Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2715

Search results for: endemic species

2715 Morphology, Chromosome Numbers and Molecular Evidences of Three New Species of Begonia Section Baryandra (Begoniaceae) from Panay Island, Philippines

Authors: Rosario Rivera Rubite, Ching-I Peng, Che-Wei Lin, Mark Hughes, Yoshiko Kono, Kuo-Fang Chung

Abstract:

The flora of Panay Island is under-collected compared with the other islands of the Philippines. In a joint expedition to the island, botanists from Taiwan and the Philippines found three unknown Begonia and compared them with potentially allied species. The three species are clearly assignable to Begonia section Baryandra which is largely endemic to the Philippines. Studies of literature, herbarium specimens, and living plants support the recognition of the three new species: Begonia culasiensis, Begonia merrilliana, and Begonia sykakiengii. Somatic chromosomes at metaphase were determined to be 2n=30 for B. culasiensis and 2n=28 for both B. merrilliana and B. sykakiengii, which are congruent with those of most species in sect. Baryandra. Molecular phylogenetic evidence is consistent with B. culasiensis being a relict from the late Miocene, and with B. merrilliana and B. sykakiengii being younger species of Pleistocene origin. The continuing discovery of endemic Philippine species means the remaining fragments of both primary and secondary native vegetation in the archipelago are of increasing value in terms of natural capital. A secure future for the species could be realized through ex-situ conservation collections and raising awareness with community groups.

Keywords: conservation, endemic , herbarium , limestone, phylogenetics, taxonomy

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2714 Endemic Medicinal Plants in Eritrea: Scientific Name, Botanical Description and Geographical Location

Authors: Liya Abraham

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are globally valuable sources of herbal products, either as lifesaving or life maintaining medicines. Studies reveal that more than 25% of modern drugs in the world are derived from plants. The Horn of Africa as a world hotspot; it has more than 1500 endemic plants. Eritrea, a country located in the Horn of Africa, is blessed with medicinal flora and fauna and marine and terrestrial biodiversity. Previous studies of flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, incomplete species lists, indicate figures ranging between 6000 and 7000 species, with levels of endemism between 12–20%. In the past two decades, there has been growing interest in natural remedy herbal medicines owing to, but not limited to; resistance to antimicrobials, intolerance of side effects of modern drugs, and rise in chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, cancer, etc. Hence, owing to the rising demand for nature based health solutions, deforestation, construction purposes, grazing, and agricultural expansion; several medicinal plants in general and the endemic ones, in particular, are in the verge of extinction. Therefore, conservation strategies of endangered and endemic medicinal plants, especially those located in hot spot regions, must be promoted at global level. Thus, the author aims to share certain information regarding the endemic medicinal plants in Eritrea with the international scientific world.

Keywords: endemic, eritrea, horn of Africa, medicinal plants, species

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2713 The Study of Biodiversity of Thirty Two Families of Useful Plants Existed in Georgia

Authors: Kacharava Tamar, Korakhashvili Avtandil, Epitashvili Tinatin

Abstract:

The article deals with the database, which was created by the authors, related to biodiversity of some families of useful plants (medicinal, aromatic, spices, dye and poisonous) existing in Georgia considering important taxonomy. Our country is also rich with endemic genera. The results of monitoring of the phytogenetic resources to reveal perspective species and situation of endemic species and resources are also discussed in this paper. To get some new medicinal and preventive treatments using plant raw material in the phytomedicine, phytocosmetics and phytoculinary, the unique phytogenetic resources should be protected because the application of useful plants is becoming irreversible. This can be observed along with intensification and sustainable use of ethnobotanical traditions and promotion of phytoproduction based on the international requirements on biodiversity (Convention on Biological Diversity - CBD). Though Georgian phytopharmacy has the centuries-old traditions, today it is becoming the main concern.

Keywords: aromatic, medicinal, poisonous, spicy, dye plants, endemic biodiversity, endemic, ELISA, GIS

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2712 Subtidal Crabs of Oman Sea: New Collections and Biogeographic Considerations

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin, Seied Mohammad Reza Fatemi, Tooraj Valinassab

Abstract:

The samplings were carried out at 8 stations (Govatr, Pasabandar, Beriss, Ramin, Chabahar, Pozm, Gordim, and Meidani) in subtidal zones of Oman Sea during the year 2009-2010. The specimens were collected by trawl net and preserved in 70% alcohol. A total of 23 species belonged to 9 families and 15 genera were caught. The results of the present study revealed that families Portunidae had the highest species enriched with 9 species. Most of the species had high distribution in the west Indian Ocean (69.56%) and 8.69% of species were endemic. Almost species were similar to those found in the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: Brachyura, biogeography, subtidal, Oman Sea

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2711 A Study on Local Endemic Jurinea brevicaulis Boiss. (Asteraceae) from Turkey

Authors: Bekir Dogan

Abstract:

The genus Jurinea is one of the larger genera within Asteraceae, comprising about 200 species. Jurinea is naturally distributed in central Asia, Turkey, Iran and the Mediterranean region. Jurinea has 23 species within the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian phytogeographic regions of Turkey. Jurinea brevicaulis is locally endemic in Turkey. It grows Erzincan province in Turkey. Between 2005 and 2007, as a part of a revisional study of Jurinea in Turkey, the author carried out extensive field studies and herbaria and collected an enough number of specimens. In the field, the specimens' GPS coordinates, habitat and relevant field observations were recorded. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) threat category was given. The present study reviews the chorology of the Jurinea brevicaulis in Turkey based on recent taxonomic revision and available specimen data.

