Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1321

Search results for: utilization

1321 Load Balancing and Resource Utilization in Cloud Computing

Authors: Gagandeep Kaur

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Cloud computing uses various computing resources such as CPU, memory, processor etc. which is used to deliver service over the network and is one of the emerging fields for large scale distributed computing. In cloud computing, execution of large number of tasks with available resources to achieve high performance, minimal total time for completion, minimum response time, effective utilization of resources etc. are the major research areas. In the proposed research, an algorithm has been proposed to achieve high performance in load balancing and resource utilization. The proposed algorithm is used to reduce the makespan, increase the resource utilization and performance cost for independent tasks. Further scheduling metrics based on algorithm in cloud computing has been proposed.

Keywords: resource utilization, response time, load balancing, performance cost

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1320 Availability and Utilization of Health Care Facilities in Jalpaiguri Town

Authors: Sharmistha Mukherjee

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Health care is the basic requirement for all. The prime question is who gets what, where and how? The unequal distribution of basic facilities do have a adverse effect on the users. The paper tries to examine health care in terms of available facilities, the health care need and how people perceive to it in a small town of Jalpaiguri in the midst of tea gardens in North Bengal. The morbidity pattern is also minutely observed with a section describing the organizational structure of health care keeping in mind the utilization.

Keywords: availability, distribution, health care, utilization

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1319 Examination of the Water and Nutrient Utilization of Maize Hybrids on Chernozem Soil

Authors: L. G. Karancsi

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The research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép AGTC MÉK research area of the University of Debrecen in Hungary. We examined the yield, the yield production per 1kg NPK fertilizer and the water and nutrient utilization of hybrid PR37N01 and PR37M81 in 2013. We found that PR37N01 produced the most yield at the level of N120+P (17,476kg ha-1) while PR37M81 reached the highest yield at level N150+PK (16,754kg ha-1). Studies related to yield production per 1kg NPK indicated that the best results were achieved at level N30+PK compared to the control treatment. Yield production per 1kg NPK was17.6kg kg-1 by P37N01 and 44.2kg kg-1 by PR37M81. By comparing the water utilization of hybrids we found that the worst water utilization results were reached in the control treatment (PR37N01: 26.2kg mm-1, PR37M81: 19.5kg mm-1). The best water utilization values were produced at level N120+PK in the case of hybrid PR37N01 (32.1kg mm-1) and at N150+PK in the case of hybrid PR37M81 (30.8kg mm-1). We established the values of the nutrient reaction and the fertilizer optimum of hybrids. We discovered a strong relationship between the amount of fertilizer applied and the yield produced (r2= 0.8228–0.9515). The best nutrient response was induced by hybrid PR37N01, while the weakest results were reached by hybrid PR37M81.

Keywords: hybrid, maize, nutrient, yield, water utilization

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1318 The Utilization of Healthcare by African Migrants: The Lived Experiences of Unaccompanied Adolescent Migrants in South Africa

Authors: Kwanele Shishane

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Numerous countries are faced with challenges such as disease, poverty and other social ills and inadequate government support to meet the needs of the entire population. In developing countries, the concept of child-headed households has become a ubiquitous phenomenon and lived experience. As such, migration of children is common in these countries. This study aims to explore the lived experiences of unaccompanied adolescent migrant, with regards to the utilization of health care in South Africa. The objectives of the study are to examine the lived experiences of health care utilization by unaccompanied adolescent migrants; examine the predisposing, enabling and need factors influencing utilization of health care among unaccompanied adolescent migrants; examine the social and cultural influences on health care utilization among unaccompanied adolescent migrants; and identify the health system barriers to utilization of health care by unaccompanied adolescent migrants. Andersen and Newman’s Model of Health Care Utilization (1995) which explains factors determining the utilization of healthcare will provide the theoretical framework for the empirical investigation of this study. The target population for this study is unaccompanied adolescent migrants, seeking to access services from migrant service organizations in four provinces in South Africa (Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, and Gauteng). Participants will be selected using a purposive sampling procedure. A qualitative research approach utilizing a descriptive phenomenological epistemology will be utilized in this study. Data will be collected through conducting in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with unaccompanied migrant adolescents, to explore their lived experiences related to access and utilization of health care, as an unaccompanied migrant in SA. The qualitative data will be analysed using Tech’s (1990) thematic analytical approach.

Keywords: health care utilisation, unaccompanied migrant youth, South Africa, lived experiences

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1317 Availability, Accessibility and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching and Learning Islamic Studies in Colleges of Education, North-Eastern, Nigeria

Authors: Bello Ali

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The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in tertiary institutions by lecturers and students has become a necessity for the enhancement of quality teaching and learning. This study examined availability, accessibility and utilization of ICT in Teaching-Learning Islamic Studies in Colleges of Education, North-East, Nigeria. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique, in which, five out of the eleven Colleges of Education (both Federal and State owned) were purposively selected for the study. Primary data was drawn from the respondents by the use of questionnaire, interviews and observations. The results of the study, generally, indicate that the availability and accessibility to ICT facilities in Colleges of Education in North-East, Nigeria, especially in teaching/learning delivery of Islamic studies were relatively inadequate and rare to lecturers and students. The study further reveals that the respondents’ level of utilization of ICT is low and only few computer packages and internet services were involved in the ICT utilization, which is yet to reach the real expected situation of the globalization and advancement in the application of ICT if compared to other parts of the world, as far as the teaching and learning of Islamic studies is concerned. Observations and conclusion were drawn from the findings and finally, recommendations on how to improve on ICT availability, accessibility and utilization in teaching/ learning were suggested.

