Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3069

Search results for: medicinal plant garden

3069 Introduction of a Medicinal Plants Garden to Revitalize a Botany Curriculum for Non-Science Majors

Authors: Rosa M. Gambier, Jennifer L. Carlson

Abstract:

In order to revitalize the science curriculum for botany courses for non-science majors, we have introduced the use of the medicinal plants into a first-year botany course. We have connected the use of scientific method, scientific inquiry and active learning in the classroom with the study of Western Traditional Medical Botany. The students have researched models of Botanical medicine and have designed a sustainable medicinal plants garden using native medicinal plants from the northeast. Through the semester, the students have researched their chosen species, planted seeds in the college greenhouse, collected germination ratios, growth ratios and have successfully produced a beginners medicinal plant garden. Phase II of the project will be to tie in SCCCs community outreach goals by involving the public in the expanded development of the garden as a way of sharing learning about medicinal plants and traditional medicine outside the classroom.

Keywords: medicinal plant garden, botany curriculum, active learning, community outreach

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3068 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Leguminosae in Kantharalak Community Forest, Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand

Authors: W. Promprom, W. Chatan

Abstract:

Leguminosae is a large plant family and its members are important for local people utilization in the Northeast of Thailand. This research aimed to survey medicinal plants in this family in Kantharalak Community forest. The plant collection and exploration were made from October 2017 to September 2018. Folk medicinal uses were studied by interviewing villagers and folk medicine healers living around the community forest by asking about local names, using parts, preparation and properties. The results showed that 65 species belonging to 40 genera were found. Among these, 30 species were medicinal plant. The most used plant parts were leaf. Decoction and drinking were mostly preparation method and administration mode used. All medicinal plants could be categorized into 17 diseases/symptoms. Most plant (56.66%) were used for fever. The voucher specimens were deposited in Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Thailand. Therefore, the data from this study might be widely used by the local area and further scientific study.

Keywords: ethnobotany, ethnophamacology, medicinal plant, taxonomy, utilization

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3067 The Introduction of Medicine Plants in Bogor Agricultural University: A Case Study in Cikabayan and Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory

Authors: Eki Devung, Eka Tyastutik, Indha Annisa, Digdaya Anoraga, Jamaluddin Arsyad

Abstract:

Plant medicine is a whole species of plants are known to have medicinal properties. Bogor Agricultural University has high biodiversity, one of which flora potential as a drug. This study was conducted from 19 September to 10 October 2016 at Bogor Agricultural University using literature study and field observation. There are 85 species of medicinal plants which include a medicinal plant cultivation and wild plants. Family herbs most commonly found in Cikabayan that while the Euphorbiaceae, family which is found in the Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory is the family of Achantaceae. Species of medicinal plants is dominated by herbs and shrubs. Part herbs most widely used are the leaves. The diversity of diseases that can be treated with medicine plants include digestive system diseases and metabolic disorder.

Keywords: benefits, biodiversity, Bogor Agricultural University, medicinal plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
3066 Study of Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Algerian Medicinal Plant

Authors: Khadri Sihem, Abbaci Nafissa, Zerari Labiba

Abstract:

In the context of the search for new bioactive natural products, we were interested in evaluating some antibacterial properties of two plant extracts: total phenols and flavonoids of Algerian medicinal plant. Our study occurs in two axes: The first concerns the extraction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids with methanol by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by quantification of the levels of these compounds in the end the analysis of the chemical composition of extracts. In the second axis, we studied the antibacterial power of the studied plant extracts.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, flavonoids, medicinal plants, polyphenols

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3065 Documentation of Traditional Knowledge on Wild Medicinal Plants of Egypt

Authors: Nahla S. Abdel-Azim, Khaled A. Shams, Elsayed A. Omer, Mahmoud M. Sakr

Abstract:

Medicinal plants play a significant role in the health care system in Egypt. Knowledge developed over the years by people is mostly unrecorded and orally passes on from one generation to the next. This knowledge is facing the danger of becoming extinct. Therefore there is an urgent need to document the medicinal and aromatic plants associated with traditional knowledge. The Egyptian Encyclopedia of wild medicinal plants (EEWMP) is the first attempt to collect most of the basic elements of the medicinal plant resources of Egypt and their traditional uses. It includes scientific data on about 500 medicinal plants in the form of monographs. Each monograph contains all available information and scientific data on the selected species including the following: names, description, distribution, parts used, habitat, conservational status, active or major chemical constituents, folk medicinal uses and heritage resources, pharmacological and biological activities, authentication, pharmaceutical products, and cultivation. The DNA bar-coding is also included (when available). A brief Arabic summary is given for every monograph. This work revealed the diversity in plant parts used in the treatment of different ailments. In addition, the traditional knowledge gathered can be considered a good starting point for effective in situ and ex-situ conservation of endangered plant species.

