Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 91

Search results for: ailments

91 Role of Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Diseases and Drug Discovery in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Authors: Neelam Rashid, Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Khafsa Malik, Syed Nasar Shah

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to study the role of medicinal plants used to cure different ailments in Azad Kashmir. Various ethno medicinal surveys were carried out during 2016 to enlist the uses of plants against various ailments by rural communities of the area. Information was obtained from 60 local people including 45 males (10 traditional health practitioners) and 15 females by semi structured interviews and group discussions. 65 plant species belonging to 45 families were reported. The dominant plant habit was herbaceous (56%) while decoction was the most common method of utilization (40%). The most cited turmoil was the gastrointestinal disorders. The data obtained were analyzed using ethno medicinal indices such as FL, UV, ICF, FC, and RFC. Results revealed that various species had numerous uses in curing of diseases. So conservation of biodiversity of these medicinal plants and traditional knowledge can play important role in improving the local health conditions of rural people and modern drug discovery and development.

Keywords: medicinal plants, ailments, drug, health, traditional

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90 Ethnomedicinal Plants Used for Gastrointestinal Ailments by the People of Tribal District Kinnaur (Himachal Pradesh) India

Authors: Geeta, Richa, M. L. Sharma

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Himachal Pradesh, a hilly State of India located in the Western Himalayas, with varied altitudinal gradients and climatic conditions, is a repository of plant diversity and the traditional knowledge associated with plants. The State is inhabited by various tribal communities who usually depend upon local plants for curing various ailments. Utilization of plant resources in their day-to-day life has been an age old practice of the people inhabiting this State. The present study pertains to the tribal district Kinnaur of Himachal Pradesh, located between 77°45’ and 79°00’35” east longitudes and between 31°05’50” and 32°05’15” north altitudes. Being a remote area with only very basic medical facilities, local people mostly use traditional herbal medicines for primary healthcare needs. Traditional healers called “Amji” are usually very secretive in revealing their medicinal knowledge to novice and pass on their knowledge to next generation orally. As a result, no written records of healing herbs are available. The aim of present study was to collect and consolidate the ethno-medicinal knowledge of local people of the district about the use of plants for treating gastrointestinal ailments. The ethnobotanical information was collected from the local practitioners, herbal healers and elderly people having rich knowledge about the medicinal herbs through semi-structured questionnaire and key informant discussions. A total 46 plant species belonging to 40 genera and 24 families have been identified which are used as cure for gastrointestinal ailments. Among the parts used for gastointestinal ailments, aerial parts (14%) were followed by the whole plant (13%), root (8%), leaves (6%), flower (5%), fruit and seed (3%) and tuber (1%). These plant species could be prioritized for conservation and subject to further studies related to phytochemical screening for their authenticity. Most of the medicinal plants of the region are collected from the wild and are often harvested for trade. Sustainable harvesting and domestication of the highly traded species from the study area is needed.

Keywords: Amji, gastrointestinal, Kinnaur, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge

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89 Iontophoretic Drug Transport: An Non-Invasive Transdermal Approach

Authors: Ashish Jain, Shivam Tayal

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There has been great interest in the field of Iontophoresis since few years due to its great applications in the field of controlled transdermal drug delivery system. It is an technique which is used to enhance the transdermal permeation of ionized high molecular weight molecules across the skin membrane especially Peptides & Proteins by the application of direct current of 1-4 mA for 20-40 minutes whereas chemical must be placed on electrodes with same charge. Iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of drug into the skin via pores like hair follicles, sweat gland ducts etc. rather than through stratum corneum. It has wide applications in the field of experimental, Therapeutic, Diagnostic, Dentistry etc. Medical science is using it to treat Hyperhidrosis (Excessive sweating) in hands and feet and to treat other ailments like hypertension, Migraine etc. Nowadays commercial transdermal iontophoretic patches are available in the market to treat different ailments. Researchers are keen to research in this field due to its vast applications and advantages.

Keywords: iontophoresis, novel drug delivery, transdermal, permeation enhancer

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88 Spatial Pattern of Environmental Noise Levels and Auditory Ailments in Abeokuta Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Olusegun Oguntoke, Aramide Y. Tijani, Olayide R. Adetunji