Keywords: accessibility, availability, college of education, ICT, Islamic studies, learning, North-East, teaching, utilization

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1316 Extent of I.C.T Application in Record Management and Factors Hindering the Utilization of E-Learning in the Government Owned Universities in Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Roseline Unoma Chidobi

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The purpose of this study is to identify the extent of Information Communication Technology (ICT) application in record management and some factors militating against the utilization of e-learning in the universities in Enugu state. The study was a survey research the quantitative data were collected through a 30 – item questionnaire title extent of ICT Application in Record management and militating Factors in the utilization of e-learning (EIARMMFUE). This was administered on a population of 603 respondents made up of university academic staff and senior administrative staff. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics on a modified 4 point rating scale. Findings of the study revealed among others that ICT are not adequately applied in the management of records in the Universities in Nigeria. Factors like wrong notion or superstitious believe hinder the effective utilization of e – learning approach. The study recommended that the use of ICT in record management should be enhanced in order to achieve effective school management. All the factors militating against the effective utilization of e-learning approach should be addressed for the maximum realization of teaching and learning.

Keywords: e-learning, information communication, teaching, technology, tertiary institution

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1315 The Need for the Utilization of Instructional Materials on the Teaching and Learning of Agricultural Science Education in Developing Countries

Authors: Ogoh Andrew Enokela

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This paper dwelt on the need for the utilization of instructional materials with highlights on the type of instructional materials, selection, uses and their importance on the learning and teaching of Agricultural Science Education in developing countries. It further discussed the concept of improvisation with some recommendation in terms of availability, utilization on the teaching and learning of Agricultural Science Education.

Keywords: instructional materials, agricultural science education, improvisation, teaching and learning

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1314 Utilization of CD-ROM Database as a Storage and Retrieval System by Students of Nasarawa State University Keffi

Authors: Suleiman Musa

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The utilization of CD-ROM as a storage and retrieval system by Nasarawa State University Keffi (NSUK) Library is crucial in preserving and dissemination of information to students and staff. This study investigated the utilization of CD-ROM Database storage and retrieval system by students of NUSK. Data was generated using structure questionnaire. One thousand and fifty two (1052) respondents were randomly selected among post-graduate and under-graduate students. Eight hundred and ten (810) questionnaires were returned, but only five hundred and ninety three (593) questionnaires were well completed and useful. The study found that post-graduate students use CD-ROM Databases more often than the under-graduate students in NSUK. The result of the study revealed that knowledge about CD-ROM Database 33.22% got it through library staff. 29.69% use CD-ROM once a month. Large number of users 45.70% purposely uses CD-ROM Databases for study and research. In fact, lack of users’ orientation amount to 58.35% of problems faced, while 31.20% lack of trained staff make it more difficult for utilization of CD-ROM Database. Major numbers of users 38.28% are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, while a good number of them 27.99% are satisfied. Then 1.52% is highly dissatisfied but could not give reasons why. However, to ensure effective utilization of CD-ROM Database storage and retrieval system by students of NSUK, the following recommendations are made: effort should be made to encourage under-graduate in using CD-ROM Database. The institution should conduct orientation/induction course for students on CD-ROM Databases in the library. There is need for NSUK to produce in house databases on their CD-ROM for easy access by users.

Keywords: utilization, CD-ROM databases, storage, retrieval, students

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1313 Decomposing the Socio-Economic Inequalities in Utilization of Antenatal Care in South Asian Countries: Insight from Demographic and Health Survey

Authors: Jeetendra Yadav, Geetha Menon, Anita Pal, Rajkumar Verma

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Even after encouraging maternal and child wellness programs at worldwide level, lower-middle income nations are not reached the goal set by the UN yet. This study quantified the contribution of socioeconomic determinants of inequality to the utilization of Antenatal Care in South Asian Countries. This study used data from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) of the selected countries were used, and Oaxaca decomposing were applied for socioeconomic inequalities in utilization of antenatal care. Finding from the multivariate analysis shows that mother’s age at the time of birth, birth order and interval, mother’s education, mass media exposure and economic status were significant determinants of the utilization of antenatal care services in South Asian countries. Considering, concentration index curve, the line of equity was greatest in Pakistan which followed by India and Nepal.

