Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 113

Search results for: taxonomy

113 Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy for Assessment in Engineering Education

Authors: K. Sindhu, V. Shubha Rao

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The goal of every faculty is to guide students to learn fundamental concepts and also improve thinking skills. Curriculum questionnaires must be framed, which would facilitate students to improve their thinking skills. Improving thinking skill is a difficult task and one of the ways to achieve this is to frame questionnaires using Bloom’s Taxonomy. Bloom’s Taxonomy helps the faculty to assess the students in a systematic approach which involves students performing successfully at each level in a systematic manner. In this paper, we have discussed on Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy and how to frame our questions based on the taxonomy for assessment. We have also presented mapping the questions with the taxonomy table which shows the mapping of the questions in knowledge and cognitive domain.

Keywords: bloom’s taxonomy, assessment, questions, engineering education

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112 A Taxonomy of Behavior for a Medical Coordinator by Utlizing Leadership Styles

Authors: Aryana Collins Jackson, Elisabetta Bevacqua, Pierre De Loor, Ronan Querrec

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This paper presents a taxonomy of non-technical skills, communicative intentions, and behavior for an individual acting as a medical coordinator. In medical emergency situations, a leader among the group is imperative to both patient health and team emotional and mental health. Situational Leadership is used to make clear and easy-to-follow guidelines for behavior depending on circumstantial factors. Low-level leadership behaviors belonging to two different styles, directive and supporting, are identified from literature and are included in the proposed taxonomy. The high-level information in the taxonomy consists of the necessary non-technical skills belonging to a medical coordinator: situation awareness, decision making, task management, and teamwork. Finally, communicative intentions, dimensions, and functions are included. Thus this work brings high-level and low-level information - medical non-technical skills, communication capabilities, and leadership behavior - into a single versatile taxonomy of behavior.

Keywords: human behavior, leadership styles, medical, taxonomy

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111 Neither ‘Institutional’ nor ‘Remedial’: Court-Ordered Trusts in English and Canadian Private Law

Authors: Adam Reilly

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The major claim of this paper is that both the English and Canadian branches of the common law have been ill-served by the 'institutional'/'remedial' taxonomy of constructive trusts; what shall be termed the 'orthodox taxonomy'.  The orthodox taxonomy is found both within the case law and the attendant academic commentary.  In truth, the orthodox taxonomy is especially dangerous because it contains a kernel of truth together with a misconception; the interplay of both has caused more harm than the misconception alone would have managed.  The kernel of truth is that some trusts arise automatically when the necessary facts occur ('institutional') and other trusts arise only by way of court order ('remedial').  The misconception is that these two labels represent an exhaustive nomenclature of two distinct 'kinds' of constructive trust such that any particular constructive trust must necessarily be 'institutional' if it is not 'remedial' and vice versa.  The central difficulty is that our understanding of 'remedial' trusts is relatively poor, with the result that anyone using the orthodox taxonomy shall be led astray in one of three ways: (i) by rejecting it wholesale; (ii) by adopting one ‘type’ of trust to the exclusion of the other (as in English law); or (iii) by applying it as an analytical device with sub-optimal results which are difficult to defend.  This paper shall seek to resolve these difficulties by clarifying the criteria for identifying and distinguishing true 'remedial' constructive trusts.  It shall then provide some working examples of how English and Canadian private law at present misunderstand constructive trusts and how that misunderstanding might be resolved once we distinguish the orthodox taxonomy's kernel of truth from the misconception outlined above.

Keywords: comparative law, constructive trusts, equitable remedies, remedial constructive trusts

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110 A Taxonomy Proposal on Criterion Structure for Evaluating Freight Village Concepts in Early-Stage Design Projects

Authors: Rıza Gürhan Korkut, Metin Çelik, Süleyman Özkaynak

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The early-stage design and development projects for the freight village initiatives require a comprehensive analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data. Considering the literature review on structural and operational management requirements, this study proposed an original taxonomy on criterion structure to assess freight village conceptualization. The potential challenges and uncertainties of the developed taxonomy are extended. Besides requirement analysis, this study is also expected to contribute to forthcoming research on benchmarking of freight villages in different regions. The methodology used in this research is a systematic review on several articles as per their modelling approaches, sustainability, entities and decisions made together with the uncertainties and features of their models taken into consideration. The major findings of the study that are the categories for assessing the projects attributes on their environmental, socio-economical, accessibility and location aspects.