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Environmental noise has become a major threat to the quality of human life, and it is generally more severe in cities. This study assessed the level of environmental noise, mapped the spatial pattern at different times of the day and examined the association with morbidity of auditory ailments in Abeokuta metropolis. The entire metropolis was divided into 80 cells (areas) of 1000 m by 1000 m; out of which 33 were randomly selected for noise levels assessment. Portable noise meter (AR824) was used to measure noise level, and Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS-72H) was employed to take the coordinates of the sample sites for mapping. Risk map of the noise levels was produced using Kriging interpolation techniques based on the spatial spread of measured noise values across the study area. Data on cases of hearing impairments were collected from four major hospitals in the city. Data collected from field measurements and medical records were subjected to descriptive (frequency and percentage) and inferential (mean, ANOVA and correlation) statistics using SPSS (version 20.0). ArcMap 10.1 was employed for spatial analysis and mapping. Results showed mean noise levels range at morning (42.4 ± 4.14 – 88.2 ± 15.1 dBA), afternoon (45.0 ± 6.72– 86.4 ± 12.5 dBA) and evening (51.0 ± 6.55–84.4 ± 5.19 dBA) across the study area. The interpolated maps identified Kuto, Okelowo, Isale-Igbein, and Sapon as high noise risk areas. These are the central business district and nucleus of Abeokuta metropolis where commercial activities, high traffic volume, and clustered buildings exist. The monitored noise levels varied significantly among the sampled areas in the morning, afternoon and evening (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found between diagnosed cases of auditory ailments and noise levels measured in the morning (r=0.39 at p < 0.05). Common auditory ailments found across the metropolis included impaired hearing (25.8%), tinnitus (16.4%) and otitis (15.0%). The most affected age groups were between 11-30 years while the male gender had more cases of hearing impairments (51.2%) than the females. The study revealed that environmental noise levels exceeded the recommended standards in the morning, afternoon and evening in 60.6%, 61% and 72.7% of the sampled areas respectively. Summarily, environmental noise in the study area is high and contributes to the morbidity of auditory ailments. Areas identified as hot spots of noise pollution should be avoided in the location of noise sensitive activities while environmental noise monitoring should be included as part of the mandate of the regulatory agencies in Nigeria.

Keywords: noise pollution, associative analysis, auditory impairment, urban, human exposure

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87 Assessing the Use of Biomedicine in Nigeria: A Case Study of IDO and Northwest Local Government Areas of Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Adeyemi A. Ajisebiolola

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This study examined people’s responses to demand and consumption of herbal medicines in Nigeria. It also assessed people’s evaluation of the effectiveness of the existing medicines on the treatment of ailments and encouraging forest products utilization for greener future in terms of healthcare delivery. Two Local Government Areas, namely Ido and Ibadan Northwest were adopted for the study; Ido is characterized by rural populace and Ibadan Northwest by urban populace. Out of 500 questionnaires randomly administered to the households in the two local government areas of study, 481 (96.2%) were recovered. Statistical analysis employed showed that people were beginning to understand the importance of herbal medicines in Nigeria as majority of the households use herbal medicines to treat various ailments. Among the major problems encountered by the respondents are lack of precise dosage and adequate preservation methods. It was recommended that Forestry Research Institutes in Nigeria should be deeply involved in the findings on medicinal plants, package them into products and make them available to the society for sustainable healthcare management and greener future of the nation.

Keywords: demand and consumption, forest products, herbal medicines, Nigeria

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86 Physical Characterization of Indoor Dust Particles Using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Fatima S. Mohammed, Derrick Crump

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Harmattan, a dusty weather condition characterized by thick smog-like suspended particles and dust storm are the peculiar events that happen during ¾ of the year in the Sahelian regions including Damaturu Town, Nigeria), resulting in heavy dust deposits especially indoors. The inhabitants of the Damaturu community are always inflicted with different ailments; respiratory tract infections, asthma, gastrointestinal infections and different ailments associated with the dusty nature of the immediate environment. This brought the need to investigate the nature of the settled indoor dust. Vacuum cleaner bag dust was collected from indoor of some Nigerian and UK homes, as well as outdoors including during seasonal dusty weather event (Harmattan and Storm dust). The dust was sieved, and the (150 µm size) particles were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physical characterization of the settled dust samples has revealed the various shapes and sizes, and elemental composition of the dust samples is indicating that some of the dust fractions were the respirable fractions and also the dust contained PM10 to PM 2.5 fractions with possible health effects. The elemental compositions were indicative of the diverse nature of the dust particle sources, which showed dust as a complex matrix.