Keywords: antenatal care, decomposition, inequalities, South Asian countries

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1312 Optimization of Platinum Utilization by Using Stochastic Modeling of Carbon-Supported Platinum Catalyst Layer of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Ali Akbar, Seungho Shin, Sukkee Um

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The composition of catalyst layers (CLs) plays an important role in the overall performance and cost of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Low platinum loading, high utilization, and more durable catalyst still remain as critical challenges for PEMFCs. In this study, a three-dimensional material network model is developed to visualize the nanostructure of carbon supported platinum Pt/C and Pt/VACNT catalysts in pursuance of maximizing the catalyst utilization. The quadruple-phase randomly generated CLs domain is formulated using quasi-random stochastic Monte Carlo-based method. This unique statistical approach of four-phase (i.e., pore, ionomer, carbon, and platinum) model is closely mimic of manufacturing process of CLs. Various CLs compositions are simulated to elucidate the effect of electrons, ions, and mass transport paths on the catalyst utilization factor. Based on simulation results, the effect of key factors such as porosity, ionomer contents and Pt weight percentage in Pt/C catalyst have been investigated at the represented elementary volume (REV) scale. The results show that the relationship between ionomer content and Pt utilization is in good agreement with existing experimental calculations. Furthermore, this model is implemented on the state-of-the-art Pt/VACNT CLs. The simulation results on Pt/VACNT based CLs show exceptionally high catalyst utilization as compared to Pt/C with different composition ratios. More importantly, this study reveals that the maximum catalyst utilization depends on the distance spacing between the carbon nanotubes for Pt/VACNT. The current simulation results are expected to be utilized in the optimization of nano-structural construction and composition of Pt/C and Pt/VACNT CLs.

Keywords: catalyst layer, platinum utilization, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, stochastic modeling

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1311 Tertiary Education Trust Fund Intervention Projects and Resource Utilization in Universities in South Western States, Nigeria

Authors: Oluwlola Felicia Kikelomo

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This study examined the influence of Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETF) intervention projects and resource utilization in universities in South Western State of Nigeria. The study was a descriptive design of the correlation type. Purposive sampling technique was used to select six out of 14 beneficiary universities in the States. Instruments used to collect data were TETF Intervention Projects Checklist (TETFIPC), Educational Facilities Checklists (EFC) and Resources Utilization Checklists (RUC). The research questions raised were answered using percentage and utilization rates, while Pearson product-moment correlation statistic was used to test the hypotheses formulated to guide the study 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study indicated that building construction had the highest TETF allocation (64.5%), while staff development opportunities had the least (1.1%) in the sampled universities. Significant and positive relationship existed between time and space utilization rates and student academic performance in the universities (r (1,800) = 0.63 and r (1,800) = 0.59, p ≤ 0.05 respectively). Based, on these findings, it was recommended that there should be periodic evaluation of completed TETF projects and utilization to ensure that TETF funds are properly used for the approved projects; and that TETF should improve on the provision of educational facilities to universities for staff and students’ use through increase in education tax from 2% to 4% with collaboration with the world bank and other funding agencies as being practiced in other countries of the world such as Norway, Spain, and United Kingdom.

Keywords: tertiary education trust fund, intervention, education, human development

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1310 Human Resource Utilization Models for Graceful Ageing

Authors: Chuang-Chun Chiou

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In this study, a systematic framework of graceful ageing has been used to explore the possible human resource utilization models for graceful ageing purpose. This framework is based on the Chinese culture. We call ‘Nine-old’ target. They are ageing gracefully with feeding, accomplishment, usefulness, learning, entertainment, care, protection, dignity, and termination. This study is focused on two areas: accomplishment and usefulness. We exam the current practices of initiatives and laws of promoting labor participation. That is to focus on how to increase Labor Force Participation Rate of the middle aged as well as the elderly and try to promote the elderly to achieve graceful ageing. Then we present the possible models that support graceful ageing.

Keywords: human resource utilization model, labor participation, graceful ageing, employment

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1309 Factors Constraining the Utilization of Risk Management Strategies in the Execution of Public Construction Projects in North East Nigeria

Authors: S. U. Kunya, S. A. Mohammad

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Construction projects in Nigeria are characterized with risks emanating from delays and accompanying cost-overruns. The aim of the study was to identify and assess factors constraining the utilization of risk management strategies in the execution of public construction project in North-East Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire administered to three identified projects in the North-east. Data collected were analysed using the severity index. Findings revealed political involvement, selection of inexperienced contractors and lack of coordinated public sector strategy as the most severe factors constraining the utilization of risk management strategies. The study recommended that: formulation of laws to prevent negative political meddling in construction projects; selection of experienced, risk-informed contractors; and comprehensive risk assessment and planning on all public construction projects.

Keywords: factors, Nigeria, north-east, public projects, risk management, strategies, utilization

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1308 Teachers' Accessibility to and Utilization of Electronic Media for Teaching Basic Science and Technology in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara, Nigeria