Keywords: Asteraceae, endemic, Jurinea, Turkey

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2710 The Pitfalls of Short-Range Endemism: High Vulnerability to Ecological and Landscape Traps

Authors: Leanda Denise Mason, Philip William Bateman, Grant Wardell-Johnson

Abstract:

Ecological traps attract biota to low-quality habitats. Landscape traps are zones caught in a vortex of spiraling degradation. Here, we demonstrate how short-range endemic traits may make such taxa vulnerable to ecological and landscape traps. Three short-range endemic mygalomorph spider species were used in this study. Mygalomorphs can be long-lived ( > 40 years) and select sites for permanent burrows in their early dispersal phase. Spiderlings from two species demonstrated choice for microhabitats that correspond to where adults typically occur. An invasive veldt grass microhabitat was selected almost exclusively by spiderlings of the third species. Habitat dominated by veldt grass has lower prey diversity and abundance than undisturbed habitats and therefore acts as an ecological trap for this species. Furthermore, as a homogenising force, veldt grass can spread to form a landscape trap in naturally heterogeneous ecosystems. Selection of specialised microhabitats of short-range endemics may explain high extinction rates in old, stable landscapes undergoing (human-induced) rapid change.

Keywords: biotic homogenization, invasive species, mygalomorph, short-range endemic

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2709 Essential Oil Contents of Endemic Species Astragalus monspessulanus L. ssp. illyricus (Bernhardt) Chater

Authors: Nada Bezić, Valerija Dunkić, Rušćić Mirko

Abstract:

Astragalus monspessulanus L. ssp. illyricus (Bernhardt) Chater is endemic species of Fabaceae family and belongs to hemicryptophyte. This plant grows wild in the sub-Mediterranean area. We analyzed the composition of the essential oil of stems and leaves of A. monspessulanus L. ssp. Illyricus, collected in Tijarica, near Split, Croatia. Water distilled essential oils from aerial parts of investigation plant have been analysed by GC and GC/MS using VF-5ms capillary column. The total yield of oil was 0.08%, based on dry weight of samples. Thirty-eight compounds were representing 88.5% of the total oil. This essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of cis-myrtanol (20.5%), geranyl acetate (9.6%) and phytone (6.6%). Previous research in the species A. monspessulanus have included flavoalkaloids and flavonoids composition. The present study gives additional knowledge about secondary metabolites contents on the genus Astragalus.

Keywords: essential oil, isovaleric acid, Valeriana tuberosa, geranyl acetate, phytone

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2708 Development of a Vegetation Searching System

Authors: Rattanathip Rattanachai, Kunyanuth Kularbphettong

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a Vegetation Searching System based on Web Application in case of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The model was developed by PHP, JavaScript, and MySQL database system and it was designed to support searching endemic and rare species of tree on web site. We describe the design methods and functional components of this prototype. To evaluate the system performance, questionnaires for system usability and Black Box Testing were used to measure expert and user satisfaction. The results were satisfactory as followed: Means for experts and users were 4.3 and 4.5, and standard deviation for experts and users were 0.61 and 0.73 respectively. Further analysis showed that the quality of plant searching web site was also at a good level as well.

Keywords: endemic species, vegetation, web-based system, black box testing, Thailand

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2707 A Preliminary Survey on Butterfly Fauna at Rajagala Archaeological Site, Ampara, Sri Lanka

Authors: D. Eranda N. Mandawala, P. A. D. Mokshi V. Perera

Abstract:

The RajagalaArchaeological site (RAS) is located 26 km from Ampara town (7º29'25.22" N, 81º36'59.05" E) accessible through the Ampara-Uhana-MahaOya highway of the Eastern province of Sri Lanka. This site has recently been added to the tentative list of UNESCO world heritage site and is also a forest reserve. This dry zone forest consists of tropical mixed evergreen vegetation and scrublands on a rocky outcrop of elevation of about 350 meters above mean sea level. It is also scattered with several ponds of differing sizes on rocky outcrops, rocky cliffs, and about 50 cave dwellings. No comprehensive biodiversity survey of any sorts has been conducted at the RAS so far. Therefore, a preliminary survey was conducted to determine its butterfly fauna diversity. An opportunistic Visual Encounter Survey method was used to observe various butterfly species during the morning between 8:00am-12:00noon and in the evening between 2:00-6:00pm on 3 site visits in October 2017, February 2018, and November 2019. All encountered species were photographed using a Nikon D750 camera with Sigma 105mm f/2.8 EX DG OS HSM macro lens, and field guide books were used to identify them. Sri Lanka is home to 248 species of butterflies, of which are 26 are endemic. At RAS, we observed a total of 39 species (15%) of butterflies belonging to 5 Lepidoptera families. Out of these, one endemic species(4%) and 9 endemic subspecieswere also identified. The former was Troidesdarsius, also known as the Sri Lanka birdwing which is the national butterfly and the largest butterfly in Sri Lanka, and the latter were Plains cupid (Chiladespandavalanka), Yamfly (Loxuraatymnus arcuate), Common Cerulean (Jamidescelenotissama), Tawny Rajah(Charaxespsaphonpsaphon), Tamil Yeoman(Cirrochroathaislanka), Angled Castor(Ariadne ariadneminorata), GladeyeBushbrown(Mycalesispatnia patina), Common Crow (Euploea core asela)and Blue Mormon (Papiliopolymnestorparinda). The endemic subspecies belonged to 3 Lepidoptera families (3from Lycaenidae, 5 from Nymphalidae, and 1 from Papilionidae family). Anthropogenic activities such as unauthorized cattle farming, forest clearance, and man-made forest fires currently threaten this site. If such trends continue, it may lead to the reduction of butterfly fauna diversity within this area in the future.

Keywords: lepidoptera, rajagala, Sri Lanka birdwing, endemic

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2706 Stability Analysis of Endemic State of Modelling the Effect of Vaccination and Novel Quarantine-Adjusted Incidence on the Spread of Newcastle Disease Virus

Authors: Nurudeen Oluwasola Lasisi, Abdulkareem Afolabi Ibrahim

Abstract:

Newcastle disease is an infection of domestic poultry and other bird species with virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In this paper, we study the dynamics of modeling the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using a novel quarantine-adjusted incidence. We do a comparison of Vaccination, linear incident rate, and novel quarantine adjusted incident rate in the models. The dynamics of the models yield disease free and endemic equilibrium states. The effective reproduction numbers of the models are computed in order to measure the relative impact for the individual bird or combined intervention for effective disease control. We showed the local and global stability of endemic equilibrium states of the models, and we found that stability of endemic equilibrium states of models are globally asymptotically stable if the effective reproduction numbers of the models equations are greater than a unit.

Keywords: effective reproduction number, endemic state, mathematical model, Newcastle disease virus, novel quarantine-adjusted incidence, stability analysis

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2705 Cycas beddomei Dyer: An Endemic and Endangered Indian Medicinal Plant

Authors: Ayyavu Brama Dhayala Selvam

Abstract:

Herbal medicines are gaining importance due to holistic nature and lesser side effects. Cycas beddomei Dyer is one of the highly exploited medicinal plants in India. Due to over-exploitation of male and female cones, young leaves and starch-bearing pithy stems for edible, medicinal and socio-cultural practices by the locals, tribals and traders, the plant population has drastically declined in its natural habitats. Cycas beddomei is an endemic to India. The current IUCN status of this plant species in the wild is endangered. Perhaps, it is the only species of Cycas enlisted in Appendix I of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora). Endorsing the CITES decisions, the Government of India has placed C. beddomei in the “Negative List of Exports” during 1998. Though this plant has been banned legally, but illegally, it is highly exploited by different means. Therefore, conservation of this species is an urgent need of the hour. The present paper highlights unique morphological and anatomical characters of C. beddomei, along with its present status, major threats and conservation measures. Cycas beddomei can easily be identified by some of the distinguishing morphological and anatomical characters, viz., 2–4 mm wide leaflets with revolute margins; the apices of microsporophylls from the middle to apex of the pollen cones turn downwards on maturity; mucilage canal cells are seen in the midrib region of the leaflets; stomatal frequency is about 18 numbers at 250x; pollen grains are monocolpate and their diameter ranging from 22.5 to 30 µm.

Keywords: CITES, Cycas beddomei, endangered, endemic

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2704 Habitat Model Review and a Proposed Methodology to Value Economic Trade-Off between Cage Culture and Habitat of an Endemic Species in Lake Maninjau, Indonesia

Authors: Ivana Yuniarti, Iwan Ridwansyah

Abstract:

This paper delivers a review of various methodologies for habitat assessment and a proposed methodology to assess an endemic fish species habitat in Lake Maninjau, Indonesia as a part of a Ph.D. project. This application is mainly aimed to assess the trade-off between the economic value of aquaculture and the fisheries. The proposed methodology is a generalized linear model (GLM) combined with GIS to assess presence-absence data or habitat suitability index (HSI) combined with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Further, a cost of habitat replacement approach is planned to be used to calculate the habitat value as well as its trade-off with the economic value of aquaculture. The result of the study is expected to be a scientific consideration in local decision making and to provide a reference for other areas in the country.