Keywords: indoor dust, Harmattan dust, SEM, health effects

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85 Emerging Issues of Non-Communicable Diseases among Older Persons in India

Authors: Dhananjay W. Bansod, Santosh Phad

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Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) are major contributing factors to the disease burden in the world as well as in India. With a growing proportion of older persons in India gives rise to several challenges. With the advancement of age, elderly is exposed to various kinds of health problems more specifically NCDs. Therefore, an effort has been made to examine the prevalence of NCDs among older persons and its treatment-seeking behaviour, also it is tried to explore the association between the NCDs and its effect on the overall wellbeing of older persons. Data used from “Building Knowledge Base of Population Ageing Survey” conducted in 2011 in seven states of India. Six chronic diseases used (non-communicable diseases) namely Arthritis, Hypertension, Cataract, Diabetes, Asthma and Heart diseases to understand the issues related to NCDs. Also seen the effect of NCDs on the wellbeing of the elderly, the subjective well-being consists of nine questions from which SUBI score generated for mental health status, which ranges from 9 to 27. This Index indicates that lower the score better is the mental health status. Further, this index modified and generated three categories of Better (9-15), Average (16-20) and Worse (21-27). The reliability analysis is carried out with the coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) of the scale was 0.8884. The result shows that Orthopedic / musculoskeletal ailments involving arthritis, rheumatism and osteoarthritis are the most common type of ailment followed by hypertension. Two-thirds of the elderly reported suffering from at least one chronic ailment. Most chronic illness conditions received some form of treatment and mainly depend on public health facilities. Financial insecurity is the primary obstruction in seeking treatment for most of the chronic ailments which typically require a longer duration of medication and repeated medical consultations, both having significant economic implications. According to SUBI index, only 15 per cent of the elderly are in Better mental health status, and one-third of the elderly are with the worse score. Elderly with the ailments like Cataract, Asthma and Arthritis have worse mental health. It depicts that the burden of disease is more among the elderly and it is directly affecting the overall wellbeing of older persons.

Keywords: NCD, well-being, older person, India

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84 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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83 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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82 The State of Herb Medicine in Oriental Morocco: Cases of Debdou, Taourirt and Guerssif Districts

Authors: Himer Khalid, Alami Ilyass, Kharchoufa Loubna, Elachouri Mostafa

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It has been estimated by the World Health Organization that 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicine to meet their daily health requirements. In Morocco reliance on such medicine is partly owing to the high cost of conventional medicine and the inaccessibility of modern health care facilities. There was high agreement in the use of plants as medicine in Oriental Morocco. Our objective is to evaluate the informant’s knowledge on medicinal plants by the local population and to document the uses of medicinal plants by this community, for the treatment of different illnesses. Using an ethnopharmacological approach, we collected information concerning the traditional medicinal knowledge and the medicinal plants used, by interviewing successfully 458 informants living in oriental Morocco (from Debdou, Taourirt, Guersif a,d Laayoune districts). The data were analyzed by statistical methods (Component Analysis “CA”, Factorial Analysis “FA”) and other methods such as through Informant’s Consensus Factor (ICF) and Use Value (UV). Our results indicate that, more than 60% of the population in these regions relies on medicinal plants for the treatment of different ailments with predominance of women consumers. 135 plant species belonging to 61 families were documented. These plants were used by the population for the treatment of a group of illness (about 14 principal ailments). We conclude that, in oriental Morocco, till now, the population has some traditional knowledge commonly used as medical tradition. These wealthy heritage needs conservation and evaluation.

Keywords: Morocco, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge, wealthy heritage

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81 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous People of Community Forest User Groups of Parbat District, Nepal

Authors: Gokul Gaudel, Zhang Wen Hui, Dang Quang Hung, Le Thi Hien, Liang Xiao

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The community forests of Nepal serve as a major source of medicinal plants for majority of local people who are dependent on traditional health care system. This study aims to explore the ethnobotanical information of the medicinal plants used by five different community forest user groups of Parbat district of Nepal. The research was conducted during different periods of the year 2015, using semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires, formal and informal interviews, and group discussions. In total 145 different plant species within 77 families were documented, the majority of them being herb were found to be used to treat 84 different ailments. In terms of plant parts use: whole plants, barks, fruits, leaves were found to be in top priorities. Oral administration was the dominant route (57%), followed by both oral and dermal route (29%) and dermal only (14%). Females were found to have 24% more ethnobotanical knowledge than male. The knowledge of ethnobotanical medicinal plants was found excellent on age group 65-75. This study showed that community forests of Parbat district are rich in medicinal plants but the new generation was found less interested in using them. Easy access to modern medicines, lack of documentation and knowledge transfer to young generations are the major causes of diminishing utility of traditional medicinal practices.