Authors: Taibat Busari

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Electronic media has created new options for enhancing education. It has long been providing innovative methods for arousing students’ attention in learning and improves teachers’ performance in disseminating instructional contents. However, the advancement of electronic media has increased the flexibility, availability, accessibility and improved communications among students-students, students-teacher, and teacher-students. This study investigated: (i) teachers’ accessibility to, and utilization of electronic media for teaching basic science and technology in Ilorin metropolis; (ii) the influence of school proprietorship on teachers’ access to and utilization of electronic media for teaching and; the influence of teachers’ gender on the use of electronic media. The research was a descriptive design using the survey method. The study sample was drawn for private and public secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis. The respondents were 285 basic science and technology teachers, which comprised of 146 males and 139 females. A structured researcher designed questionnaire was used to gather data for the study. Pilot study was carried out on mini sample of 20 basic science and technology teachers in five schools which are not part of the study’s population. It was then subjected to Cronbach’s Alpha and yielded the values 0.794 for availability, 0.730 for accessibility and 0.84 for utilization of electronic media. The research questions were answered using mean and percentage while research hypotheses one and two was tested using t- test. The findings of the study showed that: (i) electronic media are available for teaching basic science and technology; (ii) teachers’ had access to electronic media for teaching; (iii) teachers’ utilized electronic media for teaching basic science and technology; (iv) there was no significant difference between teachers’ utilization of electronic media for teaching; (v) there was no significant difference between teachers’ utilization of electronic media for teaching based on school proprietorship. The study, therefore, concluded that teachers’ had access to electronic media and utilized it for teaching purposes. Gender had no influence on teachers’ access to and utilization on electronic media for teaching and also, school proprietorship had no influence on access and utilization of electronic media for teaching. Based on findings it was recommended that electronic media should be made available and utilized in all schools across the nation to improve the learning rate of the students.

Keywords: electronic media, basic science and technology, teachers' accessibility, Nigeria

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1307 Full Disclosure Policy: Transparency in Fiscal Administration

Authors: Joyly Jill Apud

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Corruption is an all-encompassing issue worldwide. Many attempts have been done to address such cases especially by the government through increasing transparency. The Philippine government increased the mechanism of transparency by opening to public its financial transactions through Full Disclosure Policy – mandating all local governments to post in their websites all financial transactions (Philippine Public Transparency Reporting Project, 2011). For transparency to be fully realized, the challenge lies in creating a mechanism where the constituents are encouraged to engage as social auditors. In line of the said challenge, the study focused in Davao City, Philippines measuring the respondent’s awareness, access and utilization of Full Disclosure Policy (FDP). Particularly, this study determined the significant difference on the awareness, access and utilization of respondents when grouped according to sector and the significant relationship between respondents’ awareness and in the access and utilization of FDP reports. The study used descriptive-correlation, Mean, Anova and Pearson R as statistical treatment. The 120 respondents are from the different sectors of Davao City. These are the Academe, Youth, LGUs, NGOs, Business, and Church groups. The awareness of the respondents was measured in three main categories: Existence of the Policy, Content of the Policy and the Manner of Publication. Access and Utilization of the FDP reports is divided into three: Budget Reports, Procurement Reports and Special Purpose Fund Reports. Results showed that the respondents are moderately aware of the Policy. Though it manifested that the respondents are aware of the disclosure, they are unaware of the Full Disclosure Policy and Full Disclosure Policy Portal. Moreover, the respondents seldom access and utilize all the FDP reports. Further results revealed that there is a significant difference in the awareness and the access and utilization of FDP when grouped according to sector. Moreover, significant relationship in the awareness and the access and utilization of the FDP is evident. It showed that the higher the awareness on FDP, the higher the level of access and utilization on the FDP reports.

Keywords: corruption, e-governance, budget transparency, participation

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1306 Attitude of Staff Nurses on Nursing Research and Its Utilization

Authors: Y. N. Shashidhara, B. S. Shakuntala

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Introduction: Nursing practice is undergoing tremendous changes and challenges. In order to meet social challenges and needs, nursing practice must be research based. Research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of nursing treatment modalities, to determine the impact of nursing care on the health of the patients or to test the theory of nursing practice. Objective of the study to explore the attitude of staff nurses on Nursing research and its utilization Methodology: The descriptive study design was adopted and 300 staff nurses were selected by systematic random sampling technique from eight hospitals. The attitude on nursing research was assessed by validated and reliable self-administered attitude scale which consists of 40 items. Results: The overall attitude mean score 130.2 (SD 11.5) regarding attitude on Nursing research and its utilization. Some of the findings are the majority of staff nurses (51% agreed and 18.3% strongly agreed) that they have all the motivation to use research findings if they get support. Nearly 25.3 percent of staff nurses agreed and 10.7 percent strongly agreed that they do not have time to conduct research. The majority of staff nurses 53.7 percent agreed that research will help in updating Nursing profession. Nearly 32.6 percent of staff nurses agreed and 20.5 percent strongly agreed that being able to use will make them better nurses. About 45.3 percent and 17.3 percent agreed and strongly agreed that knowledge gained through experience is more useful than research. Most (40%) of nurses agreed that thy do not have the authority to change the patient care practice. The majority of staff nurses (45.7 percent agreed and 13 percent strongly agreed) feel the research will consume their personal time. Majority, 50 percent of staff nurses agreed and 16.7 percent strongly agreed that to conduct and utilize research findings requires financial support. Majority 50 percent of staff nurses agreed and 12 percent strongly agreed that physicians will cooperate and value nursing research findings. Majority 67.3 percent of staff nurses had moderate positive and 32.7 percent of staff nurses had highly positive attitude towards Nursing research and its utilization. Conclusion: With this study we understanding that, the staff nurses have positive attitude regarding nursing research. If the nurses are supported and motivated for research utilization we can improve the patient care.

