Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1819

Search results for: anti cancerous

1819 Antioxidants: Some Medicinal Plants in Indian System of Medicine Work as Anti-cervical Cancer

Authors: Kamini Kaushal

Abstract:

Medicinal plants of Ayurveda are effective in the treatment of cervical cancer. The aim of this paper is to assess anti cancerous activities of these medicinal plants against cancer. Most of the medicinal plants in Ayurveda are using to treat cervical cancer as name of disease as treatment of YONI VYAPADA. The selected plants has been studied scientifically in India and evidence based written since Vedic era. The compilation results showed potential anti cervical cancer activity of the tested plants. There plants are remaining under the dark due to lack of awareness, lack of popularity and barrier of language. Now this is the time to eye opener regarding the classical text and clinical evidences, so that we can give the hope to world's affected women from this disease. World is waiting for such type of remedy which is having zero side effects, low cost and effective.

Keywords: anti cancerous, cervical cancer, ayurveda, medicinal plants, scientific study, classical text

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1818 Pharmacological Activities and Potential Uses of Cyperus Rotundus: A Review

Authors: Arslan Masood Pirzada, Muhammad Naeem, Hafiz Haider Ali, Muhammad Latif, Aown Sammar Raza, Asad Hussain Bukhari, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Ijaz

Abstract:

Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae), a medicinal herb, is being traditionally used as a home remedy for the treatment of various clinical conditions like diarrhea, diabetic, pyretic, inflammation, malaria, and for treating stomach and bowel disorders. Its current status is one of the most widespread, troublesome, and economically damaging agronomic weeds, growing wildly in various tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Tuber and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus possess a higher concentration of active ingredients in the form of essential oils, phenolic acids, ascorbic acids and flavonoids, responsible for its remedial properties. Exploitation of any medicinal plant application depends on the crucial and comprehensive information about the therapeutic potential of a plant. Researchers have evaluated and characterized the significance of Cyperus rotundus as an anti-androgenic, anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, anti-convulsant, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, anti-genotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-lipidemic, anti-malarial, anti-mutagenic, anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, anti-uropathogenic, hepato-, cardio-, neuroprotective, and nootropic agent. This paper comprises a broad review to summarize the current state of knowledge about chemical constituents, potential economic uses and therapeutic aspects of Cyperus rotundus that will aid in the development of bioethanol and modern herbal medicine through latest technologies that will promote the ability of this plant in the cure of many clinical disorders.

Keywords: purple nutsedge, chemical composition, economic uses, therapeutic values, future directions

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1817 Introduction of Artificial Intelligence for Estimating Fractal Dimension and Its Applications in the Medical Field

Authors: Zerroug Abdelhamid, Danielle Chassoux

Abstract:

Various models are given to simulate homogeneous or heterogeneous cancerous tumors and extract in each case the boundary. The fractal dimension is then estimated by least squares method and compared to some previous methods.

Keywords: simulation, cancerous tumor, Markov fields, fractal dimension, extraction, recovering

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1816 Cervical Cell Classification Using Random Forests

Authors: Dalwinder Singh, Amandeep Verma, Manpreet Kaur, Birmohan Singh

Abstract:

The detection of pre-cancerous changes using a Pap smear test of cervical cell is the important step for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer. The Pap smear test consists of a sample of human cells taken from the cervix which are analysed to detect cancerous and pre-cancerous stage of the given subject. The manual analysis of these cells is labor intensive and time consuming process which relies on expert cytotechnologist. In this paper, a computer assisted system for the automated analysis of the cervical cells has been proposed. We propose a morphology based approach to the nucleus detection and segmentation of the cytoplasmic region of the given single or multiple overlapped cell. Further, various texture and region based features are calculated from these cells to classify these into normal and abnormal cell. Experimental results on public available dataset show that our system has achieved satisfactory success rate.

Keywords: cervical cancer, cervical tissue, mathematical morphology, texture features

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1815 The Effect of Endurance Training and Taxol Consumption on Cyclooxygenase-2 and Prostaglandin E2 Levels in the Liver Tissue of Mice with Cervical Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Maryam Firozi-Niyaki, Maryam Kamarlouei

Abstract:

Background: Herbs have a strong anti-cancer effect. Also, exercise is one of several lifestyle factors known to lower the risk of developing cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of endurance training and taxol on cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in the liver tissue of mice with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 35 female C57 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=7 in each group): control (healthy), control (cancer), complement (cancer), training-supplementary (cancer) and training (cancer). The implantation of cancerous tumors was performed under the skin of the upper pelvis. The training group completed the endurance training protocol, which included 3 sessions per week, 50 minutes per session, at a speed of 14-18 m/s for six weeks. A dose of 60 mg/kg/day of pure taxol was injected intra peritoneally. The dependent variables of this study were measured 24 hours after the last training session by ELISA. Results: The results showed that the use of taxol and endurance training reduced the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in the liver tissues of C57 mice with cervical cancer. Conclusion: Induction of the cancerous tissue in mice with cervical cancer increases the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 and endurance training along with taxol may reduce these levels.