Keywords: ailments, community forest, ethnobotany, medicinal plants, Parbat

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80 Ethnomedicinal Assets of Plants Collected from Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Enock E. Goler, Emmanuel H. Kwon-Ndung, Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Terna T. Paul, Markus Musa, Joshua I. Waya, James H. Okogbaa

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An ethno-medicinal survey of plants used in treating various diseases and ailments was carried out in the study area of Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to obtain information on their uses and potentials. The ethno-medicinal survey was administered through structured questionnaires among local inhabitants from areas with high plant density and diversity within the various Local Government Areas of the State. A total of 84 (Eighty four) plant species belonging to 45 (Forty five) families were found to be useful in treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, measles, fever, asthma, jaundice, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aches, diarrhea, cough, arthritis, yellow fever, typhoid, erectile dysfunction and excessive bleeding. Different parts of the plant such as the roots, leaves and stems are used in preparing herbal remedies which could be from dry or freshly collected plants. The main methods of preparation are decoction or infusion, while in some cases the plant parts used are consumed directly. Residents in the study areas find the herbal remedy cheaper and more accessible and claimed that there are no side effects compared to orthodox medicine. This study has confirmed the need towards the conscious conservation of plant genetic resources in order to ensure sustained access to these ethno-medicinal plant materials.

Keywords: ethno-medicinal, Nasarawa, plants, survey

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79 Ethnobotanical Findings on Botanicals Frequently Used for Children’s Health in South-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chioma Nwakamma, Garuba Omosun, Blessing Oyedemi

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This research surveys and documents information on medicinal plants and their botanical preparations used in the treatment of children’s ailments in South-eastern Nigeria. Children under the age of 5 in developing countries suffer from diseases with high morbidity and mortality rate yearly due to inaccessible and unaffordable health care. Structured questionnaires were administered to the herbal sellers, traditional medicine practitioners, nursing mothers and adult dwellers to collect data on the names of plants used to treat the conditions, methods of preparation, duration of treatment, adverse effects and the methods of administration of the plant materials. A total of 135 plants belonging to 55 plant families were identified for the management of children’s health in the area. Common pediatric ailments which were said to be treated with herbal remedies by the respondents included malaria, pneumonia, stomach ache, diarrhea, dysentery, measles, chickenpox/smallpox, convulsion, jaundice, pile, ringworm, scabies, eczema, stubborn cough, scurvy, catarrh, wounds, boils, insect bites, food poison, cholera, and umbilical cord complications. Percentages of respondents were; herbal sellers (48.2%), traditional medical practitioners (21.6%), nursing mothers (11.1%) and others (19.1%). The most occurring plant families were Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Apocynaceae with eight species of plants each, followed by Annonaceae and Asteriaceae with 7 and 6 species, respectively. The recipes were made from the combination of different parts of two or more plants species, and others were made from single plant parts. Methods of extraction were mostly decoction, raw squeezing-out of the juice and infusion, while oral administration was the main route of administration.

Keywords: botanicals, ethnomedical, children's health, South Eastern Nigeria, survey

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78 Medicinal Plant Science: Supporting Customary Uses of Alphitonia excelsa

Authors: Nazma Akter Tithi, Emma Barnes, Subramanyam Vemulpad, Joanne Jamie

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Skin infections and ailments impose a great burden on global health and cause a severe impact on the world economy. Looking for New Chemical Entities (NCE) to effectively treat these ailments is of high interest in the scientific community and the potential of medicinal plants as a possible source of NCE is always overwhelming. Aboriginal people of Australia have a rich knowledge of the use of local medicinal plants. One of these ethno-potential medicinal plants is Alphitonia excelsa which is known as Soap Tree or Red Ash and has been used by Australian Aboriginal people of Yaegl Country for the treatment of sores, wounds and skin infections since long ago. The phytochemical contents of leave extracts of this plant and their antibacterial and antioxidant potentials were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence base for their traditional uses. Structural elucidation of compounds chromatographically isolated from the n-hexane and dichloromethane sequential extracts of A. excelsa leaves identified the well-known antibacterial and antioxidant compounds β-sitosterol, betulin aldehyde, betulinic acid, lupeol, quercetin and kaempferol. This is the first report of lupeol and betulin aldehyde in any Alphitonia species and the first report of β-sitosterol in A. excelsa. LC-MS and GC-MS analysis of freshly extracted leaves identified the bioactive compounds γ-sitosterol, nonanal, n-tetracontane, docosane, 1,54-dibromotetrapentacontane, tetradecane and hexadecane. The dichloromethane extract showed moderate activity against antibiotic-sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 312.5 – 625 μg/mL) and promising antioxidant activity, while the n-hexane extract showed moderate antibacterial activity (MIC 1250 – 2500 μg/mL). Together these observations have extended the plant knowledge of A. excelsa and supported and validated the traditional uses of this important medicinal plant.