Keywords: nurses, attitude, nursing research, research utilization

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1305 Teaching 'Sustainable Architecture' to Pre-School Children by School Building for a Clean Future

Authors: Cimen Ozburak

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Pollution and the consumption of natural resources are significant global concerns. These problems have to be resolved in order to create a cleaner environment for the world. It is believed that sustainable building designs may reduce environmental problems throughout the world. It is known that if children receive environmental education in early childhood, they will be more likely to construct sustainable living systems and environment when they are older. School buildings can be used as educational material for teaching the natural and artificial environment in environmental education. In this study, the effect of school buildings on environmental education is examined by using the literature review method along with various examples. The selected examples in the study were analyzed according to 4 main criteria of LEED green building certification systems. These are the use of sustainable utilization of land, efficient utilization of water, efficient utilization of energy and efficient utilization of materials. According to the literature review, children who are educated in buildings designed according to these criteria, they will be environmentally sensitive individuals when they are older.

Keywords: clean future, educational sustainable pre-schools, environmental education, sustainable systems

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1304 Awareness and Utilization of Social Network Tools among Agricultural Science Students in Colleges of Education in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebowale Olukayode Efunnowo

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This study was carried out to assess the awareness and utilization of Social Network Tools (SNTs) among agricultural science students in Colleges of Education in Ogun State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling techniques were used to select 280 respondents from the study area. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the objectives while Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to test the hypothesis. The result showed that the majority (71.8%) of the respondents were single, with a mean age of 20 years. Almost all (95.7%) the respondents were aware of Facebook and 2go as a Social Network Tools (SNTs) while 85.0% of the respondents were not aware of Blackplanet, LinkedIn, MyHeritage and Bebo. Many (41.1%) of the respondents had views that using SNTs can enhance extensive literature survey, increase internet browsing potential, promote teaching proficiency, and update on outcomes of researches. However, 51.4% of the respondents perceived that SNTs usage as what is meant for the lecturers/adults only while 16.1% considered it as mainly used by internet fraudsters. Findings revealed that about 50.0% of the respondents browsed Facebook and 2go daily while more than 80% of the respondents used Blackplanet, MyHeritage, Skyrock, Bebo, LinkedIn and My YearBook as the need arise. Major constraints to the awareness and utilization of SNTs were high cost and poor quality of ICTs facilities (77.1%), epileptic power supply (75.0%), inadequate telecommunication infrastructure (71.1%), low technical know-how (62.9%) and inadequate computer knowledge (61.1%). The result of PPMC analysis showed that there was an inverse relationship between constraints and utilization of SNTs at p < 0.05. It can be concluded that constraints affect efficient and effective utilization of SNTs in the study area. It is hereby recommended that management of colleges of education and agricultural institutes should provide good internet connectivity, computer facilities, and alternative power supply in order to increase the awareness and utilization of SNTs among students.

Keywords: awareness, utilization, social network tools, constraints, students

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1303 Energy Options and Environmental Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Utilization Pathways

Authors: Evar C. Umeozor, Experience I. Nduagu, Ian D. Gates

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The energy requirements of carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) technologies/processes are diverse, so also are their environmental footprints. This paper explores the energy and environmental impacts of systems for CO₂ conversion to fuels, chemicals, and materials. Energy needs of the technologies and processes deployable in CO₂ conversion systems are met by one or combinations of hydrogen (chemical), electricity, heat, and light. Likewise, the environmental footprint of any CO₂ utilization pathway depends on the systems involved. So far, evaluation of CDU systems has been constrained to particular energy source/type or a subset of the overall system needed to make CDU possible. This introduces limitations to the general understanding of the energy and environmental implications of CDU, which has led to various pitfalls in past studies. A CDU system has an energy source, CO₂ supply, and conversion units. We apply a holistic approach to consider the impacts of all components in the process, including various sources of energy, CO₂ feedstock, and conversion technologies. The electricity sources include nuclear power, renewables (wind and solar PV), gas turbine, and coal. Heat is supplied from either electricity or natural gas, and hydrogen is produced from either steam methane reforming or electrolysis. The CO₂ capture unit uses either direct air capture or post-combustion capture via amine scrubbing, where applicable, integrated configurations of the CDU system are explored. We demonstrate how the overall energy and environmental impacts of each utilization pathway are obtained by aggregating the values for all components involved. Proper accounting of the energy and emission intensities of CDU must incorporate total balances for the utilization process and differences in timescales between alternative conversion pathways. Our results highlight opportunities for the use of clean energy sources, direct air capture, and a number of promising CO₂ conversion pathways for producing methanol, ethanol, synfuel, urea, and polymer materials.

Keywords: carbon dioxide utilization, processes, energy options, environmental impacts

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1302 An Overview of Sludge Utilization into Fired Clay Brick

Authors: Aeslina Binti Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Shayuti Bin Abdul Rahim

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Brick is one of the most common masonry units used as building material. Due to the demand, different types of waste have been investigated to be incorporated into the bricks. Many types of sludge have been incorporated in fired clay brick for example marble sludge, stone sludge, water sludge, sewage sludge, and ceramic sludge. The utilization of these waste materials in fired clay bricks usually has positive effects on the properties such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, and strength. This paper reviews on utilization of different types of sludge wastes into fired clay bricks. Previous investigations have demonstrated positive effects on the physical and mechanical properties as well as less impact towards the environment. Thus, the utilizations of sludge waste could produce a good quality of brick and could be one of alternative disposal methods for the sludge wastes.