Keywords: cervical cancer, taxol, endurance training, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2

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1814 Global Stability Analysis of a Coupled Model for Healthy and Cancerous Cells Dynamics in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Abdelhafid Zenati, Mohamed Tadjine

Abstract:

The mathematical formulation of biomedical problems is an important phase to understand and predict the dynamic of the controlled population. In this paper we perform a stability analysis of a coupled model for healthy and cancerous cells dynamics in Acute Myeloid Leukemia, this represents our first aim. Second, we illustrate the effect of the interconnection between healthy and cancer cells. The PDE-based model is transformed to a nonlinear distributed state space model (delay system). For an equilibrium point of interest, necessary and sufficient conditions of global asymptotic stability are given. Thus, we came up to give necessary and sufficient conditions of global asymptotic stability of the origin and the healthy situation and control of the dynamics of normal hematopoietic stem cells and cancerous during myelode Acute leukemia. Simulation studies are given to illustrate the developed results.

Keywords: distributed delay, global stability, modelling, nonlinear models, PDE, state space

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1813 Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Bacterial Properties of Camellia sinensis, Tea Plant

Authors: Rini Jarial, Puranjan Mishra, Lakhveer Singh, Sveta Thakur, A. W. Zularisam, Mimi Sakinah

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to assess the biological properties of Camellia sinensis and to identify its functional compounds. The methanolic leaves-extract (MLE) of commercial green tea (Camellia sinensis) was assessed for anti-bacterial activities by measuring inhibition zones against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains using agar diffusion method. The flavonoid (5.0 to 8.0 mg/ml) and protein content (10 to 15 mg/ml) of the MLE were recorded. MLE at a concentration of 25 μg/ml showed marked anti-bacterial activity against all bacterial strains (11-30 mm zone of inhibition) and was maximum against Staphylococcus aureus (30 mm). The MLE of Camellia sinensis had the best MIC values of 2.25 and 0.56 mg/ml against S. aureus and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The MLE also possessed good anti-lipolytic activity (65%) against a Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) and cholesterol oxidase inhibition (79%). The present study provided strong experimental evidences that the MLE of Camellia sinensis is not only a potent source of natural anti-oxidants and anti-bacterial activity but also possesses efficient cholesterol degradation and anti-lipolytic activities that might be beneficial in the body weight management.

Keywords: anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial activity, anti-lipolytic activity, Camellia sinensis, phyto-chemicals

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1812 Anti-Phosphorylcholine T Cell Dependent Antibody

Authors: M. M. Rahman, A. Liu, A. Frostegard, J. Frostegard

Abstract:

The human immune system plays an essential role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. Our earlier studies showed that major immunocompetent cells including T cells are activated by phosphorylcholine epitope. Further, we have determined for the first time in a clinical cohort that antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) are negatively and independently associated with the development of atherosclerosis and thus a low risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is still unknown whether activated T cells play a role in anti-PC production. Here we aim to clarify the role of T cells in anti-PC production. B cell alone, or with CD3 T, CD4 T or with CD8 T cells were cultured in polystyrene plates to examine anti-PC IgM production. In addition to mixed B cell with CD3 T cell culture, B cells with CD3 T cells were also cultured in transwell co-culture plates. Further, B cells alone and mixed B cell with CD3 T cell cultures with or without anti-HLA 2 antibody were cultured for 6 days. Anti-PC IgM was detected by ELISA in independent experiments. More than 8 fold higher levels of anti-PC IgM were detected by ELISA in mixed B cell with CD3 T cell cultures in comparison to B cells alone. After the co-culture of B and CD3 T cells in transwell plates, there were no increased antibody levels indicating that B and T cells need to interact to augment anti-PC IgM production. Furthermore, anti-PC IgM was abolished by anti-HLA 2 blocking antibody in mixed B and CD3 T cells culture. In addition, the lack of increased anti-PC IgM in mixed B with CD8 T cells culture and the increased levels of anti-PC in mixed B with CD4 T cells culture support the role of helper T cell for the anti-PC IgM production. Atherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases, but anti-PC IgM is a protection marker for atherosclerosis development. Understanding the mechanism involved in the anti-PC IgM regulation could play an important role in strategies to raise anti-PC IgM. Studies suggest that anti-PC is T-cell independent antibody, but our study shows the major role of T cell in anti-PC IgM production. Activation of helper T cells by immunization could be a possible mechanism for raising anti-PC levels.