Keywords: medicinal plant, Australian aboriginal, Alphitonia excelsa, customary uses of plants

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77 Cholesterol Modulating Properties of a Proprietary Extract from Phyllanthus spp on Hypercholesteraemic Mice Models

Authors: Anne R. Fernandez, Mohammad Akmal Adnan, Tanes Prasat, Indu Bala Jaganath, Brian Kirby, Kamalan Jeevaratnam

Abstract:

Introduction: Plants from the Phyllantus genus have been used indigenously for the treatment of a variety of ailments for generations. A cocktail of phytonutrients prepared from a plant of the genus Phyllanthus has demonstrated the potential to alleviate ailments which include cardiovascular disorders. In this study, we investigated the cholesterol modulating properties of a highly purified proprietary extract of a Phyllanthus species in hypercholesteraemic mice. Methods: Hypercholesteraemia was induced in ICR mice by ad-libitum feeding of high fat diet daily for six weeks. The mice were then divided into 3 groups and force fed with 10mg/kg of atorvastatin, 200mg/kg of the proprietary Phyllanthus extract and water respectively. Blood samples were taken at the end of fourth week of treatment by a tail prick. At the end of the eighth week of treatment, mice were sacrificed and serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides were measured. Results: The mean cholesterol levels in the mice fed with high fat diet were 44% (p < 0.05) higher than the mice on normal diet thus validating the model developed. The plasma HDL was significantly elevated in mice treated with the formulation (p ˂ 0.05) in comparison to the statin-treated and control mice. The total cholesterol levels in the mice treated with the proprietary extract were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 4 weeks of treatment in comparison to the mice treated with atorvastatin. By the end of 8 weeks of treatment, there was no significant difference in the cholesterol levels of the mice in all groups. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that this proprietary extract from Phyllanthus species has the beneficial effect of reducing total cholesterol level more rapidly than atorvastatin and increasing HDL levels. Since an increase in the HDL cholesterol can reduce the risk of heart disease, this proprietary extract is a useful and safe therapeutic option compared to atorvastatin.

Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, hypercholesteraemic mice model, ICR mice, Phyllanthus spp.

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76 Similarity Based Retrieval in Case Based Reasoning for Analysis of Medical Images

Authors: M. Dasgupta, S. Banerjee

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Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) coupled with Case Based Reasoning (CBR) is a paradigm that is becoming increasingly popular in the diagnosis and therapy planning of medical ailments utilizing the digital content of medical images. This paper presents a survey of some of the promising approaches used in the detection of abnormalities in retina images as well in mammographic screening and detection of regions of interest in MRI scans of the brain. We also describe our proposed algorithm to detect hard exudates in fundus images of the retina of Diabetic Retinopathy patients.

Keywords: case based reasoning, exudates, retina image, similarity based retrieval

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75 Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effect of Two Diterpenes from Plectranthus barbatus

Authors: Nawal Al Musayeib, Musarat Amina, Perwez Alam

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Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) is the most common species of genus Plectranthus. It is used for treating various ailments. In this study, two rare diterpenes 11,14-dihydroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one (1) and 12-hydroxyabieta-8(14),9(11),12-trien-7-one (2) were isolated for the first time from P. barbatus. Their chemical structures were verified utilizing various spectroscopic experiments. The effect of diterpenes against undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line (FRO) was evaluated and they were quantitatively analysed using HPTLC method. The two diterpenes were found to be cytotoxic, however compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic effects where 95% reduction in the cell viability was observed in different time intervals. The quantity of compound 1 and compound 2 in PBCE were found to be 2.04 and15.97 μg/mg, respectively of dried weight of the extract.

Keywords: abietatrien, cancer, diterpenes, Plectranthus barbatus

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74 In vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetic and Nutritional Properties of Breynia retusa

