Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 119

Search results for: colonization

119 Isolation of Different Brachyspira spp. from Laying Hens in North-East of Iran

Authors: Ahdieh Alijani, Mina Zarrabi, Abdollah Jamshidi, Jamshid Razmyar

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Avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS) is caused by spiral-shaped Gram-negative Brachyspira spp. in poultry and is known as a cause of diarrhea, low egg production and increased the occurrence of dirty eggs in layer hens. In this study the presence of some Brachyspira spp. was investigated in laying hens. A total of 100 cloacal swab samples were individually collected from 20 laying hen flocks showing fecal egg staining in northeastern Iran. By culture and morphologic examination, 41 samples (41%) from 20 flocks were positive but by using genus–specific PCR only 37 (37%) samples were confirmed as Brachyspira spp. Using species-specific primers, single colonization was identified in 18 samples associated with B. pilosicoli (48.6%) while single colonization with B. intermedia was found in only two samples (5.4%). Simultaneous colonization by B. intermedia and B. murdochii was detected in 3 samples (8.1%). B. pilosicoli was the most prevalent species in concurrent colonization in 11 cases (29.7%). Finally, co-colonization by B. intermedia and B. innocens was identified in 3 samples (8.1%). The results of this study show the colonization of different species of Brachyspira with the dominance of B. pilosicoli in layer hens. In simultaneous colonization with pathogenic and non-pathogenic species the symptoms of intestinal spirochetosis were reduced, suggesting a competitive role in preventing and reducing the colonization of pathogenic species.

Keywords: intestinal spirochetosis, Brachyspira, laying hen, PCR

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118 Dynamics of the Landscape in the Different Colonization Models Implemented in the Legal Amazon

Authors: Valdir Moura, FranciléIa De Oliveira E. Silva, Erivelto Mercante, Ranieli Dos Anjos De Souza, Jerry Adriani Johann

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Several colonization projects were implemented in the Brazilian Legal Amazon in the 1970s and 1980s. Among all of these colonization projects, the most prominent were those with the Fishbone and Topographic models. Within this scope, the projects of settlements known as Anari and Machadinho were created, which stood out because they are contiguous areas with different models and structure of occupation and colonization. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) in two different colonization models, implanted in the State of Rondonia in the 1980s. The Fishbone and Topographic models were implanted in the Anari and Machadinho settlements respectively. The understanding of these two forms of occupation will help in future colonization programs of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. These settlements are contiguous areas with different occupancy structures. A 32-year Landsat time series (1984-2016) was used to evaluate the rates and trends in the LULC process in the different colonization models. In the different occupation models analyzed, the results showed a rapid loss of primary and secondary forests (deforestation), mainly due to the dynamics of use, established by the Agriculture/Pasture (A/P) relation and, with heavy dependence due to road construction.

Keywords: land-cover, deforestation, rate fragments, remote sensing, secondary succession

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117 Interaction of Water Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Green Bean under Different P Levels

Authors: Shahram Baghban Cirus, Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie

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In a greenhouse experiment, green bean were inoculated with three levels of phosphorus (P1, P2, P3, respectively 0, 50, 100 kgP/h) and four levels of water stress(Fc1, Fc2, Fc3 ,Fc4, respectively 0.8Fc, 0.7Fc, 0.6Fc, 0.5Fc) and one species of VA mycorrhiza (Glomus versiform) or left uninocolated as control plants in the steril soil. AM colonization significantly stimulated plant growth, leaf area, shoot, and pod dry weight but water stress significantly decreased colonization, pod and shoot dry weight, and shoot P. The use P levels significantly increased leaf area, shoot, and pod dry weight, pods length, and colonization.

Keywords: green bean, plant growth, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

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116 Understanding the Prevalence and Expression of Virulence Factors Harbored by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli

Authors: Debjyoti Bhakat, Indranil Mondal, Asish K. Mukhopadayay, Nabendu S. Chatterjee

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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in infants and travelers in developing countries. Colonization factors play an important role in pathogenesis and are one of the main targets for Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine development. However, ETEC vaccines had poorly performed in the past, as the prevalence of colonization factors is region-dependent. There are more than 25 classical colonization factors presently known to be expressed by ETEC, although all are not expressed together. Further, there are other multiple non-classical virulence factors that are also identified. Here the presence and expression of common classical and non-classical virulence factors were studied. Further studies were done on the expression of prevalent colonization factors in different strains. For the prevalence determination, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed, which was confirmed by simplex PCR. Quantitative RT-PCR was done to study the RNA expression of these virulence factors. Strains negative for colonization factors expression were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Among the clinical isolates, the most prevalent toxin was est+elt, followed by est and elt, while the pattern was reversed in the control strains. There were 29% and 40% strains negative for any classical colonization factors (CF) or non-classical virulence factors (NCVF) among the clinical and control strains, respectively. Among CF positive ETEC strains, CS6 and CS21 were the prevalent ones in the clinical strains, whereas in control strains, CS6 was the predominant one. For NCVF genes, eatA was the most prevalent among the clinical isolates and etpA for control. CS6 was the most expressed CF, and eatA was the predominantly expressed NCVF for both clinical and controlled ETEC isolates. CS6 expression was more in strains having CS6 alone. Different strains express CS6 at different levels. Not all strains expressed their respective virulence factors. Understanding the prevalent colonization factor, CS6, and its nature of expression will contribute to designing an effective vaccine against ETEC in this region of the globe. The expression pattern of CS6 also will help in examining the relatedness between the ETEC subtypes.