Keywords: anti-PC, atherosclerosis, aardiovascular diseases, phosphorylcholine

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1811 Ethical Aspects of the Anti-Doping System Management in Poland and in Global Framework

Authors: Malgorzata Kurleto

Abstract:

This study is trying to analyse the organization of the anti-doping system globally (particularly in Poland). The analysis is going to show the concept of doping, indicating the types of doping, and list of banned substances and methods. The paper discusses ethical aspects of the global anti-doping system. The analysis is focusing on organization of global Anti-Doping Agency. The paper will try to describe the basic assumptions of regulations adopted by WADA, called "standards” as well organization and functioning of the Polish Anti-Doping Agency (including the legal basis: POLADA). The base for this discuss will be the Polish 2018 annual report, which shows the most important assumptions, implementation and the number of anti-doping proceedings conducted in Poland. The aim of this paper is to show ethical arguments on anti-doping management strategies.

Keywords: anti-doping, ethical dilemmas, sports doping, WADA, POLADA

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1810 Anti-Language in Jordanian Spoken Arabic: A Sociolinguistic Perspective

Authors: Ahmad Mohammad Al-Harahsheh

Abstract:

Anti-language reflects anti-society; it is a restricted spoken code used among a group of interlocutors because of anti-society. This study aims to shed light on the sociolinguistic characteristics of anti-language used by prisoners in Jordan. The participants included were 15 male-Jordanian prisoners who have recently been released. The data were written, transliterated, and analyzed on the basis of sociolinguistics and discourse analysis. This study draws on sociolinguistic theory of language codes as the theoretical framework. The study concludes that anti-language is a male language and is used for secrecy, as the prisoners' tendency to protect themselves from the police; it is a verbal competition, contest and display. In addition, it is employed to express obnoxious ideas and acts by using more pleasant or blurred words and expressions. Also, the anti-language used by prisoners has six linguistic characteristics in JSA (Jordanian Spoken Arabic), such as relexicalization, neologism, rhyme formation, semantic change, derivation, and metaphorical expressions.

Keywords: anti-language, Jordanian Spoken Arabic, sociolinguistics, prisoners

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1809 An MrPPG Method for Face Anti-Spoofing

Authors: Lan Zhang, Cailing Zhang

Abstract:

In recent years, many face anti-spoofing algorithms have high detection accuracy when detecting 2D face anti-spoofing or 3D mask face anti-spoofing alone in the field of face anti-spoofing, but their detection performance is greatly reduced in multidimensional and cross-datasets tests. The rPPG method used for face anti-spoofing uses the unique vital information of real face to judge real faces and face anti-spoofing, so rPPG method has strong stability compared with other methods, but its detection rate of 2D face anti-spoofing needs to be improved. Therefore, in this paper, we improve an rPPG(Remote Photoplethysmography) method(MrPPG) for face anti-spoofing which through color space fusion, using the correlation of pulse signals between real face regions and background regions, and introducing the cyclic neural network (LSTM) method to improve accuracy in 2D face anti-spoofing. Meanwhile, the MrPPG also has high accuracy and good stability in face anti-spoofing of multi-dimensional and cross-data datasets. The improved method was validated on Replay-Attack, CASIA-FASD, Siw and HKBU_MARs_V2 datasets, the experimental results show that the performance and stability of the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is superior to many advanced algorithms.

Keywords: face anti-spoofing, face presentation attack detection, remote photoplethysmography, MrPPG

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1808 Microbial Metabolites with Ability of Anti-Free Radicals

Authors: Yu Pu, Chien-Ping Hsiao, Chien-Chang Huang, Chieh-Lun Cheng

Abstract:

Free radicals can accelerate aging on human skin by causing lipid oxidation, protein denaturation, and even DNA mutation. Substances with the ability of anti-free radicals can be used as functional components in cosmetic products. Research are attracted to develop new anti-free radical components for cosmetic application. This study was aimed to evaluate the microbial metabolites on free radical scavenging ability. Two microorganisms, PU-01 and PU-02, were isolated from soil of hot spring environment and grew in LB agar at 50°C for 24 h. The suspension was collected by centrifugation at 4800 g for 3 min, The anti-free radical activity was determined by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging assay. The result showed that the growth medium of PU-01 presented a higher DPPH scavenging effect than that of PU-02. This study presented potential anti-free radical components from microbial metabolites that might be applied in anti-aging cosmetics.

Keywords: anti-ageing, anti-free radical, biotechnology, microorganism

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1807 Investigation of Medicinal Applications of Maclura Pomifera Extract

Authors: Mahdi Asghari Ozma

Abstract:

Background and Objective:Maclurapomifera (Rafin.) Schneider, known as osage orange, is a north american native plant which has multiple applications in herbal medicine. The extract of this plant has many therapeutic effects, including antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, etc., that discussed in this study. Materials and Methods: For this study, the keywords "Maclurapomifera", "osage orange, ""herbal medicine ", and "plant extract" in the databases PubMed and Google Scholar between 2002 and 2021 were searched, and 20 articles were chosen, studied and analyzed. Results: Due to the increased resistance of microbes to antibiotics, the need for antimicrobial plants is increasing. Maclurapomifera is one of the plants with antimicrobial properties that can affect all microbes, especially Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. This plant also has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-aging, antiviral, anti-fungal, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-diabetic, and anti-nociceptive effects, which can be used as a substance with many amazing therapeutic applications. Conclusion: These results suggest that the extract of Maclurapomifera can be used in clinical medicine as a remedial agent, which can be substituted for chemical drugs or help them in the treatment of diseases.

