Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: saponin

30 Effect of Saponin Enriched Soapwort Powder on Structural and Sensorial Properties of Turkish Delight

Authors: Ihsan Burak Cam, Ayhan Topuz


Turkish delight has been produced by bleaching the plain delight mix (refined sugar, water and starch) via soapwort extract and powdered sugar. Soapwort extract which contains high amount of saponin, is an additive used in Turkish delight and tahini halvah production to improve consistency, chewiness and color due to its bioactive saponin content by acting as emulsifier. In this study, soapwort powder has been produced by determining optimum process conditions of soapwort extract by using response-surface method. This extract has been enriched with saponin by reverse osmosis (contains %63 saponin in dry bases). Büchi mini spray dryer B-290 was used to produce spray-dried soapwort powder (aw=0.254) from the enriched soapwort concentrate. Processing steps optimization and saponin content enrichment of soapwort extract has been tested on Turkish Delight production. Delight samples, produced by soapwort powder and commercial extract (control), were compared in chewiness, springiness, stickiness, adhesiveness, hardness, color and sensorial characteristics. According to the results, all textural properties except hardness of delights produced by powder were found to be statistically different than control samples. Chewiness, springiness, stickiness, adhesiveness and hardness values of samples (delights produced by the powder / control delights) were determined to be 361.9/1406.7, 0.095/0.251, -120.3/-51.7, 781.9/1869.3, 3427.3g/3118.4g, respectively. According to the quality analysis that has been ran with the end products it has been determined that; there is no statistically negative effect of the soapwort extract and the soapwort powder on the color and the appearance of Turkish Delight.

Keywords: saponin, delight, soapwort powder, spray drying

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29 Protective Effect of Saponin Extract from the Root of Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Alli Smith Yemisi Rufina, Adanlawo Isaac Gbadura


Liver disorders are one of the major problems of the world. Despite its frequent occurrence, high morbidity, and high mortality, its medical management is currently inadequate. This study was designed to evaluate the Hepatoprotective effect of saponin extract of the root of Garcinia kola on the integrity of the liver of paracetamol induced Wistar albino rats. Twenty-five male adult Wistar albino rats were divided into five (5) groups. Group I, was the Control group that received distilled water only, group II was the negative control that received 2 g/kg of paracetamol on the 13th day, and group III, IV, and V were pre-treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the saponin extract before inducing the liver damage on the 13th day with 2 g/kg of paracetamol. Twenty-four hours after administration, the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples were collected. The serum Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activities, Bilirubin and Conjugated Bilirubin, Glucose and Protein concentrations were evaluated. The liver was fixed immediately in Formalin and was processed and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Administration of saponin extract from the root of Garcinia kola significantly decreased paracetamol induced elevated enzymes in the test group. Also, histological observations showed that saponin extract of the root of Garcinia kola exhibited a significant liver protection against the toxicant as evident by the cells trying to return to normal. Saponin extract from the root of Garcinia kola indicated a protection of the structural integrity of the hepatocytic cell membrane and regeneration of the damaged liver.

Keywords: hepatoprotective, liver damage, Garcinia kola, saponin, paracetamol

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28 Extraction of Saponins and Cyclopeptides from Cow Cockle (Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert) Seeds Grown in Turkey

Authors: Ihsan Burak Cam, Ferhan Balci-Torun, Ayhan Topuz, Esin Ari, Ismail Gokhan Deniz, Ilker Genc


The seeds of Vaccaria hispanica have been used in food and pharmaceutical industry. It is an important product due to its superior starch granules, triterpenic saponins, and cyclopeptides suitable for drug delivery. V. hispanica naturally grows in different climatic regions and has genotypes that differ in terms of seed content and composition. Sixty-six V. hispanica seed specimens were collected based on the representation of the distribution in all regions of Turkey and the determination of possible genotypic differences between regions. The seeds, collected from each of the 66 locations, were grown in greenhouse conditions in Akdeniz University, Antalya. Saponin and cyclopeptide contents of the V. hispanica seeds were determined after harvest. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied for the extraction of saponins and cyclopeptides. Cyclopeptide (segetalin A) and saponin content of V. hispanica seeds were found in the range of 0.165-0.654 g/100 g and 0.15-1.14 g/100 g, respectively. The results were found to be promising for the seeds from Turkey in terms of saponin content and quality. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the Scientific and Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (project no 112 O 136).

Keywords: Vaccaria hispanica, saponin, cyclopeptid, cow cockle seeds

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27 In-Vitro Assessment of Saponin’s Level and Hemolytic Activity of Five Medicinal Plants from Eritrea

Authors: Leah Ghebreberhan, Liya Abraham, John Issac, Atul Kaushik


Medicinal plants are used for various indications in Eritrea according to traditional systems of medicine. Safety concerns, however, are dubious since some medicinal plants have toxic effects indeed. The medicinal plants under study (Commicarpus pedunculosis, Steganotaenia araliaceae, Boscia angustifolia, Solanum incanum, and Calpurnia aurea) are used in the treatment of various diseases. Thus, safety studies must be performed prior to usage since they are rich in phytoconstituents like saponins. Saponns are natural glycosides with several pharmacologic activities including hemolysis. The study was done to assess the level of saponin and toxic effects (hemolysis) of medicinal plants used in folk medicine. The plant extracts were subject to phytochemical analysis, foam test, and hemolytic assay. Regarding the Fh value, Solanam incanum consisted highest Fh value (20mm), whereas Boscia angustifolia showed the lowest Fh value (10mm). The level of hemolysis of all the plant extracts ranged between 9.0 to 20.2 %. All the plant extracts were suitable for treatment with respect to saponin level since they exhibited minimal hemolytic effect against erythrocytes.

