Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 300

Search results for: ELISA

300 Novel Nanomagnetic Beads Based- Latex Agglutination Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis Haematobium

Authors: Ibrahim Aly, Rabab Zalat, Bahaa EL Deen W. El Aswad, Ismail M. Moharm, Basam M. Masoud, Tarek Diab

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay (NMB-LAT) as a simple test for diagnosis of S. haematobium as well as standardize the novel nanomagnetic beads based –ELISA (NMB-ELISA). According to urine examination this study included 85 S. haematobium infected patients, 30 other parasites infected patients and 25 negative control samples. The sensitivity of novel NMB-LAT was 82.4% versus 96.5% and 88.2% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. The specificity of NMB-LAT was 83.6% versus 96.3% and 87.3% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. In conclusion, the novel NMB-ELISA is a valuable applicable diagnostic technique for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium. The novel NMB-ELISA assay is a suitable applicable diagnostic method in field survey especially when followed by ELISA as a confirmatory test in query false negative results. Trials are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of NMB-ELISA assay.

Keywords: diagnosis, iatex agglutination, nanomagnetic beads, sandwich ELISA

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299 The Differences between Direct Examination and ELISA Test during the Diagnosis of Fasciolosis in Jaundiced Slaughtered Sheep in Iraq

Authors: Azad A. Meerkhan, Alaa Hani Razak, Bayan M. S. Younis

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The efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica was studied. 232 jaundiced sheep among 5208 sheep slaughter in the Duhok abattoir (regardless of the age and gender) between the period of May. 2012 to Oct. 2012 were examined by direct examination (Searching of adult flukes in the bile duct) and by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the prevalence of fascioliasis in the studied population which showed a high observed infection ratio in Sep. 2012 (12.2%) with the high (ELISA) result of infection in May. 2012 (25.36%). Significant differences were found between the two ways in all of the months with the highest difference in May. 2012 and the net deference between the both ways was 6.91%.

Keywords: fascioliasis, Fasciola hepatica, layers, liver fluk, ELISA, direct examination

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298 A Field Study of Monochromatic Light Effects on Antibody Responses to Newcastle Disease by HI Test and the Correlation with ELISA

Authors: Seyed Mehrzad Pahlavani, Mozaffar Haji Jafari Anaraki, Sayma Mohammadi

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A total of 34700 day-old broilers were exposed to green, blue and yellow light using a light-emitting diode system for 6 weeks to investigate the effects of light wave length on antibody responses to Newcastle disease by HI test and the correlation with ELISA. 3 poultry house broiler farms with the same conditions was selected and the lightening system of each was set according to the requirement. Blood samples were taken from 20 chicks on days 1, 24 and 46 and the Newcastle virus specific antibody was titered in serum using HI an ELISA test. On day 24, the probability value of more than 0/05 was observed in HI and ELISA tests of all groups while at the end of breeding period, the average HI serum antibody titer was more in the green light than the yellow one while the blue light was not significantly different from both. At the last titration, the green light has got the highest titer of Newcastle antibodies. There were no significant differences of Newcastle antibody titers between all groups and ages in broiler pullets in ELISA. According to the sampling and analysis of HI and ELISA serum tests, there were no significant relationships between all broiler pullets breeding in green, blue and yellow light on days 24 and 46 and the P-value was more than 0/05. It is suggested that the monochromatic light is effective on broilers immunity against Newcastle disease.

Keywords: monochromatic light, Newcastle disease, HI test, ELISA test

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297 Diagnosis of Rotavirus Infection among Egyptian Children by Using Different Laboratory Techniques

Authors: Mohamed A. Alhammad, Hadia A. Abou-Donia, Mona H. Hashish, Mohamed N. Massoud

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Background: Rotavirus is the leading etiologic agent of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children worldwide. The present study was aimed 1) to detect rotavirus infection as a cause of diarrhoea among children under 5 years of age using the two serological methods (ELISA and LA) and the PCR technique (2) to evaluate the three methodologies used for human RV detection in stool samples. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 247 children less than 5 years old, diagnosed clinically as acute gastroenteritis and attending Alexandria University Children Hospital at EL-Shatby. Rotavirus antigen was screened by ELISA and LA tests in all stool samples, whereas only 100 samples were subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of rotavirus RNA. Results: Out of the 247 studied cases with diarrhoea, rotavirus antigen was detected in 83 (33.6%) by ELISA and 73 (29.6%) by LA, while the 100 cases tested by RT-PCR showed that 44% of them had rotavirus RNA. Rotavirus diarrhoea was significantly presented with a marked seasonal peak during autumn and winter (61.4%). Conclusion: The present study confirms the huge burden of rotavirus as a major cause of acute diarrhoea in Egyptian infants and young children. It was concluded that; LA is equal in sensitivity to ELISA, ELISA is more specific than LA, and RT-PCR is more specific than ELISA and LA in diagnosis of rotavirus infection.