Keywords: maclura pomifera, osage orange, herbal medicine, plant extract

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1806 Azadirachta indica Derived Protein Encapsulated Novel Guar Gum Nanocapsules against Colon Cancer

Authors: Suman Chaudhary, Rupinder K. Kanwar, Jagat R. Kanwar

Abstract:

Azadirachta indica, also known as Neem belonging to the mahogany family is actively gaining interest in the era of modern day medicine due to its extensive applications in homeopathic medicine such as Ayurveda and Unani. More than 140 phytochemicals have been extracted from neem leaves, seed, bark and flowers for agro-medicinal applications. Among the various components, neem leaf protein (NLP) is currently the most investigated active ingredient, due to its immunomodulatory activities against tumor growth. However, these therapeutic ingredients of neem are susceptible to degradation and cannot withstand the drastic pH changes under physiological environment, and therefore, there is an urgent need of an alternative strategy such as a nano-delivery system to exploit its medicinal benefits. This study hypothesizes that guar gum (GG) derived biodegradable nano-carrier based encapsulation of NLP will improve its stability, specificity and sensitivity, thus facilitating targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. GG is a galactomannan derived from the endosperm of the guar beans seeds. Synthesis of guar nanocapsules (NCs) was performed using nanoprecipitation technique where the GG was encapsulated with NLP. Preliminary experiments conducted to characterize the NCs confirmed spherical morphology with a narrow size distribution of 30-40 nm. Differential scanning colorimetric analysis (DSC) validated the stability of these NCs even at a temperature range of 50-60°C which was well within the physiological and storage conditions. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis indicated high decomposition temperature of these NCs ranging upto 350°C. Additionally, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the SDS-PAGE data acquired confirmed the successful encapsulation of NLP in the NCs. The anti-cancerous therapeutic property of this NC was tested on colon cancer cells (caco-2) as they are one of the most prevalent form of cancer. These NCs (both NLP loaded and void) were also tested on human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs 74) cells to evaluate their effect on normal cells. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the NCs in the cell lines confirmed that the IC50 for NLP in FHs 74 cells was ~2 fold higher than in caco-2 cells, indicating that this nanoformulation system possessed biocompatible anti-cancerous properties Immunoconfocal microscopy analysis confirmed the time dependent internalization of the NCs within 6h. Recent findings performed using Annexin V and PI staining indicated a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in the early and late apoptotic cell population when treated with the NCs signifying the role of NLP in inducing apoptosis in caco-2 cells. This was further validated using Western blot, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) aided protein expressional analysis which presented a downregulation of survivin, an anti-apoptotic cell marker and upregulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (pro-apoptotic indicator). Further, both the NLP NC and unencapsulated NLP treatment destabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential subsequently facilitating the release of the pro-apoptotic caspase cascade initiator, cytochrome-c. Future studies will be focused towards granting specificity to these NCs towards cancer cells, along with a comprehensive analysis of the anti-cancer potential of this naturally occurring compound in different cancer and in vivo animal models, will validate the clinical application of this unprecedented protein therapeutic.

Keywords: anti-tumor, guar gum, nanocapsules, neem leaf protein

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1805 Anti-TNF: Possibilities of Rising Anti-Phosphorylcholine Antibodies

Authors: Md. Mizanur Rahman, Anquan Liu, Anna Frostegård, Johan Frostegård

Abstract:

The role of the human immune system is essential in cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Activated cells in atherosclerosis produce abundant amounts of cytokines, but the exact mechanisms involved in the effects of these inflammatory cytokines are not clear in atherosclerosis. In a large clinical cohort, we have previously determined that antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) are negatively and independently associated with both development of atherosclerosis and also a low risk of cardiovascular disease. Further, we reported that rheumatoid arthritis patients who were non-responders to TNF-inhibitors, where those with low anti-PC levels. Upon anti-TNF treatment, anti-PC levels increased. We, therefore, hypothesised that proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF could play a role in anti-PC regulation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with or without TNF and anti-TNF. The cell supernatants were collected after six days for ELISA measurements. In separate experiments, cells were cultured for 24 hours in both polystyrene plates and ELISPOT plates under a similar condition for ELISA and ELISPOT assays respectively. Total RNA was extracted after 6 hours of cell culture to perform RT-qPCR. Cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue staining and MTT assays. ELISA measurements detected less than 40% of anti-PC in TNF-treated cells, in comparison to control cells, whereas anti-PC production was recovered by anti-TNF treatment. ELISPOT assays showed that TNF suppresses anti-PC production by inhibiting anti-PC producing B-cells. In addition, RT-qPCR and ELISA showed that TNF also has effects also on B-cell activation as BAFF expression was inhibited by TNF treatment. Atherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases, but anti-PC is a protection marker for atherosclerosis development. Our findings show that TNF is a negative regulator of anti-PC production. Immune modulation and rising of anti-PC could be of major significance for the patients.