Keywords: Boscia angustifolia, Calpurnia aurea, Commicarpus pedunculosis, hemolysis, saponin, Solanum incanum, Steganotaenia araliaceae

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26 Investigating the Effect of Plant Root Exudates and of Saponin on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubilization in Brownfield Contaminated Soils

Authors: Marie Davin, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Gilles Colinet


In Wallonia, there are 6,000 estimated brownfields (rising to over 3.5 million in Europe) that require remediation. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of recalcitrant carcinogenic/mutagenic organic compounds of major concern as they accumulate in the environment and represent 17% of all encountered pollutants. As an alternative to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies, a lot of research has been directed to developing techniques targeting organic pollutants. The following experiment, based on the observation that PAHs soil content decreases in the presence of plants, aimed at improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in phytoremediation. It focusses on plant root exudates and whether they improve PAHs solubilization, which would make them more available for bioremediation by soil microorganisms. The effect of saponin, a natural surfactant found in some plant roots such as members of the Fabaceae family, on PAHs solubilization was also investigated as part of the implementation of the experimental protocol. The experiments were conducted on soil collected from a brownfield in Saint-Ghislain (Belgium) and presenting weathered PAHs contamination. Samples of soil were extracted with different solutions containing either plant root exudates or commercial saponin. Extracted PAHs were determined in the different aqueous solutions using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection (HPLC-FLD). Both root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and commercial saponin were tested in different concentrations. Distilled water was used as a control. First of all, results show that PAHs are more extracted using saponin solutions than distilled water and that the amounts generally rise with the saponin concentration. However, the amount of each extracted compound diminishes as its molecular weight rises. Also, it appears that passed a certain surfactant concentration, PAHs are less extracted. This suggests that saponin might be investigated as a washing agent in polluted soil remediation techniques, either for ex-situ or in-situ treatments, as an alternative to synthetic surfactants. On the other hand, preliminary results on experiments using plant root exudates also show differences in PAHs solubilization compared to the control solution. Further results will allow discussion as to whether or not there are differences according to the exudates provenance and concentrations.

Keywords: brownfield, Medicago sativa, phytoremediation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, root exudates, saponin, solubilization, Trifolium pratense

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25 Saponins from the Fruits of Solanum anguivi Reverse Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia and Increase Antioxidant Status in Stretozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti


This work investigated the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of saponins from the fruit of Solanum anguivi, a plant generally used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and hypertension and to compare its effect with metformin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of STZ (65 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Saponin (40 and 100 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage once daily for 21 days. Metformin (200 mg/kg b.w.) was administered as the positive control. The effect of saponin on blood glucose, serum lipids and enzymatic antioxidants defense systems, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as MDA levels in serum, liver and pancreas were studied. Saponins from S. anguivi fruits reduced the blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in STZ-diabetic rats. They also significantly abolished the increase in MDA level in serum, liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of SOD and CAT in serum, liver and pancreas were significantly increased as well as concentration of HDL in the serum. Metformin had the same effect as saponin but saponins seems to be more potent in reducing serum TC, TG, LDL, and MDA, and increasing SOD and CAT. Conclusions: These results suggest that saponins from S. anguivi fruits have anti-diabetic and antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertriglyceridemic antiperoxidative activities mediated through their antioxidant properties. Also, saponins appeared to have more hypolipidemic, antiperoxidative and antioxidant activity than metformin.

Keywords: saponin, diabetes, metformin, streptozotocin, Solanum anguivi

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24 Influence of Thermal Processing Methods on Antinutrient of Artocarpus heterophyllus Seeds

Authors: Marina Zulkifli, Mohd Faizal Mashhod, Noriham Abdullah


The aim of this study was to determine the antinutrient compounds of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds as affected by thermal processes. Two types of heat treatments were applied namely boiling and microwave cooking. Results of this study showed that boiling caused a significant decrease in phytate content (30.01%), oxalate content (33.22%), saponin content (35.69%) and tannin content (44.58%) as compared to microwave cooking and raw seed. The percentage loss of antinutrient compounds in microwaved seed was: phytate 24.58%, oxalate 27.28%, saponin 16.50% and tannin 32.21%. Hence, these findings suggested that boiling is an effective treatment to reduce the level of toxic compounds in foods.

Keywords: jackfruit, heat treatments, antinutrient compounds, thermal processing

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23 Determination of Nutritional Value and Steroidal Saponin of Fenugreek Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav


Nutrient rich and high-yielding varieties of fenugreek can be developed by using genotypes which are naturally high in nutrients. Gene banks harbour scanty germplasm collection of Trigonella spp. and a very little background information about its genetic diversity. The extent of genetic diversity in a specific breeding population depends upon the genotype included in it. The present investigation aims at the estimation of macronutrient (phosphorus by spectrophotometer and potassium by flame photometer), micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper from seeds of fenugreek genotypes using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, protein by Rapid N Cube Analyser and Steroidal Saponins. Twenty-eight genotypes of fenugreek along with two standard checks, namely, Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching were collected from different parts of India, and nutrient contents of each genotype were determined at G. B. P. U. A. & T. Laboratory, Pantnagar. Highest potassium content was observed in PFG-35 (1207 mg/100g). PFG-37 and PFG-20 were richest in phosphorus, iron and manganese content among all the genotypes. The lowest zinc content was found in PFG-26 (1.19 mg/100g), while the maximum zinc content was found in PFG- 28 (4.43 mg/100g). The highest content of copper was found in PFG-26 (1.97 mg/100g). PFG-39 has the highest protein content (29.60 %). Significant differences were observed in the steroidal saponin among the genotypes. Saponin content ranged from 0.38 g/100g to 1.31 g/100g. Steroidal Saponins content was found the maximum in PFG-36 (1.31 g/100g) followed by PFG-17 (1.28 g/100g). Therefore, the genotypes which are rich in nutrient and oil content can be used for plant biofortification, dietary supplements, and herbal products.