Keywords: classical virulence factors, CS6, diarrhea, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, expression, non-classical virulence factors

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115 Effect of PGPB Inoculation, Addition of Biochar and Mineral N Fertilization on Mycorrhizal Colonization

Authors: Irina Mikajlo, Jaroslav Záhora, Helena Dvořáčková, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jakub Elbl

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Strong anthropogenic impact has uncontrolled consequences on the nature of the soil. Hence, up-to-date sustainable methods of soil state improvement are essential. Investigators provide the evidence that biochar can positively effects physical, chemical and biological soil properties and the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi which are in the focus of this study. The main aim of the present investigation is to demonstrate the effect of two types of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) inoculums along with the beech wood biochar and mineral N additives on mycorrhizal colonization. Experiment has been set up in laboratory conditions with containers filled with arable soil from the protection zone of the main water source ‘Brezova nad Svitavou’. Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been selected as a model plant. Based on the obtained data, it can be concluded that mycorrhizal colonization increased as the result of combined influence of biochar and PGPB inoculums amendment. In addition, correlation analyses showed that the numbers of main groups of cultivated bacteria were dependent on the degree of mycorrhizal colonization.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza, biochar, PGPB inoculum, soil microorganisms

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114 Colonization of Embrionic Gonads of Nile Tilapia by Giant Gourami Testicular Germ Cells

Authors: Irma Andriani, Ita Djuwita, Komar Sumantadinata, Alimuddin

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The recent study has been conducted to develop testicular germ cell transplantation as a tool for preservation and propagation of male germ-plasm from endangered fish species, as well as to produce surrogate broodstock of commercially valuable fish. Giant gourami testis had been used as a model for donor and Nile tilapia larvae as recipient. We developed testicular cell xenotransplantation by optimizing the timing of intraperitoneal cell transplantation to recipient larvae aged 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post hatching (dph). Freshly isolated testis of giant gourami weighing 600–800 g were minced in dissociation medium and then incubated for 3 hours in room temperature to collect monodisperce cell suspension. Donor cells labeled with PKH 26 were transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of Nile tilapia larvae using glass micropipettes. Parameters observed were survival rate of Nile tilapia larvae at 24 hours post transplantation (pt) and colonization efficiency of donor cells at 2 and 3 months pt. The incorporated donor cells were observed under fluorescent microscope. The result showed that the lowest survival rate at 24 hours pt was 1 dph larvae (82.74±6.76%) and the highest survival rate were 3 and 5 dph larvae (95.00±5.00% and 95.00±2.50%, respectively). The highest colonization efficiency was on 3 dph larvae (61.1±34.71%) and the lowest colonization efficiency was on 7 dph larvae (19.43±17.33%). In conclusion, 3 dph Nile tilapia larvae was the best recipient for giant gourami testicular germ cells xenotransplantation.

Keywords: xenotransplantation, testicular germ cell, giant gourami, Nile tilapia, colonization efficiency

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113 Acquisitions on Prehistoric Dynamics in Central-Western Sicily

Authors: Angelo Vintaloro

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Recent discoveries in territory never studied have given a different reading of Sicilian prehistory with the acquisition of important data on the penetration of the Minoan and Mycenaean colonization and on trade in the center-west of Sicily. The large settlement of Montagna Vecchia, in the territory of Corleone, has typical components starting from the Neolithic and was located along the road from Palermo to Agrigento, which connected the southern coast to the northern one. It was already the most important trade route on the island, as it represented a portion of the long North African/South French trade route, from the Campaniform period, at the beginning of the second millennium BC, through the mediation of the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Years ago, it seemed that this colonization had stopped in south-eastern Sicily, but these recent discoveries changed the situation and gave us the confirmation that many peoples contributed to giving a permanent presence to this territory. Some areas of probable sacred destination have also been identified, closely linked to the subsequent Hellenic colonization of Sicily.

Keywords: corleone, vecchia, preistoria, ellenismo

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112 Crop Genotype and Inoculum Density Influences Plant Growth and Endophytic Colonization Potential of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Sohail Yousaf, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Birgit Mitter, Angela Sessitsch

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Most bacterial endophytes originate from the soil and enter plants via the roots followed by further spread through the inner tissues. The mechanisms allowing bacteria to colonize plants endophytically are still poorly understood for most bacterial and plant species. Specific bacterial functions are required for plant colonization, but also the plant itself is a determining factor as bacterial ability to establish endophytic populations is very often dependent on the plant genotype (cultivar) and inoculums density. The effect of inoculum density (107, 108, 109 CFU mL-1) of Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN was evaluated on growth and endophytic colonization of different maize and potato cultivars under axenic and natural soil conditions. PsJN inoculation significantly increased maize seedling growth and tuber yield of potato at all inoculum density compared to uninoculated control. Under axenic condition, PsJN inoculation (108 CFU mL-1) significantly improved the germination, root/shoot length and biomass up to 62, 115, 98 and 135% of maize seedling compared to uninoculated control. In case of potato, PsJN inoculation (109 CFU mL-1) showed maximum response and significantly increased root/shoot biomass and tuber yield under natural soil condition. We confirmed that PsJN is able to colonize the rhizosphere, roots and shoots of maize and potato cultivars. The endophytic colonization increased linearly with increasing inoculum density (within a range of 8 x 104 – 3 x 107 CFU mL-1) and were highest for maize (Morignon) and potato (Romina) as compared to other cultivars. Efficient colonization of cv. Morignon and Romina by strain PsJN indicates the specific cultivar colonizing capacity of the bacteria. The findings of the study indicate the non-significant relationship between colonization and plant growth promotion in maize under axenic conditions. However, the inoculum level (109 CFU mL-1) that promoted colonization of rhizosphere and plant interior (endophytic) also best promoted growth and tuber yield of potato under natural soil conditions.

Keywords: crop genotype, inoculum density, Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN, colonization, growth, potato

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111 Italian Colonial Strategy in Libya and the Conflict of Super Powers

Authors: Mohamed Basheer Abdul Atti Hassan

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This research paper will follow the main outlines of the Italian colonization in Libya in a historical geopolitical approach; before we reach the contemporary map. In this study, we are also concerned with following the chain's links, not as drama in time, but as a strategy in place, so that it draws to us a map of power and the distribution of political formations throughout this period within and around Libya. From the sum of these variable distributions and successive balances, we can come up with the basic principles that determined the Italian history in Libya and formed its political entity, which is a compass of guidance and an indication of the future.