Keywords: encyclopedia, medicinal plant, traditional medicine, wild flora

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3064 Aromatic and Medicinal Plants in Morocco: Diversity and Socio-Economic Role

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb

Abstract:

Morocco is characterized by a great richness and diversity in aromatic and medicinal plants and it has an ancestral knowledge in the use of plants for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. In effect, the poverty of riparian, specially, mountain populations have greatly contributed to the development of traditional pharmacopoeia in Morocco. The analysis of the bibliographic data showed that a large number of plants in Morocco are exploited for aromatic and medicinal purposes and several of them are commercialized internationally. However, these potentialities of aromatic and medicinal plants are currently subjected to climate change and strong human pressures: Collecting fruits, agriculture development, harvesting plants, urbanization, overgrazing...

Keywords: aromatic, medicinal, plant, Morocco

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3063 Study of the Effect of Extraction Solvent on the Content of Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoids and the Antioxidant Activity of an Endemic Medicinal Plant Growing in Morocco

Authors: Aghoutane Basma, Naama Amal, Talbi Hayat, El Manfalouti Hanae, Kartah Badreddine

Abstract:

Aromatic and medicinal plants are used by man for different needs, including food and medicinal needs for their biological properties attributed mainly to phenolic compounds and for their antioxidant capacity. In our study, the aim is to compare three extraction solvents by evaluating the contents of phenolic compounds, the contents of flavonoids, and the antioxidant activities of extracts from different methods of extracting the aerial part of an endemic medicinal plant from Morocco. This activity was also confirmed by three methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), antioxidant reducing power of iron (FRAP), and total antioxidant capacity (CAT)). The results showed that this plant is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids, as well as it has a very important antioxidant capacity in whatever the solvent or the extraction method. This suggests the importance of using extracts from this plant as a new natural source of food additives and potent antioxidants in the food industry.

Keywords: endemic plant of Morocco, phenolic compound, solvent, extraction technique, antioxidant activity

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3062 Conservation of Rare, Endangered and Threaten Medicinal Plants: Participatory Approach

Authors: G. Raviraja Shetty, K. G. Poojitha, Pranay Kumar

Abstract:

Biodiversity refers to the numbers, variety and variability of living organisms and ecosystem. The climatic and altitudinal variations, coupled with varied ecological habitats of this country, have contributed to the development of immensely rich vegetation with a unique diversity in medicinal plants which provides an important source of medicinal raw materials for traditional medicine systems as well as for pharmaceutical industries in the country and abroad. World Health Organization has listed over 21000 plant species used around the world for medicinal purpose. In India, about 2500 plant species are being used in indigenous system of medicine. The red data book lists 427 Indian Medicinal plant entries on endangered species, of which 28 are considered extinct, 124 endangered, 81 rare, and 34 insufficiently known. It is abundantly clear from the experience of all govt agencies that on their own they cannot efficiently conserve the biodiversity. Participatory Approach with the involvement of local people in conservation is found to be more effective these days. Involvement of local people reduces the cost involved in conservation. Local communities have long tradition of resource use in particular area, hold in depth knowledge and experience of plant which can be invaluable for conservation efforts.Medicinal plants occupy a vital sector of health care system in India and represent a major national resource.There is an immense need for conservation of diversity of medicinal plant wealth for the present and fore coming generations, by adapting the suitable strategy with most appropriate method of conservation.

Keywords: conservation, biodiversity, participatory, medicinal plants

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3061 Seasonal Stirred Variations in Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata

Authors: Francis Machumi, Ester Innocent, Pius Yanda, Philip C. Stevenson

Abstract:

Curative dependence of traditionally used medicinal plants on season of harvest is an alleged claim by traditional health practitioners. This study intended to verify these claims by investigating antifungal activity and chemical composition of traditionally used medicinal plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata harvested in rainy season and dry season. The antifungal activities were determined by broth microdilution method whereas chemical profiling of the extracts from the plant materials was done by gas chromatography (GC). Results indicated that extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season showed enhanced antifungal activity as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season. GC chromatograms showed overalls increase in number and amount of chemical species for extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season.