Keywords: AHP, habitat, GLM, HSI, Maninjau

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2703 Study on Butterfly Visitation Patterns of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis as a Beneficial Plant for Butterfly Conservation

Authors: P. U. S. Peiris

Abstract:

The butterflies are ecologically very important insects. The adults generally feed on nectar and are important as pollinators of flowering plants. However, these pollinators are under threat with their habitat loss. One reason for habitat loss is spread of invasive plants. However, there are even beneficial exotic plants which can directly support for Butterfly Conservation Action Plan of Sri Lanka by attracting butterflies for nectar. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) is an important nectar plant which attracts a diverse set of butterflies in higher number. It comprises a violet color inflorescence which last for about 37 hours where it attracted a peak of butterflies around 9.00am having around average of 15 butterflies. There were no butterflies in early and late hours where the number goes to very low values as 2 at 1.00pm. it was found that a diverse group of butterflies were attracted from around 15 species including 01 endemic species, 02 endemic subspecies and 02 vulnerable species. Therefore, this is a beneficial exotic plant that could be used in butterfly attraction and conservation however with adequate monitoring of the plant population.

Keywords: butterflies, exotic plants, pollinators, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.)

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2702 Rapid Inventory of Terrestrial Ferns and Lycopods in Center for Ecological Development and Recreation (Cedar), Impalutao, Impasug-Ong Bukidnon, Philippines

Authors: Diobein Flores, Venus Buagas, Virgie Darunday

Abstract:

The study inventoried the species composition of terrestrial ferns and lycopods in Center for Ecological Development and Recreation (CEDAR) Impalutao, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon. Specifically, it aimed to determine and describe the species composition, and diagnostic characters of the ferns and lycopods in the study site. Transect walk method was employed in the inventory of the species. Each species were classified, identified and described according to its diagnostic characters. Results of the study revealed a total of 20 species of ferns and lycopods. Of these, 18 species were ferns and 2 species were lycopods. Eleven (11) families and fifteen (15) genera for ferns and one (1) family and one (1) genera for lycopods. Psomiocarpa apifolia is Philippine endemic and said to be vulnerable or threatened. Taxonomic characters based on habit, rhizome, leaf arrangement and orientation, stem structure and circinate vernation were used to identify the terrestrial pteridophtyes into families, genera and species. The species collected and assessment in CEDAR should be further investigated and monitor their conservation status.

Keywords: alpha taxonomy, conservation, habit, taxonomic characters

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2701 Tunisian Dung Beetles Fauna: Composition and Biogeographic Affinities

Authors: Imen Labidi, Said Nouira

Abstract:

Dung beetles Scarabaeides of Tunisia constitute a major component of soil fauna, especially in the Mediterranean region. In the first phase of the present study, an intensive investigation of this group following the gathering of all the bibliographic, museological data and based on a recent collection of 17020 specimens in 106 localities in Tunisia, allowed to confirm with certainty the presence of 94 species distributed in 43 genera, 4 families and 3 sub-families. Only 81 species distributed in 38 genres, 4 families, and 3 sub-families, have been found during our prospections. The population of dung beetles Scarabaeides is composed of 58% of Aphodiidae, 39.51% of Scarabaeidae, and 8.64% of Geotrupidae. Biogeographic affinities of the species were determined and showed that 42% of the identified species have a wide Palaearctic distribution, the endemism is very low, only 3 species are endemic to Tunisia Mecynodes demoflysi, Neobodilus marani, and Thorectes demoflysi, 29 species have a wide distribution, 35 are northern and 17 are southern species. Moreover, others are dependent on very specific Biotopes like Sisyphus schaefferi linked to the northwest of Tunisia and Scarabaeus semipunctatus related to the coastal area north of Tunisia.

Keywords: dung beetles, Tunisia, composition, biogeography

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2700 Species Distribution Modelling for Assessing the Effect of Land Use Changes on the Habitat of Endangered Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus) in Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Wardatutthoyyibah, Satyawan Pudyatmoko, Sena Adi Subrata, Muhammad Ali Imron

Abstract:

The proboscis monkey is an endemic species to the island of Borneo with conservation status IUCN (The International Union for Conservation of Nature) of endangered. The population of the monkey has a specific habitat and sensitive to habitat disturbances. As a consequence of increasing rates of land-use change in the last four decades, its population was reported significantly decreased. We quantified the effect of land use change on the proboscis monkey’s habitat through the species distribution modeling (SDM) approach with Maxent Software. We collected presence data and environmental variables, i.e., land cover, topography, bioclimate, distance to the river, distance to the road, and distance to the anthropogenic disturbance to generate predictive distribution maps of the monkeys. We compared two prediction maps for 2000 and 2015 data to represent the current habitat of the monkey. We overlaid the monkey’s predictive distribution map with the existing protected areas to investigate whether the habitat of the monkey is protected under the protected areas networks. The results showed that almost 50% of the monkey’s habitat reduced as the effect of land use change. And only 9% of the current proboscis monkey’s habitat within protected areas. These results are important for the master plan of conservation of the endangered proboscis monkey and provide scientific guidance for the future development incorporating biodiversity issue.