Authors: Parimelazhagan Thangaraj

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Natural products serves human kind as a source of all drugs and higher plants provide most of these therapeutic agents. These products are widely recognized in the pharmaceutical industry for their broad structural diversity as well as their wide range of pharmacological activities. Euphorbiaceae is one of the important families with significant pharmacological activities, of which many species has been used traditionally for the treatment of various ailments. Breynia retusa belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae is used to cure ailments like body pain, skin inflammation, hyperglycaemia, diarrhoea, dysentery and toothache. Flowers and young leaves of B. retusa are cooked and eaten, roots are used for meningitis. The juice of the stem is used in conjunctivtis and leaves as poultice to hasten suppuration. Based on the strong evidences of traditional uses of Breynia retusa, the present study was focused on neutraceuticals evaluation of the species with special reference to oxidative stress and diabetes. Both leaves and stem of B. retusa were extracted with different solvents and analyzed for radical scavenging ability wherein ABTS.+ (8396.95±1529.01 µM TEAC/g extract), phosphomolybdenum (17.34±0.08 g AAE/100 g extract) and FRAP (6075.66±414.28 µM Fe (II) E/mg extract) assays showed good radical scavenging activity in stem. Furthermore, leaf extracts showed good radical inhibition in DPPH (2.4 µg/mL), metal ion (27.44±0.09 mg EDTAE/g extract) scavenging methods. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors are currently used for diabetic treatment as oral hypoglycemic agents. The inhibitory effects of the B. retusa leaf and stem ethyl acetate extracts showed good inhibition on α-amylase (96.25% and 95.69 respectively) and α-glucosidase (54.50% and 50.87% respectively) enzymes compared to standard acarbose. The proximate composition analysis of B. retusa leaves contains higher amount of total carbohydrates (14.08 g Glucose equivalents/100 g sample), ash (19.04 %) and crude fibre (0.52 %). The examination of mineral profile explored that the leaves was rich in calcium (1891 ppm), sulphur (1406 ppm), copper (2600 ppm) and magnesium (778 ppm). Leaves sample revealed very minimal amount of anti-nutrient contents like trypsin (14.08±0.03 TIU/mg protein) and tannin (0.011±0.001 mg TAE/g sample). The low anti nutritional factors may not pose any serious nutritional problems when these leaves are consumed. In conclusion, it is very clear that dietary compounds from B. retusa are suitable and promising for the development of safe food products and natural additives. Based on the studies, it may be concluded that nutritional composition, antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities this species can be used as future therapeutic medicine.

Keywords: Breynia retusa, nutraceuticals, antioxidant, anti diabetic

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73 Identification of Breast Anomalies Based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks and K-Nearest Neighbors

Authors: Ayyaz Hussain, Tariq Sadad

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Breast cancer (BC) is one of the widespread ailments among females globally. The early prognosis of BC can decrease the mortality rate. Exact findings of benign tumors can avoid unnecessary biopsies and further treatments of patients under investigation. However, due to variations in images, it is a tough job to isolate cancerous cases from normal and benign ones. The machine learning technique is widely employed in the classification of BC pattern and prognosis. In this research, a deep convolution neural network (DCNN) called AlexNet architecture is employed to get more discriminative features from breast tissues. To achieve higher accuracy, K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifiers are employed as a substitute for the softmax layer in deep learning. The proposed model is tested on a widely used breast image database called MIAS dataset for experimental purposes and achieved 99% accuracy.

Keywords: breast cancer, DCNN, KNN, mammography

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72 Biological Activities of Species in the Genus Tulbaghia: A Review

Authors: S. Takaidza, M. Pillay, F. Mtunzi

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Since time immemorial, plants have been used by several communities to treat a large number of diseases. Numerous studies on the pharmacology of medicinal plants have been done. Medicinal plants constitute a potential source for the production of new medicines and may complement conventional antimicrobials and probably decrease health costs. Phytochemical compounds in plants are known to be biologically active aiding, for example, as antioxidants and antimicrobials. The overwhelming challenge of drug resistance has resulted in an increasing trend towards using medicinal plants to treat various diseases, especially in developing countries. Species of the genus Tulbaghia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such rheumatism, fits, fever, earache, tuberculosis etc. It is believed that the species possess several therapeutic properties. This paper evaluates some of the biological activities of the genus Tulbaghia. It is evident from current literature that T. violacea is the most promising species. The other species of Tulbaghia still require further studies to ascertain their medicinal potential.

Keywords: biological activities, antimicrobial, antioxidant, phytochemicals, tulbaghia

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71 Traditional Medicines Used for the Enhancement of Male Sexual Performance among the Indigenous Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: A. N. Sharma

Abstract:

A traditional medicine comprises a knowledge system, practices related to the cure of various ailments that developed over generations by indigenous people or populations. The indigenous populations developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-though hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of traditional medicines for the enhancement of male sexual performance among the indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh, India. Madhya Pradesh state is situated more or less in the central part of India. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, traditional health service providers of Sagar district, and other indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh. It may be concluded that sizable traditional medicines exist in Madhya Pradesh, India, for the enhancement of male sexual performance, which still awaits for scientific exploration and intensive pharmaceutical investigations.

Keywords: Bharias, indigenous, Madhya Pradesh, sexual performance, traditional medicine

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70 Secondary Metabolite Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extract of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem

Authors: Richa Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem is a monotypic genus belonging to family Bignoniaceae. The plant holds tremendous potential of medicinal value and has been traditionally used in various ailments like syphilis, leukoderma, blood disorders to name a few. The plant has gained prominence due to the presence of some prominent secondary metabolites. The present study focuses on the GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts of T. undulata which revealed the presence of certain bioactive compounds like stigmasterol, sitosterol, thiazoline, phytol, pthalic acid, methyl alpha ketopalmitate and so forth. A total of about 20 bioactive compounds were identified from the leaf extract spectra. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract was assayed against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The alkaloids from leaf extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis. The flavonoids from leaves showed positive activity against Penicillium species and Candida albicans. The study thus infers that the presence of bioactive components may be the principle behind the antimicrobial property of different plant parts and therefore Tecomella forms a potential plant for herbal drug formulation.

