Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Kamini Kaushal

19 Antioxidants: Some Medicinal Plants in Indian System of Medicine Work as Anti-cervical Cancer

Authors: Kamini Kaushal


Medicinal plants of Ayurveda are effective in the treatment of cervical cancer. The aim of this paper is to assess anti cancerous activities of these medicinal plants against cancer. Most of the medicinal plants in Ayurveda are using to treat cervical cancer as name of disease as treatment of YONI VYAPADA. The selected plants has been studied scientifically in India and evidence based written since Vedic era. The compilation results showed potential anti cervical cancer activity of the tested plants. There plants are remaining under the dark due to lack of awareness, lack of popularity and barrier of language. Now this is the time to eye opener regarding the classical text and clinical evidences, so that we can give the hope to world's affected women from this disease. World is waiting for such type of remedy which is having zero side effects, low cost and effective.

Keywords: anti cancerous, cervical cancer, ayurveda, medicinal plants, scientific study, classical text

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18 Measurement and Simulation of Axial Neutron Flux Distribution in Dry Tube of KAMINI Reactor

Authors: Manish Chand, Subhrojit Bagchi, R. Kumar


A new dry tube (DT) has been installed in the tank of KAMINI research reactor, Kalpakkam India. This tube will be used for neutron activation analysis of small to large samples and testing of neutron detectors. DT tube is 375 cm height and 7.5 cm in diameter, located 35 cm away from the core centre. The experimental thermal flux at various axial positions inside the tube has been measured by irradiating the flux monitor (¹⁹⁷Au) at 20kW reactor power. The measured activity of ¹⁹⁸Au and the thermal cross section of ¹⁹⁷Au (n,γ) ¹⁹⁸Au reaction were used for experimental thermal flux measurement. The flux inside the tube varies from 10⁹ to 10¹⁰ and maximum flux was (1.02 ± 0.023) x10¹⁰ n cm⁻²s⁻¹ at 36 cm from the bottom of the tube. The Au and Zr foils without and with cadmium cover of 1-mm thickness were irradiated at the maximum flux position in the DT to find out the irradiation specific input parameters like sub-cadmium to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and the epithermal neutron flux shape factor (α). The f value was 143 ± 5, indicates about 99.3% thermal neutron component and α value was -0.2886 ± 0.0125, indicates hard epithermal neutron spectrum due to insufficient moderation. The measured flux profile has been validated using theoretical model of KAMINI reactor through Monte Carlo N-Particle Code (MCNP). In MCNP, the complex geometry of the entire reactor is modelled in 3D, ensuring minimum approximations for all the components. Continuous energy cross-section data from ENDF-B/VII.1 as well as S (α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions are considered. The neutron flux has been estimated at the corresponding axial locations of the DT using mesh tally. The thermal flux obtained from the experiment shows good agreement with the theoretically predicted values by MCNP, it was within ± 10%. It can be concluded that this MCNP model can be utilized for calculating other important parameters like neutron spectra, dose rate, etc. and multi elemental analysis can be carried out by irradiating the sample at maximum flux position using measured f and α parameters by k₀-NAA standardization.

Keywords: neutron flux, neutron activation analysis, neutron flux shape factor, MCNP, Monte Carlo N-Particle Code

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17 Effect of Different Planting Times and Mulching Materials on Seed Quality and Yield of China Aster Cultivars