Keywords: endemic species, land use change, maximum entropy, spatial distribution

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2699 Ex Situ Conservation Practices for Rare Plants in Living Collections

Authors: Erika Pénzesné Kónya

Abstract:

The conservation programme of various vascular plant species has been started in the Botanical garden o fEszterházy College in Eger cooperating with two national parks in the Northern mountain region and Botanical garden of Eötvös Lóránd University in Budapest. The seeds of the species were collected in the chosen habitats with the permission determined by the National Parks and the conservation specialists. Now we have different numbers of individuals from mainly endemic and relict species. We took some experiments to know how can we germinate and grow up this species succesfully up to blooming and fruiting. In the temperate zone the majority of species after ripening the seeds or corps get dormancy to avoid the inadequate period to germinate. The seeds of species need variously pre-treatment (for example pre-chill) and suitable environment (for example basic medium) to unlock the seed dormancy and germinate in large scale. This impacts are often similar to in their originally habitat. To bloom the plants need suitable types of soil, but we couldn’t grow them in the most fruitful soil of habitat. Suitable microclimate is usually more important for some relict species than the soil, that’s why should we make experiments to find the suitable essential conditions for different species and know all of fenological states of them. These experiments can start a method for growing common wild native plants as food materials.

Keywords: ex situ conservation, germination success, soil preference Hungary, regionality, native wild plants

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2698 Rhizosphere Microbial Communities in Fynbos Endemic Legumes during Wet and Dry Seasons

Authors: Tiisetso Mpai, Sanjay K. Jaiswal, Felix D. Dakora

Abstract:

The South African Cape fynbos biome is a global biodiversity hotspot. This biome contains a diversity of endemic shrub legumes, including Polhillia, Wiborgia, and Wiborgiella species, which are important for ecotourism as well as for improving soil fertility status. This is due to their proven N₂-fixing abilities when in association with compatible soil bacteria. In fact, Polhillia, Wiborgia, and Wiborgiella species have been reported to derive over 61% of their needed nitrogen through biological nitrogen fixation and to exhibit acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in their rhizospheres. Thus, their interactions with soil microbes may explain their survival mechanisms under the continued summer droughts and acidic, nutrient-poor soils in this region. However, information regarding their rhizosphere microbiome is still unavailable, yet it is important for Fynbos biodiversity management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the microbial community structures associated with rhizosphere soils of Polhillia pallens, Polhillia brevicalyx, Wiborgia obcordata, Wiborgia sericea, and Wiborgiella sessilifolia growing at different locations of the South African Cape fynbos, during the wet and dry seasons. The hypothesis is that the microbial communities in these legume rhizospheres are the same type and are not affected by the growing season due to the restricted habitat of these wild fynbos legumes. To obtain the results, DNA was extracted from 0.5 g of each rhizosphere soil using PowerSoil™ DNA Isolation Kit, and sequences were obtained using the 16S rDNA Miseq Illumina technology. The results showed that in both seasons, bacteria were the most abundant microbial taxa in the rhizosphere soils of all five legume species, with Actinobacteria showing the highest number of sequences (about 30%). However, over 19.91% of the inhabitants in all five legume rhizospheres were unclassified. In terms of genera, Mycobacterium and Conexibacter were common in rhizosphere soils of all legumes in both seasons except for W. obcordata soils sampled during the dry season, which had Dehalogenimonas as the major inhabitant (6.08%). In conclusion, plant species and season were found to be the main drivers of microbial community structure in Cape fynbos, with the wet season being more dominant in shaping microbial diversity relative to the dry season. Wiborgia obcordata had a greater influence on microbial community structure than the other four legume species.

Keywords: 16S rDNA, Cape fynbos, endemic legumes, microbiome, rhizosphere

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2697 Inter-Specific Differences in Leaf Phenology, Growth of Seedlings of Cork OAK (Quercus suber L.), Zeen Oak (Quercus canariensis Willd.) and Their Hybrid Afares Oak (Quercus afares Pomel) in the Nursery

Authors: S. Mhamdi, O. Brendel, P. Montpied, K. Ben Yahia, N. Saouyah, B. Hasnaoui, E. Dreyer

Abstract:

Leaf Life Span (LLS) is used to classify trees into two main groups: evergreen and deciduous species. It varies according to the forms of life between taxonomic groups. Co-occurrence of deciduous and evergreen oaks is common in some Mediterranean type climate areas. Nevertheless, in the Tunisian forests, there is no enough information about the functional inter-specific diversity among oak species, especially in the mixed stand marked by the simultaneous presence of Q. suber L., Q. canariensis Willd. and their hybrid (Q. afares), the latter being an endemic oak species threatened with extinction. This study has been conducted to estimate the LLS, the relative growth rate, and the count of different growth flushes of samplings in semi-controlled conditions. Our study took 17 months, with an observation's interval of 4 weeks. The aim is to characterize and compare the hybrid species to the parental ones. Differences were observed among species, both for phenology and growth. Indeed, Q. suber saplings reached higher total height and number of growth flushes then Q. canariensis, while Q. afares showed much less growth flushes than the parental species. The LLS of parental species has exceeded the duration of the experiment, but their hybrid lost all leaves on all cohorts. The short LLSs of hybrid species are in accordance with this phenology in the field, but for Q. canariensis there was a contrast with observations in the field where phenology is strictly annual. This study allowed us to differentiate the hybrid from both parental species.

Keywords: leaf life span, growth, hybrid, Q. afares Pomel, Q. suber L., Q.canariensis Willd

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2696 Microbiological Analysis of Soil from Onu-Ebonyi Contaminated with Inorganic Fertilizer

Authors: M. N. Alo, U. C. C. Egbule, J. O. Orji, C. J. Aneke

Abstract:

Microbiological analysis of soil from Onu-Ebonyi Izzi local government area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria contaminated with inorganic fertilizer was carried out with a view to determine the effect of the fertilizer on the microbial flora of the soil. soil samples were analyzed for microbial burden. the result showed that the following organisms were isolated with their frequency of their occurrence as follows:pseudomonas species (33.3%) and aspergillus species (54.4%) had the highest frequncy of occurence in the whole sample of batches, while streptococcus species had 6.0% and Geotrichum species (5.3%) had the least and other predominant microorganism isolated: bacillus species,staphylococcus species and vibrio species, Escherichia species, rhzizopus species, mucor species and fusaruim species. From the result, it could be concluded that the soil was contaminated and this could affect adversely the fertility of the soil .

Keywords: soil, bacteria, fungi, inorganic fertilizer, Onu- Ebonyi

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2695 Elucidation of Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of an Endemic Halophyte Centaurea Tuzgoluensis under Salt Stress

Authors: Mustafa Kucukoduk, Evren Yildiztugay, A. Hediye Sekmen, Ismail Turkan, Yavuz Bagci

Abstract:

In this study, physiological and biochemical responses of Centaurea tuzgoluensis, a Turkish endemic halophyte, to salinity were studied. Therefore, the changes in shoot growth, leaf relative water content (RWC), ion concentrations, lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl (OH.) radical scavenging activity, proline (Pro) content, and antioxidant system [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR)] were investigated. The 60 days (d) old C. tuzgoluensis seedlings were subjected to 0, 150 and 300 mM NaCl for 7 d and 14 d. The relative shoot growth was generally did not change in the 150 mM NaCl, but reduced with 300 mM NaCl stress at 7 d and 14 d. RWC was higher in 150 mM NaCl-treated leaves than that of 300 mM NaCl. Salinity decreased K+/Na+ ratio, but increased Na+, Cl, Ca+2 and Na+/Cl ratio in the leaves. On the other hand, it did not change or increase the K+ content at 150 and 300 mM NaCl, respectively. MDA content in the 150 and 300 mM NaCl-treated leaves remained close to control at 7 d. This was related to enhanced activities of SOD, CAT, APX and GR enzymes, and their isoenzymes especially Fe-SOD in the leaves. On the other hand, the higher sensitivity to 300 mM NaCl at 14 d was associated with inadequate increase in antioxidant enzymes and the decreased OH radical scavenging activity. All these results suggest that C. tuzgoluensis has different antioxidant metabolisms between short- (7 d) and long-term (14 d) salt treatments and salinity tolerance of C. tuzgoluensis might be closely related to increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulation of osmoprotectant proline under salinity conditions.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, endemic halophyte, ion exchange, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, enzymes, endemic halophyte, ion exchange, lipid peroxidation, proline, Centaurea tuzgoluensis

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2694 The Survey of Phlebotomine Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Al-Asaba Area in the Northwest Region of the Libya

Authors: Asherf El-Abaied, Elsadik Anan, Badereddin Annajar, Mustafa Saieh, Abudalnaser El-Buni

Abstract:

Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) has been endemic in the Northwestern region of Libya for over nine decades. Survey of sandfly fauna in the region revealed that 13 species have been recorded with various distribution and abundance patterns. Phlebotomus papatasi proved to be the main vector of the disease in many areas. To identify sandfly species present in the Al-Asaba town and determine their spatial and seasonal abundance. An epidemiological analysis of the data obtained from the recorded cases was also carried out. Sand flies collected from various sites using sticky traps and CDC miniature light traps during the period from March-November 2006. Recorded ZCL cases were collected from the local Primary Health Care Department and analysed using SPSS statistical package. Ten species of sandflies were identified, seven belong to the genus Phlebotomus and three belong to the genus Sergentomyia. P. papatasi was the most abundant species with peak season recorded in September. The prevalence of the disease was low however; notable increase of ZCL cases in last three years has been indicated.

Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus papatasi, sandfly fauna, Libya

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2693 Cycads Bark Harvest in Limpopo Province in South Africa: A Negative Practice Contributing to Biodiversity Loss

Authors: S. O. Bamigboye, P. M. Tshisikhawe, P. J. Taylor

Abstract:

Cycads are the most threatened plant species in the world. In South Africa over 70% of cycads are threatened with extinction with 60% of them as a result of bark harvest of these highly endangered species for medicinal purposes. 3 cycads species in South Africa have gone extinct due to bark harvest for medicinal purpose. This practice keeps increasing biodiversity loss within the nation and this has generated concern for conservationists on different way to discover how people go about this practices and how it can be discouraged. Studies have revealed this practice to be common practice in provinces like Kwazulu natal, Eastern cape, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, but studies in the past have not really focused on cycads bark harvest in Limpopo province. In this study we use the indigenous knowledge to discover a particular location within the Soutpansberg Montane (a major biodiversity hotspot in Limpopo Province in South Africa) in Vhembe district in Limpopo province not yet conserved where we have a highly disturbed population of cycads. Several individuals of cycads species have been highly damaged due to bark harvest in this location. We are about proposing that such areas needs attention for conservation to prevent the loss of these species endemic to this particular location. Our study hereby reveals that cycads bark harvest which is a major threat to African cycads is also a common practice in Limpopo Province in South Africa. Rigorous conservation action is required to discourage this practice in order to prevent further biodiversity loss in this region.

Keywords: bark harvest, Cycads, conservation, extinction, Limpopo

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2692 A Predator-Prey Model with Competitive Interaction amongst the Preys

Authors: Titus G. Kassem, Izang A. Nyam

Abstract:

A mathematical model is constructed to study the effect of predation on two competing species in which one of the competing species is a prey to the predator whilst the other species are not under predation. Conditions for the existence and stability of equilibrium solutions were determined. Numerical simulation results indicate the possibility of a stable coexistence of the three interacting species in form of stable oscillations under certain parameter values. We also noticed that under some certain parameter values, species under predation go into extinction.

Keywords: competition, predator-prey, species, ecology

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2691 Butterfly Diversity along Urban-Rural Gradient in Kolkata, India

Authors: Sushmita Chaudhuri, Parthiba Basu

Abstract:

Urbanization leads to habitat degradation and is responsible for the fast disappearance of native butterfly species. Random sampling of rural, suburban and urban sites in an around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 28 species of butterfly belonging to 5 different families in winter (February-March). Butterfly diversity, species richness and abundance decreased with increase in urbanization. Psyche (Leptosia nina of family Pieridae) was the most predominant butterfly species found everywhere in Kolkata during the winter period. The most dominant family was Nymphalidae (11species), followed by Pieridae (6 species), Lycaenidae (5 species), Papilionidae (4 species) and Hesperiidae (2 species). The rural and suburban sites had butterfly species that were unique to those sites. Vegetation cover and flowering shrub density were significantly related to butterfly diversity.

Keywords: butterfly, Kolkata metropolis, Shannon-Weiner diversity index, species diversity

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2690 Northern Westerrn Ghats of India Possess an Indigenous Fish Fauna: A Survey from Kudali River

Authors: R. A. Jamdade, Rokade A. C., Deshpande V. Y.

Abstract:

The freshwater fish fauna of Kudali River, a northern right bank tributary of the Krishna River Western Ghats of India was studied. It is one of the smallest tributary of Krishna river and never been explored for fish fauna assessment. It extends over 23 Kms having 22 fish species belonging to 15 genera and 7 families, of these 3 species are endemic to Western Ghats, 2 are globaly endangered and 2 near to be threatened. Downstream the Kudal locality, the river is under the influence of anthropogenic activities and over fishing, where conservation action plans are needed to be undertaken for conservation of endangered and near to be threatened fish fauna.

Keywords: freshwater, fish, fauna, western Ghats, anthropogenic activity, conservation

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2689 Some Metal Levels in Muscle Tissue of Seven Fish Species from the Suğla and Beyşehir Lakes, Turkey

Authors: Haluk Özparlak, Murad Aydın Şanda, Gülşin Arslan

Abstract:

Phoxinellus anatolicus, Carassius gibelio, Sander lucioperca, Vimba vimba tenella, Capoeta capoeta, Tinca tinca from Suğla Lake (Turkey) and Phoxinellus anatolicus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Tinca tinca from Beyşehir Lake (Turkey) are economically important fish species and these fish have been consumed as food by local people. P. anatolicus is also endangered and endemic species from Turkey. In this study, concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in muscle tissue of these fish by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Levels of metals in the muscle tissue of all the fish specimens were compared with results of previous studies, the tolerance levels of national and international guidelines and the levels of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) limits set by FAO/WHO. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in the muscle tissue of all the fish specimens from Suğla and Beyşehir Lakes exceeded the tolerance levels of national and international guidelines. However, concentrations of Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn were below PTWI limits. Therefore, in terms of these metal levels, consumption of fresh filet of examined seven fish species (weekly up to about 300 g/person) doesn’t seem to be objectionable for human health.