Keywords: genotypes, macronutrients, micronutrient, protein, seeds

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22 Antimicrobial Activity of Nauclea lotifolia (African Peach) Crude Extracts against Some Pathogenic Microorganism

Authors: Muhammad Isah Legbo


The phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Nauclea lotifolia fruit, leaf and stem-bark extracts at various concentration of (20.0,10.0, 5.0, and 2.5 mg/ml) were evaluated against some pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity was assayed using agar well diffusion method. The result obtained show appreciable inhibitory effort of acetone, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nauclea lotifolia. However, result obtained was less active compared to that of the control antibiotic (Ciprofloxacillin). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial doubling dilution method and ranged from 5.0-10.0mg/ml, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by plating various dilution of extracts without turbidity and the result ranged from 5.0-7.5mg/ml. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinones, flavonoids, resin, steroid and saponin. The activities of the plant extract therefore justify their utilization in the treatment of various ailments associated with the test organism.

Keywords: Nauclea, lotifolia, antimicrobial, pathogens, saponin, extract

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21 The Effects of Red Onion Extract (Allium ascalonicum L.) in the Pulmonary Histopathological Lesions of Layer Chickens at 47 Days Old Raised in the Battery Cage

Authors: R. N. Nataria, A. D. Paryuni, R. Wasito


Layer farms in Indonesia have still obstacles to increasing their productivity, especially due to poultry diseases. The red onion (Allium ascalonicum L.) is a plant that contains flavonoid and saponin. Flavonoid is useful as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant while saponin is useful as antivirus, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and immunomodulator. This study aimed to know and determine the effect of onion extracts to pulmonary histopathological lesions in layer chickens which raised in the battery cage. This study used eighteen layer chickens at seventeen days old. The eighteen layer chickens were divided into three groups of six each, namely without administration of red onion extract (Group I), with administration red onion extract through drinking water (Group II) and with administration red onion extract peroral (Group III). Every ten days, six chickens were necropsied and then the lungs were processed for histopathological preparations and stained with routine hematoxylin and eosin. The results showed that the lungs of the Group I had severe congestion and diffuse hemorrhages. In Group II, lungs had moderate congestion and hemorrhages. In group III, lungs had mild congestion and hemorrhages. It is concluded, that red onion extract apparently has reduced the lungs lesions in layer chickens.

Keywords: histopathological lesions, layers, lungs, poultry diseases, red onion extract

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20 Antidiarrhea Effect of T-DABUTO from Madinella speciosa L. on Male Balb-C Mice Induced Oleum Ricini

Authors: Adhara Puspa Noorita, Azkiyatin Nailil M., Rita Aryanti, Sushanti Nuraini, Pujiati Abbas, Suparmi


T-Dabuto is a tea made from leaves and fruits of parijoto (Madinella speciosa L.), which flavonoid, saponin and tanin contained in that tea are reported have diarrhea-caused antibacterial activity. However, the in vivo antidiarrhea effect have not clear yet. This study was conducted to determine the effect of T-DABUTO to faecal characteristics in male Balb/C-mice induced oleum ricini. Experimental research with post-test only control group design was conducted using 35 young male mice strain Balb-C which was divided into 5 groups. All groups were induced by 0.7 ml/ head of oleum ricini and 3 hours later followed by aquadest for first group, while the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th group were treated by T-DABUTO solution with 75 mg/kgBW, 150 mg/kgBW, 300 mg/kgBW, and 600 mg/kgBW respectively as 0.7 ml/ head/ 0.5 hous for 8 hours. Feces collected were used to identify the frequency, absorbtion diameter and fecal weight. T-DABUTO on dose 75 mg/kg BW has the highest antidiarrhea activity which the mean of frequency defecation, water feacal absorbsion and feacal weight were 1.71±0.95 times, 0.38±0.49 mm, 0.43±0.28 mg, respectively. The T-DABUTO treatment did not influence the body weight of diarrheal mice. The T-DABUTO is potential as one of natural diarrhea tratment, especially in children.

Keywords: diarrhea, flavonid, tannin, saponin

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19 Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Ficus sagittifolia (Warburg Ex Mildbread and Burret)

Authors: Taiwo O. Margaret, Olaoluwa O. Olaoluwa


Moraceae family has immense phytochemical constituents and significant pharmacological properties, hence have great medicinal values. The aim of this study was to screen and quantify phytochemicals as well as the antioxidant activities of the leaf and stem bark extracts and fractions (crude ethanol extracts, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous ethanol fractions) of Ficus sagittifolia. Leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia were extracted by maceration method using ethanol to give ethanol crude extract. The ethanol crude extract was partitioned by n-hexane and ethyl-acetate to give their respective fractions. All the extracts were screened for their phytochemicals using standard methods. The total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, saponin contents and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometric method while the alkaloid content was evaluated by titrimetric method. The amount of total phenolic in extracts and fractions were estimated in comparison to gallic acid, whereas total flavonoids, tannins and saponins were estimated corresponding to quercetin, tannic acid and saponin respectively. 2, 2-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH)* and phosphomolybdate methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids/steroids, alkaloids for both extracts of leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia. The phenolic content of F. sagittifolia was most abundant in leaf ethanol crude extract as 3.53 ± 0.03 mg/g equivalent of gallic acid. Total flavonoids and tannins content were highest in stem bark aqueous ethanol fraction of F. sagittifolia estimated as 3.41 ± 0.08 mg/g equivalent of quercetin and 1.52 ± 0.05 mg/g equivalent of tannic acid respectively. The hexane leaf fraction of F. sagittifolia had the utmost saponin and alkaloid content as 5.10 ± 0.48 mg/g equivalent of saponins and 0.171 ± 0.39 g of alkaloids. Leaf aqueous ethanol fraction of F. sagittifolia showed high antioxidant activity (IC50 value of 63.092 µg/mL) and stem ethanol crude extract (227.43 ± 0.78 mg/g equivalent of ascorbic acid) for DPPH and phosphomolybdate method respectively and the least active was found to be the stem hexane fraction using both methods (313.32 µg/mL; 16.21 ± 1.30 mg/g equivalent of ascorbic acid). The presence of these phytochemicals in the leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia are responsible for their therapeutic importance as well as the ability to scavenge free radicals in living systems.