Keywords: fired clay brick, sludge waste, compressive strength, shrinkage, water absorption

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1301 Financial Analysis of Feasibility for a Heat Utilization System Using Rice Straw Pellets: Heating Energy Demand and the Collection and Storage Method in Nanporo, Japan

Authors: K.Ishii, T. Furuichi, A. Fujiyama, S. Hariya

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Rice straw pellets are a promising fuel as a renewable energy source. Financial analysis is needed to make a utilization system using rise straw pellets financially feasible, considering all regional conditions including stakeholders related to the collection and storage, production, transportation and heat utilization. We conducted the financial analysis of feasibility for a heat utilization system using rice straw pellets which has been developed for the first time in Nanporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Especially, we attempted to clarify the effect of factors required for the system to be financial feasibility, such as the heating energy demand and collection and storage method of rice straw. The financial feasibility was found to improve when increasing the heating energy demand and collecting wheat straw in August separately from collection of rice straw in November because the costs of storing rice straw and producing pellets were reduced. However, the system remained financially unfeasible. This study proposed a contractor program funded by a subsidy from Nanporo local government where a contracted company, instead of farmers, collects and transports rice straw in order to ensure the financial feasibility of the system, contributing to job creation in the region.

Keywords: rice straw, pellets, heating energy demand, collection, storage

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1300 Gear Wear Product Analysis as Applied for Tribological Maintenance Diagnostics

Authors: Surapol Raadnui

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This paper describes an experimental investigation on a pair of gears in which wear and pitting were intentionally allowed to occur, namely, moisture corrosion pitting, acid-induced corrosion pitting, hard contaminant-related pitting and mechanical induced wear. A back-to-back spur gear test rig was used. The test samples of wear debris were collected and assessed through the utilization of an optical microscope in order to correlate and compare the debris morphology to pitting and wear degradation of the worn gears. In addition, weight loss from all test gear pairs was assessed with the utilization of the statistical design of the experiment. It can be deduced that wear debris characteristics exhibited a direct relationship with different pitting and wear modes. Thus, it should be possible to detect and diagnose gear pitting and wear utilization of worn surfaces, generated wear debris and quantitative measurement such as weight loss.

Keywords: tribology, spur gear wear, predictive maintenance, wear particle analysis

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1299 Ambulatory Care Utilization of Individuals with Cerebral Palsy in Taiwan- A Country with Universal Coverage and No Gatekeeper Regulation

Authors: Ming-Juei Chang, Hui-Ing Ma, Tsung-Hsueh Lu

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Introduction: Because of the advance of medical care (e.g., ventilation techniques and gastrostomy feeding), more and more children with CP can live to adulthood. However, little is known about the use of health care services from children to adults who have CP. The patterns of utilization of ambulatory care are heavily influenced by insurance coverage and primary care gatekeeper regulation. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP in Taiwan, a country with universal coverage and no gatekeeper regulation. Methods: A representative sample of one million patients (about 1/23 of total population) covered by Taiwan’s National Health Insurance was used to analyze the ambulatory care utilization in individuals with CP. Data were analyzed by 3 different age groups (children, youth and adults) during 2000 to 2003. Participants were identified by the presence of CP diagnosis made by pediatricians or physicians of physical and rehabilitation medicine and stated at least three times in claims data. Results: Annual rates of outpatient physician visits were 31680 for children, 16492 for youth, and 28617 for adults with CP (per 1000 persons). Individuals with CP received over 50% of their outpatient care from hospital outpatient department. Higher use of specialist physician services was found in children (54.7%) than in the other two age groups (28.4% in youth and 18.8% in adults). Diseases of respiratory system were the most frequent diagnoses for visits in both children and youth with CP. Diseases of the circulatory system were the main reasons (24.3%) that adults with CP visited hospital outpatient care department or clinics. Conclusion: This study showed different patterns of ambulatory care utilization among different age groups. It appears that youth and adults with CP continue to have complex health issues and rely heavily on the health care system. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors which influence ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, health services, lifespan, universal coverage

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1298 Environmental Impacts and Ecological Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the Niger Delta Fresh Ecosystem

Authors: Seiyaboh E. I.

Abstract:

Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was introduced into many parts of the world, including Africa, as an ornamental garden pond plant because of its beauty. However, it is considered a dangerous pest today because when not controlled, water hyacinth will cover rivers, lakes and ponds entirely; this dramatically impacts water flow, blocks sunlight from reaching native aquatic plants, and starves the water of oxygen, often killing fish and other aquatic organisms. In the Niger Delta region, water hyacinth is considered a nuisance because of its very obvious devastating environmental impacts in the region. However, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) constitutes a very important part of an aquatic ecosystem. It possesses specialized growth habits, physiological characteristics and reproductive strategies that allow for rapid growth and spread in freshwater environments and this explains its very rapid spread in the Niger Delta freshwater ecosystem. This paper therefore focuses on the environmental consequences of the proliferation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the Niger Delta freshwater ecosystem, extent of impact, and options available for its ecological utilization which will help mitigate proliferation, restore effective freshwater ecosystem utilization and balance. It concludes by recommending sustainable practices outlining the beneficial uses of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) rather than control.