Authors: A. A. Bajad, B. P. Sharma, Y. C. Gupta, B. S. Dilt, R. K. Gupta


The present investigations were carried out at the experimental farm of Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, H.P. during 2015 and 2016. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design (factorial) consisting of 48 treatment combinations of four planting dates viz., D1- mid March, D2-mid April, D3-mid May and D4- mid June and two cultivars namely V1- Kamini and V2 -Poornima with six mulching materials M¬0¬- without mulch, M1- Black plastic mulch (100 µ), M2- Silver plastic mulch (100 µ), M3¬- Transparent plastic mulch (100 µ), M3-Transparent plastic mulch (100 µ), M4¬- Pine needle (100 µ) and M5- Grass (1 inch layer). Among different planting times, D4 i.e. mid June planting obtained best results for number of seed per flower (179.38), germination percent (83.92 %), electrical conductivity (0.97 ds/m), seedling length (7.93 cm), seedling dry weight (7.09 mg), seedling vigour index I (763.79), moisture content (7.83 %) and 1000 seed weight (1.94 g). However, seed yield per plant (14.30 g) was recorded to be maximum in mid of March. Among the cultivars, cv. ‘Poornima’ gave best results for number of seed per plant (187.30). However, cv. ‘Kamini’ recorded the best result for seed yield per plant (12.55), electrical conductivity (1.11 ds/m), germination percent (80.47 %), seedling length (6.39 cm), seedling dry weight (5.11 mg), seedling vigour index I (649.49), moisture content (9.28 %) and 1000 seed weight (1.70 g). Silver plastic obtained best results for number of seed per flower (170.10), seed yield per plant (15.66 g), germination percent (80.17 %), electrical conductivity (1.26 ds/m), seedling length (5.88 cm), seedling dry weight (4.46 mg), seedling vigour index I (616.78), Moisture content (9.35 %) and 100 seed weight (1.97 g).

Keywords: cultivars, mulch materials, planting times, flowers

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16 Three-Dimensional Numerical Model of an Earth Air Heat Exchanger under a Constrained Urban Environment in India: Modeling and Validation

Authors: V. Rangarajan, Priyanka Kaushal


This study investigates the effectiveness of a typical Earth Air Heat Exchanger (EATHE) for energy efficient space cooling in an urban environment typified by space and soil-related constraints that preclude an optimal design. It involves the development of a three-dimensional numerical transient model that is validated by measurements at a live site in India. It is found that the model accurately predicts the soil temperatures at various depths as well as the EATHE outlet air temperature. The study shows that such an EATHE, even when designed under constraints, does provide effective space cooling especially during the hot months of the year.

Keywords: earth air heat exchanger (EATHE), India, MATLAB, model, simulation

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15 MEMS based Vibration Energy Harvesting: An overview

Authors: Gaurav Prabhudesai, Shaurya Kaushal, Pulkit Dubey, B. D. Pant


The current race of miniaturization of circuits, systems, modules and networks has resulted in portable and mobile wireless systems having tremendous capabilities with small volume and weight. The power drivers or the power pack, electrically driving these modules have also reduced in proportion. Normally, the power packs in these mobile or fixed systems are batteries, rechargeable or non-rechargeable, which need regular replacement or recharging. Another approach to power these modules is to utilize the ambient energy available for electrical driving to make the system self-sustained. The current paper presents an overview of the different MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) based techniques used for the harvesting of vibration energy to electrically drive a WSN (wireless sensor network) or a mobile module. This kind of system would have enormous applications, the most significant one, may be in cell phones.

Keywords: energy harvesting, WSN, MEMS, piezoelectrics

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14 Comprehensive Interpretation of Leadership from the Narratives in Literature

Authors: Nidhi Kaushal, Sanjit Mishra


Narrative writings in literature are ample source of knowledge and easily understandable. In every old tradition, we found that people learn ethics from oral tales. They had their leaders and lessons of leadership in their stories. In India, we have sufficient amount of stories of leaders. Whether the story is of an ordinary person or a corporate leader of large firm, it always has a unique message of motivation. The objective of this paper is to elaborate the story lines in literature and get the leadership lessons from them, so that we can set up a new concept of leadership based on scholarship of literature. This is our hypothesis that leadership lessons can be learned from the study of literary writings and it can also act an innovative way of learning the management skills through literature. The role of the leader can be familiarly communicated in the form of the tales. Describing a positive psychological narrative from the text is the best way to manifesting an idea into the minds of people. We accomplished this paper that leadership as an attribute can be learned from the folk psychological literary writings.

