as household size and income level, age and/or gender, and the features of the transportation system. The most popular functional forms of these models are based on Utility-Based Choice Theory, which addresses the uncertainty in the decision-making process with the use of an error term. However, with the development of artificial intelligence, many researchers have started to take a different approach to travel demand modelling. In recent times, researchers have looked at using neural networks, fuzzy logic and rough set theory to develop improved mode choice formulas. The concept of cloud theory has recently been introduced to model decision-making under uncertainty. Unlike the previously mentioned theories, cloud theory recognises a relationship between randomness and fuzziness, two of the most common types of uncertainty. This research aims to investigate the use of cloud theory in mode choice models. This paper highlights the conceptual framework of the mode choice model using cloud theory. Merging decision-making under uncertainty and mode choice models is state of the art. The cloud theory model is expected to address the issues and concerns with the nested logit and improve the design of mode choice models and their use in travel demand.

Keywords: Cloud theory, decision-making, mode choice models, travel behaviour, uncertainty

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3554 Application the Queuing Theory in the Warehouse Optimization

Authors: Jaroslav Masek, Juraj Camaj, Eva Nedeliakova

Abstract:

The aim of optimization of store management is not only designing the situation of store management itself including its equipment, technology and operation. In optimization of store management we need to consider also synchronizing of technological, transport, store and service operations throughout the whole process of logistic chain in such a way that a natural flow of material from provider to consumer will be achieved the shortest possible way, in the shortest possible time in requested quality and quantity and with minimum costs. The paper deals with the application of the queuing theory for optimization of warehouse processes. The first part refers to common information about the problematic of warehousing and using mathematical methods for logistics chains optimization. The second part refers to preparing a model of a warehouse within queuing theory. The conclusion of the paper includes two examples of using queuing theory in praxis.

Keywords: queuing theory, logistics system, mathematical methods, warehouse optimization

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3553 An Alternative Proof for the Topological Entropy of the Motzkin Shift

Authors: Fahad Alsharari, Mohd Salmi Md. Noorani

Abstract:

A Motzkin shift is a mathematical model for constraints on genetic sequences. In terms of the theory of symbolic dynamics, the Motzkin shift is nonsofic, and therefore, we cannot use the Perron-Frobenius theory to calculate its topological entropy. The Motzkin shift M(M,N) which comes from language theory, is defined to be the shift system over an alphabet A that consists of N negative symbols, N positive symbols and M neutral symbols. For an x in the full shift AZ, x is in M(M,N) if and only if every finite block appearing in x has a non-zero reduced form. Therefore, the constraint for x cannot be bounded in length. K. Inoue has shown that the entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) is log(M + N + 1). In this paper, we find a new method of calculating the topological entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) without any measure theoretical discussion.

Keywords: entropy, Motzkin shift, mathematical model, theory

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3552 Recovery of Petroleum Reservoir by Waterflooding Technique

Authors: Zabihullah Mahdi, Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Shigeo Honma

Abstract:

Through many types of research and practical studies, it has been identified that the average oil recovery factor of a petroleum reservoir is about 30 to 35 %. This study is focused on enhanced oil recovery by laboratory experiment and graphical investigation based on Buckley-Leverett theory. Horizontal oil displacement by water, in a petroleum reservoir is analyzed under the Buckley-Leverett frontal displacement theory. The extraction and prerequisite of this theory are based and pursued focusing on the key factors that control displacement. The theory is executable to the waterflooding method, which is generally employed in petroleum engineering reservoirs to sustain oil production recovery, and the techniques for evaluating the average water saturation behind the water front and the oil recovery factors in the reservoirs are presented. In this paper, the Buckley-Leverett theory handled to an experimental model and the amount of recoverable oil are investigated to be over 35%. The irreducible water saturation, viz. connate water saturation, in the reservoir is also a significant inspiration for the recovery.

Keywords: Buckley-Leverett theory, waterflooding technique, petroleum engineering, immiscible displacement

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3551 Whether Chaos Theory Could Reconstruct the Ancient Societies

Authors: Zahra Kouzehgari

Abstract:

Since the early emergence of chaos theory in the 1970s in mathematics and physical science, it has increasingly been developed and adapted in social sciences as well. The non-linear and dynamic characteristics of the theory make it a useful conceptual framework to interpret the complex social systems behavior. Regarding chaotic approach principals, sensitivity to initial conditions, dynamic adoption, strange attractors and unpredictability this paper aims to examine whether chaos approach could interpret the ancient social changes. To do this, at first, a brief history of the chaos theory, its development and application in social science as well as the principals making the theory, then its application in archaeological since has been reviewed. The study demonstrates that although based on existing archaeological records reconstruct the whole social system of the human past, the non-linear approaches in studying social complex systems would be of a great help in finding general order of the ancient societies and would enable us to shed light on some of the social phenomena in the human history or to make sense of them.

Keywords: archaeology, non-linear approach, chaos theory, ancient social systems

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3550 Challenging the Theory of Mind: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Construction, and Biochemical Explanation

Authors: Caroline Kim

Abstract:

The designation autism spectrum disorder (ASD) groups complex disorders in the development of the brain. Autism is defined essentially as a condition in which an individual lacks a theory of mind. The theory of mind, in this sense, explains the ability of an individual to attribute feelings, emotions, or thoughts to another person. An autistic patient is characteristically unable to determine what an interlocutor is feeling, or to understand the beliefs of others. However, it is possible that autism cannot plausibly characterized as the lack of theory of mind in an individual. Genes, the bran, and its interplay with environmental factors may also cause autism. A mutation in a gene may be hereditary, or instigated by diseases such as mumps. Though an autistic patient may experience abnormalities in the cerebellum and the cortical regions, these are in fact only possible theories as to a biochemical explanation behind the disability. The prevailing theory identifying autism with lacking the theory of mind is supported by behavioral observation, but this form of observation is itself determined by socially constructed standards, limiting the possibility for empirical verification. The theory of mind infers that the beliefs and emotions of people are causally based on their behavior. This paper demonstrates the fallacy of this inference, critiquing its basis in socially constructed values, and arguing instead for a biochemical approach free from the conceptual apparatus of language and social expectation.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, sociology of psychology, social construction, the theory of mind

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3549 Student Learning and Motivation in an Interculturally Inclusive Classroom

Authors: Jonathan H. Westover, Jacque P. Westover, Maureen S. Andrade

Abstract:

Though learning theories vary in complexity and usefulness, a thorough understanding of foundational learning theories is a necessity in today’s educational environment. Additionally, learning theories lead to approaches in instruction that can affect student motivation and learning. The combination of a learning theory and elements to enhance student motivation can create a learning context where the student can thrive in their educational pursuits. This paper will provide an overview of three main learning theories: (1) Behavioral Theory, (2) Cognitive Theory, and (3) Constructivist Theory and explore their connection to elements of student learning motivation. Finally, we apply these learning theories and elements of student motivation to the following two context: (1) The FastStart Program at the Community College of Denver, and (2) An Online Academic English Language Course. We discussed potential of the program and course to have success in increasing student success outcomes.

Keywords: learning theory, student motivation, inclusive pedagogy, developmental education

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