Keywords: rotavirus, diarrhea, immunoenzyme techniques, latex fixation tests, RT-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
296 Detection of Helicobacter Pylori by PCR and ELISA Methods in Patients with Hyperlipidemia

Authors: Simin Khodabakhshi, Hossein Rassi

Abstract:

Hyperlipidemia refers to any of several acquired or genetic disorders that result in a high level of lipids circulating in the blood. Helicobacter pylori infection is a contributing factor in the progression of hyperlipidemia with serum lipid changes. The aim of this study was to detect of Helicobacter pylori by PCR and serological methods in patients with hyperlipidemia. In this case-control study, 174 patients with hyperlipidemia and 174 healthy controls were studied. Also, demographics, physical and biochemical parameters were performed in all samples. The DNA extracted from blood specimens was amplified by H pylori cagA specific primers. The results show that H. pylori cagA positivity was detected in 79% of the hyperlipidemia and in 56% of the control group by ELISA test and 49% of the hyperlipidemia and in 24% of the control group by PCR test. Prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in hyperlipidemia as compared to controls. In addition, patients with hyperlipidemia had significantly higher values for triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C, waist to hip ratio, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and lower levels of HDL-C than control participants (all p < 0.0001). Our result detected the ELISA was a rapid and cost-effective detection and considering the high prevalence of cytotoxigenic H. pylori strains, cag A is suggested as a promising target for PCR and ELISA tests for detection of infection with toxigenic strains. In general, it can be concluded that molecular analysis of H. pylori cagA and clinical parameters are important in early detection of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis with H. pylori infection by PCR and ELISA tests.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, hyperlipidemia, PCR, ELISA

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295 Nano-Immunoassay for Diagnosis of Active Schistosomal Infection

Authors: Manal M. Kame, Hanan G. El-Baz, Zeinab A.Demerdash, Engy M. Abd El-Moneem, Mohamed A. Hendawy, Ibrahim R. Bayoumi

Abstract:

There is a constant need to improve the performance of current diagnostic assays of schistosomiasis as well as develop innovative testing strategies to meet new testing challenges. This study aims at increasing the diagnostic efficiency of monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based antigen detection assays through gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific anti-Schistosoma mansoni monoclonal antibodies. In this study, several hybidoma cell lines secreting MAbs against adult worm tegumental Schistosoma antigen (AWTA) were produced at Immunology Department of Theodor Bilharz Research Institute and preserved in liquid nitrogen. One MAb (6D/6F) was chosen for this study due to its high reactivity to schistosome antigens with highest optical density (OD) values. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were functionalized and conjugated with MAb (6D/6F). The study was conducted on serum samples of 116 subjects: 71 patients with S. mansoni eggs in their stool samples group (gp 1), 25 with other parasites (gp2) and 20 negative healthy controls (gp3). Patients in gp1 were further subdivided according to egg count in their stool samples into Light infection {≤ 50 egg per gram(epg) (n= 17)}, moderate {51-100 epg (n= 33)} and severe infection {>100 epg(n= 21)}. Sandwich ELISA was performed using (AuNPs -MAb) for detection of circulating schistosomal antigen (CSA) levels in serum samples of all groups and the results were compared with that after using MAb/ sandwich ELISA system. Results Gold- MAb/ ELISA system reached a lower detection limit of 10 ng/ml compared to 85 ng/ml on using MAb/ ELISA and the optimal concentrations of AuNPs -MAb were found to be 12 folds less than that of MAb/ ELISA system for detection of CSA. The sensitivity and specificity of sandwich ELISA for detection of CSA levels using AuNPs -MAb were 100% & 97.8 % respectively compared to 87.3% &93.38% respectively on using MAb/ ELISA system. It was found that CSA was detected in 9 out of 71 S.mansoni infected patients on using AuNPs - MAb/ ELISA system and was not detected by MAb/ ELISA system. All those patients (9) was found to have an egg count below 50 epg feces (patients with light infections). ROC curve analyses revealed that sandwich ELISA using gold-MAb was an excellent diagnostic investigator that could differentiate Schistosoma patients from healthy controls, on the other hand it revealed that sandwich ELISA using MAb was not accurate enough as it could not recognize nine out of 71 patients with light infections. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that: Loading gold nanoparticles with MAb (6D/6F) increases the sensitivity and specificity of sandwich ELISA for detection of CSA, thus active (early) and light infections could be easily detected. Moreover this binding will decrease the amount of MAb consumed in the assay and lower the coast. The significant positive correlation that was detected between ova count (intensity of infection) and OD reading in sandwich ELISA using gold- MAb enables its use to detect the severity of infections and follow up patients after treatment for monitoring of cure.