Keywords: anti-PC, Anti-TNF, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, phosphorylecholine

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1804 Synthesis, Characterization, Validation of Resistant Microbial Strains and Anti Microbrial Activity of Substitted Pyrazoles

Authors: Rama Devi Kyatham, D. Ashok, K. S. K. Rao Patnaik, Raju Bathula

Abstract:

We have shown the importance of pyrazoles as anti-microbial chemical entities. These compounds have generally been considered significant due to their wide range of pharmacological acivities and their discovery motivates new avenues of research.The proposed pyrazoles were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-microbial activities. The Synthesized compounds were analyzed by different spectroscopic methods.

Keywords: pyrazoles, validation, resistant microbial strains, anti-microbial activities

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1803 Rose geranium Essential Oil as a Source of New and Safe Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat

Abstract:

Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO). The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses. RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 ml of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory effect, carrageenan, citronellol, histopathology, Rose geranium

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1802 Transfer of Business Anti-Corruption Norms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Vietnam

Authors: Candice Lemaitre

Abstract:

During the 1990s, an alliance of international intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations proposed a set of regulatory norms designed to reduce corruption. Many governments in developing countries, such as Vietnam, enacted these global anti-corruption norms into their domestic law. This article draws on empirical research to understand why these anti-corruption norms have failed to reduce corruption in Vietnam and many other developing countries. Rather than investigating state compliance with global anti-corruption provisions, a topic that has already attracted considerable attention, this article aims to explore the comparatively under-researched area of business compliance. Based on data collected from semi-structured interviews with business managers in Vietnam and archival research, this article examines how businesses in Vietnam interpret and comply with global anti-corruption norms. It investigates why different types of companies in Vietnam engage with and respond to these norms in different ways. This article suggests that global anti-corruption norms have not been effective in reducing corruption in Vietnam because there is fragmentation in the way companies in Vietnam interpret and respond to these norms. This fragmentation results from differences in the epistemic (or interpretive) communities that companies draw upon to interpret global anti-corruption norms. This article uses discourse analysis to understand how the communities interpret global anti-corruption norms. This investigation aims to generate some predictive insights into how companies are likely to respond to anti-corruption regimes based on global anti-corruption norms.

Keywords: anti-corruption, business law, legal transfer, Vietnam

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1801 Delivery of Doxorubicin to Glioblastoma Multiforme Using Solid Lipid Nanoparticles with Surface Aprotinin and Melanotransferrin Antibody for Enhanced Chemotherapy

Authors: Yung-Chih Kuo, I-Hsuan Lee

Abstract:

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) conjugated with aprotinin (Apr) and melanotransferrin antibody (Anti-MTf) were used to carry doxorubicin (Dox) across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) chemotherapy. Dox-entrapped SLNs with grafted Apr and Anti-MTf (Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs) were applied to a cultured monolayer comprising human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) with regulation of human astrocyte (HAs) and to a proliferated colony of U87MG cells. Based on the average particle diameter, zeta potential, entrapping efficiency of Dox, and grafting efficiency of Apr and Anti-MTf, we found that 40% (w/w) 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in lipids were appropriate for fabricating Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs. In addition, Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs could prevent Dox from fast dissolution and did not induce a serious cytotoxicity to HBMECs and HAs when compared with free Dox. Moreover, the treatments with Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs enhanced the ability of Dox to infuse the BBB and to inhibit the growth of GBM. The current Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs can be a promising pharmacotherapeutic preparation to penetrate the BBB for malignant brain tumor treatment.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticle, glioblastoma multiforme, blood–brain barrier, doxorubicin

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1800 PathoPy2.0: Application of Fractal Geometry for Early Detection and Histopathological Analysis of Lung Cancer

Authors: Rhea Kapoor

Abstract:

Fractal dimension provides a way to characterize non-geometric shapes like those found in nature. The purpose of this research is to estimate Minkowski fractal dimension of human lung images for early detection of lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among all types of cancer and an early histopathological analysis will help reduce deaths primarily due to late diagnosis. A Python application program, PathoPy2.0, was developed for analyzing medical images in pixelated format and estimating Minkowski fractal dimension using a new box-counting algorithm that allows windowing of images for more accurate calculation in the suspected areas of cancerous growth. Benchmark geometric fractals were used to validate the accuracy of the program and changes in fractal dimension of lung images to indicate the presence of issues in the lung. The accuracy of the program for the benchmark examples was between 93-99% of known values of the fractal dimensions. Fractal dimension values were then calculated for lung images, from National Cancer Institute, taken over time to correctly detect the presence of cancerous growth. For example, as the fractal dimension for a given lung increased from 1.19 to 1.27 due to cancerous growth, it represents a significant change in fractal dimension which lies between 1 and 2 for 2-D images. Based on the results obtained on many lung test cases, it was concluded that fractal dimension of human lungs can be used to diagnose lung cancer early. The ideas behind PathoPy2.0 can also be applied to study patterns in the electrical activity of the human brain and DNA matching.