Keywords: logistics centers, freight village, operational management, taxonomy

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109 A Taxonomy of the Informational Content of Virtual Heritage Serious Games

Authors: Laurence C. Hanes, Robert J. Stone

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Video games have reached a point of huge commercial success as well as wide familiarity with audiences both young and old. Much attention and research have also been directed towards serious games and their potential learning affordances. It is little surprise that the field of virtual heritage has taken a keen interest in using serious games to present cultural heritage information to users, with applications ranging from museums and cultural heritage institutions, to academia and research, to schools and education. Many researchers have already documented their efforts to develop and distribute virtual heritage serious games. Although attempts have been made to create classifications of the different types of virtual heritage games (somewhat akin to the idea of game genres), no formal taxonomy has yet been produced to define the different types of cultural heritage and historical information that can be presented through these games at a content level, and how the information can be manifested within the game. This study proposes such a taxonomy. First the informational content is categorized as heritage or historical, then further divided into tangible, intangible, natural, and analytical. Next, the characteristics of the manifestation within the game are covered. The means of manifestation, level of demonstration, tone, and focus are all defined and explained. Finally, the potential learning outcomes of the content are discussed. A demonstration of the taxonomy is then given by describing the informational content and corresponding manifestations within several examples of virtual heritage serious games as well as commercial games. It is anticipated that this taxonomy will help designers of virtual heritage serious games to think about and clearly define the information they are presenting through their games, and how they are presenting it. Another result of the taxonomy is that it will enable us to frame cultural heritage and historical information presented in commercial games with a critical lens, especially where there may not be explicit learning objectives. Finally, the results will also enable us to identify shared informational content and learning objectives between any virtual heritage serious and/or commercial games.

Keywords: informational content, serious games, taxonomy, virtual heritage

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108 Ranking of Provinces in Iran for Capital Formation in Spatial Planning with Numerical Taxonomy Technique (An Improvement) Case Study: Agriculture Sector

Authors: Farhad Nouparast

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For more production we need more capital formation. Capital formation in each country should be based on comparative advantages in different economic sectors due to the different production possibility curves. In regional planning, recognizing the relative advantages and consequently investing in more production requires identifying areas with the necessary capabilities and location of each region compared to other regions. In this article, ranking of Iran's provinces is done according to the specific and given variables as the best investment position in agricultural activity. So we can provide the necessary background for investment analysis in different regions of the country to formulate national and regional planning and execute investment projects. It is used factor analysis technique and numerical taxonomy analysis to do this in thisarticle. At first, the provinces are homogenized and graded according to the variables using cross-sectional data obtained from the agricultural census and population and housing census of Iran as data matrix. The results show that which provinces have the most potential for capital formation in agronomy sub-sector. Taxonomy classifies organisms based on similar genetic traits in biology and botany. Numerical taxonomy using quantitative methods controls large amounts of information and get the number of samples and categories and take them based on inherent characteristics and differences indirectly accommodates. Numerical taxonomy is related to multivariate statistics.

Keywords: Capital Formation, Factor Analysis, Multivariate statistics, Numerical Taxonomy Analysis, Production, Ranking, Spatial Planning

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107 Methodology for Developing an Intelligent Tutoring System Based on Marzano’s Taxonomy

Authors: Joaquin Navarro Perales, Ana Lidia Franzoni Velázquez, Francisco Cervantes Pérez

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The Mexican educational system faces diverse challenges related with the quality and coverage of education. The development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) may help to solve some of them by helping teachers to customize their classes according to the performance of the students in online courses. In this work, we propose the adaptation of a functional ITS based on Bloom’s taxonomy called Sistema de Apoyo Generalizado para la Enseñanza Individualizada (SAGE), to measure student’s metacognition and their emotional response based on Marzano’s taxonomy. The students and the system will share the control over the advance in the course, so they can improve their metacognitive skills. The system will not allow students to get access to subjects not mastered yet. The interaction between the system and the student will be implemented through Natural Language Processing techniques, thus avoiding the use of sensors to evaluate student’s response. The teacher will evaluate student’s knowledge utilization, which is equivalent to the last cognitive level in Marzano’s taxonomy.

Keywords: intelligent tutoring systems, student modelling, metacognition, affective computing, natural language processing

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106 Case Studies in Three Domains of Learning: Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor

Authors: Zeinabsadat Haghshenas

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Bloom’s Taxonomy has been changed during the years. The idea of this writing is about the revision that has happened in both facts and terms. It also contains case studies of using cognitive Bloom’s taxonomy in teaching geometric solids to the secondary school students, affective objectives in a creative workshop for adults and psychomotor objectives in fixing a malfunctioned refrigerator lamp. There is also pointed to the important role of classification objectives in adult education as a way to prevent memory loss.