Keywords: Schistosomiasis, nanoparticles, gold, monoclonal antibodies, ELISA

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294 Detection of Total Aflatoxin in Flour of Wheat and Maize Samples in Albania Using ELISA

Authors: Aferdita Dinaku, Jonida Canaj

Abstract:

Aflatoxins are potentially toxic metabolites produced by certain kinds of fungi (molds) that are found naturally all over the world; they can contaminate food crops and pose a serious health threat to humans by mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Several types of aflatoxin (14 or more) occur in nature. In Albanian nutrition, cereals (especially wheat and corn) are common ingredients in some traditional meals. This study aimed to investigate the presence of aflatoxins in the flour of wheat and maize that are consumed in Albania’s markets. The samples were collected randomly in different markets in Albania and detected by the ELISA method, measured in 450 nm. The concentration of total aflatoxins was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and they were ranged between 0.05-1.09 ppb. However, the screened mycotoxin levels in the samples were lower than the maximum permissible limits of European Commission No 1881/2006 (4 μg/kg). The linearity of calibration curves was good for total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, M1) (R²=0.99) in the concentration range 0.005-4.05 ppb. The samples were analyzed in two replicated measurements and for each sample, the standard deviation (statistical parameter) is calculated. The results showed that the flour samples are safe, but the necessity of performing such tests is necessary.

Keywords: aflatoxins, ELISA technique, food contamination, flour

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293 Comparison of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Iranian and Indian Spices by ELISA Method

Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad

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This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in 36 samples of spices from Iran and India that was included of chilli powder (n=12), black pepper powder (n=12) and whole black pepper (n=12). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for analysing the samples. Aflatoxin B1 was found in all the spices samples, the concentration of AFB1 in Iranian samples was ranged from 63.16 to 626.81 ng/kg and in Indian samples was ranged from 31.15 to 245.94 ng/kg. The mean of AFB1 concentration in the chilli powder was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the whole and powdered black pepper. However, none of the samples exceeded the maximum prescribed limit i.e. 5 µg/kg of European Union regulations for aflatoxin B1. The occurrence of AFB1 in spices samples could be a potential hazard for public health.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, chilli, black pepper, ELISA, Iran, India

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292 The Arabian Camel (Camelus dromedarius) as a Major Reservoir of Q Fever in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mansour F. Hussein, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Riyadh S. Al-Jumaah, A. GarelNabi, I. Al-Khalifa, Osama B. Mohammed

Abstract:

Serum samples from 489 male and female camels were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies to C. burnetii were recorded in sera of 252 (51.64%) camels. Significant differences in prevalence were found between male and female camels, juvenile and adult camels, different ecotypes and different sampling locations. 307 camels were simultaneously tested for C. burnetii antibodies by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Close agreement was found between the results of the two tests. A high prevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was also recorded in milk samples tested by ELISA. Clinical samples from serologically positive camels were subjected to PCR analysis using primers which amplify the repetitive transposon-like and transposase gene regions of C. burnetii. Positive DNA amplification was obtained from both regions, with highest shedding of C. burnetii in faecal samples (27.59%) followed, in descending order, by urine (23.81%), blood (15.85%) and milk (6.5%). The present results indicate that camels are a major reservoir of C. burnetii in Saudi Arabia. The high prevalence of infection in camels, the poor sanitary standards under which the animals are kept and the consumption of raw camel milk indicate that camels could also be a major source of transmission of Q fever to humans in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Arabian camel, Camelus dromedarius, Coxiella brunetii, ELISA, immunofluoresence, PCR

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291 Determination of Some Etiologic Agents in Calves with Diarrhea