Keywords: leadership, literature, management, psychology

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13 Single Phase Fluid Flow in Series of Microchannel Connected via Converging-Diverging Section with or without Throat

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Kaushal Kishor, Wasim Khan, Dhananjay Singh, M. S. Alam


Single phase fluid flow through series of uniform microchannels connected via transition section (converging-diverging section with or without throat) was analytically and numerically studied to characterize the flow within the channel and in the transition sections. Three sets of microchannels of diameters 100, 184, and 249 μm were considered for investigation. Each set contains 10 numbers of microchannels of length 20 mm, connected to each other in series via transition sections. Transition section consists of either converging-diverging section with throat or without throat. The effect of non-uniformity in microchannels on pressure drop was determined by passing water/air through the set of channels for Reynolds number 50 to 1000. Compressibility and rarefaction effects in transition sections were also tested analytically and numerically for air flow. The analytical and numerical results show that these configurations can be used in enhancement of transport processes. However, converging-diverging section without throat shows superior performance over with throat configuration.

Keywords: contraction-expansion flow, integrated microchannel, microchannel network, single phase flow

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12 Study of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Life-Orientation in Convicts and Under-Trials

Authors: Sneh Laller, Kamini C. Tanwar


Human beings are social animals. The scenario is changing and people become angry towards petty things and this may lead to committing a crime. Objective: The aim of the present research is: 1. To find out the difference between convicts and under-trials on different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation; 2. To find out the difference between male and female jail inmates on different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation; 3. To find out the relationship between different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation in convicts and under-trials; 4. To find out the relationship between different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation in male and female jail inmates. Method: The study was conducted on 100 participants (consisting of 50 convicts- 25 males and 25 females, and 50 under-trials- 25 males and 25 females); age range was 20-60 years. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 by McCrae, Costa (2010), Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale- II by Leary (1983) and Life Orientation Test-R by Scheier et al. (1994) was used and purposive sampling technique was done for data collection. The t-test was applied to find out the comparison and Pearson correlation was applied to determine the relationship between personality, FNE and life-orientation in both the groups. Results: There is a significant difference in the dimension of personality that is neuroticism and life-orientation in convicts and under-trials and also, in the dimensions of personality such as neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness, and FNE in male and female jail inmates. In convicts the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with life-orientation (r = 0.430**) whereas, in under-trials the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with FNE (r = 0.315*) and another dimension of personality, extraversion shows significant negative correlation with life-orientation (r = -0.409**). In male jail inmates, the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with FNE (r = 0.474**) whereas in female jail inmates, the dimension of personality, openness to experience shows significant negative correlation with FNE (r = -0.356*) and significant positive correlation of neuroticism with life-orientation (r = 0.292*). Conclusion: It was found that under-trials are neurotic and life-oriented than convicts, and female jail inmates are also neurotic and exhibit fear of negative evaluation whereas male jail inmates are extravert and agreeable.

Keywords: convicts, fear of negative evaluation, life-orientation, personality, under-trials

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11 Traffic Safety and Risk Assessment Model by Analysis of Questionnaire Survey: A Case Study of S. G. Highway, Ahmedabad, India

Authors: Abhijitsinh Gohil, Kaushal Wadhvaniya, Kuldipsinh Jadeja


Road Safety is a multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional issue. An effective model can assess the risk associated with highway safety. A questionnaire survey is very essential to identify the events or activities which are causing unsafe condition for traffic on an urban highway. A questionnaire of standard questions including vehicular, human and infrastructure characteristics can be made. Responses from the age wise group of road users can be taken on field. Each question or an event holds a specific risk weightage, which contributes in creating an inappropriate and unsafe flow of traffic. The probability of occurrence of an event can be calculated from the data collected from the road users. Finally, the risk score can be calculated by considering the risk factor and the probability of occurrence of individual event and addition of all risk score for the individual event will give the total risk score of a particular road. Standards for risk score can be made and total risk score can be compared with the standards. Thus road can be categorized based on risk associated and traffic safety on it. With this model, one can assess the need for traffic safety improvement on a given road, and qualitative data can be analysed.