Keywords: antifungal activity, chemical composition, medicinal plants, seasonal dependence

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3060 Plant Genetic Diversity in Home Gardens and Its Contribution to Household Economy in Western Part of Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse

Abstract:

Home gardens are important social and cultural spaces where knowledge related to agricultural practice is transmitted and through which households may improve their income and livelihood. High levels of inter- and intra-specific plant genetic diversity are preserved in home gardens. Plant diversity is threatened by rapid and unplanned urbanization, which increases environmental problems such as heating, pollution, loss of habitats and ecosystem disruption. Tropical home gardens have played a significant role in conserving plant diversity while providing substantial benefits to households. This research aimed to understand the relationship between household characteristics and plant diversity in western Ethiopia home gardens and the contributions of plants to the household economy. Plant diversity and different uses of plants were studied in a random sample of 111 suburban home gardens in the Ilu Ababora, Jima and Wellega suburban area, western Ethiopia, based on complete garden inventories followed by household surveys on socio-economic status during 2012. A total of 261 species of plants were observed, of which 41% were ornamental plants, 36% food plants, and 22% medicinal plants. Of these 16% were sold commercially to produce income. Avocado, bananas, and other fruits produced in excess. Home gardens contributed the equivalent of 7% of total annual household income in terms of food and commercial sales. Multiple regression analysis showed that education, time spent in gardening, land for cultivation, household expenses, primary conservation practices, and uses of special techniques explained 56% of the total plant diversity. Food, medicinal and commercial plant species had significant positive relationships with time spent gardening and land area for gardening. Education and conservation practices significantly affected food and medicinal plant diversity. Special techniques used in gardening showed significant positive relations with ornamental and commercial plants. Reassessments in different suburban and urban home gardens and proper documentation using same methodology is essential to build a firm policy for enhancing plant diversity and related values to households and surroundings.

Keywords: plant genetic diversity, urbanization, suburban home gardens, Ethiopia

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3059 Quantitative Elemental Analysis of Cyperus rotundus Medicinal Plant by Particle Induced X-Ray Emission and ICP-MS Techniques

Authors: J. Chandrasekhar Rao, B. G. Naidu, G. J. Naga Raju, P. Sarita

Abstract:

Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques have been employed in this work to determine the elements present in the root of Cyperus rotundus medicinal plant used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr were commonly identified and quantified by both PIXE and ICP-MS whereas the elements Li, Be, Al, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb and U were determined by ICP-MS and Cl, K, Ca, Ti and Br were determined by PIXE. The regional variation of elemental content has also been studied by analyzing the same plant collected from different geographical locations. Information on the elemental content of the medicinal plant would be helpful in correlating its ability in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and also in deciding the dosage of this herbal medicine from the metal toxicity point of view. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were also applied to the data matrix to understand the correlation among the elements.

Keywords: PIXE, CP-MS, elements, Cyperus rotundus, rheumatoid arthritis

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3058 Leaf Image Processing: Review

Authors: T. Vijayashree, A. Gopal

Abstract:

The aim of the work is to classify and authenticate medicinal plant materials and herbs widely used for Indian herbal medicinal preparation. The quality and authenticity of these raw materials are to be ensured for the preparation of herbal medicines. These raw materials are to be carefully screened, analyzed and documented due to mistaken of look-alike materials which do not have medicinal characteristics.

Keywords: authenticity, standardization, principal component analysis, imaging processing, signal processing

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3057 Role of Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Diseases and Drug Discovery in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Authors: Neelam Rashid, Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Khafsa Malik, Syed Nasar Shah

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to study the role of medicinal plants used to cure different ailments in Azad Kashmir. Various ethno medicinal surveys were carried out during 2016 to enlist the uses of plants against various ailments by rural communities of the area. Information was obtained from 60 local people including 45 males (10 traditional health practitioners) and 15 females by semi structured interviews and group discussions. 65 plant species belonging to 45 families were reported. The dominant plant habit was herbaceous (56%) while decoction was the most common method of utilization (40%). The most cited turmoil was the gastrointestinal disorders. The data obtained were analyzed using ethno medicinal indices such as FL, UV, ICF, FC, and RFC. Results revealed that various species had numerous uses in curing of diseases. So conservation of biodiversity of these medicinal plants and traditional knowledge can play important role in improving the local health conditions of rural people and modern drug discovery and development.