Keywords: adult education, affective domain, cognitive domain, memory loss, psychomotor domain

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105 Types of Innovation Management Office and Their Roles and Responsibilities in Supporting the Innovation Management Process from Organisational Strategic Foresight to Managing Innovation Project Portfolios

Authors: Bakr Zade, Paolo Cervera

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With the aim of maximising return on innovation investments, organisations create central units to support successful implementation of innovation management initiatives. The support units–referred to in this research as innovation management offices (IMOs)–range from small teams of innovation management champions to fully resourced centres of excellence for innovation management. However, roles and responsibilities of IMOs vary in different organisations. This research investigates the different types of IMO in organisations, based on their different roles and responsibilities in supporting innovation management processes. The research uses grounded theory methodology to uncover an IMO taxonomy from emergent concepts during innovation management maturity assessment exercises in twelve organisations from the United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates. The taxonomy distinguishes five types of IMO, based on their roles and responsibilities in supporting innovation management processes, from organisational strategic foresight to managing innovation management project portfolios. The IMO taxonomy addresses a gap in research into innovation management support in organisations and offers a practical framework that diverse organisations can appreciate and use in designing IMOs that are aligned with their innovation management visions and strategies.

Keywords: future foresight, future shaping, innovation management, innovation management office, portfolio management

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104 Linking Theory to Practice: An Analysis of Papers Submitted by Participants in a Teacher Mentoring Course

Authors: Varda Gil, Ella Shoval, Tussia Mira

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Teacher mentoring is a complex practical profession whose unique characteristic is the teacher-mentors' commitment to helping teachers link theory with teaching practice in the process of decision-making and in their reflections on teaching. The aim of this research is to examine the way practicing teacher-mentors participating in a teacher mentoring course made the connection between theory and practice. The researchers analyzed 20 final papers submitted by participants in a course to train teacher mentors. The participants were all veteran high-school teachers. The course comprised 112 in-class hours in addition to mentoring novices in the field. The course covered the following topics: The teacher-mentors' perception of their role; formative and summative evaluation of the novices; tutoring strategies and tools; types of learners; and ways of communicating and dealing with novice teachers' resistance to counseling. The course participants were required to write a 4-5 page reflective summary of their field mentoring practice. In addition, they were required to link theories explicitly learned in the course to their practice in the field. A qualitative analysis of the papers led to the creation of the taxonomy of the link between theory and practice relating to four topics: The kinds of links made between theory and practice, the quality of these links, the links made between private teaching theories and official teaching theory, and the qualities of these links. This taxonomy may prove to be a useful tool in the teacher-mentor training processes.

Keywords: taxonomy, teacher-mentors, theory, practice, teacher-mentor training

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103 Innovative Business Education Pedagogy: A Case Study of Action Learning at NITIE, Mumbai

Authors: Sudheer Dhume, T. Prasad

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There are distinct signs of Business Education losing its sheen. It is more so in developing countries. One of the reasons is the value addition at the end of 2 year MBA program is not matching with the requirements of present times and expectations of the students. In this backdrop, Pedagogy Innovation has become prerequisite for making our MBA programs relevant and useful. This paper is the description and analysis of innovative Action Learning pedagogical approach adopted by a group of faculty members at NITIE Mumbai. It not only promotes multidisciplinary research but also enhances integration of the functional areas skillsets in the students. The paper discusses the theoretical bases of this pedagogy and evaluates the effectiveness of it vis-à-vis conventional pedagogical tools. The evaluation research using Bloom’s taxonomy framework showed that this blended method of Business Education is much superior as compared to conventional pedagogy.

Keywords: action learning, blooms taxonomy, business education, innovation, pedagogy

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102 Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Taxonomy Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class

Authors: M. Mayuasti, Hevriani Sevrika, Armilia Riza

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This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension

Keywords: critical thinking, blooms’ critical thinking questioning strategy, specific purposes class, English

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101 A Taxonomy of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Kardi, R. Zagrouba, M. Alqahtani

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The Internet of Everything (IoE) presents today a very attractive and motivating field of research. It is basically based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in which the routing task is the major analysis topic. In fact, it directly affects the effectiveness and the lifetime of the network. This paper, developed from recent works and based on extensive researches, proposes a taxonomy of routing protocols in WSNs. Our main contribution is that we propose a classification model based on nine classes namely application type, delivery mode, initiator of communication, network architecture, path establishment (route discovery), network topology (structure), protocol operation, next hop selection and latency-awareness and energy-efficient routing protocols. In order to provide a total classification pattern to serve as reference for network designers, each class is subdivided into possible subclasses, presented, and discussed using different parameters such as purposes and characteristics.

Keywords: routing, sensor, survey, wireless sensor networks, WSNs

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100 Greyscale: A Tree-Based Taxonomy for Grey Literature Published by Fisheries Agencies

Authors: Tatiana Tunon, Gottfried Pestal

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Government agencies responsible for the management of fisheries resources publish many types of grey literature, and these materials are increasingly accessible to the public on agency websites. However, scope and quality vary considerably, and end-users need meta-data about the report series when deciding whether to use the information (e.g. apply the methods, include the results in a systematic review), or when prioritizing materials for archiving (e.g. library holdings, reference databases). A proposed taxonomy for these report series was developed based on a review of 41 report series from 6 government agencies in 4 countries (Canada, New Zealand, Scotland, and United States). Each report series was categorized according to multiple criteria describing peer-review process, content, and purpose. A robust classification tree was then fitted to these descriptions, and the resulting taxonomic groups were used to compare agency output from 4 countries using reports available in their online repositories.