Keywords: Moraceae, Ficus sagittifolia, phytochemicals, antioxidant

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18 Effect of Local Processing Techniques on the Nutrients and Anti-Nutrients Content of Bitter Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)

Authors: J. S. Alakali, A. R. Ismaila, T. G. Atume


The effects of local processing techniques on the nutrients and anti-nutrients content of bitter cassava were investigated. Raw bitter cassava tubers were boiled, sundried, roasted, fried to produce Kuese, partially fermented and sun dried to produce Alubo, fermented by submersion to produce Akpu and fermented by solid state to produce yellow and white gari. These locally processed cassava products were subjected to proximate, mineral analysis and anti-nutrient analysis using standard methods. The result of the proximate analysis showed that, raw bitter cassava is composed of 1.85% ash, 20.38% moisture, 4.11% crude fibre, 1.03% crude protein, 0.66% lipids and 71.88% total carbohydrate. For the mineral analysis, the raw bitter cassava tuber contained 32.00% Calcium, 12.55% Magnesium, 1.38% Iron and 80.17% Phosphorous. Even though all processing techniques significantly increased the mineral content, fermentation had higher mineral increment effect. The anti-nutrients analysis showed that the raw tuber contained 98.16mg/100g cyanide, 44.00mg/100g oxalate 304.20mg/100g phytate and 73.00mg/100g saponin. In general all the processing techniques showed a significant reduction of the phytate, oxalate and saponin content of the cassava. However, only fermentation, sun drying and gasification were able to reduce the cyanide content of bitter cassava below the safe level (10mg/100g) recommended by Standard Organization of Nigeria. Yellow gari(with the addition of palm oil) showed low cyanide content (1.10 mg/100g) than white gari (3.51 mg/100g). Processing methods involving fermentation reduce cyanide and other anti-nutrients in the cassava to levels that are safe for consumption and should be widely practiced.

Keywords: bitter cassava, local processing, fermentation, anti-nutrient.

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17 Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation of the Endemic Medicinal Plant Tekchebilium arvensis Linn

Authors: K. Bengango, H. Mesahsah, F. Haseb-Reho, J. M. Tafrate


This present work was conducted to explore the micro-morphology and phytochemical characterization of the endemic medicinal plant Tekchebilium arvensis Linn (Asteraceae). Macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis and WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed. Microscopic evaluation revealed the presence of abaxial epidermis with paracytic stomata. Petiole showed epidermis, vascular strands, ground tissue and secretary cavities. Physico-chemical tests like ash values, loss on drying, extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, volatile oil, terpenoids, saponin and alkaloids.

Keywords: Tekchebilium arvensis Linn, Asteraceae, microscopical evaluation, phytochemical, powder microscopy, standardization

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16 Comparison of Classical and Ultrasound-Assisted Extractions of Hyphaene thebaica Fruit and Evaluation of Its Extract as Antibacterial Activity in Reducing Severity of Erwinia carotovora

Authors: Hanan Moawad, Naglaa M. Abd EL-Rahman


Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora is the main cause of soft rot in potatoes. Hyphaene thebaica was studied for biocontrol of E. carotovora which inhibited growth of E. carotovora on solid medium, a comparative study of classical and ultrasound-assisted extractions of Hyphaene thebaica fruit. The use of ultrasound decreased significant the total time of treatment and increase the total amount of crude extract. The crude extract was subjected to determine the in vitro, by a bioassay technique revealed that the treatment of paper disks with ultrasound extraction of Hyphaene thebaica reduced the growth of pathogen and produced inhibition zones up to 38mm in diameter. The antioxidant activity of ultrasound-ethanolic extract of Doum fruits (Hyphaene thebaica) was determined. Data obtained showed that the extract contains the secondary metabolites such as Tannins, Saponin, Flavonoids, Phenols, Steroids, Terpenoids, Glycosides and Alkaloids.

Keywords: ultrasound, classical extract, biological control, Erwinia carotovora, Hyphaene thebaica

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15 Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity Test of Water Fraction Extract of Sisik Naga (Drymoglossum piloselloides) Leaves

Authors: Afifah Nur Aini, Elsa Mega Suryani, Betty Lukiaty


Drymoglossum piloselloides or more commonly known as sisik naga fern is a member of Polipodiaceae Family that is abundant and widely distributed in nature. That being said, there hasn’t been many studies reporting about the benefits of this fern. The aim of this study was to find out the active compounds and antioxidant activity of water fraction extract of sisik naga leaves. The study will be able to optimize the use of this fern in the future. In this study, phytochemical test was done qualitatively by using Mayer, Dragendorff and Wagner reagent for alkaloid test; FeCl3 for phenolic test; Shinoda test for flavonoid; Liebermann-Burchard test for triterprnoid and Forth test for saponin. Antioxidant activity test was done by using 20D spectronic spectrophotometer to determine the percentage of DPPH free radical inhibition. The results showed that water fraction extract of sisik naga leaves contain phenolic and IC50 = 5.44 μg/ml. This means that sisik naga leaves can be used as an antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity test, dpph, phytochemical test, drymoglossum piloselloides

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14 Asparagus racemosus Willd for Enhanced Medicinal Properties