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici, Oguzhan Avci

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The aim of this study was to determination of role infection in neonatal calves in Central Anatolian, Turkey. A total 300 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic neonatal calves, aged between 0–90 days from Konya, Karaman, and Aksaray from January to April 2014. Fecal specimens from calves with clinically diarrheic symptoms were examined for the presence of Bovine Coronavirus, Bovine Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium sp., and E. coli by commercially available capture direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and Modified Ziehl Neelsen method (MZN). Calves were grouped according to their age as follows: 1-14, 15-29, and 30-90 days. Cryptosporidium sp. infection was detected in 52.8%, 58.8%, and 39.2% by ELISA and 33.9%, 47%, 26.7% by MZN in the respective age groups. The seroprevalance of Rotavirus (12.5 %, 40 %, 12.5 %), Coronavirus (2.5%, 0%, 3.5%) and E. coli (5%, 4.7%, 8.9%) infections were determined according to the age groups respectively. Cryptosporidium sp. was the most detected enteropathogen (52 %) of calves and coronavirus was the least detected (2 %). The detection rate of the mixed enfection was 12.3%. In conclusion, it must be evaluated by mix infections in calves with diarrhea. These results will provide an important contribution against the factors that cause diarrhea

Keywords: cryptosporidium sp., bovine coronavirus, bovine rotavirus, E.coli, calve, ELISA

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290 Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

Authors: Zakieh Rostamzadeh Khameneh, Nariman Sepehrvand, Khalkhali-Zahra Shirmohamadi

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Background: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy-associated deaths in southern Asia. Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro). Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years). Only five cases (3.6%) among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88), income level (P=0.19) of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.

Keywords: pregnancy, hepatitis E, women, ELISA

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289 Evaluation of the Hepatitis C Virus and Classical and Modern Immunoassays Used Nowadays to Diagnose It in Tirana

Authors: Stela Papa, Klementina Puto, Migena Pllaha

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HCV is a hepatotropic RNA virus, transmitted primarily via the blood route, which causes progressive disease such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV nowadays is a global healthcare problem. A variety of immunoassays including old and new technologies are being applied to detect HCV in our country. These methods include Immunochromatography assays (ICA), Fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), Enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect HCV antibodies in blood serum, which lately is being slowly replaced by more sensitive methods such as rapid automated analyzer chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). The aim of this study is to estimate HCV infection in carriers and chronic acute patients and to evaluate the use of new diagnostic methods. This study was realized from September 2016 to May 2018. During this study period, 2913 patients were analyzed for the presence of HCV by taking samples from their blood serum. The immunoassays performed were ICA, FIA, ELFA, ELISA, and CLIA assays. Concluding, 82% of patients taken in this study, resulted infected with HCV. Diagnostic methods in clinical laboratories are crucial in the early stages of infection, in the management of chronic hepatitis and in the treatment of patients during their disease.

Keywords: CLIA, ELISA, Hepatitis C virus, immunoassay

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288 Anti-TNF: Possibilities of Rising Anti-Phosphorylcholine Antibodies

Authors: Md. Mizanur Rahman, Anquan Liu, Anna Frostegård, Johan Frostegård

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The role of the human immune system is essential in cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Activated cells in atherosclerosis produce abundant amounts of cytokines, but the exact mechanisms involved in the effects of these inflammatory cytokines are not clear in atherosclerosis. In a large clinical cohort, we have previously determined that antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) are negatively and independently associated with both development of atherosclerosis and also a low risk of cardiovascular disease. Further, we reported that rheumatoid arthritis patients who were non-responders to TNF-inhibitors, where those with low anti-PC levels. Upon anti-TNF treatment, anti-PC levels increased. We, therefore, hypothesised that proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF could play a role in anti-PC regulation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with or without TNF and anti-TNF. The cell supernatants were collected after six days for ELISA measurements. In separate experiments, cells were cultured for 24 hours in both polystyrene plates and ELISPOT plates under a similar condition for ELISA and ELISPOT assays respectively. Total RNA was extracted after 6 hours of cell culture to perform RT-qPCR. Cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue staining and MTT assays. ELISA measurements detected less than 40% of anti-PC in TNF-treated cells, in comparison to control cells, whereas anti-PC production was recovered by anti-TNF treatment. ELISPOT assays showed that TNF suppresses anti-PC production by inhibiting anti-PC producing B-cells. In addition, RT-qPCR and ELISA showed that TNF also has effects also on B-cell activation as BAFF expression was inhibited by TNF treatment. Atherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases, but anti-PC is a protection marker for atherosclerosis development. Our findings show that TNF is a negative regulator of anti-PC production. Immune modulation and rising of anti-PC could be of major significance for the patients.