Keywords: probability of occurrence, questionnaire, risk factor, risk score

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10 Using Presentation as a Means to Develop Communication Skills of Engineering Students

Authors: Urvashi Kaushal


With the entry of multinationals in India, engineering students of Indian universities have opportunity to work with the best and the most innovative industries in the world, but in order to compete in the global job market, they require an added competence of communication skills in English. With work places turning global, competence in English can provide the Indian student the added advantage to begin his/her career in the international market. The present method of teaching English in any engineering college across Gujarat mostly concentrates on developing writing, and reading skills. Developing speech becomes a secondary topic owing to the old trend of lecturing in the class room and the huge strength of the class. This paper aims to highlight the importance of improving speaking skills of engineering students. It also insists that presentations can be used as a viable method to enhance the communication skills of these students. Presentations force students to plan, prepare, practice and perfect their communication skills which will enable them to get a foothold in the industry. The paper also discusses one such experiment carried out at the author’s institute and the response it received. Further, such experimental language learning approach is bound to have some limitations and obstacles. The paper suggests ways to overcome such limitations and strives to develop an interesting means of developing communication skills of the engineering students.

Keywords: engineering, English, presentation, communication skills

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9 Wind Resource Estimation and Economic Analysis for Rakiraki, Fiji

Authors: Kaushal Kishore


Immense amount of imported fuels are used in Fiji for electricity generation, transportation and for carrying out miscellaneous household work. To alleviate its dependency on fossil fuel, paramount importance has been given to instigate the utilization of renewable energy sources for power generation and to reduce the environmental dilapidation. Amongst the many renewable energy sources, wind has been considered as one of the best identified renewable sources that are comprehensively available in Fiji. In this study the wind resource assessment for three locations in Rakiraki, Fiji has been carried out. The wind resource estimation at Rokavukavu, Navolau and at Tuvavatu has been analyzed. The average wind speed at 55 m above ground level (a.g.l) at Rokavukavu, Navolau, and Tuvavatu sites are 5.91 m/s, 8.94 m/s and 8.13 m/s with the turbulence intensity of 14.9%, 17.1%, and 11.7% respectively. The moment fitting method has been used to estimate the Weibull parameter and the power density at each sites. A high resolution wind resource map for the three locations has been developed by using Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The results obtained from WAsP exhibited good wind potential at Navolau and Tuvavatu sites. A wind farm has been proposed at Navolau and Tuvavatu site that comprises six Vergnet 275 kW wind turbines at each site. The annual energy production (AEP) for each wind farm is estimated and an economic analysis is performed. The economic analysis for the proposed wind farms at Navolau and Tuvavatu sites showed a payback period of 5 and 6 years respectively.

Keywords: annual energy production, Rakiraki Fiji, turbulence intensity, Weibull parameter, wind speed, Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program

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8 Outcomes of Pregnancy in Women with TPO Positive Status after Appropriate Dose Adjustments of Thyroxin: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Revathi S. Rajan, Pratibha Malik, Nupur Garg, Smitha Avula, Kamini A. Rao