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Parveen Parveen


India is bestowed with an extremely high population of plant species with medicinal value and even has two biodiversity hotspots. Indian systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani have historically been serving humankind across the world since time immemorial. About 1500 plant species have well been documented in Ayurvedic Nighantus as official medicinal plants. Additionally, several hundred species of plants are being routinely used as medicines by local people especially tribes living in and around forests. The natural resources for medicinal plants have unscientifically been over-exploited forcing rapid depletion in their genetic diversity. Moreover, renewed global interest in herbal medicines may even lead to additional depletion of medicinal plant wealth of the country, as about 95% collection of medicinal plants for pharmaceutical preparation is being carried out from natural forests. On the other hand, huge export market of medicinal and aromatic plants needs to be seriously tapped for enhancing inflow of foreign currency. Asparagus racemosus Willd., a member of family Liliaceae, is one of thirty-two plant species that have been identified as priority species for cultivation and conservation by the National Medicinal Plant Board (NMPB), Government of India. Though attention is being focused on standardization of agro-techniques and extraction methods, little has been designed on genetic improvement and selection of desired types with higher root production and saponin content, a basic ingredient of medicinal value. The saponin not only improves defense mechanisms and controls diabetes but the roots of this species promote secretion of breast milk, improved lost body weight and considered as an aphrodisiac. There is ample scope for genetic improvement of this species for enhancing productivity substantially, qualitatively and quantitatively. It is emphasized to select desired genotypes with sufficient genetic diversity for important economic traits. Hybridization between two genetically divergent genotypes could result in the synthesis of new F1 hybrids consisting of useful traits of both the parents. The evaluation of twenty seed sources of Asparagus racemosus assembled different geographical locations of India revelled high degree of variability for traits of economic importance. The maximum genotypic and phenotypic variance was observed for shoot height among shoot related traits and for root length among root related traits. The shoot height, genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance, the phenotypic coefficient of variance was recorded to be 231.80, 3924.80, 61.26 and 1037.32, respectively, where those of the root length were 9.55, 16.80, 23.46 and 41.27, respectively. The maximum genetic advance and genetic gain were obtained for shoot height among shoot-related traits and root length among root-related traits. Index values were developed for all seed sources based on the four most important traits, and Panthnagar (Uttrakhand), Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Dehradun (Uttarakhand), Chandigarh (Punjab), Jammu (Jammu & Kashmir) and Solan (Himachal Pradesh) were found to be promising seed sources.

Keywords: asparagus, genetic, genotypes, variance

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13 Acute Intraperitoneal Toxicity of Sesbania grandiflora (Katuray) Methanolic Flower Extract in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Levylee Bautista, Dawn Grace Santos, Aishwarya Veluchamy, Jesusa Santos, Ghafoor Haque, Jr. I, Rodolfo Rafael


Sesbania grandiflora is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. Assessment of its toxic properties is hence crucial when considering public health protection because exposure to plant extracts may pose adverse effects on consumers. This study aimed to investigate the acute intraperitoneal toxicity of S. grandiflora flower methanolic extract (SGFME) in Swiss albino mice. Four different concentrations (11.25, 22.5, 40, and 90 mg/kg) of SGFME were administered intraperitoneally and immediate behavioral and clinical signs were observed. All concentrations of SGFME-treated mice exhibited gasping and faster respiratory rate, writhing, reddening and fanning of the ears, paralysis of the hind leg, and mortality. Such reactions may be attributed to the histamine and saponin content of S. grandiflora. Results of this study suggests that intraperitoneal administration of SGFME produced significant adverse effect in mice, therefore, caution should be exercised in using it as herbal remedy since there is little control over its quality.

Keywords: acute toxicity test, histamine, medicinal plants, Sesbania grandiflora

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12 Antioxidative Effect of Bauhinia acuminata Water Extract Consumption in Rat

Authors: Amornnat Thuppia, Pornrut Rabintossaporn, Suphaket Saenthaweesuk, Nuntiya Somparn


The aim of this present study was to determine the antioxidant effects and its mechanism of aqueous leaves extract of Bauhinia acuminata (BA) in rat. The extract was screened for its phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, the extract was studied in rats to evaluate its effects in vivo. Rats were orally administered with the extract at the dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 28 days. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts showed the presence of saponin, alkaloid, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannin and steroid compounds. The extract contained phenolic compounds 53.36 ± 1.01 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram BA extract. The free radical scavenging activity assessed by DPPH assay gave IC50 of 44.47 ± 2.83 µg/mL, which is relatively lower than that of BHT with IC50 of 12.34 ± 1.14µg/mL. In the animals, the extract was well tolerated by the animals throughout the 28 days of study as shown by normal serum levels AST, ALP, ALT, BUN and Cr as well as normal histology of liver and pancreatic and kidney tissue. Significantly, reduction of serum oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA) was found in rat treated with BA extract compared with control. Taken together, this study provides evidence that Bauhinia acuminata (BA) exhibits direct antioxidant properties and induces cytoprotective enzyme in vivo.

Keywords: Bauhinia acuminata, antioxidant, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative marker

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11 Associated Mycoflora AF Mucuna Sloanei Seeds and Their Effects on Nutritional and Phytochemical Contents of the Seeds

Authors: U.N. Emiri, E. Moroyei


Mycoflora associated with the seed rot disease of Mucuna sloanei and their effects on nutrient and phytochemical composition of the seeds were investigated. The fungal pathogens implicated in the seed rot disease were Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum. The fungal isolates were aseptically inoculated into healthy M. Sloanei seeds and incubated for 7 days at room temperature of 25 ± 30c. The results of the proximate and mineral analysis in mg/100g of fungal infected and non-infected (control) seeds that were carried out revealed that there was an increase in Moisture and Carbohydrate content of the fungal infected seeds relative to the non-infected seeds (control). However, there was a decrease in Ash, Fibre, Lipid, and Protein content of the fungal infected seeds relative to the non-infected (control). It was observed that moisture had increased from 10.50 ± 0.16 in the non-infected seeds to 17.60 ± 0.20 in the infected samples and Carbohydrate content had also increased from 49.6 ± 0.25 in the non-infected to 52.50 ± 0.29 in the infected seeds. The following parameters decreased in the infected than in the non-infected seeds. They include Ash 2.60 ± 0.12, Crude fibre 1.9 ± 0.08, Lipid 6.50 ± 0.16, and Protein content 18.50 ± 0.06. Similarly, Calcium 2.50 ± 0.12, Phosphorus 1.80 + 0.12 and Potassium 1.80 + 0.09 increased in the infected than in the non-infected seed, while iron 0.20 ± 0.05, Sodium 0.02 ± 0.01 and Magnesium 0.06 ± 0.02 decreased in the infected seeds. All phytochemical contents analyzed increased in the infected seeds viz Tannim 0.50 ± 0.12, Oxalate 1.60 ± 0.05, Hydrogen cyanide 1.82 ± 0.06, and Saponin 2.50+0.28. However, the nutrient compositions and Phytochemical between the infected and non-infected seeds are not significantly different (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Mycoflora, mucuna sloanei, seeds, phytochemical, nutrient composition