Keywords: fractals, histopathological analysis, image processing, lung cancer, Minkowski dimension

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1799 Anti-Melanogenesis and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Opuntia humifusa

Authors: Yonghwa Lee, Yoon Suk Kim, Yongsub Yi

Abstract:

This study was to confirm the effects of anti-melanogenesis and anti-inflammatory effects from Opuntia humifusa fruit and stem extracts. A potent anti-oxidant activity was shown from the leaf extract at IC50 value of 38.33±1.07 μg/mL and fruit extract at IC50 value of 40.23±2.21 μg/mL by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Also, phenolic contents were confirmed total phenolic assay by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fraction of taxifolin from leaf extract was identified using HPLC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The extracts of Opuntia humifusa fruit and stem were confirmed about toxicity effect in B16 F1 by cell viability. Melanin contents were decreased. Opuntia humifusa fruit and stem extracts had a positive effect of melanin synthesis inhibition for skin whitening. In investigating the anti-inflammatory activities of Opuntia humifusa, the results of cell viability indicated that taxifolin did not show cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 cells at 500 μM of concentration. The results show that taxifolin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of Nitrite oxide (NO). In addition, taxifolin indicated the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α and interleukin (IL) -6 productions by cytokine assay and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression by western blot analysis, meaning that taxifolin had a significant anti-inflammatory effect. Our results suggested that taxifolin from Opuntia humifusa has anti-melanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords: anti-melanogenesis, anti-inflammatory, Opuntia humifusa, taxifolin

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1798 Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Wild Herb Urginea wightii

Authors: S. K. Hemalata, M. N. Shiva Kameshwari

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The present work focusses on anti-inflammatory action of Urginea wightii in-vitro. Urginea wightii is a member of Hyacinthaceae and considered to be wonder plant because of its varied important medicinal properties. The plant is endemic to India, Africa, and Mediterranian regions. Presence of alkaloids, flavonoid-glycosides especially flavonone derivatives are responsible for the strong anti-inflammatory activity of Urginea wightii. In present research work, anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of the bulb powder was tested on Male Wistar Rats. In these test animals, inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan as the irritant to induce paw edema in Wistar rats. Inflammation of Paw edema was treated with both plant extract and Pyrox gel a known synthetic anti-inflammatory drug through external application. The result indicated that anti-inflammatory activity of Urginea wightii extract was almost similar to the synthetic Pyrox gel. This disproves the modern world's scepticism towards the herbal medicines and encourages to rely on natural plant extracts.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity, flavonoid-glycosides, Pyrox gel, Urginia wightii

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1797 Anti-Corruption in Adverse Contexts: A Strategic Approach

Authors: Mushtaq H. Khan, Antonio Andreoni, Pallavi Roy

Abstract:

Developing countries are characterized by political settlements where formal rules are generally weakly enforced and widely violated. Conventional anti-corruption strategies that focus on improving the general enforcement of a rule of law and raising the costs of corruption facing individual public officials have typically delivered poor results in these contexts. Our alternative approach is to identify anti-corruption strategies that have a high impact and that are feasible to implement in these contexts. Our alternative approach identifies anti-corruption strategies from the bottom up. This involves identifying the characteristics of the corruption constraining particular development outcomes. By drawing on theories of rents and rent seeking, and theories of political settlements, we can assess the developmental impact of particular anti-corruption strategies and the feasibility of implementing these strategies. We argue that feasible anti-corruption in these contexts cannot be solely based on conventional anti-corruption strategies. In societies that have widespread rule violations, high-impact anti-corruption is only likely to be feasible if the overall strategy succeeds in aligning the interests and capabilities of powerful organizations at the sectoral level to support the enforcement of particular sets of rules. We examine four related strategies for changing these incentives and capabilities of critical stakeholders at the local or sectoral level, and we argue that this can provide a framework for organizing research on the impact and feasibility of anti-corruption activities in different priority areas in particular countries.