This study aimed to analyse the pregnancy outcomes in patients with TPO positivity after appropriate L-Thyroxin supplementation with close surveillance. All pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Milann-The Fertility Center, Bangalore, India- from Aug 2013 to Oct 2014 whose booking TSH was more than 2.5 mIU/L were included along with those pregnant women with prior hypothyroidism who were TPO positive. Those with TPO positive status were vigorously managed with appropriate thyroxin supplementation and the doses were readjusted every 3 to 4 weeks until delivery. Women with recurrent pregnancy loss were also tested for TPO positivity and if tested positive, were monitored serially with TSH and fT4 levels every 3 to 4 weeks and appropriately supplemented with thyroxin when the levels fluctuated. The testing was done after an informed consent in all these women. The statistical software namely SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, MedCalc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0 and R environment ver.2.11.1 were used for the analysis of the data. 460 pregnant women were screened for thyroid dysfunction at booking of which 52% were hypothyroid. Majority of them (31.08%) were subclinically hypothyroid and the remaining were overt. 25% of the total no. of patients screened were TPO positive. The various pregnancy complications that were observed in the TPO positive women were gestational glucose intolerance [60%], threatened abortion [21%], midtrimester abortion [4.3%], premature rupture of membranes [4.3%], cervical funneling [4.3%] and fetal growth restriction [3.5%]. 95.6% of the patients who followed up till the end delivered beyond 30 weeks. 42.6% of these patients had previous history of recurrent abortions or adverse obstetric outcome and 21.7% of the delivered babies required NICU admission. Obstetric outcomes in our study in terms of midtrimester abortions, placental abruption, and preterm delivery improved for the better after close monitoring of the thyroid hormone [TSH and fT4] levels every 3 to 4 weeks with appropriate dose adjustment throughout pregnancy. Euthyroid women with TPO positive status enrolled in the study incidentally were those with recurrent abortions/infertility and required thyroxin supplements due to elevated Thyroid hormone (TSH, fT4) levels during the course of their pregnancy. Significant associations were found with age>30 years and Hyperhomocysteinemia [p=0.017], recurrent pregnancy loss or previous adverse obstetric outcomes [p=0.067] and APLA [p=0.029]. TPO antibody levels >600 I U/ml were significantly associated with development of gestational hypertension [p=0.041] and fetal growth restriction [p=0.082]. Euthyroid women with TPO positivity were also screened periodically to counter fluctuations of the thyroid hormone levels with appropriate thyroxin supplementation. Thus, early identification along with aggressive management of thyroid dysfunction and stratification of these patients based on their TPO status with appropriate thyroxin supplementation beginning in the first trimester will aid risk modulation and also help avert complications.

Keywords: TPO antibody, subclinical hypothyroidism, anti nuclear antibody, thyroxin

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7 Sun-Light Driven Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline Antibiotics Employing Hydrothermally Synthesized sno₂/mnv₂o₆ Heterojunction

Authors: Sandeep Kaushal


Tetracycline (TC) is a widespread antibiotic that is utilised in a multitude of countries, particularly China, India, and the United States of America, due to its low cost and potency in boosting livestock production. Unfortunately, certain antibiotics can be hazardous to living beings due to metal complexation and aggregation, which can lead to teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. Heterojunction photocatalysts are promising for the effective removal of pollutants like antibiotics. Herein, a simple, economical, and pollution-less hydrothermal technique was used to construct SnO₂/MnV₂O₆heterojunction with varying amounts of tin dioxide (SO₂). Various sophisticated techniques like XRD, FTIR, XPS, FESEM, HRTEM, and PLand Raman spectroscopy demonstrated the successful synthesis of SnO₂/MnV₂O₆ heterojunction photocatalysts.BET surface area analysis revealed that the as-synthesized heterojunction has a favorable surface area and surface properties for efficacious degradation of tetracycline. Under the direct sunlight exposure, the SnO₂/MnV₂O₆ heterojunction possessed superior photodegradation activity toward TC than the pristine SnO₂ and MnV2O6owing to their excellent adsorption abilities suitable band positions, large surface areas along with the effective charge-transfer ability of the heterojunction. The SnO₂/MnV₂O₆ heterojunction possessed extraordinary efficiency for the photocatalytic degradation of TC antibiotic (98% in 60 min) with an apparent rate constant of 0.092 min–1. In the degradation experiments, photocatalytic activities of as-synthesized heterojunction were studied by varying different factors such as time contact, catalyst dose, and solution pH. The role of reactive species in antibiotics was validated by radical scavenging studies, which indicated that.OH, radical has a critical role in photocatalytic degradation. Moreover, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) investigations were employed to anticipate a plausible mechanism for TC degradation.