Keywords: environmental impacts, ecological utilization, Niger Delta, water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes

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1297 Predictors of Ante-Natal Care and Health Facility Delivery Services Utilization in a Rural Area in Plateau State

Authors: Lilian A. Okeke, I. Okeke, N. Waziri, S. Balogun, P. Nguku, O. Fawole

Abstract:

Background: Access to ante-natal care services promotes safe motherhood and delivery with improved maternal and neonatal outcome. We conducted this study to identify factors influencing the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and health delivery services. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study. Households were numbered and a one in three sample was selected using a systematic sampling method. One hundred and ninety eight women who were either pregnant or had previous deliveries were interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires to obtain information on their socio-demographic characteristics, and reasons for non-utilization of ANC and health delivery services. We performed univariate and bivariate analysis using Epi info version 3.5.3. Results: The age of respondents ranged from (17-55 years) with a median age of 29 years. One hundred and ninety two (97%) utilized antenatal care services. Ninety three (47.9%) attended ANC at second trimester. More than half (58.6%) had ≥ 4 visits to ANC. One hundred and thirty one (66.2%) had their last delivery at home by a traditional birth attendant. Factors associated with ANC and health facility delivery services utilization were: age group 45-55 (OR 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00-0.16) and > 55 years (OR 0.03; 95% CI: 0.00-0.60), wife’s educational status (OR 3.17; 95% CI: 1.66-8.30), husband’s permission (OR 11.8; 95% CI 2.19-63.62), and distance ≥ 5km (OR 0.33; 95% CI: 0.16-0.60). Conclusion: ANC services were well utilized. Most women did not book early and had their last delivery at home. Predictors of ANC use and health facility delivery were age, wife’s educational status, husband's permission and long distance from health facility. A one-day health sensitization of the benefits of ANC utilization and the dangers of delivering at home was implemented.

Keywords: ante natal care, health facility, delivery services, rural area, Plateau state

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1296 Effect of Substituting Groundnut Cake with Remnant of Food Composite on Survival and Growth of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: M. Y. Abubakar, M. Yunisa, A. N. Muhammad

Abstract:

Constraining the production Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus culture is the prohibitive cost of feed. We assess the performance of the species fingerlings on diets substituted with composite. Four dietary treatments (0%, 25%, 45%, and 75%) for C. gariepinus and five (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and whole food composite) for O. niloticus were formulated and each fed to 15 fingerlings for C. gariepinus and 10 fingerlings for O. niloticus stocked in 75ltrs plastic bowls, replicated trice in a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted 56 days. Percent survival rate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (57.78 ± 9.69) in C. gariepinus fed diet III. The growth and nutrient utilization indices were least in the fish fed diet IV, which was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in other treatments. Fish fed dietary treatment III, recorded the best in growth and nutrient utilization indices and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those fed dietary treatments I & II which were non-significant (p > 0.05) and higher than those fed 75% substitution. Better profit index was in the fish fed diet with 50% substitution level. For O. niloticus, the survival (172.62 ± 39.03) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in those fed 25% substituted diet. For growth indices, the least performed were those fed whole composite while other treatments were non-significant (p > 0.05) different from each other. In terms of nutrient utilization, fish fed diet substituted at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% food composite had similar food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the profit index among the whole treatment. It can be concluded that food composite from Sokoto house-holds can optimally replace groundnut cake up to 50% level as a protein source in the diets of Clarias gariepinus and O. niloticus fingerlings without adverse effects on survival, growth, and nutrient utilization.

Keywords: food composite, nutrient utilization, C. gariepinus, O. niloticus household, substitution levels

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1295 Utilization of Long Acting Reversible Contraceptive Methods, and Associated Factors among Female College Students in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018

Authors: Woledegebrieal Aregay

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Introduction: Family planning is defined as the ability of individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births. It is part of a strategy to reduce poverty, maternal, infant and child mortality; empowers women by lightening the burden of excessive childbearing. Family planning is achieved through the use of different contraceptive methods among which the most effective method is modern family planning methods like Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive (LARCs) which are IUCD and Implant and these methods have multiple advantages over other reversible methods. Most importantly, once in place, they do not require maintenance and their duration of action is long, ranging from 3 to10 years. Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town among female college students from April-May. A simple random sampling technique was employed to recruit a total of 1166 study subjects. Descriptive variables were computed for all predictors & dependent variables. The presence of an association between covariates & LARC use was observed by two tables’ findings using the chi-square test. Bivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify all possible factors affecting LARC utilization & its crude Odds Ratio, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) & P-value was observed. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to control possible confounding variables. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) &P-values will be computed to identify significantly associated factors (P < 0.05) with LARC utilization. Result: Utilization of LARCs was 20.4%, the most common is Implant 86(96.5%), and followed by Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) 3(3.5%). The result of the multivariate analysis revealed that the significant association of marital status of the respondent on utilization of LARC [AOR 3.965(2.051-7.665)], discussion of the respondent about LARC utilization with the husband/boyfriend [AOR 2.198(1.191-4.058)], and attitude of the respondent on implant was found to be associated [AOR 0.365(0.143-0.933)].Conclusion: The level of knowledge and attitude in this study was not satisfactory, the utilization of long-acting reversible contraceptives among college students was relatively satisfactory but if the knowledge and attitude of the participant has improved the prevalence of LARC were increased.