Keywords: classification tree, fisheries, government, grey literature

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99 Triadic Relationship of Icon Design for Semi-Literate Communities

Authors: Peng-Hui Maffee Wan, Klarissa Ting Ting Chang, Rax Suen Chun Lung

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Icons, or pictorial and graphical objects, are commonly used in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) fields as the mediator in order to communicate information to users. Yet there has been little studies focusing on a majority of the world’s population, semi-literate communities, in terms of the fundamental know-how for designing icons for such population. In this study, two sets of icons belonging in different icon taxonomy, abstract and concrete are designed for a mobile application for semi-literate agricultural communities. In this paper, we propose a triadic relationship of an icon, namely meaning, task and mental image, which inherits the triadic relationship of a sign. User testing with the application and a post-pilot questionnaire are conducted as the experimental approach in two rural villages in India. Icons belonging to concrete taxonomy perform better than abstract icons on the premise that the design of the icon fulfills the underlying rules of the proposed triadic relationship.

Keywords: icon, GUI, mobile app, semi-literate

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98 Host Range and Taxonomy of Hairy Caterpillars (Erebidae: Lepidoptera) in Different Cropping Ecosystems

Authors: Mallikarjun Warad, C. M. Kalleshwaraswamy, P. R. Shashank

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Studies were conducted to record the occurrence of different species of hairy caterpillar on different host plants in and around Shivamogga, Karnataka, India. Twelve genera of hairy caterpillars belonging to Arctiinae and Lymantriinae were recorded on different host plants and reared to adults in laboratory on their respective hosts. The Porthesia sp. feed on castor, Creatonotus gangis on cocoa, Perina nuda on fig, Pericalia ricini on pigeon pea, Utetheisa pulchella on sunhemp and Euproctis sp. on paddy and banana. Illustrations of immature and adults were made to associate them. Along with this, light traps were also set during the rainy season, to capture adults of hairy caterpillars. An illustrated identification key was provided for easy and accurate identification of adult of hairy caterpillars based on their morphological (male genitalial) characters. The study through a light on the existence of sexual dimorphism, polyphagous nature and diapause are the major hindrance in taxonomic identification. Hence, attempts were made to address these issues in the study.

Keywords: Erebidae, hairy caterpillars, male genitalia, taxonomy

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97 Taxonomic Study of Squirrel Order Rodentia, Family Sciuridea of District Jamshoro Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Liaquat Ali, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Muhammad Yusuf Sheikh

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The squirrel commonly known as ‘Gulhari’ belongs to the order Rodentia, family sciuridea, its sub-species inhabit tropical to sub tropical regions of Asia. The core aim of the present study is to investigate the taxonomy of squirrel in District Jamshoro. Sampling was obtained for the taxonomic identification from various adjoining areas of District Jamshoro by non random method. During present study a total number of 107 specimens were collected from July 2018 to December 2018, specimens were collected from District Jamshoro it was observed that the prevalence of the sub-species Funambulus tristriatus numarius (23.3%), Funambulus pennant tulescens (23.3%) was high while Funambulus tristriatus tristriatus ((20.5%), Funambulus palmarun brodie (18.6%) and the minimum prevalence Funambulus palmaruns palmaruns (14.1%). In the present research, it is established that the climate factors, altitude has principal importance in the poor density of squirrel.

Keywords: Jamshoro District Pakistan, squirrel, taxonomy, prevalence

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96 LORA: A Learning Outcome Modelling Approach for Higher Education

Authors: Aqeel Zeid, Hasna Anees, Mohamed Adheeb, Mohamed Rifan, Kalpani Manathunga

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To achieve constructive alignment in a higher education program, a clear set of learning outcomes must be defined. Traditional learning outcome definition techniques such as Bloom’s taxonomy are not written to be utilized by the student. This might be disadvantageous for students in student-centric learning settings where the students are expected to formulate their own learning strategies. To solve the problem, we propose the learning outcome relation and aggregation (LORA) model. To achieve alignment, we developed learning outcome, assessment, and resource authoring tools which help teachers to tag learning outcomes during creation. A pilot study was conducted with an expert panel consisting of experienced professionals in the education domain to evaluate whether the LORA model and tools present an improvement over the traditional methods. The panel unanimously agreed that the model and tools are beneficial and effective. Moreover, it helped them model learning outcomes in a more student centric and descriptive way.