Keywords: photocatalytic degradation, tetracycline, heterojunction, LC-MS

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6 Glyco-Conjugated Gold Nanorods Based Biosensor for Optical Detection and Photothermal Ablation of Food Borne Bacteria

Authors: Shimayali Kaushal, Nitesh Priyadarshi, Nitin Kumar Singhal


Food borne bacterial species have been identified as major pathogens in most of the severe pathogen-related diseases among humans which result in great loss to human health and food industry. Conventional methods like plating and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) are time-consuming, laborious and require specialized instruments. Nanotechnology has emerged as a great field in case of rapid detection of pathogens in recent years. The AuNRs material has good electro-optical properties due to its larger light absorption band and scattering in surface plasmon resonance wavelength regions. By exploiting the sugar-based adhesion properties of microorganism, we can use the glycoconjugates capped gold nanorods as a potential nanobiosensor to detect the foodborne pathogen. In the present study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated gold nanorods (AuNRs) were prepared and functionalized with different types of carbohydrates and further characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reactivity of above said nano-biosensor was probed by lectin binding assay and also by different strains of foodborne bacteria by using spectrophotometric and microscopic techniques. Due to the specific interaction of probe with foodborne bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), our nanoprobe has shown significant and selective ablation of targeted bacteria. Our findings suggest that our nanoprobe can be an ideal candidate for selective optical detection of food pathogens and can reduce loss to the food industry.

Keywords: glyco-conjugates, gold nanorods, nanobiosensor, nanoprobe

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5 Analysis of Secondary Peak in Hα Emission Profile during Gas Puffing in Aditya Tokamak

Authors: Harshita Raj, Joydeep Ghosh, Rakesh L. Tanna, Prabal K. Chattopadhyay, K. A. Jadeja, Sharvil Patel, Kaushal M. Patel, Narendra C. Patel, S. B. Bhatt, V. K. Panchal, Chhaya Chavda, C. N. Gupta, D. Raju, S. K. Jha, J. Raval, S. Joisa, S. Purohit, C. V. S. Rao, P. K. Atrey, Umesh Nagora, R. Manchanda, M. B. Chowdhuri, Nilam Ramaiya, S. Banerjee, Y. C. Saxena


Efficient gas fueling is a critical aspect that needs to be mastered in order to maintain plasma density, to carry out fusion. This requires a fair understanding of fuel recycling in order to optimize the gas fueling. In Aditya tokamak, multiple gas puffs are used in a precise and controlled manner, for hydrogen fueling during the flat top of plasma discharge which has been instrumental in achieving discharges with enhanced density as well as energy confinement time. Following each gas puff, we observe peaks in temporal profile of Hα emission, Soft X-ray (SXR) and chord averaged electron density in a number of discharges, indicating efficient gas fueling. Interestingly, Hα temporal profile exhibited an additional peak following the peak corresponding to each gas puff. These additional peak Hα appeared in between the two gas puffs, indicating the presence of a secondary hydrogen source apart from the gas puffs. A thorough investigation revealed that these secondary Hα peaks coincide with Hard X- ray bursts which come from the interaction of runaway electrons with vessel limiters. This leads to consider that the runaway electrons (REs), which hit the wall, in turn, bring out the absorbed hydrogen and oxygen from the wall and makes the interaction of REs with limiter a secondary hydrogen source. These observations suggest that runaway electron induced recycling should also be included in recycling particle source in the particle balance calculations in tokamaks. Observation of two Hα peaks associated with one gas puff and their roles in enhancing and maintaining plasma density in Aditya tokamak will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: fusion, gas fueling, recycling, Tokamak, Aditya

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4 Entrepreneurship Development for Socio-Economic Prosperity of Pineapple Growers in Nagaland