Keywords: medicinal plants, ailments, drug, health, traditional

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3056 Studying Medicinal Plants of Rajasthan Used by Tribes for Different Diseases

Authors: Rekha Vijayvergia

Abstract:

Around seven percent of tribal population of India lives in Rajasthan. Rajasthan has rich cultural diversity and biodiversity. Ethno-botany can be defined as the total natural and traditional relationship and the interactions between man and his surrounding plant wealth from times immemorial, due to sheer, necessity, intuition, observation, and experimentation. Medicinal plants are valuable and are used for the production of various drugs. These plants produce a high diversity of natural products or secondary metabolites like Mahanimbicine, Andrographine, murrayaline, lupeol, and limonin etc. with a prominent function in the protection against diseases like diabetes, kidney stones, osteoporosis, tumours, opthalmia, leucorrhoea, bronchial asthma, diarrhea, cancer, etc. The present report gives an account of traditional medicinal uses of common medicinal plants of Rajasthan. A total of 18 plant species belonging to 13 families are reported, that are being used for various purposes.

Keywords: ethno botany, Rajasthan, secondary metabolites, traditional medicines

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3055 Ethnopharmacology of Urinary Deseases in Algerian Sahara

Authors: Khaled Sekkoum

Abstract:

The traditional pharmacopoeia of Algerian Sahara is very rich on vegetable drugs. The great resources and biodiversity of Algerian Sahara flora seem responsible. A survey of medicinal plants used by the local population of the south west of Algeria for the urinary disorders is reported. Sixty-three plant species belonging to thirty-three families were identified. Their botanical and local names, plant part used, mode of use and ailment treated are given.

Keywords: medicinal plants, urinary diseases, Sahara, Algeria

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3054 In-Vitro Assessment of Saponin’s Level and Hemolytic Activity of Five Medicinal Plants from Eritrea

Authors: Leah Ghebreberhan, Liya Abraham, John Issac, Atul Kaushik

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are used for various indications in Eritrea according to traditional systems of medicine. Safety concerns, however, are dubious since some medicinal plants have toxic effects indeed. The medicinal plants under study (Commicarpus pedunculosis, Steganotaenia araliaceae, Boscia angustifolia, Solanum incanum, and Calpurnia aurea) are used in the treatment of various diseases. Thus, safety studies must be performed prior to usage since they are rich in phytoconstituents like saponins. Saponns are natural glycosides with several pharmacologic activities including hemolysis. The study was done to assess the level of saponin and toxic effects (hemolysis) of medicinal plants used in folk medicine. The plant extracts were subject to phytochemical analysis, foam test, and hemolytic assay. Regarding the Fh value, Solanam incanum consisted highest Fh value (20mm), whereas Boscia angustifolia showed the lowest Fh value (10mm). The level of hemolysis of all the plant extracts ranged between 9.0 to 20.2 %. All the plant extracts were suitable for treatment with respect to saponin level since they exhibited minimal hemolytic effect against erythrocytes.

Keywords: Boscia angustifolia, Calpurnia aurea, Commicarpus pedunculosis, hemolysis, saponin, Solanum incanum, Steganotaenia araliaceae

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3053 Persian Garden Design and Climate Case Studies: Shahzadeh-Mahan and Shah Garden

Authors: Raheleh Saifiabolhassan

Abstract:

Gardens symbolize human effort to bring Eden to earth and are defined as the purest pleasures and the greatest inspiration for men. According to Persian mythology, a garden called "Paris" is a magical, perfumed place populated by beautiful and angelic creatures. "Pardis" comes from the word "paridaiza," which means "walled garden." Gardening has always been a worldwide attraction due to the abundance of green space, and desert gardens are no exception. Because most historical garden designs use a similar pattern, such as Chahar-Bagh, climate effects have not been considered. The purpose of studying these general designs was to determine whether location and weather conditions are affecting them. So, two gardens were chosen for comparison: a desert (Shahzadeh-Mahan) and a humid garden (Shah) and compared their geometry, irrigation system, entrances, and pavilions. The findings of the study revealed that there are several notable differences among their architectural principles. For example, the desert garden design is introverted with transparent surfaces and a single focal point, while the moderate garden is extraverted with high complexity and multiple perspectives. In conclusion, the study recognizes the richness and significance of the Persian garden concept, which can be applied in many different contexts.