Keywords: learning design, constructive alignment, Bloom’s taxonomy, learning outcome modelling

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95 Diversity and Taxonomy: Malaysian Marine Algae Genus Halimeda (Halimedaceae, Chlorophyta)

Authors: Nur Farah Ain Zainee, Ahmad Ismail, Nazlina Ibrahim, Asmida Ismail

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The study of genus Halimeda in Malaysia is in the early stage due to less specific study on its taxonomy. Most of the previous research tend to choose other genus such as Caulerpa and Gracilaria because of the potential of being utilized. The identification of Halimeda is complex by the high morphological variation within individual species due to different types of habitat and the changes in composition of seawater. The study was completed to study the diversity and distribution of Halimeda in Malaysia and to identify the morphological and anatomical differences between Halimeda species. The methods which have been used for this study are collection of Halimeda and seawater, preservation of specimen, identification of the specimen including the preparation of the temporary slide and decalcification of the calcium layer by using diluted hydrochloric acid. The specimen were processed in laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Environmental parameters were tested by using YSI multiparameter probe and the recorded data were temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen. The nutrient content of seawater such as nitrate and phosphate were analysed by using Hach kit model DR 2000. In the present study, out of 330 herbarium specimen, ten species were identified as Halimeda cuneata, H. discoidea, H. macroloba, H. macrophysa, H. opuntia, H. simulans, H. stuposa, H. taenicola, H. tuna and H. velasquezii. Of these, five species were new record to Malaysia. They are Halimeda cuneata, H. macrophysa, H. stuposa, H. taenicola and H. velasquezii. H. opuntia was found as the most abundance species with wide distribution in Malaysia coastal area. Meanwhile, from the study of their distribution, two localities in which Pulau Balak Balak, Kudat and Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, were noted having high number of Halimeda species. As a conclusion, this study has successfully identified ten species of Halimeda of Malaysia with full description of morphological characteristics that may assist further researcher to differentiate and identify Halimeda.

Keywords: Distribution, diversity, Halimeda, morphological, taxonomy

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94 Decision Tree Model for the Recommendation of Digital and Alternate Payment Methods for SMEs

Authors: Arturo J. Anci Alméstar, Jose D. Fernandez Huapaya, David Mauricio

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Companies make erroneous decisions by not evaluating the inherent difficulties of entering electronic commerce without a prior review of current digital and alternate means of payment. For this reason, it is very important for businesses to have reliable, complete and integrated information on the means of current digital and alternate payments that allow decisions to be made about which of these to use. However, there is no such consolidated information or criteria that companies use to make decisions about the means of payment according to their needs. In this paper, we propose a decision tree model based on a taxonomy that presents us with a categorization of digital and alternative means of payment, as well as the visualization of the flow of information at a high level from the company to obtain a recommendation. This will allow the company to make the most appropriate decision about the implementation of the digital means of payment or alternative ideal for their needs, which allows a reduction in costs and complexity of the payment process. Likewise, the efficiency of the proposed model was evaluated through a satisfaction survey presented to company personnel, confirming the satisfactory quality level of the recommendations obtained by the model.

Keywords: digital payment medium, decision tree, decision making, digital payments taxonomy

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93 English 2A Students’ Oral Presentation Errors: Basis for English Policy Revision

Authors: Marylene N. Tizon

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English instructors pay attention on errors committed by students as errors show whether they know or master their oral skills and what difficulties they may have in the process of learning the English language. This descriptive quantitative study aimed at identifying and categorizing the oral presentation errors of the purposively chosen 118 English 2A students enrolled during the first semester of school year 2013 – 2014. The analysis of the data for this study was undertaken using the errors committed by the students in their presentation. Marking and classifying of errors were made by first classifying them into linguistic grammatical errors then all errors were categorized further into Surface Structure Errors Taxonomy with the use of Frequency and Percentage distribution. From the analysis of the data, the researcher found out: Errors in tenses of the verbs (71 or 16%) and in addition 167 or 37% were most frequently uttered by the students. And Question and negation mistakes (12 or 3%) and misordering errors (28 or 7%) were least frequently enunciated by the students. Thus, the respondents in this study most frequently enunciated errors in tenses and in addition while they uttered least frequently the errors in question, negation, and misordering.

Keywords: grammatical error, oral presentation error, surface structure errors taxonomy, descriptive quantitative design, Philippines, Asia

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92 Aligning Cultural Practices through Information Exchange: A Taxonomy in Global Manufacturing Industry

Authors: Hung Nguyen

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With the rise of global supply chain network, the choice of supply chain orientation is critical. The alignment between cultural similarity and supply chain information exchange could help identify appropriate supply chain orientations, which would differentiate the stronger competitors and performers from the weaker ones. Through developing a taxonomy, this study examined whether the choices of action programs and manufacturing performance differ depending on the levels of attainment cultural similarity and information exchange. This study employed statistical tests on a large-scale dataset consisting of 680 manufacturing plants from various cultures and industries. Firms need to align cultural practices with the level of information exchange in order to achieve good overall business performance. There appeared to be consistent three major orientations: the Proactive, the Initiative and the Reactive. Firms are experiencing higher payoffs from various improvements are the ones successful alignment in both information exchange and cultural similarity The findings provide step-by-step decision making for supply chain information exchange and offer guidance especially for global supply chain managers. In including both cultural similarity and information exchange, this paper adds greater comprehensiveness and richness to the supply chain literature.