Authors: Kaushal Jha


India is one of the major producers of pineapple contributing a significant part in terms of total world production of pineapple. It has spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions as a commercial fruit crop. In India, the cultivation of pineapple is confined to high rainfall and humid coastal region in the peninsular India and hilly areas of Northeastern region of India. Nagaland, one of the potential states of North-East India is basically an agrarian state having been endowed with favourable agro climatic conditions and a rich bio-diversity of flora and fauna. Agriculture contributes significantly to the state’s economy. Pineapple is an important fruit crop grown in Nagaland and has a very high potential for doubling the income of farmers in comparison to the traditional practices of rice cultivation. This requires improved farm management practices as well as a genre of entrepreneurial intentions and capabilities. The present study aimed at analysing the dimensions of entrepreneurial skill development among the pineapple growers of Nagaland. Medziphema block under Dimapur district is considered as the pineapple valley of Nagaland. Pineapple grown in this area is considered as one of the best in Nagaland in terms of its sweetness as well as quality. A multistage sampling was undertaken for conducting the present study. Medziphema rural development block was selected purposively for this purpose. The sample was drawn from three leading pineapple producing villages under Medziphema block. The respondents were selected based on random sampling procedure. Data were collected from the respondents using a pre-tested structured schedule. Major findings revealed that entrepreneurial skill development was one of the important factors to augment the increase in the sustained flow of income among the target farmers. Development of farm leadership, improving self esteem, innovativeness, economic motivation, orientation towards management of farm resources and value addition were identified as important dimensions for promoting entrepreneurial skill development and bringing prosperity to the farmers.

Keywords: skill development, entrepreneurial attributes, pineapple growers, Nagaland

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3 Unusual Weld Failures of Rotary Compressor during Hydraulic Tests: Analysis revealed Boron Induced Cracking in Fusion Zone

Authors: Kaushal Kishore, Vaibhav Jain, Hrishikesh Jugade, Saurabh Hadas, Manashi Adhikary, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Bhattacharyya


Rotary air compressors in air conditioners are used to suck excessive volume of air from the atmosphere in a small space to provide drive to the components attached to them. Hydraulic test is one of the most important methods to decide the suitability of these components for usage. In the present application, projection welding is used to join the hot rolled steel sheets after forming for manufacturing of air compressors. These sheets belong to two different high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel grades. It was observed that one batch of compressors made of a particular grade was cracking from the weld, whereas those made of another grade were passing the hydraulic tests. Cracking was repeatedly observed from the weld location. A detailed comparative study of the compressors which failed and successfully passed pressure tests has been presented. Location of crack initiation was identified to be the interface of fusion zone/heat affected zone. Shear dimples were observed on the fracture surface confirming the ductile mode of failure. Hardness profile across the weld revealed a sharp rise in hardness in the fusion zone. This was attributed to the presence of untempered martensitic lath in the fusion zone. A sharp metallurgical notch existed at the heat affected zone/fusion zone interface due to transition in microstructure from acicular ferrite and bainite in HAZ to untempered martensite in the fusion zone. In contrast, welds which did not fail during the pressure tests showed a smooth hardness profile with no abnormal rise in hardness in the fusion zone. The bainitic microstructure was observed in the fusion zone of successful welds. This difference in microstructural constituents in the fusion zone was attributed to the presence of a small amount of boron (0.002 wt. %) in the sheets which were cracking. Trace amount of boron is known to substantially increase the hardenability of HSLA steel, and cooling rate during resolidification in the fusion zone is sufficient to form martensite. Post-weld heat treatment was recommended to transform untempered martensite to tempered martensite with lower hardness.

Keywords: compressor, cracking, martensite, weld, boron, hardenability, high strength low alloy steel

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2 Root Cause Analysis of a Catastrophically Failed Output Pin Bush Coupling of a Raw Material Conveyor Belt

Authors: Kaushal Kishore, Suman Mukhopadhyay, Susovan Das, Manashi Adhikary, Sandip Bhattacharyya