Keywords: conflict, Mediterranean, colonization, political history

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110 The Impact of Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization on Viral Bronchiolitis

Authors: K. Genise, S. Murthy

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Introductory Statement: The results of this retrospective chart review suggest the effects of bacterial colonization in critically ill children with viral bronchiolitis, currently unproven, are clinically insignificant. Background: Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most prevalent causes of illness requiring hospitalization among children worldwide and one of the most common reasons for admission to pediatric intensive care. It has been hypothesized that co-infection with bacteria results in more severe clinical outcomes. Conversely, the effects of bacterial colonization in critically ill patients with bronchiolitis are poorly defined. Current clinical management of colonized patients consists primarily of supportive therapies with the role of antibiotics remaining controversial. Methods: A retrospective review of all critically ill children admitted to the BC Children’s Hospital Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) from 2014-2017 with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis was performed. Routine testing in this time frame consisted of complete pathogen testing, including PCR for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Analyses were performed to determine the impact of bacterial colonization and antibiotic use on a primary outcome of PICU length-of-stay, with secondary outcomes of hospital length-of-stay and duration of ventilation. Results: There were 92 patients with complete pathogen testing performed during the assessed timeframe. A comparison between children with detected Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=22) and those without (n=70) revealed no significant (p=0.20) differences in severity of illness on presentation as per Pediatric Risk of Mortality III scores (mean=3.0). Patients colonized with S. pneumoniae had significantly shorter PICU stays (p=0.002), hospital stays (p=0.0001) and duration of non-invasive ventilation (p=0.002). Multivariate analyses revealed that these effects on length of PICU stay and duration of ventilation do not persist after controlling for antibiotic use, presence of radiographic consolidation, age, and severity of illness (p=0.15, p=0.32). The relationship between colonization and duration of hospital stay persists after controlling for these variables (p=0.008). Conclusions: Children with viral bronchiolitis colonized with S. pneumoniae do not appear to have significantly different PICU length-of-stays or duration of ventilation compared to children who are not colonized. Colonized children appear to have shorter hospital stays. The results of this study suggest bacterial colonization is not associated with increased severity of presenting illness or negative clinical outcomes.

Keywords: bronchiolitis, colonization, critical care, pediatrics, pneumococcal, infection

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109 Indigenous Healers and Indigenous Trauma: Healing at the Intersections of Colonial, Intergenerational, and Individual Trauma for Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Mikaela D. Gabriel

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Background: Indigenous People face multiple barriers to successful life transitions, including housing, employment, education, and health. Current statistical trends paint devastating life transitions for Indigenous Peoples, but colonization and its intergenerational impacts are typically lacking as the crucial context in which these trends occur. This presentation will illustrate the massive impact of colonization on Indigenous Peoples; its intergenerational transmission, and how it impacts Indigenous clients seeking mental health treatment today. Methods: A qualitative, narrative inquiry methodology was used to honour Indigenous storytelling and knowledge transmission. Indigenous Elders, outreach workers, and homeless clients were interviewed and narratively analyzed for in-depth trends and themes. Impact: This research provides a wealth of in-depth information as to the life transition needs of Indigenous clients, identify the systemic impacts of colonization to the health and wellbeing of Indigenous People, and strategies for mental health treatment.

Keywords: indigenous trauma, indigenous peoples of canada, intergenerational trauma, colonial trauma and treatment

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108 Colonization of Non-Planted Mangrove Species in the “Rehabilitation of Aquaculture Ponds to Mangroves” Projects in China

Authors: Yanmei Xiong, Baowen Liao, Kun Xin, Zhongmao Jiang, Hao Guo, Yujun Chen, Mei Li

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Conversion of mangroves to aquaculture ponds represented as one major reason for mangrove loss in Asian countries in the 20th century. Recently the Chinese government has set a goal to increase 48,650 ha (more than the current mangrove area) of mangroves before the year of 2025 and “rehabilitation of aquaculture ponds to mangroves” projects are considered to be the major pathway to increase the mangrove area of China. It remains unclear whether natural colonization is feasible and what are the main influencing factors for mangrove restoration in these projects. In this study, a total of 17 rehabilitation sites in Dongzhai Bay, Hainan, China were surveyed for vegetation, soil and surface elevation five years after the rehabilitation project was initiated. Colonization of non-planted mangrove species was found at all sites and non-planted species dominated over planted species at 14 sites. Mangrove plants could only be found within the elevation range of -20 cm to 65 cm relative to the mean sea level. Soil carbon and nitrogen contents of the top 20 cm were generally low, ranging between 0.2%–1.4% and 0.03%–0.09%, respectively, and at each site, soil carbon and nitrogen were significantly lower at elevations with mangrove plants than lower elevations without mangrove plants. Seven sites located at the upper stream of river estuaries, where soil salinity was relatively lower, and nutrient was relatively higher, was dominated by non-planted Sonneratia caseolaris. Seven sites located at the down-stream of river estuaries or in the inner part of the bay, where soil salinity and nutrient were intermediate, were dominated by non-planted alien Sonneratia apetala. Another three sites located at the outer part of the bay, where soil salinity was higher and nutrient was lower, were dominated by planted species (Rhizophora stylosa, Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum and Bruguiera sexangula) with non-planted S. apetala and Avicennia marina also found. The results suggest that natural colonization of mangroves is feasible in pond rehabilitation projects given the rehabilitation of tidal activities and appropriate elevations. Surface elevation is the major determinate for the success of mangrove rehabilitation, and soil salinity and nutrients are important in shaping vegetation structure. The colonization and dominance of alien species (Sonneratia apetala in this case) in some rehabilitation sites poses invasion risks and thus cautions should be taken when introducing alien mangrove species.