Keywords: Pardis, Chahar-bagh, Persian garden, temperate, humid climate, geometry, pavilion, irrigations, culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
3052 Ethnomedicinal Assets of Plants Collected from Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Enock E. Goler, Emmanuel H. Kwon-Ndung, Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Terna T. Paul, Markus Musa, Joshua I. Waya, James H. Okogbaa

Abstract:

An ethno-medicinal survey of plants used in treating various diseases and ailments was carried out in the study area of Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to obtain information on their uses and potentials. The ethno-medicinal survey was administered through structured questionnaires among local inhabitants from areas with high plant density and diversity within the various Local Government Areas of the State. A total of 84 (Eighty four) plant species belonging to 45 (Forty five) families were found to be useful in treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, measles, fever, asthma, jaundice, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aches, diarrhea, cough, arthritis, yellow fever, typhoid, erectile dysfunction and excessive bleeding. Different parts of the plant such as the roots, leaves and stems are used in preparing herbal remedies which could be from dry or freshly collected plants. The main methods of preparation are decoction or infusion, while in some cases the plant parts used are consumed directly. Residents in the study areas find the herbal remedy cheaper and more accessible and claimed that there are no side effects compared to orthodox medicine. This study has confirmed the need towards the conscious conservation of plant genetic resources in order to ensure sustained access to these ethno-medicinal plant materials.

Keywords: ethno-medicinal, Nasarawa, plants, survey

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3051 An Assessment of the Existence of Healing Garden Principles in Unesco-Registered Persian Garden

Authors: Aynaz Khoshsokhan, Lida Balilan Asl

Abstract:

Nature has always been considered as a platform and a source of inspiration for humanity. Although people have used nature for a variety of purposes, it is obvious that they are looking for health and well-being, particularly in nature. Healing gardens are therapeutic areas designed to promote the health and welfare of human life and the surrounding environment. The Persian garden is a unique landscape model with a great history as a result of the interaction of the Iranian man with nature. The aim of this research was to study the elements of healing gardens on Persian gardens, through descriptive and based on studies, with the case study of nine ancient Persian gardens that have registered in UNESCO. In this respect, the design principles of the healing garden were discussed and compared with Persian garden features. Al-RISH proposed as garden therapy refers to the various properties of the garden that have the ability to enhance stress recovery and also have other positive effects on patients, staff and visitors. The book "healing garden" mentioned six main design principles of healing gardens: the variety of space, a prevalence of green area, encouraging physical exercise, providing a positive distraction, minimizing intrusions and reducing ambiguity. It seems that these design principles are available in the Persian garden as well. A detailed study on Persian gardens and their characteristics of them revealed some unique features like being enclosed, hierarchy, symmetry, centrality, rhythm and harmony, multiplicity in unity and unity in multiplicity and naturalism. It can be concluded that all the six design principles of the healing garden have been observed somehow in an ancient Persian garden. Therefore, the Persian gardens can be used as modern healing gardens with a significant therapeutic effect on patients' health.

Keywords: Persian garden, healing garden, patient, health, green area

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3050 Ethnomedicinal Uses of Plants in Bridim Village Development Committee in Langtang National Park, Nepal

Authors: Ila Shrestha

Abstract:

Bridim Village Development Committee (VDC) is one of the medicinal plants hot spots of Nepal. It is located on a ridge above the lower Langtang Khola, steep and narrow spot in between 1944 m to 4833 m altitude. The study area is homogeneously inhabited by Tamang communities. An investigation on folk herbal medicine on the basis of traditional uses of medicinal plants was done in 2014. The local traditional healers, elder men and women, traders and teachers, were consulted as key informants for documentation of indigenous knowledge on the medicinal plants. It was found that altogether seventy-one medicinal plant species belonging to sixty genera and thirty-three families were used by local people for twenty-seven diseases. Roots of thirty-four species were the most frequently used plant parts and bigger numbers of species were found to be used in fever of ten species. Most medicines were prepared in the form of juice of forty species. The attempt of the study was to document ethno medicinal practices to treat different diseases in the study area for conservation of indigenous knowledge.

Keywords: Bridim village, ethnomedicine, national park, plants

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3049 Standardization of Propagation Techniques for Celastrus paniculata: An Endangered Medicinal Plant of Western Ghats

Authors: Raviraja Shetty G., K. G. Poojitha

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted at College of Horticulture, Mudigere to study the effect of different growth regulators on seed germination and vegetative propagation by cuttings of Celastrus paniculata an endangered medicinal plant. The extracted seeds are subjected to 11 different pre-soaking treatments which include control, GA3 at 300, 350, 400ppm, KNO3 at 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, H2SO4 at 0.5%, 1.0% and HCl 0.5%,1.0% for 100 seeds per treatment. Among the different germination inducing treatments, seeds treated with gibberellins responded well with high seed germination and vigorous seedling growth. The seeds treated with GA3 400 ppm recorded maximum germination and growth parameters like rate of germination, shoot length, root length, plant vigour, fresh and dry weight of which was followed GA3 350 ppm. The commencement of germination and 50 per cent germination was also earlier in the same treatment. The cuttings of C. paniculata took more time for root initiation up to four months and sprouting percent was moderate as compared to other easy to root species. Among different treatments, IBA 2000 ppm was found to be the best, which recorded the maximum shoot and also root parameters. The results of present investigation will be helpful for conservation of this endangered medicinal plant through propagation