Keywords: Tecomella undulata, bioactive compounds, GC-MS, antimicrobial activity

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69 Antimicrobial Activity of Nauclea lotifolia (African Peach) Crude Extracts against Some Pathogenic Microorganism

Authors: Muhammad Isah Legbo

Abstract:

The phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Nauclea lotifolia fruit, leaf and stem-bark extracts at various concentration of (20.0,10.0, 5.0, and 2.5 mg/ml) were evaluated against some pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity was assayed using agar well diffusion method. The result obtained show appreciable inhibitory effort of acetone, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nauclea lotifolia. However, result obtained was less active compared to that of the control antibiotic (Ciprofloxacillin). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial doubling dilution method and ranged from 5.0-10.0mg/ml, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by plating various dilution of extracts without turbidity and the result ranged from 5.0-7.5mg/ml. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinones, flavonoids, resin, steroid and saponin. The activities of the plant extract therefore justify their utilization in the treatment of various ailments associated with the test organism.

Keywords: Nauclea, lotifolia, antimicrobial, pathogens, saponin, extract

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68 Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Anethum graveolens L. (Dill) Plant

Authors: Radhika S. Oke, Rebecca S. Thombre

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Medicinal plants and herbs have a great history of their utility as remedy for treatment of variety of ailments. Secondary metabolites present in these plants are responsible for their medicinal activity. In the present investigation, phytochemical screening of aqueous and alcoholic leaf extract of Anethum graveolens L. was performed. Total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity of the extracts was quantitatively estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau method and DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) method respectively. Qualitative tests suggested that Alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compounds were present in all the extracts of the plant. Aqueous extracts was found to have more phytochemicals as compared to alcoholic extracts. Extract of Anethum graveolens L. was found to contain good amount phenolics and exhibited antioxidant activity. The extracts also demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against selected gram positive and negative bacteria. The study revealed the potential application of Anethum graveolens L. (Dill) in medicine and health.

Keywords: Anethum graveolens L., antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, medicine and health

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67 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetes and Its Association with Com-Morbidities among South Indian Women

Authors: Balasaheb Bansode

Abstract:

Diabetes is a very important component in non-communicable diseases. Diabetes ailment is a route of the multi-morbidities ailments. The South Indian states are almost completing the demographic transition in India. The study objectives present the prevalence of diabetes and its association with co-morbidities among the south Indian women. The study based on National Family Health Survey fourth round (NFHS) 4 conducted in 2015-16. The univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses techniques have been used to find the association of risk factors and comorbidities with diabetics. The result reveals that the prevalence of diabetes is high among South Indian women. The study shows the women with diabetics have more chances to diagnose with hypertension and anemia comorbidities. The factors responsible for co-morbidities are changing the demographic situation, socioeconomic status, overweight and addict with substance use in South India. The awareness about diabetes prevention and management should be increased through health education, disease management programmes, trained peers and community health workers and community-based programmes.

Keywords: diabetes, risk factors, comorbidities, women

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66 Acute Intraperitoneal Toxicity of Sesbania grandiflora (Katuray) Methanolic Flower Extract in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Levylee Bautista, Dawn Grace Santos, Aishwarya Veluchamy, Jesusa Santos, Ghafoor Haque, Jr. I, Rodolfo Rafael

Abstract:

Sesbania grandiflora is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. Assessment of its toxic properties is hence crucial when considering public health protection because exposure to plant extracts may pose adverse effects on consumers. This study aimed to investigate the acute intraperitoneal toxicity of S. grandiflora flower methanolic extract (SGFME) in Swiss albino mice. Four different concentrations (11.25, 22.5, 40, and 90 mg/kg) of SGFME were administered intraperitoneally and immediate behavioral and clinical signs were observed. All concentrations of SGFME-treated mice exhibited gasping and faster respiratory rate, writhing, reddening and fanning of the ears, paralysis of the hind leg, and mortality. Such reactions may be attributed to the histamine and saponin content of S. grandiflora. Results of this study suggests that intraperitoneal administration of SGFME produced significant adverse effect in mice, therefore, caution should be exercised in using it as herbal remedy since there is little control over its quality.