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10 Extraction and Antibacterial Studies of Oil from Three Mango Kernel Obtained from Makurdi, Nigeria

Authors: K. Asemave, D. O. Abakpa, T. T. Ligom


The ability of bacteria to develop resistance to many antibiotics cannot be undermined, given the multifaceted health challenges in the present times. For this reason, a lot of attention is on botanicals and their products in search of new antibacterial agents. On the other hand, mango kernel oils (MKO) can be heavily valorized by taking advantage of the myriads bioactive phytochemicals it contains. Herein, we validated the use of MKO as bioactive agent against bacteria. The MKOs for the study were extracted by soxhlet means with ethanol and hexane for 4 h from 3 different mango kernels, namely; 'local' (sample A), 'julie' (sample B), and 'john' (sample C). Prior to the extraction, ground fine particles of the kernels were obtained from the seed kernels dried in oven at 100 °C for 8 h. Hexane gave higher yield of the oils than ethanol. It was also qualitatively confirmed that the mango kernel oils contain some phytochemicals such as phenol, quinone, saponin, and terpenoid. The results of the antibacterial activities of the MKO against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at different concentrations showed that the oils extracted with ethanol gave better antibacterial properties than those of the hexane. More so, the bioactivities were best with the local mango kernel oil. Indeed this work has completely validated the previous claim that MKOs are effective antibacterial agents. Thus, these oils (especially the ethanol-derived ones) can be used as bacteriostatic and antibacterial agents in say food, cosmetics, and allied industries.

Keywords: bacteria, mango, kernel, oil, phytochemicals

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9 Anti-Implantation Activity of Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) Pulp Ethanol Extract in Female Mice

Authors: Suparmi, Israhnanto Isradji, Dina Fatmawati, Iwang Yusuf


Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) is one of the traditional plants originating from Indonesia that can be used to prevent pregnancy, launched urine and kidney inflammation. Kepel pulp has compounds alkaloid, triterpenoid, tannin, saponin, and flavonoid, when used will give the hormonal and cytotoxic effect. This study was aimed at evaluating ethanol extract of kepel in vivo for anti-implantation activities. In this experimental study with post test only control group design, 20 female mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. It was divided into the control, the 0,65 mg dose, 1,3 mg dose, and 3,6 mg dose of kepel pulp extract group. The extract soluted in DMSO’s solution and was given 1 ml per mice. The extract was given 10 days before copulation until 18 days of pregnancy. Then, the number of implantation, presence of fetus, and embrio resorbtion were recorded and used to calculate the percentage anti-implantation effect. The results were tested by One-way ANOVA. The mean number of implantation in group control, 0,65 mg;1,3 mg; and 2,6 mg were 5,60±1,14; 6,20± 1,64; 7,60±1,51; 8,00± 1,58, respectively. One way Annova test showed that there is no significant difference in the number of implantation between the group (p > 0,05). The administration of kepel pulp ethanol extract had no effect on the percentage anti-implantation effect and the number of and embrio resorbtion.

Keywords: antiimplantation, fetus, Stelechocarpus burahol, flavonoid

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8 A Viable Approach for Biological Detoxification of Non Edible Oil Seed Cakes and Their Utilization in Food Production Using Aspergillus Niger

Authors: Kshitij Bhardwaj, R.K. Trivedi, Shipra Dixit


We used biological detoxification method that converts toxic residue waste of Jatropha curcas oil seeds (non edible oil seed) into industrial bio-products and animal feed material. Present study describes the complete degradation of phorbol esters by Aspergillus Niger strain during solid state fermentation (SSF) of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake. Phorbol esters were completely degraded in 15 days under the optimized SSF conditions viz deoiled cake 5.0 gm moistened with 5.0 ml distilled water; inoculum 2 ml of overnight grown Aspergillus niger; incubated at 30◦ C, pH 7.0. This method simultaneously induces the production of Protease enzyme by Aspergillus Niger which has high potential to be used in feedstuffs .The maximum Protease activities obtained were 709.16 mg/ml in Jatropha curcas oil seed cake. The protein isolate had small amounts of phorbol esters, phytic acid, and saponin without any lectin. Its minimum and maximum solubility were at pH 4.0&12.0. Water and oil binding capacities were 3.22 g water/g protein and 1.86 ml oil/g protein respectively.Emulsion activity showed high values in a range of basic pH. We concluded that Jatropha Curcas seed cake has a potential to be used as a novel source of functional protein for food or feed applications.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Jatropha curcas, oil seed cake, phorbol ester

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7 Assessment of in vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials of Methanol Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum Cotyledon

Authors: Christianah Adebimpe Dare, Nelson Oghenebrorhie Elvis


This study was aimed at analysing the phytochemicals in Chrysophyllum albidum cotyledon extract and their in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The star apple fruit was bought at Igbona market Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The seed from the fruit was removed and defatted. The residue was exhaustively extracted with methanol. The Chrysophyllum albidum cotyledon methanol extract (CCME) was phytochemically screened, flavonoids and phenol contents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays were carried out on the extract using standard procedures. Phytochemicals analysis revealed the presence of steroids, tannins, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenes, and xanthoproteins. The phenolic concentration, total flavonoids concentration, and total sugar concentration were found to be 26.72 ± 0.048 µgTAE/mg, 23.12 ± 1.92µg of Rutin equivalent (RTE)/mg (10.49 ± 1.12µg of Quercetin equivalent (QE/mg) and 778.38 ± 12.82 µg of glucose/ml, respectively. The extract demonstrated significant inhibitory effect compared with the standards as potent antioxidant with percentage inhibition of DPPH as 38.10 %-39.51 %, lipid peroxidation as 45.85 %-65.85 %; ferric reducing power showed linear correlation to the standard and the anti-inflammatory potential with 22.06 %-26.37 % protection of the human red blood membrane and the percentage inhibition of denaturation of albumin 3.42 %-7.32 %. The study showed that C. albidum cotyledon methanol extract is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent to combat oxidative stress and pathological diseases caused by reactive species.