Keywords: Beyşehir Lake, fish, metal levels, Suğla Lake

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2688 Computing the Similarity and the Diversity in the Species Based on Cronobacter Genome

Authors: E. Al Daoud

Abstract:

The purpose of computing the similarity and the diversity in the species is to trace the process of evolution and to find the relationship between the species and discover the unique, the special, the common and the universal proteins. The proteins of the whole genome of 40 species are compared with the cronobacter genome which is used as reference genome. More than 3 billion pairwise alignments are performed using blastp. Several findings are introduced in this study, for example, we found 172 proteins in cronobacter genome which have insignificant hits in other species, 116 significant proteins in the all tested species with very high score value and 129 common proteins in the plants but have insignificant hits in mammals, birds, fishes, and insects.

Keywords: genome, species, blastp, conserved genes, Cronobacter

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2687 Taxonomy of Araceous Plants on Limestone Mountains in Lop Buri and Saraburi Provinces, Thailand

Authors: Duangchai Sookchaloem, Sutida Maneeanakekul

Abstract:

Araceous plant or Araceae is a monocotyledon family having numerous potential useful plants. Two hundred and ten species of Araceae were reported in Thailand, of which 43 species were reported as threatened plants. Fifty percent of endemic status and rare status plants were recorded in limestone areas. Currently, these areas are seriously threatened by land-use changes. The study on taxonomy of Araceous plants was carried out in Lop Buri and Saraburi limestone mountains from February 2011 to May 2015. The purposes of this study were to study species diversity, taxonomic character and ecological habitat. 55 specimens collected from various limestone areas including Pra Phut Tabat National forest (Pra Phut Tabat Mountain, Khao Pra Phut Tabat Noi Mountains, Wat Thum Krabog Mountain), Tab Khwang and Muak Lek Natinal forest (Pha Lad mountain, and Muak Lek waterfall) in Saraburi province ,and Wang Plaeng Ta Muang and Lumnarai National forest (Wat Thum chang phuk mountain), Panead National forest (Wat Khao Samo Khon Mountain), Lan Ta Ridge National forest (Khao Wong Prachan mountain, Wat Pa Chumchon) in Lop Buri province. Twenty species of Araceous plants were identified using characteristics of underground stem, phyllotaxis and leaf blade, spathe and spadix. Species list are Aglaonema cochinchinense, A. simplex, Alocasia acuminata, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, A. albispathus, A. saraburiensis, A. pseudoharmandii, Pycnospatha arietina, Hapaline kerri, Lasia spinosa, Pothos scandens, Typhonium laoticum, T. orbifolium, T. saraburiense, T. trilobatum, T. sp.1, T. sp. 2, Cryptocoryne crispatula var. balansae, Scindapsus sp., and Rhaphidophora peepla. Five species are new locality records. One species (Typhonium sp.1) is considered as a new species. Seven species were reported as threatened plants in Thailand Red Data Book. Taxonomic features were used for key to species constructions. Araceous specimens were found in mixed deciduous forests, dry evergreen forests with 50-470 m. elevation. New ecological habitat of Typhonium laoticum, T. orbifolium, and T. saraburiense were reported in this study.

Keywords: ecology, limestone mountains, Lopburi and Saraburi provinces, species diversity, taxonomic character

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2686 New Bioactive Compounds from Two Chrysanthemum Saharian Species (Asteraceae) Growing in Algeria

Authors: Zahia Kabouche, Ouissem Gherboudj, Naima Boutaghane, Ahmed Kabouche, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko

Abstract:

Chrysanthemum herbs (Asteraceae) are extensively used as food additives and in folk medicine. Anti-cancer, anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antiproliferative activities as well as antioxidant effects have been reported for Chrysanthemum species. We report the isolation and identification of flavonoids and new and known terpenoids from the endemic species, C. macrocarpum and C. deserticolum “guertoufa”, used in Algerian Sahara as tea drinks and in “couscous” and soups “Chorba”. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1-D and 2-D homo and hetero-nuclear NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY), mass spectrometry, UV and comparison with literature data. C. deserticolum extracts were tested by four methods to identify the antioxidant activity namely, ABTS•+, DPPH• scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous-ions chelating activity methods. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of C. macrocarpum extracts and isolated compounds are also reported here.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum macrocarpum, C. deserticolum, flavonoids, terpenoids, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative

Procedia PDF Downloads 264