Keywords: coastal wetlands, ecological restoration, mangroves, natural colonization, shrimp pond rehabilitation, wetland restoration

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107 Interactions between Water-Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Plant Growth and Leaf-Water Potential in Tomato

Authors: Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie, Shahram Baghban Ciruse

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The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus(Glomus mossea) on plant growth and leaf-water potential of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum L.cv.super star) were studied in potted culture water stress stress period of 3 months in greenhouse conditions with the soil matric potential maintained at Fc1, Fc2, Fc3, and Fc4 respectively (0.8,0.7,0.6,0.5 Fc). Seven-day-old seedlings of tomato were transferred to pots containing Glomus mossea or non-AMF. AM colonization significantly stimulated shoot dry matter and leaf-water potential but water stress significantly decreased leaf area, shoot dry matter colonization and leaf-water potential.

Keywords: leaf-water potential, plant growth, tomato, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

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106 Conservation Agriculture under Mediterranean Climate: Effects on below and Above-Ground Processes during Wheat Cultivation

Authors: Vasiliki Kolake, Christos Kavalaris, Sofia Megoudi, Maria Maxouri, Panagiotis A. Karas, Aris Kyparissis, Efi Levizou

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Conservation agriculture (CA), is a production system approach that can tackle the challenges of climate change mainly through facilitating carbon storage into the soil and increasing crop resilience. This is extremely important for the vulnerable Mediterranean agroecosystems, which already face adverse environmental conditions. The agronomic practices used in CA, i.e. permanent soil cover and no-tillage, result in reduced soil erosion and increased soil organic matter, preservation of water and improvement of quality and fertility of the soil in the long-term. Thus the functional characteristics and processes of the soil are considerably affected by the implementation of CA. The aim of the present work was to assess the effects of CA on soil nitrification potential and mycorrhizal colonization about the above-ground production in a wheat field. Two adjacent but independent field sites of 1.5ha each were used (Thessaly plain, Central Greece), comprising the no-till and conventional tillage treatments. The no-tillage site was covered by residues of the previous crop (cotton). Potential nitrification and the nitrate and ammonium content of the soil were measured at two different soil depths (3 and 15cm) at 20-days intervals throughout the growth period. Additionally, the leaf area index (LAI) was monitored at the same time-course. The mycorrhizal colonization was measured at the commencement and end of the experiment. At the final harvest, total yield and plant biomass were also recorded. The results indicate that wheat yield was considerably favored by CA practices, exhibiting a 42% increase compared to the conventional tillage treatment. The superior performance of the CA crop was also depicted in the above-ground plant biomass, where a 26% increase was recorded. LAI, which is considered a reliable growth index, did not show statistically significant differences between treatments throughout the growth period. On the contrary, significant differences were recorded in endomycorrhizal colonization one day before the final harvest, with CA plants exhibiting 20% colonization, while the conventional tillage plants hardly reached 1%. The on-going analyses of potential nitrification measurements, as well as nitrate and ammonium determination, will shed light on the effects of CA on key processes in the soil. These results will integrate the assessment of CA impact on certain below and above-ground processes during wheat cultivation under the Mediterranean climate.

Keywords: conservation agriculture, LAI, mycorrhizal colonization, potential nitrification, wheat, yield

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105 Medicinal Plants and Arbuscular mycorrhizal Colonization

Authors: Ammani K., Glory M.

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Demands of traditional herbal medicines are increasing day by day over the world. Considering the growing demand of medicinal plants in curative treatments and the role of VAM fungi in augmentation of the production of active secondary metabolites by the medicinal plants, the present work has been undertaken to survey the mycorrhizal status in 30 different medicinal plants belonging to various families from Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh. The roots were collected carefully and stained by the Phillips & Hayman technique. Basing on the occurrence of vesicles and arbuscules, categorized into four grades; Excellent: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present more than 75% of root bits, Good: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 50-75% in surface of root bits, moderate: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 25-50% in surface of root bits, and poor: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 1-25% in surface of root bits. The study reveals that the roots of all plants were colonized by AM fungi. Percentage of root colonization by AM fungi was more in Aloe vera, Phylanthus emblica, Azadiracta indica and least in plants such as Aerva lanata, Vinca rosea, Crotalaria verrucosa among the 30 medicinal plants in present study. The enhancement of growth and vigour and increased production of bioactive compounds of the medicinal plants is desirable which may be achieved by inoculation of the roots with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. There is a steady increase in the cultivation of medicinal plants to maintain a steady supply to support the increasing demand but corresponding researches of VAM fungi and their association in medicinal plants have received very little attention as compared to the studies on forest species and field crops. So a vast research on this field is necessary for a better tomorrow.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizae, colonization, categories, medicinal plants

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104 Virtualization of Biomass Colonization: Potential of Application in Precision Medicine

Authors: Maria Valeria De Bonis, Gianpaolo Ruocco

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Nowadays, computational modeling is paving new design and verification ways in a number of industrial sectors. The technology is ripe to challenge some case in the Bioengineering and Medicine frameworks: for example, looking at the strategical and ethical importance of oncology research, efforts should be made to yield new and powerful resources to tumor knowledge and understanding. With these driving motivations, we approach this gigantic problem by using some standard engineering tools such as the mathematics behind the biomass transfer. We present here some bacterial colonization studies in complex structures. As strong analogies hold with some tumor proliferation, we extend our study to a benchmark case of solid tumor. By means of a commercial software, we model biomass and energy evolution in arbitrary media. The approach will be useful to cast virtualization cases of cancer growth in human organs, while augmented reality tools will be used to yield for a realistic aid to informed decision in treatment and surgery.