Keywords: albumin denaturation, free radicals, lipid peroxidation, reactive species

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6 The Effect of Manggong Bamboo Leaves Extract (Gigantochloa manggong) on Rat (Rattus novergicus) Blood Profile

Authors: Sri Rahayu, Supriyatin, Yuli Rahma Dini


One of the consequences of excess physical activity is the oxidative stress which resulted in damage to blood cells. Oxidative stress condition can be reduced by an exogenous antioxidant. The natural exogenous antioxidant can be extracted from Manggong bamboo (Gigantochloa manggong). This research was aim to evaluate the effect of physical exercise and Manggong bamboo (Gigantochloa manggong) leaf extract on blood profile of rats. This research was conducted in July 2013 to May 2014 using experimental method with completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors, physical exercise and Manggong bamboo leaf extract. The rats blood profile to be measured were the level of erythrocyte cells, leucocyte cells and hemoglobin. Data were analyzed with parametric statistical 2-way ANOVA test (α = 0.05). Manggong bamboo leaf extract was non toxic and contained flavonoid, triterpenoid, saponin and alkaloid. There was an effect of physical exercise and manggong bamboo leaf extract on blood profile of rats. Data obtained on physical activity, giving erythrocyte cells (2.5 million/µl) and hemoglobin (12,42g/dL) declined compared to the number of leucocyte cells increases (6,500cells/L). Extract treatment was increased the erythrocytes (5,13 million/µl) and hemoglobin level (14,72 g/dL.) while the leukocytes level were decreased (1.591,67 cells/L). The extract and physical activity treatment showed an increase in erythrocytes (2,96 million/µl) and hemoglobin (14,3 g/dL) but decrease the number of leukocytes (1.291,67 cells/L). The conclusion was that physical activity and Manggong bamboo leafs extract gaves effect on the blood profile of white rat.

Keywords: antioxidant, blood profile of rats, Manggong bamboo leaf extract, leukocytes

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5 Effects of Varying Fermentation Periods on the Chemical Composition of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and Acha (Digitaria exilis) Flour Blends and Sensory Properties of Their Products

Authors: P. N. Okeke, J. N. Chikwendu


The study evaluated the effects of varying fermentation periods on the nutrients and anti-nutrients composition of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and acha (Digitaria exilis) flour blends and sensory properties of their products. The African yam bean seeds and acha grains were fermented for 24 hrs, 48 and 72 hrs, dried (sun drying) and milled into fine flour. The fermented flours were used in a ratio of 70:30 (Protein basis) to formulate composite flour for meat pie and biscuits production. Both the fermented and unfermented flours and products were analyzed for chemical composition using the standard method. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 15 to determine the mean and standard deviation. The 24, 48, and 72 hrs fermentation periods increased protein (22.81, 26.15 and 24.00% respectively). The carbohydrate, ash and moisture contents of the flours were also increased as a result of fermentation (68.01-76.83, 2.26-4.88, and 8.36-13.00% respectively). The 48 hrs fermented flour blends had the highest increase in ash relative to the control (4.88%). Fermentation increased zinc, iron, magnesium and phosphorus content of the flours. Treatment drastically reduced the anti-nutrient (oxalate, saponin, tannin, phytate, and hemagglutinin) levels of the flours. Both meat pie and biscuits had increased protein relative to the control (27.36-34.28% and 23.66-25.09%). However, the protein content of the meat pie increased more than that of the biscuits. Zinc, Iron, Magnesium and phosphorus levels increased in both meat pie and biscuits. Organoleptic attributes of the products (meat pie and biscuits) were slightly lower than the control except those of the 72 hrs fermented flours.

Keywords: fermentation, African yam bean, acha, biscuits, meat-pie

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4 Nanoemulsion Formulation of Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis and Its Antioxidant Activity

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Dita Sasri Primaviri, Irda Fidrianny


Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical, prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Previous study showed that 70% ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity. Since EEP has very small solubility in water, the extract was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). Nanoemulsion is chosen as cosmetic dosage forms according to its properties namely to decrease the risk of skin’s irritation, increase penetration, prolong its time to remain in our skin, and improve stability. Propolis was extracted using reflux methods and concentrated using rotavapor. EEP was characterized with several tests such as phytochemical screening, density, and antioxidant activity using DPPH method. Optimation of total surfactant, co-surfactant, oil, and amount of EEP that can be included in NE were required to get the best NE formulation. The evaluations included to organoleptic observation, globul size, polydispersity index, morphology using TEM, viscosity, pH, centrifuge, stability, Freeze and Thaw test, radical scavenging activity using DPPH method, and primary irritation test. The yield extracts was 11.12% from raw propolis contained of steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin based on phytochemical screening. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerine; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparant, had globul size of 21.9 nm; polydispersity index of 0.338; and pH of 5.67. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25oC, centrifuged for 30 mins at 13.000 rpm, and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE Propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0. The best formulation for NE propolis contained of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerine; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP with globul size of 21.9 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. NE propolis was stable and had antioxidant activity similar to EEP.