Keywords: conservation, germination, growth, germination, propagation

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3048 Cryptolepis sanguinolenta - A Medicinal Plant Used in the Treatment of Malaria, Cultivate It or Lose It

Authors: J. Naalamle Amissah, Dorcas Osei‐Safo, C. M. Asare, Benjamin Missah‐Assihene, Eric. Y. Danquah, Ivan Addae‐Mensah

Abstract:

Medicinal plants serve as a reservoir of active ingredients for the treatment of common ailments such as cancer, malaria and diabetes. With the recent wave of health consciousness and reliance on plant based medicines, the demand for medicinal plants has increased considerably. This surge in medicinal plant use has raised great concern amongst key players (herbalist, collectors, conservationist and researchers) along the value chain about the sustainability of the raw material. The over reliance on wild crafting as a means to obtain the raw material spells doom for several of Africa’s native medicinal plant species. In this study domestication protocols for the cultivation of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (CS), a medicinal plant used in the treatment of malaria were developed. Initial surveys were conducted, using questionnaires comprising of open and close ended questions, to gather information that would inform the domestication and cultivation of the species. A field study was then conducted to determine the plant’s cropping cycle and the effect of staking and plant age on the active ingredient (cryptolepine) concentration in its roots. Results of the survey confirmed the demand for the raw material and threw more light on the harvesting methods and intensity of CS collection from the wild. Cryptolepine concentration was found to be highest (~1.84 mg/100 mg of root material) at 289 days after planting (DAP) which coincided with the peak of root dry weight (52.8 g), signifying the best time for root harvest. Staking was found to be important for seed production. The first 105 DAP were characterized by low yields of root dry weight (13.5 g), followed by a period of rapid growth in which the root dry weight increased almost linearly until 289 DAP. Although dry matter partitioned to the vines increased towards the end of the experimental period (60%), dry matter partitioned to the roots remained fairly constant (30%) throughout the experimental period. Cryptolepine was found to increase as the plant aged and the practice of staking CS promoted pod formation. A suitable cropping cycle for the cultivation of CS was also developed.

Keywords: domestication, staking, conservation, wild harvesting

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3047 Medicinal Plant Science: Supporting Customary Uses of Alphitonia excelsa

Authors: Nazma Akter Tithi, Emma Barnes, Subramanyam Vemulpad, Joanne Jamie

Abstract:

Skin infections and ailments impose a great burden on global health and cause a severe impact on the world economy. Looking for New Chemical Entities (NCE) to effectively treat these ailments is of high interest in the scientific community and the potential of medicinal plants as a possible source of NCE is always overwhelming. Aboriginal people of Australia have a rich knowledge of the use of local medicinal plants. One of these ethno-potential medicinal plants is Alphitonia excelsa which is known as Soap Tree or Red Ash and has been used by Australian Aboriginal people of Yaegl Country for the treatment of sores, wounds and skin infections since long ago. The phytochemical contents of leave extracts of this plant and their antibacterial and antioxidant potentials were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence base for their traditional uses. Structural elucidation of compounds chromatographically isolated from the n-hexane and dichloromethane sequential extracts of A. excelsa leaves identified the well-known antibacterial and antioxidant compounds β-sitosterol, betulin aldehyde, betulinic acid, lupeol, quercetin and kaempferol. This is the first report of lupeol and betulin aldehyde in any Alphitonia species and the first report of β-sitosterol in A. excelsa. LC-MS and GC-MS analysis of freshly extracted leaves identified the bioactive compounds γ-sitosterol, nonanal, n-tetracontane, docosane, 1,54-dibromotetrapentacontane, tetradecane and hexadecane. The dichloromethane extract showed moderate activity against antibiotic-sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 312.5 – 625 μg/mL) and promising antioxidant activity, while the n-hexane extract showed moderate antibacterial activity (MIC 1250 – 2500 μg/mL). Together these observations have extended the plant knowledge of A. excelsa and supported and validated the traditional uses of this important medicinal plant.