Keywords: utilization, long-acting reversible contraceptive, Ethiopia, Gondar

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1294 Utilization of Secure Wireless Networks as Environment for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

Authors: Mohammed A. M. Ibrahim

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This paper investigate the utilization of wire and wireless networks to be platform for distributed educational monitoring system. Universities in developing countries suffer from a lot of shortages(staff, equipment, and finical budget) and optimal utilization of the wire and wireless network, so universities can mitigate some of the mentioned problems and avoid the problems that maybe humble the education processes in many universities by using our implementation of the examinations system as a test-bed to utilize the network as a solution to the shortages for academic staff in Taiz University. This paper selects a two areas first one quizzes activities is only a test bed application for wireless network learning environment system to be distributed among students. Second area is the features and the security of wireless, our tested application implemented in a promising area which is the use of WLAN in higher education for leering environment.

Keywords: networking wire and wireless technology, wireless network security, distributed computing, algorithm, encryption and decryption

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1293 A Retrospective Analysis of the Impact of the Choosing Wisely Canada Campaign on Emergency Department Imaging Utilization for Head Injuries

Authors: Sameer Masood, Lucas Chartier

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Head injuries are a commonly encountered presentation in emergency departments (ED) and the Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) campaign was released in June 2015 in an attempt to decrease imaging utilization for patients with minor head injuries. The impact of the CWC campaign on imaging utilization for head injuries has not been explored in the ED setting. In our study, we describe the characteristics of patients with head injuries presenting to a tertiary care academic ED and the impact of the CWC campaign on CT head utilization. This retrospective cohort study used linked databases from the province of Ontario, Canada to assess emergency department visits with a primary diagnosis of head injury made between June 1, 2014 and Aug 31, 2016 at the University Health Network in Toronto, Canada. We examined the number of visits during the study period, the proportion of patients that had a CT head performed before and after the release of the CWC campaign, as well as mode of arrival, and disposition. There were 4,322 qualifying visits at our site during the study period. The median presenting age was 44.12 years (IQR 27.83,67.45), the median GCS was 15 (IQR 15,15) and the majority of patients presenting had intermediate acuity (CTAS 3). Overall, 43.17% of patients arrived via ambulance, 49.24 % of patients received a CT head and 10.46% of patients were admitted. Compared to patients presenting before the CWC campaign release, there was no significant difference in the rate of CT heads after the CWC (50.41% vs 47.68%, P = 0.07). There were also no significant differences between the two groups in mode of arrival (ambulance vs ambulatory) (42.94% vs 43.48%, P = 0.72) or admission rates (9.85% vs 11.26%, P = 0.15). However, more patients belonged to the high acuity groups (CTAS 1 or 2) in the post CWC campaign release group (12.98% vs 8.11% P <0.001). Visits for head injuries make up a significant proportion of total ED visits and approximately half of these patients receive CT imaging in the ED. The CWC campaign did not seem to impact imaging utilization for head injuries in the 14 months following its launch. Further efforts, including local quality improvement initiatives, are likely needed to increase adherence to its recommendation and reduce imaging utilization for head injuries.

Keywords: choosing wisely, emergency department, head injury, quality improvement

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1292 Waste Utilization by Combustion in the Composition of Gel Fuels

Authors: Dmitrii Glushkov, Aleksandr G. Nigay, Olga S. Yashutina

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In recent years, due to the intensive development of the Arctic and Antarctic areas, the actual task is to develop technology for the effective utilization of solid and liquid combustible wastes in an environment with low temperatures. Firstly, such technology will help to prevent the dumping of waste into the World Ocean and reduce the risks of causing environmental damage to the Far North areas. Secondly, promising actions will help to prepare fuel compositions from the waste in the places of their production. Such kind of fuels can be used as energy resources. It will reduce waste utilization costs when transporting them to the mainland. In the present study, we suggest a solution to the problem of waste utilization by the preparation of gel fuels based on solid and liquid combustible components with the addition of the thickener. Such kind of fuels is characterized by ease of preparation, storage, transportation and use (as energy resources). The main regularities and characteristics of physical and chemical processes are established with varying parameters of gel fuels and heating sources in wide ranges. The obtained results let us conclude about the prospects of gel fuels practical application for combustible wastes utilization. Appropriate technology will be characterized by positive environmental, operational and economic effects. The composition of the gel fuels can vary in a wide range. The fuels preparation based on one type of a combustible liquid or a several liquids mixture with the finely dispersed components addition makes it possible to obtain compositions with predicted rheological, energy or environmental characteristics. Besides, gel fuels have a lower level of the fire hazard compared to common solid and liquid fuels. This makes them convenient for storage and transportation. In such conditions, it is not necessary to transport combustible wastes from the territory of the Arctic and the Antarctic to the mainland for processing, which is now quite an expensive procedure. The research was funded by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 18-13-00031).

Keywords: combustible liquid waste, gel fuel, ignition and combustion, utilization

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