Keywords: acute toxicity test, histamine, medicinal plants, Sesbania grandiflora

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65 Status of Popularity of Ayurveda Products in Chandigarh, North India

Authors: Upasana Sharma, Jayanti Dutta, Amarjeet Singh

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Background: Ayurveda is a comprehensive natural health care system. It is widely used in India as a system of primary health care, and interest in it is growing worldwide. Objectives: 1) To assess the extent and pattern of use of Ayurvedic medicines/ products by the people of Chandigarh. 2) To assess the perceived impact of use of Ayurvedic medicines/ products among the users. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in a city of North India. Overall 371 households were covered from rural, urban and slum areas from December 2010 to April 2011. Respondents were interviewed regarding practices about Ayurveda products. Results: Around 160 (43%; 95% CI= 38.15, 47.85) of the respondents were using Ayurvedic products in one form or the other. Out of them, 91 (57%) had used Ayurvedic medicines in combination with some other system of medicine rather than as a standalone therapy. Most of them (81%) preferred Ayurveda products for chronic digestive system related problems. Conclusion: The present study revealed that respondents had keen interest in Ayurveda. A section of population was taking Ayurvedic treatment for their health ailments. There was a great level of satisfaction among the users but high cost bothered them at times.

Keywords: ayurveda, alternative medicine, chronic diseases, complimentary medicine

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64 Some Trace and Toxic Metal Content of Crude Ethanol Leaf Extract of Globimetula Oreophila (Hook. F) Danser Azadirachta Indica Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

Authors: Dauda G., Bila Ha Sani Y. M., Magaji M. G., Musa A. M., Hassan H. S.

Abstract:

Introduction: Globimetula oreophila is a parasitic plant with a known therapeutic value that is widely used in the treatment of various ailments, including malaria, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, epilepsy and as a diuretic agent. Objectives: The present study is aimed at analyzing and documenting the level of trace and toxic metals in the crude ethanol leaf extract of G. oreophila. Methods: After collection and authentication, the leaves were air-dried, mashed into powder, weighed and extracted using aqueous ethanol (70%). The crude extract (0.5g) was digested with HNO₃: HCl (3:1); then heated to 2000C and analyzed for its metal content by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results: Fe had the highest concentration (32.73mg/kg), while Pb was not detected. The concentrations of Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd detected were 5.97, 10.8, 8.01 and 0.9mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Cd, Fe and Ni were above the permissible limit of FAO/WHO. Conclusion: The results also show that the analyzed plant is a beneficial source of appropriate and essential trace metals. However, the leaf of G. oreophila in the present study was probably unsafe for long-term use because of the level of Fe, Ni, and Cd concentration.

Keywords: Globimetula oreophila, minerals, trace element, crude extract

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63 Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus

Authors: Van Tang Nguyen, Jennette A. Sakoff, Christopher J. Scarlett

Abstract:

Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) has been used as a traditional herbal plant for the treatment of chronic ailments such as hepatitis, diabetes and cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude P. amarus extracts and fractions using MTT and CCK-8 assays for cytotoxic evaluation. The outcomes indicated that P. amarus methanol (PAM) extract had lower residual moisture (7.40%) and water activity (0.24) and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively) than those of P. amarus water (PAW) extract, resulting antioxidant activity of PAM extract was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of PAW extract, PAM fractions and phyllanthin (a major compound in P. amarus). Cytotoxic activity of PAM extract for cancer cell lines of MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas), HT29 (colon), A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MCF-7 (breast), MCF-10A (normal breast), and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma) was higher than those of PAW extract and PAM fractions. Therefore, we can conclude that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, Phyllanthus amarus, physicochemical

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62 Microbiological Study of Two Spontaneous Plants of Algerian Sahara Septentrional: Cotula cinerea and Chamomilla recutita

Authors: Mehani Mouna, Boukhari Nadjet, Ladjal Segni

Abstract:

The aim of our study is to determine the antimicrobial effect of essential oils of two plants Cotula cinerea and Chamomilla recutita on some pathogenic bacteria. It is a medicinal plant used in traditional therapy. Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, they are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious diseases of fungal origin, against dermatophytes, those of bacterial origin. Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, they are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious diseases of fungal origin, against dermatophytes, those of bacterial origin. Humans use plants for thousands of years to treat various ailments, in many developing countries; much of the population relies on traditional doctors and their collections of medicinal plants to cure them. The test adopted is based on the diffusion method on solid medium (Antibiogram), this method allows to determine the susceptibility or resistance of an organism according to the sample studied. Our study reveals that the essential oil of the plants Cotula cinerea and Chamomilla recutita have a different effect on the resistance of germs.

Keywords: antibiogram, Chamomilla recutita, Cotula cinerea, essential oil, microorganism

Procedia PDF Downloads 227