Keywords: culture, information exchange, supply chain orientation, similarity

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91 Molecular Evidence for Three Species of Giraffa

Authors: Alice Petzold, Alexandre Hassanin

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The number of giraffe species has been in focus of interest since the exploration of sub-Saharan Africa by European naturalists during the 18th and 19th centuries, as previous taxonomists, like Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Richard Owen or William Edward de Winton, recognized two or three species of Giraffa. For the last decades, giraffes were commonly considered as a single species subdivided into nine subspecies. In this study, we have re-examined available nuclear and mitochondrial data. Our genetic admixture analyses of seven introns support three species: G. camelopardalis (i.e., northern giraffes including reticulated giraffes), G. giraffa (southern giraffe) and G. tippelskirchi (Masai giraffe). However, the nuclear alignments show small variation and our phylogenetic analyses provide high support only for the monophyly of G. camelopardalis. Comparisons with the mitochondrial tree revealed a robust conflict for the position and monophyly of G. giraffa and G. tippelskirchi, which is explained firstly by a mitochondrial introgression from Masai giraffe to southeastern giraffe, and secondly, by gene flow mediated by male dispersal between southern populations (subspecies angolensis and giraffa). We conclude that current data gives only moderate support for three giraffe species and point out that additional nuclear data need to be studied to revise giraffe taxonomy.

Keywords: autosomal markers, Giraffidae, mitochondrial introgression, taxonomy

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90 Compromising Relevance for Elegance: A Danger of Dominant Growth Models for Backward Economies

Authors: Givi Kupatadze

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Backward economies are facing a challenge of achieving sustainable high economic growth rate. Dominant growth models represent a roadmap in framing economic development strategy. This paper examines a relevance of the dominant growth models for backward economies. Cobb-Douglas production function, the Harrod-Domar model of economic growth, the Solow growth model and general formula of gross domestic product are examined to undertake a comprehensive study of the dominant growth models. Deductive research method allows to uncover major weaknesses of the dominant growth models and to come up with practical implications for economic development strategy. The key finding of the paper shows, contrary to what used to be taught by textbooks of economics, that constant returns to scale property of the dominant growth models are a mere coincidence and its generalization over space and time can be regarded as one of the most unfortunate mistakes in the whole field of political economy. The major suggestion of the paper for backward economies is that understanding and considering taxonomy of economic activities based on increasing and diminishing returns to scale represent a cornerstone of successful economic development strategy.

Keywords: backward economies, constant returns to scale, dominant growth models, taxonomy of economic activities

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89 Data Analysis for Taxonomy Prediction and Annotation of 16S rRNA Gene Sequences from Metagenome Data

Authors: Suchithra V., Shreedhanya, Kavya Menon, Vidya Niranjan

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Skin metagenomics has a wide range of applications with direct relevance to the health of the organism. It gives us insight to the diverse community of microorganisms (the microbiome) harbored on the skin. In the recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that the interaction between skin microbiome and the human body plays a prominent role in immune system development, cancer development, disease pathology, and many other biological implications. Next Generation Sequencing has led to faster and better understanding of environmental organisms and their mutual interactions. This project is studying the human skin microbiome of different individuals having varied skin conditions. Bacterial 16S rRNA data of skin microbiome is downloaded from SRA toolkit provided by NCBI to perform metagenomics analysis. Twelve samples are selected with two controls, and 3 different categories, i.e., sex (male/female), skin type (moist/intermittently moist/sebaceous) and occlusion (occluded/intermittently occluded/exposed). Quality of the data is increased using Cutadapt, and its analysis is done using FastQC. USearch, a tool used to analyze an NGS data, provides a suitable platform to obtain taxonomy classification and abundance of bacteria from the metagenome data. The statistical tool used for analyzing the USearch result is METAGENassist. The results revealed that the top three abundant organisms found were: Prevotella, Corynebacterium, and Anaerococcus. Prevotella is known to be an infectious bacterium found on wound, tooth cavity, etc. Corynebacterium and Anaerococcus are opportunist bacteria responsible for skin odor. This result infers that Prevotella thrives easily in sebaceous skin conditions. Therefore it is better to undergo intermittently occluded treatment such as applying ointments, creams, etc. to treat wound for sebaceous skin type. Exposing the wound should be avoided as it leads to an increase in Prevotella abundance. Moist skin type individuals can opt for occluded or intermittently occluded treatment as they have shown to decrease the abundance of bacteria during treatment.