In integrated steel plants, conveyor belts are widely used for transferring raw materials from one location to another. An output pin bush coupling attached with a conveyor transferring iron ore fines and fluxes failed after two years of service life. This led to an operational delay of approximately 15 hours. This study is focused on failure analysis of the coupling and recommending counter-measures to prevent any such failures in the future. Investigation consisted of careful visual observation, checking of operating parameters, stress calculation and analysis, macro and micro-fractography, material characterizations like chemical and metallurgical analysis and tensile and impact testings. The fracture occurred from an unusually sharp double step. There were multiple corrosion pits near the step that aggravated the situation. Inner contact surface of the coupling revealed differential abrasion that created a macroscopic difference in the height of the component. This pointed towards misalignment of the coupling beyond a threshold limit. In addition to these design and installation issues, material of the coupling did not meet the quality standards. These were made up of grey cast iron having graphite morphology intermediate between random distribution (Type A) and rosette pattern (Type B). This manifested as a marked reduction in impact toughness and tensile strength of the component. These findings corroborated well with the brittle mode of fracture that might have occurred during minor impact loading while loading of conveyor belt with raw materials from height. Simulated study was conducted to examine the effect of corrosion pits on tensile and impact toughness of grey cast iron. It was observed that pitting marginally reduced tensile strength and ductility. However, there was marked (up to 45%) reduction in impact toughness due to pitting. Thus, it became evident that failure of the coupling occurred due to combination of factors like inferior material, misalignment, poor step design and corrosion pitting. Recommendation for life enhancement of coupling included the use of tougher SG 500/7 grade, incorporation of proper fillet radius for the step, correction of alignment and application of corrosion resistant organic coating to prevent pitting.

Keywords: brittle fracture, cast iron, coupling, double step, pitting, simulated impact tests

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1 Sustainable Solid Waste Management Solutions for Asian Countries Using the Potential in Municipal Solid Waste of Indian Cities

Authors: S. H. Babu Gurucharan, Priyanka Kaushal


Majority of the world's population is expected to live in the Asia and Pacific region by 2050 and thus their cities will generate the maximum waste. India, being the second populous country in the world, is an ideal case study to identify a solution for Asian countries. Waste minimisation and utilisation have always been part of the Indian culture. During rapid urbanisation, our society lost the art of waste minimisation and utilisation habits. Presently, Waste is not considered as a resource, thus wasting an opportunity to tap resources. The technologies in vogue are not suited for effective treatment of large quantities of generated solid waste, without impacting the environment and the population. If not treated efficiently, Waste can become a silent killer. The article is trying to highlight the Indian municipal solid waste scenario as a key indicator of Asian waste management and recommend sustainable waste management and suggest effective solutions to treat the Solid Waste. The methods followed during the research were to analyse the solid waste data on characteristics of solid waste generated in Indian cities, then evaluate the current technologies to identify the most suitable technology in Indian conditions with minimal environmental impact, interact with the technology technical teams, then generate a technical process specific to Indian conditions and further examining the environmental impact and advantages/ disadvantages of the suggested process. The most important finding from the study was the recognition that most of the current municipal waste treatment technologies being employed, operate sub-optimally in Indian conditions. Therefore, the study using the available data, generated heat and mass balance of processes to arrive at the final technical process, which was broadly divided into Waste processing, Waste Treatment, Power Generation, through various permutations and combinations at each stage to ensure that the process is techno-commercially viable in Indian conditions. Then environmental impact was arrived through secondary sources and a comparison of environmental impact of different technologies was tabulated. The major advantages of the suggested process are the effective use of waste for resource generation both in terms of maximised power output or conversion to eco-friendly products like biofuels or chemicals using advanced technologies, minimum environmental impact and the least landfill requirement. The major drawbacks are the capital, operations and maintenance costs. The existing technologies in use in Indian municipalities have their own limitations and the shortlisted technology is far superior to other technologies in vogue. Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste with an efficient green power generation is possible through a combination of suitable environment-friendly technologies. A combination of bio-reactors and plasma-based gasification technology is most suitable for Indian Waste and in turn for Asian waste conditions.

Keywords: calorific value, gas fermentation, landfill, municipal solid waste, plasma gasification, syngas

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