Keywords: anti-corruption, development, political settlements analysis, rule of law

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1796 Caspase-11 and AIM2 Inflammasome are Involved in Smoking-Induced COPD and Lung Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Chiara Colarusso, Michela Terlizzi, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino

Abstract:

Cigarette smoking is the main cause and the most common risk factor for both COPD and lung cancer. In our previous studies, we proved that caspase-11 in mice and its human analogue, caspase-4, are involved in lung carcinogenesis and that AIM2 inflammasome might play a pro-cancerous role in lung cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate potential crosstalk between COPD and lung cancer, focusing on AIM2 and caspase-11-dependent inflammasome signaling pathway. To mimic COPD, we took advantage of an experimental first-hand smoking mouse model and, to confirm what was observed in mice, we used human samples of lung adenocarcinoma patients stratified according to the smoking and COPD status. We demonstrated that smoke exposure led to emphysema-like features, bronchial tone impairment, and release of IL-1-like cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, IL-18) in a caspase-1 independent manner in C57Bl/6N. Rather, a dysfunctional caspase-11 in smoke-exposed 129Sv mice was associated to lower bronchial inflammation, collagen deposition, and IL-1-like inflammation. In addition, for the first time, we found that AIM2 inflammasome is involved in lung inflammation in smoking and COPD, in that its expression was higher in smoke-exposed C57Bl/6N compared to 129Sv smoking mice, who instead did not show any alteration of AIM2 in both macrophages and dendritic cells. Moreover, we found that AIM2 expression in the cancerous tissue, albeit higher than non-cancerous tissue, was not statistically different according to the COPD and smoking status. Instead, the higher expression of AIM2 in non-cancerous tissue of smoker COPD patients than smokers who did not have COPD was correlated to a higher hazard ratio of poor survival rate than patients who presented lower levels of AIM2. In conclusion, our data highlight that caspase-11 in mice is associated to smoke-induced lung latent inflammation which could drive the establishment of lung cancer, and that AIM2 inflammasome plays a role at the crosstalk between smoking/COPD and lung adenocarcinoma in that its higher presence is correlated to lower survival rate of smoker COPD adenocarcinoma.

Keywords: COPD, inflammasome, lung cancer, lung inflammation, smoke

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1795 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Topical Anthocyanins by Complexation and Niosomal Encapsulation

Authors: Aroonsri Priprem, Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Suttasinee Thappasarapong

Abstract:

Anthocyanins are natural pigments with effective UV protection but their topical use could be limited due to their physicochemical characteristics. An attempt to overcome such limitations by complexation of 2 major anthocyanin-rich sources, C. ternatea, and Z. mays, for investigation on potential use as topical anti-inflammatory. Cell studies indicate no cytotoxicity of the anthocyanin complex (AC) up to 1 mg/ml tested in HaCaT and human forehead fibroblasts by MTT. Croton oil-induced ear edema in Wistar rats suggests an effective dose of 5 mg/cm2 of AC as a topical anti-inflammatory in comparison to 0.5 mg/cm2 of fluocinolone acetonide. Niosomal encapsulation of the AC significantly prolonged the anti-inflammatory activity particularly at 8 h after topical application (p = 0.0001). The AC was not cytotoxic and its anti-inflammatory and activity was dose-dependent and prolonged by niosomal encapsulation. It has also shown to promote collagen type 1 production in cell culture. Thus, AC could be a potential candidate for topical anti-inflammatory agent from natural resources.

Keywords: anthocyanin complex, ear edema, inflammation, niosomes, skin

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1794 Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 6-Nitroindazole Derivatives

Authors: Mohamed El Moctar Abeidi

Abstract:

The indazole derivatives exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities. They are known for their anti-tumor, antiplatelet, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-leishmania and even anti-spermatogen. As part of our research on the synthesis of a number of heterocycles capable of exhibiting a biological and pharmacological property, due to our ongoing interest in the development of a simple and low-cost procedure for obtaining heterocyclic compounds that may have an interest for medicinal purposes. We present in this work the synthesis of 6-nitro-indazoles derivatives, using two different methods. the first method is the alkylation of Nitroindazole by two different alkylating agents under the conditions of solid/liquid phase transfer catalysis in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of potassium carbonate (K₂CO₃) as a base, and tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (BTBA) as a catalyst. While the other method is the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, in this case, we have undertaken the preparation of bi-heterocyclic containing the 6-nitroindazole associate with group of isoxazoline, isoxazole or 1,2,3-Triazole under normal conditions and, under the catalytic conditions of the click chemistry we were also able to determine the structures without any ambiguity by the ¹H and ¹³C NMR.

Keywords: indazole, 6-nitroindazole, isoxazole, 1, 2, 3-Triazole

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1793 Use of Anti-Stick to Reduce Bitterness in Ultra Filtrated Chees-es(Single Packaged)

Authors: B. Khorram, M. Taslikh, R. Sattarzadeh, M. Ghazanfari

Abstract:

Bitterness is one of the most important problems in cheese processing industry all over the world. There are several reasons that bitterness may develop in cheese. With a few exceptions bitterness is generally associated with proteolysis. In this investigation, anti-stick as a neutral substance in proteolysis were considered and studied for reducing the problem. This vast survey was conducted in a big cheese production factory (in Neyshabur) and in the same procedure anti-stick as interested factor in cheeses packaging compared to standard cheeses production, one line productions (65200 packs with anti-stick were tested by 2953 persons for bitterness and another line was included the same procedure with standard cheese. In this investigate: 83% of standard packaging cheeses, compared with only28% of consumers cheese with anti-stick which confirmed bitterness. Although bitterness is generally associated with proteolysis and Microbial factors, Somatic cell, Starters play important role in generating bitterness in ultra filtrated cheeses, but based on the results the other factors such as anti-stick in packaging can be effective methods for reducing and removing unfavorable bitterness in cheese production.