Keywords: medicinal plant, Australian aboriginal, Alphitonia excelsa, customary uses of plants

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3046 Studies on Propagation of Celastrus paniculatus Willd: An Endangered Medicinal Plant

Authors: G. Raviraja Shetty, K. G. Poojitha

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different growth regulators on seed germination and vegetative propagation by cuttings of an endangered medicinal plant species, Celastrus paniculatus Willd. at College of Horticulture, Mudigere during June- Sept 2014. Various growth parameters were recorded for seed germination and significantly higher results for Rate of germination (0.78), Plant vigour (2082.74), Plant height (22.10cm), number of leaves (7.83) fresh weight (136.58mg) and dry weight of plant (59.16mg) noticed in seeds treated with GA3 400 ppm when compared to control. In vegetative propagation the cuttings treated with IBA 2000 ppm recorded significantly highest sprouting percentage (98.00) when compared to control (71.00). The results of present investigation will be helpful for large scale multiplication of the species. It will also help for cultivation and conservation of this endangered species.

Keywords: Celastrus paniculatus Willd, seeds, germination, cuttings

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3045 Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in Southwest Algeria to Treat Gastro-Intestinal Ailments

Authors: Karima Sekkoum Abdelkrim Cheriti, Leila Feguigui

Abstract:

Algeria has a large plant biodiversity accounting more than 4125 species (123 Families) and is endowed with resources of medicinal plants growing on various bioclimatic zones from subhumide to semi-arid and Saharan. On the other hand, the ethnopharmacology investigation remains the principal way to improve, evaluate, and finding bioactive substances derived from medicinal plants. In continuation of our works in Saharan ethpharmacopeae and phytochemistry of Saharan medicinal plants, we focus our attention on the importance of local ethnopharmacology especially to treat gastro-intestinal disorders in the south west of Algeria (El Baydh, Naama and Bechar region) as platform for bioactive substances discovery and further development. Our present investigation deals with an ethnopharmacological study on medicinal plants used for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders in the south west of Algeria. The study presents the uses of plants in local traditional herbal medicines, determines the homogeneity of informant traditional knowledge and the preferred medicinal plants used to treat gastro-intestinal disorders. The results indicated that Asteraceae and Lamiaceae are the most locally used families and medicines were prepared in the form of powder or infusion and used orally. Aerial parts were the most frequently used plant part. Thus, the results can be used as platform for bioactive substances discovery and further development especially for the preferred plant species used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders.

Keywords: ethnopharmacology, gastro-intestinal, phytochemical, South Algeria, Sahara, endemic species

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3044 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous People of Community Forest User Groups of Parbat District, Nepal

Authors: Gokul Gaudel, Zhang Wen Hui, Dang Quang Hung, Le Thi Hien, Liang Xiao

Abstract:

The community forests of Nepal serve as a major source of medicinal plants for majority of local people who are dependent on traditional health care system. This study aims to explore the ethnobotanical information of the medicinal plants used by five different community forest user groups of Parbat district of Nepal. The research was conducted during different periods of the year 2015, using semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires, formal and informal interviews, and group discussions. In total 145 different plant species within 77 families were documented, the majority of them being herb were found to be used to treat 84 different ailments. In terms of plant parts use: whole plants, barks, fruits, leaves were found to be in top priorities. Oral administration was the dominant route (57%), followed by both oral and dermal route (29%) and dermal only (14%). Females were found to have 24% more ethnobotanical knowledge than male. The knowledge of ethnobotanical medicinal plants was found excellent on age group 65-75. This study showed that community forests of Parbat district are rich in medicinal plants but the new generation was found less interested in using them. Easy access to modern medicines, lack of documentation and knowledge transfer to young generations are the major causes of diminishing utility of traditional medicinal practices.

Keywords: ailments, community forest, ethnobotany, medicinal plants, Parbat

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3043 Highly Efficient in Vitro Regeneration of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten: A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant

Authors: Mahendran Ganesan, Sanjeet Kumar Verma, Zafar Iqbal, Ashish Chandran, Zakir Husain, Shama Afroz, Sana Shahid, Laiq Ur Rahman

Abstract:

Highly efficient in vitro regeneration system has been developed for Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst, a high prized traditional medicinal plant to treat numerous ailments such as liver disorders, malaria and diabetes and are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the British and the American pharmacopeias, and in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medical systems. Nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various phytohormones for multiple shoot induction. The nodal segments failed to respond in growth regulator free medium. All the concentrations of BAP, Kin and TDZ facilitated shoot bud break and multiple shoot induction. Among the various cytokinins tested, BAP was found to be more effective with respect to initiation and subsequent development of shoots. Of the various concentrations BAP tested, BAP at 4.0 mg/L showed the higher average number of shoot regeneration (10.80 shoots per explant). Kin at 4 mg/L and TDZ at 4 mg/L induced 5.70 and 04.5+0 shoots per explant, respectively. Further increase in concentration did not favour an increase in the number of shoots. However, these shoots failed to elongate further. Hence, addition of GA₃ (1 mg/L) was added to the above medium. This treatment resulted in the elongation of shoots (2.50 cm) and a further increase in the number of microshoots (34.20 shoots/explant). Roots were also induced in the same medium containing BAP (4 mg/L) + GA₃ (1 mg/L) + NAA (0.5 mg/L). In vitro derived plantlets with well-developed roots were transferred to the potting media containing garden soil: sand: vermicompost (2:1:1). Plantlets were covered with a polyethylene bag and irrigated with water. The pots were maintained at 25 ± 2ºC, and then the polyethylene cover was gradually loosened, thus dropping the humidity (65–70%). This procedure subsequently resulted in in vitro hardening of the plantlet.

Keywords: micropropagation, nodal explant, plant growth regulators, Swertia chirayita

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3042 Traditional Uses of Medicinal Plants in Albania: Historical and Theoretical Considerations

Authors: Ani Bajrami

Abstract:

The birth of traditional medicine is related to plant diversity in a region, and the knowledge regarding them has been used and culturally transmitted over generations by members of a certain society. In this context, Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) concerning the use of plants for medicinal purposes had survival value and was adaptive for people living in different habitats around the world. Albanian flora has a high considerably number of medicinal plants, and they have been extensively used albeit expressed in folk medicinal knowledge and practices. Over the past decades, a number of ethnobotanical studies and extensive fieldwork has been conducted in Albania both by local and foreign scientists. In addition, ethnobotany is experiencing a theoretical and conceptual diversification. This article is a historical review of ethnobotanical studies conducted in Albania after the Second World War and provides theoretical considerations on how these studies should be conducted in the future.

Keywords: medicinal plants, traditional ecological knowledge, historical ethnobotany, theory, albania

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3041 Determination of Aflatoxins in Edible-Medicinal Plant Samples by HPLC with Fluorescence Detector and KOBRA-Cell

Authors: Isil Gazioglu, Abdulselam Ertas

Abstract:

Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. AFs can be absorbed through the skin. Potent carcinogens like AFs should be completely absent from cosmetics, this can be achieved by careful quality control of the raw plant materials. Regulatory limits for aflatoxins have been established in many countries, and reliable testing methodology is needed to implement and enforce the regulatory limits. In this study, ten medicinal plant samples (Bundelia tournefortti, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Carduus tenuiflorus, Cardaria draba, Malva neglecta, Malvella sharardiana, Melissa officinalis, Sideritis libanotica, Stakys thirkei, Thymus nummularius) were investigated for aflatoxin (AF) contaminations by employing an HPLC assay for the determination of AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. The samples were extracted with 70% (v/v) methanol in water before further cleaned up with an immunoaffinity column and followed by the detection of AFs by using an electrochemically post-column derivatization with Kobra-Cell and fluorescence detector. The extraction procedure was optimized in order to obtain the best recovery. The method was successfully carried out with all medicinal plant samples. The results revealed that five (50%) of samples were contaminated with AFs. The association between particular samples and the AF contaminated could not be determined due to the low frequency of positive samples.

Keywords: aflatoxin B1, HPLC-FLD, KOBRA-Cell, mycotoxin

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3040 Pancreatic Lipase and Cholesterol Esterase Inhibitors from Thai Medicinal Plants

Authors: Kwanchai Ratanamanee, Pattra Ahmadi Pirshahid, Yaowaluk Khamphan, Sirinan Thubthimthad

Abstract:

Obesity is a main global health problem. The obesity rated has continued to be higher and higher. It causes to serious systems, diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, and some types of cancer. Oristat is one of the best drugs worldwide used as a pancreatic lipase inhibitor. To develop the new therapeutic drugs from medicinal plant always explored. In this study, 24 medicinal plants were investigated for their pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory effects with Fluorometer assay and oristat as a positive control. It showed that the ethanolic extract of pods of Acacia concinna (Willd.) D.C., possess pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory activities of IC50 at 2.73 and 3.77 mg/ml respectively as well as oral acute toxicity of the extract (LD50) was 6,300 mg/kg body weight. The extract of A.concinna should be further investigated in animal testing. The results of pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitor of the extracts will lead us to utilize A.concinna for developing as obesity dietary supplement from a medicinal plant.

Keywords: Acacia concinna (Willd.) D. C., cholesterol esterase, obesity, pancreatic lipase

Procedia PDF Downloads 375