Keywords: bacterial 16S rRNA , next generation sequencing, skin metagenomics, skin microbiome, taxonomy

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88 Teaching and Learning Jazz Improvisation Using Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains

Authors: Graham Wood

Abstract:

The 20th Century saw the introduction of many new approaches to music making, including the structured and academic study of jazz improvisation. The rise of many school and tertiary jazz programs was rapid and quickly spread around the globe in a matter of decades. It could be said that the curriculum taught in these new programs was often developed in an ad-hoc manner due to the lack of written literature in this new and rapidly expanding area and the vastly different pedagogical principles when compared to classical music education that was prevalent in school and tertiary programs. There is widespread information regarding the theory and techniques used by jazz improvisers, but methods to practice these concepts in order to achieve the best outcomes for students and teachers is much harder to find. This research project explores the authors’ experiences as a studio jazz piano teacher, ensemble teacher and classroom improvisation lecturer over fifteen years and suggests an alignment with Bloom’s taxonomy of learning domains. This alignment categorizes the different tasks that need to be taught and practiced in order for the teacher and the student to devise a well balanced and effective practice routine and for the teacher to develop an effective teaching program. These techniques have been very useful to the teacher and the student to ensure that a good balance of cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills are taught to the students in a range of learning contexts.

Keywords: bloom, education, jazz, learning, music, teaching

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87 Measuring the Resilience of e-Governments Using an Ontology

Authors: Onyekachi Onwudike, Russell Lock, Iain Phillips

Abstract:

The variability that exists across governments, her departments and the provisioning of services has been areas of concern in the E-Government domain. There is a need for reuse and integration across government departments which are accompanied by varying degrees of risks and threats. There is also the need for assessment, prevention, preparation, response and recovery when dealing with these risks or threats. The ability of a government to cope with the emerging changes that occur within it is known as resilience. In order to forge ahead with concerted efforts to manage reuse and integration induced risks or threats to governments, the ambiguities contained within resilience must be addressed. Enhancing resilience in the E-Government domain is synonymous with reducing risks governments face with provisioning of services as well as reuse of components across departments. Therefore, it can be said that resilience is responsible for the reduction in government’s vulnerability to changes. In this paper, we present the use of the ontology to measure the resilience of governments. This ontology is made up of a well-defined construct for the taxonomy of resilience. A specific class known as ‘Resilience Requirements’ is added to the ontology. This class embraces the concept of resilience into the E-Government domain ontology. Considering that the E-Government domain is a highly complex one made up of different departments offering different services, the reliability and resilience of the E-Government domain have become more complex and critical to understand. We present questions that can help a government access how prepared they are in the face of risks and what steps can be taken to recover from them. These questions can be asked with the use of queries. The ontology focuses on developing a case study section that is used to explore ways in which government departments can become resilient to the different kinds of risks and threats they may face. A collection of resilience tools and resources have been developed in our ontology to encourage governments to take steps to prepare for emergencies and risks that a government may face with the integration of departments and reuse of components across government departments. To achieve this, the ontology has been extended by rules. We present two tools for understanding resilience in the E-Government domain as a risk analysis target and the output of these tools when applied to resilience in the E-Government domain. We introduce the classification of resilience using the defined taxonomy and modelling of existent relationships based on the defined taxonomy. The ontology is constructed on formal theory and it provides a semantic reference framework for the concept of resilience. Key terms which fall under the purview of resilience with respect to E-Governments are defined. Terms are made explicit and the relationships that exist between risks and resilience are made explicit. The overall aim of the ontology is to use it within standards that would be followed by all governments for government-based resilience measures.

Keywords: E-Government, Ontology, Relationships, Resilience, Risks, Threats

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86 Teaching, Learning and Evaluation Enhancement of Information Communication Technology Education in Schools through Pedagogical and E-Learning Techniques in the Sri Lankan Context

Authors: M. G. N. A. S. Fernando

Abstract:

This study uses a researchable framework to improve the quality of ICT education and the Teaching Learning Assessment/ Evaluation (TLA/TLE) process. It utilizes existing resources while improving the methodologies along with pedagogical techniques and e-Learning approaches used in the secondary schools of Sri Lanka. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase I focused on investigating the factors which affect the quality of ICT education. Based on the key factors of phase I, the Phase II focused on the design of an Experimental Application Model with 6 activity levels. Each Level in the Activity Model covers one or more levels in the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. Towards further enhancement of activity levels, other pedagogical techniques (activity based learning, e-learning techniques, problem solving activities and peer discussions etc.) were incorporated to each level in the activity model as appropriate. The application model was validated by a panel of teachers including a domain expert and was tested in the school environment too. The validity of performance was proved using 6 hypotheses testing and other methodologies. The analysis shows that student performance with problem solving activities increased by 19.5% due to the different treatment levels used. Compared to existing process it was also proved that the embedded techniques (mixture of traditional and modern pedagogical methods and their applications) are more effective with skills development of teachers and students.