Keywords: bacteria, simulation, tumor, precision medicine

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103 The Effect of Durability and Pathogen Strains on the Wheat Induced Resistance against Zymoseptoria tritici as a Response to Paenibacillus sp. Strain B2

Authors: E. Samain, T. Aussenac, D. van Tuinen, S. Selim

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Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are known as potential biofertilizers and plant resistance inducers. The present work aims to study the durability of the resistance induced as a response to wheat seeds inoculation with PB2 and its influence by Z. tritici strains. The internal and external roots colonization have been determined in vitro, seven days post inoculation, by measuring the colony forming unit (CFU). In planta experimentations were done under controlled conditions included four wheat cultivars with different levels of resistance against Septoria Leaf Blotch (SLB) and four Z. tritici strains with high aggressiveness and resistance levels to fungicides. Plantlets were inoculated with PB2 at sowing and infected with Z. tritici at 3 leaves or tillering growth stages. The infection level with SLB was evaluated at 17 days post inoculation using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that PB2 has a high potential of wheat root external colonization (> 10⁶ CFU/g of root). However, the internal colonization seems to be cultivar dependent. Indeed, PB2 has not been observed as endophytic for one cultivar but has a high level of internal colonization with more than 104 CFU/g of root concerning the three others. Two wheat cultivars (susceptible and moderated resistant) were used to investigate PB2-induced resistance (PB2-IR). After the first infection with Z. tritici, results showed that PB2-IR has conferred a high protection efficiency (40-90%) against SLB in the two tested cultivars. Whereas the PB2-IR was effective against all tested strains with the moderate resistant cultivar, it was higher with the susceptible cultivar (> 64%) but against three of the four tested strains. Concerning the durability of the PB2-IR, after the second infection timing, it has been observed a significant decrease (10-59%) depending strains in the moderate resistant cultivar. Contrarily, the susceptible cultivar showed a stable and high protection level (76-84%) but against three of the four tested strains and interestingly, the strain that overcame PB2-IR was not the same as that of the first infection timing. To conclude, PB2 induces a high and durable resistance against Z. tritici. The PB2-IR is pathogen strain, plant growth stage and genotype dependent. These results may explain the loss of the induced resistance effectiveness under field conditions.

Keywords: induced resistance, Paenibacillus sp. strain B2, wheat genotypes, Zymoseptoria tritici

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102 Immuno-Protective Role of Mucosal Delivery of Lactococcus lactis Expressing Functionally Active JlpA Protein on Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Chickens

Authors: Ankita Singh, Chandan Gorain, Amirul I. Mallick

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Successful adherence of the mucosal epithelial cells is the key early step for Campylobacter jejuni pathogenesis (C. jejuni). A set of Surface Exposed Colonization Proteins (SECPs) are among the major factors involved in host cell adherence and invasion of C. jejuni. Among them, constitutively expressed surface-exposed lipoprotein adhesin of C. jejuni, JlpA, interacts with intestinal heat shock protein 90 (hsp90α) and contributes in disease progression by triggering pro-inflammatory response via activation of NF-κB and p38 MAP kinase pathway. Together with its ability to express in the bacterial surface, higher sequence conservation and predicted predominance of several B cells epitopes, JlpA protein reserves its potential to become an effective vaccine candidate against wide range of Campylobacter sps including C. jejuni. Given that chickens are the primary sources for C. jejuni and persistent gut colonization remain as major cause for foodborne pathogenesis to humans, present study explicitly used chickens as model to test the immune-protective efficacy of JlpA protein. Taking into account that gastrointestinal tract is the focal site for C. jejuni colonization, to extrapolate the benefit of mucosal (intragastric) delivery of JlpA protein, a food grade Nisin inducible Lactic acid producing bacteria, Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) was engineered to express recombinant JlpA protein (rJlpA) in the surface of the bacteria. Following evaluation of optimal surface expression and functionality of recombinant JlpA protein expressed by recombinant L. lactis (rL. lactis), the immune-protective role of intragastric administration of live rL. lactis was assessed in commercial broiler chickens. In addition to the significant elevation of antigen specific mucosal immune responses in the intestine of chickens that received three doses of rL. lactis, marked upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene expression in association with mixed pro-inflammatory responses (both Th1 and Th17 type) was observed. Furthermore, intragastric delivery of rJlpA expressed by rL. lactis, but not the injectable form, resulted in a significant reduction in C. jejuni colonization in chickens suggesting that mucosal delivery of live rL. lactis expressing JlpA serves as a promising vaccine platform to induce strong immune-protective responses against C. jejuni in chickens.

Keywords: chickens, lipoprotein adhesion of Campylobacter jejuni, immuno-protection, Lactococcus lactis, mucosal delivery

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101 Characterization of Screening Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Harboring mecA Genes among Intensive Care Unit Patients from Tertiary Care Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Delly C. Lestari, Linosefa, Ardiana Kusumaningrum, Andi Yasmon, Anis Karuniawati

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The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring mecA genes from screening isolates among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. All MRSA screening isolates from ICU’s patients of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital during 2011 and 2014 were included in this study. Identification and susceptibility test was performed using Vitek2 system (Biomereux®). PCR was conducted to characterize the SCCmec of S. aureus harboring the mecA gene on each isolate. Patient’s history of illness was traced through medical record. 24 isolates from 327 screening isolates were MRSA positive (7.3%). From PCR, we found 17 (70.8%) isolates carrying SCCmec type I, 3 (12.5%) isolates carrying SCCmec type III, and 2 (8.3%) isolates carrying SCCmec type IV. In conclusion, SCCmec type I is the most prevalent MRSA colonization among ICU patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital.