Keywords: bitterness, uf cheese, anti-stick, single packaged

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1792 Ambiguity in Anti-conversion Laws in the Indian States – A Limitation to the Freedom of Religion Guaranteed under the Constitution of India

Authors: Roy Alex, Dr. Shampa I Dev

Abstract:

Abstract Nine out of twenty-eight states in India have enacted anti-conversion laws to regulate religious conversions by use of force, allurement, inducement, or fraudulent means. The vagueness of the definitions of the terms used in these laws makes them inconsistent with the provisions of the right to freedom of religion guaranteed by the Constitution. It is a critical question whether these laws protect the religious freedom of groups that are “vulnerable” to missionary inducements, or are they restricting the freedom of citizens to propagate their religion to others or change their religious identity? This article looks into the constitutionality of the anti-conversion laws passed in the Indian States and argues that these laws limit the freedom of religion guaranteed under Article 25 of the Constitution of India. The ambiguity in the anti-conversion laws passed in various states of India is brought out by critically analyzing multiple cases charged under anti-conversion laws.

Keywords: Freedom of Religion, Anti-conversion Laws, allurement, inducement, and fraudulent means.

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1791 Iris Cancer Detection System Using Image Processing and Neural Classifier

Authors: Abdulkader Helwan

Abstract:

Iris cancer, so called intraocular melanoma is a cancer that starts in the iris; the colored part of the eye that surrounds the pupil. There is a need for an accurate and cost-effective iris cancer detection system since the available techniques used currently are still not efficient. The combination of the image processing and artificial neural networks has a great efficiency for the diagnosis and detection of the iris cancer. Image processing techniques improve the diagnosis of the cancer by enhancing the quality of the images, so the physicians diagnose properly. However, neural networks can help in making decision; whether the eye is cancerous or not. This paper aims to develop an intelligent system that stimulates a human visual detection of the intraocular melanoma, so called iris cancer. The suggested system combines both image processing techniques and neural networks. The images are first converted to grayscale, filtered, and then segmented using prewitt edge detection algorithm to detect the iris, sclera circles and the cancer. The principal component analysis is used to reduce the image size and for extracting features. Those features are considered then as inputs for a neural network which is capable of deciding if the eye is cancerous or not, throughout its experience adopted by many training iterations of different normal and abnormal eye images during the training phase. Normal images are obtained from a public database available on the internet, “Mile Research”, while the abnormal ones are obtained from another database which is the “eyecancer”. The experimental results for the proposed system show high accuracy 100% for detecting cancer and making the right decision.

Keywords: iris cancer, intraocular melanoma, cancerous, prewitt edge detection algorithm, sclera

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1790 Evaluation of the Benefit of Anti-Endomysial IgA and Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase IgA Antibodies for the Diagnosis of Coeliac Disease in a University Hospital, 2010-2016

Authors: Recep Keşli, Onur Türkyılmaz, Hayriye Tokay, Kasım Demir

Abstract:

Objective: Coeliac disease (CD) is a primary small intestine disorder caused by high sensitivity to gluten which is present in the crops, characterized by inflammation in the small intestine mucosa. The goal of this study was to determine and to compare the sensitivity and specificity values of anti-endomysial IgA (EMA IgA) (IFA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA (anti-tTG IgA) (ELISA) antibodies in the diagnosis of patients suspected with the CD. Methods: One thousand two hundred seventy three patients, who have applied to gastroenterology and pediatric disease polyclinics of Afyon Kocatepe University ANS Research and Practice Hospital were included into the study between 23.09.2010 and 30.05.2016. Sera samples were investigated by immunofluorescence method for EMA positiveness (Euroimmun, Luebeck, Germany). In order to determine quantitative value of Anti-tTG IgA (EIA) (Orgentec Mainz, Germany) fully automated ELISA device (Alisei, Seac, Firenze, Italy) were used. Results: Out of 1273 patients, 160 were diagnosed with coeliac disease according to ESPGHAN 2012 diagnosis criteria. Out of 160 CD patients, 120 were female, 40 were male. The EMA specificity and sensitivity were calculated as 98% and 80% respectively. Specificity and sensitivity of Anti-tTG IgA were determined as 99% and 96% respectively. Conclusion: The specificity of EMA for CD was excellent because all EMA-positive patients (n = 144) were diagnosed with CD. The presence of human anti-tTG IgA was found as a reliable marker for diagnosis and follow-up the CD. Diagnosis of CD should be established on both the clinical and serologic profiles together.

Keywords: anti-endomysial antibody, anti-tTG IgA, coeliac disease, immunofluorescence assay (IFA)

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