Keywords: propolis, antioxidant, nanoemulsion, irritation test

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3 Propolis as Antioxidant Formulated in Nanoemulsion

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Irda Fidrianny, Dita Sasri Primaviri, Okti Alifiana


Natural products such as propolis, green tea and corncob are containing several compounds called antioxidant. Antioxidant can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical, prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Previous study showed that the extract of propolis that has the highest antioxidant activity was ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP). It is important to make a dosage form that could keep the stability and could protect the effectiveness of antioxidant activity of the extracts. In this research, nanoemulsion (NE) was chosen to formulate those natural products. NE is a dispersion system between oil phase and water phase that formed by mechanical force with a lot amount of surfactants and has globule size below 100 nm. In pharmaceutical industries, NE was preferable for its stability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, its ease to be absorbed and eliminated, and for its use as carrier for lipophilic drugs. First, all of the natural products were extracted using reflux methods. Green tea and corncob were extracted using 96% ethanol while propolis using 70% ethanol. Then, the extracts were concentrated using rotavapor to obtain viscous extracts. The yield of EEP was 11.12%; green tea extract (GTE) was 23.37%; and corncob extract (CCE) was 17.23%. EEP contained steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid and saponin. GTE contained flavonoid, tannin, and quinone while CCE contained flavonoid, phenol and tannin. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were then measured using DPPH scavenging capacity methods. The values of DPPH scavenging capacity were 61.14% for EEP; 97.16% for GTE; and 78.28% for CCE. The value of IC50 for EEP was 0.41629 ppm. After the extracts were evaluated, NE was prepared. Several surfactants and co-surfactants were used in many combinations and ratios in order to form a NE. Tween 80 and Kolliphor RH40 were used as surfactants while glycerin and propylene glycol were used as co-surfactants. The best NE consists of 26.25% of Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% of glycerin; 5% of rice bran oil; 3% of extracts; and 57% of water. EEP NE had globule size around 23.72 nm; polydispersity index below 0.5; and did not cause any irritation on rabbits. EEP NE was proven to be stable after passing stability test within 63 days at room temperature and 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. Based on TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) test, EEP NE had spherical structure with most of its size below 50 nm. The antioxidant activity of EEP NE was monitored for 6 weeks and showed no significant difference. The value of DPPH scavenging capacity for EEP NE was around 58%; for GTE NE was 96.75%; and for CCE NE was 55.69%.

Keywords: propolis, green tea, corncob, antioxidant, nanoemulsion

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2 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Lens Esculenta Moench, Seeds

Authors: Vivek Kumar Gupta, Kripi Vohra, Monika Gupta


Pulses have been a vital ingredient of the balanced human diet in India. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus or Lens esculenta Moench.) is a common legume known since biblical times. Lentil seeds, with or without hulls, are cooked as dhal and this has been the main dish for millennia in the South Asian region. Oxidative stress can damage lipids, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates and DNA in cells and tissues, resulting in membrane damage, fragmentation or random cross linking of molecules like DNA, enzymes and structural proteins and even lead to cell death induced by DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation. These consequences of oxidative stress construct the molecular basis in the development of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and autoimmune. The aim of the present work is to assess the antioxidant potential of the peteroleum ether, acetone, methanol and water extract of the Lens esculenta seeds. In vitro antioxidant assessment of the extracts was carried out using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay. The quantitative estimation of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content in extracts and in plant material, total saponin content, total alkaloid content, crude fibre content, total volatile content, fat content and mucilage content in drug material was also carried out. Though all the extracts exhibited dose dependent reducing power activity the acetone extract was found to possess significant hydrogen donating ability in DPPH (45.83%-93.13%) and hydroxyl radical scavenging system (28.7%-46.41%) than the peteroleum ether, methanol and water extracts. Total phenolic content in the acetone and methanol extract was found to be 608 and 188 mg gallic acid equivalent of phenol/g of sample respectively. Total flavonoid content of acetone and methanol extract was found to be 128 and 30.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of sample respectively. It is evident that acetone extract of Lentil seeds possess high levels of polyphenolics and flavonoids that could be utilized as antioxidants and neutraceuticals.

Keywords: antioxidant, flavanoids, Lens esculenta, polyphenols

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1 Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Leaves and Stems of Hippophae Salicifolia

Authors: Bhupendra Kumar Poudel, Sadhana Amatya, Tirtha Maiya Shrestha, Bharatmani Pokhrel, Mohan Prasad Amatya


Background: H. salicifolia is a dense, branched, multipurpose, deciduous, nitrogen fixing, thorny willow-like small to moderate tree, restricted to the Himalaya. Among the two species of Nepal (Hippophae salicifolia and H. tibetana), it has been traditionally used as food additive, anticancer (bark), and treating toothache, tooth inflammation (anti-inflammatory) and radiation injury; while people of Western Nepal have largely undermined its veiled treasure by using it for fuel, wood and soil stabilization only. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to explore biological properties (analgesic, antidiabetic, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of this plant. Methodology: The transverse section of leaves and stems were viewed under microscope. Extracts obtained from soxhlation subjected to tests for phytochemical and biological studies. Rats (used to study antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties) and mice (used to study analgesic, CNS depressant, muscle relaxant and locomotor properties) were assumed to be normally distributed; then ANOVA and post hoc tukey test was used to find significance. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS 17 and Excel 2007. Results and Conclusion: Pharmacognostical analysis revealed the presence of long stellate trichomes, double layered vascular bundle 5-6 in number and double layered compact sclerenchyma. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was found to exhibit the positive reaction tests for glycoside, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, coumarin and reducing sugar. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay tested in 1000, 100 and 10 ppm revealed cytotoxic activity inherent in methanol, water, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 (μg/ml) values of 61.42, 99.77, 292.72 and 277.84 respectively. The cytotoxic activity may be due to presence of tannins in the constituents. Antimicrobial screening of the extracts by cup diffusion method using Staphylococcus aereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa against standard antibiotics (oxacillin, gentamycin and amikacin respectively) portrayed no activity against the microorganisms tested. The methanol extract of the stems and leaves showed various pharmacological properties: and antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic [chemical writhing method], CNS depressant, muscle relaxant and locomotor activities in a dose-dependent fashion, indicating the possibility of the presence of different constituents in the stems and leaves responsible for these biological activities. All the effects when analyzed by post hoc tukey test were found to be significant at 95% confidence level. The antidiabetic activity was presumed to be due to flavonoids present in extract. Therefore, it can be concluded that this plant’s secondary metabolites possessed strong antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity which could be isolated for further investigation.

Keywords: Hippophae salicifolia, constituents, antidiabetic, inflammatory, brine shrimp

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