Keywords: activity models, Bloom’s taxonomy, ICT education, pedagogies

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85 Distribution and Taxonomy of Marine Fungi in Nha Trang Bay and Van Phong Bay, Vietnam

Authors: Thu Thuy Pham, Thi Chau Loan Tran, Van Duy Nguyen

Abstract:

Marine fungi play an important role in the marine ecosystems. Marine fungi also supply biomass and metabolic products of industrial value. Currently, the biodiversity of marine fungi along the coastal areas of Vietnam has not yet been studied fully. The objective of this study is to assess the spatial and temporal diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal waters of Nha Trang Bay and Van Phong Bay in Central Vietnam using culture-dependent and independent approach. Using culture-dependent approach, filamentous fungi and yeasts were isolated on selective media and then classified by phenotype and genotype based on the sequencing of ITS (internal transcribed spacers) regions of rDNA with two primer pairs (ITS1F_KYO2 and ITS4; NS1 and NS8). Using culture-independent approach, environmental DNA samples were isolated and amplified using fungal-specific ITS primer pairs. A total of over 160 strains were isolated from 10 seawater sampling stations at 50 cm depth. They were classified into diverse genera and species of both yeast and mold. At least 5 strains could be potentially novel species. Our results also revealed that planktonic fungi were molecularly diverse with hundreds of phylotypes recovered across these two bays. The results of the study provide data about the distribution and taxonomy of mycoplankton in this area, thereby allowing assessment of their positive role in the biogeochemical cycle of coastal ecosystems and the development of new bioactive compounds for industrial applications.

Keywords: biodiversity, ITS, marine fungi, Nha Trang Bay, Van Phong Bay

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84 A Taxonomy of Professional Engineering Attributes for Tackling Global Humanitarian Challenges

Authors: Georgia Kremmyda, Angelos Georgoulas, Yiannis Koumpouros, James T. Mottram

Abstract:

There is a growing interest in enhancing the creativity and problem-solving ability of engineering students by expanding their engagement to complex, interdisciplinary problems such as environmental issues, resilience to man-made and natural disasters, global health matters, water needs, increased energy demands, and other global humanitarian challenges. Tackling societal challenges requires knowledgeable and erudite engineers who can handle, combine, transform and create innovative, affordable and sustainable solutions. This view simultaneously complements and challenges current conceptions of an emerging educational movement that, almost without exception, are underpinned by calls for competitive economic growth and technological development. This article reveals a taxonomy of humanitarian attributes to be enabled to professional engineers, through reformed curricula and innovative pedagogies, which once implemented and integrated efficiently in higher engineering education, they will provide students and educators with opportunities to explore interdependencies and connections between resources, sustainable design, societal needs, and the natural environment and to critically engage with implicit and explicit facets of disciplinary identity. The research involves carrying out a study on (a) current practices, best practices and barriers in knowledge organisation, content, and hierarchy in graduate engineering programmes, (b) best practices associated with teaching and research in engineering education around the world, (c) opportunities inherent in general reforms of graduate engineering education and inherent in integrating the humanitarian context throughout engineering education programmes, and, (d) an overarching taxonomy of professional attributes for tackling humanitarian challenges. Research methods involve state-of-the-art literature review on engineering education and pedagogy to resource thematic findings on current status in engineering education worldwide, and qualitative research through three practice dialogue workshops, run in Asia (Vietnam, Indonesia and Bangladesh) involving a variety of national, international and local stakeholders (industries; NGOs, governmental organisations). Findings from this study provide evidence on: (a) what are the professional engineering attributes (skills, experience, knowledge) needed for tackling humanitarian challenges; (b) how we can integrate other disciplines and professions to engineering while defining the professional attributes of engineers who are capable of tackling humanitarian challenges. The attributes will be linked to those discipline(s) and profession(s) that are more likely to enforce the attributes (removing the assumption that engineering education as it stands at the moment can provide all attributes), and; (c) how these attributes shall be supplied; what kind of pedagogies or training shall take place beyond current practices. Acknowledgment: The study is currently in progress and is being undertaken in the framework of the project ENHANCE - ENabling Humanitarian Attributes for Nurturing Community-based Engineering (project No: 598502-EEP-1-2018-1-UK-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP (2018-2582/001-001), funded by the Erasmus + KA2 Cooperation for innovation and the exchange of good practices – Capacity building in the field of Higher Education.

Keywords: professional engineering attributes, engineering education, taxonomy, humanitarian challenges, humanitarian engineering

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