Keywords: MRSA, mecA genes, ICU, colonization

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100 Screening of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in the Rhizo- and Endosphere of Sunflower (Helianthus anus) and Their Role in Enhancing Growth and Yield Attriburing Trairs and Colonization Studies

Authors: A. Majeed, M.K. Abbasi, S. Hameed, A. Imran, T. Naqqash, M. K. Hanif

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Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living soil bacteria that aggressively colonize the rhizosphere/plant roots, and enhance the growth and yield of plants when applied to seed or crops. Root associated (endophytic and rhizospheric) PGPR were isolated from Sunflower (Helianthus anus) grown in soils collected from 16 different sites of sub division Dhirkot, Poonch, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. A total of 150 bacterial isolates were isolated, purified, screened in vitro for their plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics. 11 most effective isolates were selected on the basis of biochemical assays (nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, growth hormone production, biocontrol assay, and carbon substrates utilization assay through gas chromatography (GCMS), spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC, fungal and bacterial dual plate assay and BIOLOG GN2/GP2 microplate assay respectively) and were tested on the crop under controlled and field conditions. From the inoculation assay, the most promising 4 strains (on the basis of increased root/shoot weight, root/shoot length, seed oil content, and seed yield) were than selected for colonization studies through confocal laser scanning and transmission electron microscope. 16Sr RNA gene analysis showed that these bacterial isolates belong to Pseudononas, Enterobacter, Azospirrilum, and Citobacter genera. This study is the clear evident that such isolates have the potential for application as inoculants adapted to poor soils and local crops to minimize the chemical fertilizers harmful for soil and environment

Keywords: PGPR, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, colonization

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99 A Hybrid Curriculum: Privileging Indigenous knowledges Over Western knowledges In The School Curriculum In Kenya

Authors: Rose Mutuota

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Western knowledge have influenced the Kenyan education system through colonisation and policies borrowed from the global North. Researchers argue that studies of education and systems based on Northernframeworks ignore the lived experiences of the global South. The history of colonization is one such example. In light of this, there is a need for schools to consider the lived experience of the Kenyan child and integrate Indigenous knowledge in the education system. The study reported here explored the possibility of creating a blended/hybrid curriculum that values Indigenous knowledge and practices but also selectively use side as from the global North. Acasestudyformat was employed. Teachers and principals in four schools were interviewed. The findings indicated that teachers and students brought indigenous knowledge to the classroom but were limited in their use by existing educational policies.AnotherfindingwasthatpoliciesborrowedfromtheglobalNorthdid not suit the context in the Southincountries with a history of colonization. There was the need for policymakers to ensure the policies borrowed from the North suit the Kenyan context. The recommendations included the deliberate and mandated use of indigenous knowledge in classrooms including indigenous languages for instruction, the use of locally available assets to support students with disabilities in mainstream classrooms, and the use of a hybrid curriculum that privileges indigenous knowledge over Westernknowledgesintheschoolcurriculum.

Keywords: global North, global South, inclusive educate indigenous knowledges

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98 Polar Bears in Antarctica: An Analysis of Treaty Barriers

Authors: Madison Hall

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The Assisted Colonization of Polar Bears to Antarctica requires a careful analysis of treaties to understand existing legal barriers to Ursus maritimus transport and movement. An absence of land-based migration routes prevent polar bears from accessing southern polar regions on their own. This lack of access is compounded by current treaties which limit human intervention and assistance to ford these physical and legal barriers. In a time of massive planetary extinctions, Assisted Colonization posits that certain endangered species may be prime candidates for relocation to hospitable environments to which they have never previously had access. By analyzing existing treaties, this paper will examine how polar bears are limited in movement by humankind’s legal barriers. International treaties may be considered codified reflections of anthropocentric values of the best knowledge and understanding of an identified problem at a set point in time, as understood through the human lens. Even as human social values and scientific insights evolve, so too must treaties evolve which specify legal frameworks and structures impacting keystone species and related biomes. Due to costs and other myriad difficulties, only a very select number of species will be given this opportunity. While some species move into new regions and are then deemed invasive, Assisted Colonization considers that some assistance may be mandated due to the nature of humankind’s role in climate change. This moral question and ethical imperative against the backdrop of escalating climate impacts, drives the question forward; what is the potential for successfully relocating a select handful of charismatic and ecologically important life forms? Is it possible to reimagine a different, but balanced Antarctic ecosystem? Listed as a threatened species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, a result of the ongoing loss of critical habitat by melting sea ice, polar bears have limited options for long term survival in the wild. Our current regime for safeguarding animals facing extinction frequently utilizes zoos and their breeding programs, to keep alive the genetic diversity of the species until some future time when reintroduction, somewhere, may be attempted. By exploring the potential for polar bears to be relocated to Antarctica, we must analyze the complex ethical, legal, political, financial, and biological realms, which are the backdrop to framing all questions in this arena. Can we do it? Should we do it? By utilizing an environmental ethics perspective, we propose that the Ecological Commons of the Arctic and Antarctic should not be viewed solely through the lens of human resource management needs. From this perspective, polar bears do not need our permission, they need our assistance. Antarctica therefore represents a second, if imperfect chance, to buy time for polar bears, in a world where polar regimes, not yet fully understood, are themselves quickly changing as a result of climate change.

Keywords: polar bear, climate change, environmental ethics, Arctic, Antarctica, assisted colonization, treaty

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97 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Microbes and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Wheat Growth in the Saline Soil

Authors: Ahmed Elgharably, Nivien Nafady

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) can promote plant growth under saline conditions. This study investigated how AMF and PGPM affected the growth and grain yield of wheat at different soil salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl). AMF colonization percentage, grain yield and dry weights and lengths of shoot and root, N, P K, Na, malondialdehyde, chlorophyll and proline contents and shoot relative permeability were determined. Salinity reduced NPK uptake and malondialdehyde and chlorophyll contents, and increased shoot Na concentration, relative permeability, and proline content, and thus declined plant growth. PGPM inoculation enhanced AMF colonization, P uptake, and K/Na ratio, but alone had no significant effect on plant growth and grain yield. AMF inoculation significantly enhanced NPK uptake, increased chlorophyll content and decreased shoot relative permeability, proline and Na contents, and thus promoted the plant growth. The inoculation of PGPM significantly enhanced the positive effects of AMF in controlling Na uptake and in increasing chlorophyll and NPK contents. Compared to AMF inoculation alone, dual inoculation with AMF and PGPM resulted in approximately 10, 25 and 25% higher grain yield at 0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl, respectively. The results provide that PGPM inoculation can maximize the effects of AMF inoculation in alleviating the deleterious effects of NaCl salts on wheat growth.

Keywords: mycorrhizal fungi, salinity, sodium, wheat

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96 Salicylic Acid Signalling in Relation to Root Colonization in Rice

Authors: Seema Garcha, Sheetal Chopra, Navraj Sarao

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Plant hormones play a role in internal colonization by beneficial microbes and also systemic acquired resistance. They define qualitative and quantitative nature of root microbiome and also influence dynamics of root rhizospheric soil. The present study is an attempt to relate salicylic acid (signal molecule) content and qualitative nature of root endophytes at various stages in the growth of rice varieties of commercial value- Parmal 121 and Basmati 1121. Root seedlings of these varieties were raised using tissue culture techniques and then they were transplanted in the fields. Cultivation was done using conventional methods in agriculture. Field soil contained 0.39% N, 75.12 Kg/hectare of phosphorus and 163.0 Kg/hectare of potassium. Microfloral profiling of the root tissue was done using the selective microbiological medium. The salicylic acid content was estimated using HPLC-Agilent 1100 HPLC Series. Salicylic acid level of Basmati 1121 remained relatively low at the time of transplant and 90 days after transplant. It increased marginally at 60 days. A similar trend was observed with Parmal 121 as well. However, Parmal variety recorded 0.935 ug/g of salicylic acid at 60 days after transplant. Salicylic acid content decreased after 90 days as both the rice varieties remained disease free. The endophytic root microflora was established by 60 days after transplant in both the varieties after which their population became constant. Rhizobium spp dominated over Azotobacter spp. Genetic profiling of endophytes for nitrogen-fixing ability is underway.

Keywords: plant-microbe interaction, rice, root microbiome, salicylic acid

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95 Co-Culture of Neonate Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells with Sertoli Cells: Inductive Role of Melatonin following Transplantation: Adult Azoospermia Mouse Model

Authors: Mehdi Abbasi, Shadan Navid, Mohammad Pourahmadi, M. Majidi Zolbin

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We have recently reported that melatonin as antioxidant enhances the efficacy of colonization of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Melatonin as an antioxidant plays a vital role in the development of SSCs in vitro. This study aimed to investigate evaluation of sertoli cells and melatonin simultaneously on SSC proliferation following transplantation to testis of adult mouse busulfan-treated azoospermia model. SSCs and sertoli cells were isolated from the testes of three to six-day old male mice.To determine the purity, Flow cytometry technique using PLZF antibody were evaluated. Isolated testicular cells were cultured in αMEM medium in the absence (control group) or presence (experimental group) of sertoli cells and melatonin extract for 2 weeks. We then transplanted SSCs by injection into the azoospermia mice model. Higher viability, proliferation, and Id4, Plzf, expression were observed in the presence of simultaneous sertoli cells and melatonin in vitro. Moreover, immunocytochemistry results showed higher Oct4 expression in this group. Eight weeks after transplantation, injected cells were localized at the base of seminiferous tubules in the recipient testes. The number of spermatogonia and the weight of testis were higher in the experimental group relative to control group. The results of our study suggest that this new protocol can increase the transplantation of these cells can be useful in the treatment of male infertility.

Keywords: colonization, melatonin, spermatogonial stem cell, transplantation

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94 Views from Shores Past: Palaeogeographic Reconstructions as an Aid for Interpreting the Movement of Early Modern Humans on and between the Islands of Wallacea

Authors: S. Kealy, J. Louys, S. O’Connor

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The island archipelago that stretches between the continents of Sunda (Southeast Asia) and Sahul (Australia - New Guinea) and comprising much of modern-day Indonesia as well as Timor-Leste, represents the biogeographic region of Wallacea. The islands of Wallaea are significant archaeologically as they have never been connected to the mainlands of either Sunda or Sahul, and thus the colonization by early modern humans of these islands and subsequently Australia and New Guinea, would have necessitated some form of water crossings. Accurate palaeogeographic reconstructions of the Wallacean Archipelago for this time are important not only for modeling likely routes of colonization but also for reconstructing likely landscapes and hence resources available to the first colonists. Here we present five digital reconstructions of coastal outlines of Wallacea and Sahul (Australia and New Guinea) for the periods 65, 60, 55, 50, and 45,000 years ago using the latest bathometric chart and a sea-level model that is adjusted to account for the average uplift rate known from Wallacea. This data was also used to reconstructed island areal extent as well as topography for each time period. These reconstructions allowed us to determine the distance from the coast and relative elevation of the earliest archaeological sites for each island where such records exist. This enabled us to approximate how much effort exploitation of coastal resources would have taken for early colonists, and how important such resources were. These reconstructions also allowed us to estimate visibility for each island in the archipelago, and to model how intervisible each island was during the period of likely human colonisation. We demonstrate how these models provide archaeologists with an important basis for visualising this ancient landscape and interpreting how it was originally viewed, traversed and exploited by its earliest modern human inhabitants.

Keywords: Wallacea, palaeogeographic reconstructions, islands, intervisibility

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93 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Faecal Carriage Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli among Hospitalized Patients in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: C. A. Ologunde

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Escherichia coli have been a major microorganisms associated with, and isolated from feacal samples either in adult or children all over the world. Strains of these organisms are resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolone (FQ) antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients and FQs are the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial class in hospitals, and the level of resistant of E. coli to these antimicrobial agents is a risk factor that should be assessed. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli in hospitalized patients in Ado-Ekiti. Rectal swabs were obtained from patients in hospitals in the study area and FQ-resistant E. coli were isolated and identified by means of Nalidixic acid multi-disk and a 1-step screening procedure. Species identification and FQ resistance were confirmed by automated testing (Vitek, bioMerieux, USA). Individual colonies were subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine macro-restriction polymorphism after digestion of chromosomal DNA. FQ-resistant E. coli was detected in the stool sample of 37(62%) hospitalized patient. With multivariable analyses, the use of FQ before hospitalization was the only independent risk factor for FQ-resistant E. coli carriage and was consistent for FQ exposures for the 3-12 months of study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of FQ-resistant E. coli identified conal spread of 1(one) strain among 18 patients. Loss (9 patients) or acquisition (10 residents) of FQ-resistant E. coli was documented and was associated with de novo colonization with genetically distinct strains. It was concluded that FQ-resistant E. coli carriage was associated with clonal spread. The differential effects of individual fluoroquinolone on antimicrobial drug resistance are an important area for future study, as hospitals manipulate their formularies with regard to use of individual fluoroquinolone, often for economic reasons.

Keywords: E. coli, fluoroquinolone, risk factors, feacal carriage, hospitalized patients, Ado-Ekiti

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92 Development of Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan for Industrial Estates of Pakistan

Authors: Mehak Masood

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This paper aims to design an integrated solid waste management plan for industrial estates taking Sundar Industrial Estate as case model. The issue of solid waste management is on the rise in Pakistan especially in the industrial sector. In this regard, the concept of development and establishment of industrial estates is gaining popularity nowadays. Without proper solid waste management plan it is very difficult to manage day to day affairs of industrial estates. An industrial estate contains clusters of different types of industrial units. It is necessary to identify different types of solid waste streams from each industrial cluster within the estate. In this study, Sundar Industrial Estate was taken as a case model. Primary and secondary data collection, waste assessment, waste segregation and weighing and field surveys were essential elements of the study. Wastes from each industrial process were identified and quantified. Currently 130 industries are in production but after full colonization of industries this number would reach 385. Elaborated process flow diagrams were made to characterize the recyclable and non-recyclables waste. From the study it was calculated that about 12354.1 kg/captia/day of solid waste is being generated in Sundar Industrial Estate. After the full colonization of the industrial estate, the estimated quantity will be 4756328.5 kg/captia/day. Furthermore, solid waste generated from each industrial sector was estimated. Suggestions for collection and transportation are given. Environment friendly solid waste management practices are suggested. If an effective integrated waste management system is developed and implemented it will conserve resources, create jobs, reduce poverty, conserve natural resources, protect the environment, save collection, transportation and disposal costs and extend the life of disposal sites. A major outcome of this study is an integrated solid waste management plan for the Sundar Industrial Estate which requires immediate implementation.

Keywords: integrated solid waste management plan, industrial estates, Sundar Industrial Estate, Pakistan

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91 Colonization of Candida Albicans on 3D Printed CAD/CAM Complete Denture Versus Conventional Complete Denture: Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

Authors: Eman Helal, Ahmed M. Esmat

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Statement of problem: The development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin dentures has simplified complete denture production. Most of the studies evaluated the mechanical properties of the material, but the hygienic performance of the CAD /CAM denture and their ability to maintain clean surfaces and minimize bacterial accumulation is still lacking. Purpose evaluation of the antibacterial characteristics of the 3D printed CAD/CAM denture and to compare it with the conventional heat polymerized acrylic denture base material. Methodology a total of thirty completely edentulous patients grouped randomly into two groups (Group I: Control group) received conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin complete dentures, (Group II: Test group) received 3D printed (CAD/CAM) dentures (stereolithographic PMMA), Samples of Candida albicans culture swabs were taken after 1 month and 3 months of dentures` insertion. A culture swab was obtained by scrubbing the fitting surface of the upper denture. At each time interval, three swab samples were collected from each patient and were inoculated in three individual culture media. Results: there was a significant difference in the colonization of Candida albicans to the fitting surface of the dentures between both groups (Group I: Conventional denture cases) exhibited more adhesion of Candida Albicans to the fitting surface than did (Group II: CAD/CAM cases) (P<0.05). Conclusion: 3D printed CAD/CAM complete denture showed minimal Candida adherence upon upper denture fitting compared to conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin, which contributes to decreasing the incidence of denture stomatitis which is considered one of the most common problems among complete denture wearers.

Keywords: CAD/CAM denture, completely edentulous, elderly patients, 3D printing, antimicrobial efficiency, conventional denture, PMMA, Candida Albicans, denture stomatitis

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90 Sounds of Power: An Ethnoorganological Approach to Understanding Colonial Music Culture in the Peruvian Andes

Authors: Natascha Reich

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In colonial Peru, the Spanish crown relied on religious orders, most notably Dominicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits, for accelerating processes of colonization. The dissemination of Christian art, architecture, and music, and most of all, the agency of indigenous people in their production played a key role in facilitating the acceptance of the new religious and political system. Current research on Peruvian colonial music culture and its role as a vehicle for colonization focus on practices in urban centers. The lack of (written) primary sources seems to turn rural areas into a less attractive research territory for musicologists. This paper advocates for a more inclusive approach. By investigating seventeenth-century pipe organs as material remains of Franciscan missionary music culture, it shows how reactions to colonial forces and Christianization in rural Andean locations could follow tendencies different from those in urban areas. Indigenous musicians in cities tried to 'fit' into the European system in order to be accepted by the ruling Spanish elite. By contrast, the indigenous-built pipe organs in the rural Peruvian Colca-Valley show distinctly native-Andean influences. This paper argues that this syncretism can be interpreted as hybridity in Homi K. Bhabha’s sense, as a means of the colonized to undermine the power of the colonizer and to advance reactionary politics. Not only will it show the necessity of considering rural Peruvian music history in modern scholarship for arriving at a more complete picture of colonial culture, but it will also evidence the advantages of a mixed-methodology approach. Historical organology, combined with concepts from ethnomusicology and post-colonial studies, proves as a useful tool in the absence or scarcity of written primary sources.

Keywords: cultural hybridity, music as reactionary politics, Latin American pipe organs, Peruvian colonial music

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