Keywords: anti-PC, Anti-TNF, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, phosphorylecholine

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
287 The Cytomegalovirus Infection among Iranian Kidney Graft Recipients

Authors: Zakieh Rostamzadeh , Nariman Sepehrvand-Zahra Shirmohamadi

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Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common infectious problems following kidney transplantation. In this study, we are aimed to investigate the CMV infection in the setting of renal transplant recipients in Urmia-Iran, using both ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Methods: Ninety-six renal transplant recipients were selected randomly and enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Blood sampling was done via venipuncture, and all sera were investigated for anti-CMV IgM, and the seropositive cases in association with 14 randomly selected seronegative cases were investigated with PCR assay. Results: Thirty-three patients (34.3%) were seropositive for anti-CMV IgM, 3 patients (3.1%) were in borderline range, and 60 patients (62.5%) were seronegative. By considering the patients with borderline anti-CMV IgM levels as seropositive, 37.5% were seropositive for anti-CMV IgM. Among 36 seropositive cases, the CMV infection was confirmed in 19 (52.7%) of them using PCR. Age (P = 0.40), educational status (P = 0.77), history of pre-transplantation dialysis (0.52), history of blood transfusion (P = 0.52), and immunosuppressive regimen were not statistically different among recipients with positive versus negative CMV PCR study results. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of CMV infection was demonstrated to be high in renal transplant recipients of Urmia-Iran. The rate was higher compared to several previous reports in the literature. ELISA method has an appropriate sensitivity to screen the recipients for CMV infection but considering its relatively low specificity, the seropositive cases are better to be confirmed by further PCR study.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, renal transplantation, ELISA, IgM, PCR

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286 Investigation of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Kitchen of Catering

Authors: Çiğdem Sezer, Aksem Aksoy, Leyla Vatansever

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This study has been done for the purpose of evaluation of public health and identifying of enterotoxigenic Staphyloccocus aureus in kitchen of catering. In the kitchen of catering, samples have been taken by swabs from surface of equipments which are in the salad section, meat section and bakery section. Samples have been investigated with classical cultural methods in terms of Staphyloccocus aureus. Therefore, as a 10x10 cm area was identified (salad, cutting and chopping surfaces, knives, meat grinder, meat chopping surface) samples have been taken with sterile swabs with helping FTS from this area. In total, 50 samples were obtained. In aseptic conditions, Baird-Parker agar (with egg yolk tellurite) surface was seeded with swabs. After 24-48 hours of incubation at 37°C, the black colonies with 1-1.5 mm diameter and which are surrounded by a zone indicating lecithinase activity were identified as S. aureus after applying Gram staining, catalase, coagulase, glucose and mannitol fermentation and termonuclease tests. Genotypic characterization (Staphylococcus genus and S.aureus species spesific) of isolates was performed by PCR. The ELISA test was applied to the isolates for the identification of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SET) A, B, C, D, E in bacterial cultures. Measurements were taken at 450 nm in an ELISA reader using an Ridascreen-Total set ELISA test kit (r-biopharm R4105-Enterotoxin A, B, C, D, E). The results were calculated according to the manufacturer’s instructions. A total of 50 samples of 97 S. aureus was isolated. This number has been identified as 60 with PCR analysis. According to ELISA test, only 1 of 60 isolates were found to be enterotoxigenic. Enterotoxigenic strains were identified from the surface of salad chopping and cutting. In the kitchen of catering, S. aureus identification indicates a significant source of contamination. Especially, in raw consumed salad preparation phase of contamination is very important. This food can be a potential source of food-borne poisoning their terms, and they pose a significant risk to consumers have been identified.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, enterotoxin, catering, kitchen, health

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285 Preliminary Prospecting on the Distribution of the Disease of Citrus Tristeza Orchards in the Province of Chlef

Authors: Ibrahim Djelloul Berkane

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A survey was conducted to assess the presence of the virus in Citrus tristeza one of the main citrus regions of Algeria, namely the Chlef region, using the technique of Direct Tissue Print Immunoprinting Assay (DTBIA) and the Double Sandwich ELISA antibodies. A nursery citrus, lumber yards, and commercial orchards, which are the main varieties cultivated citrus were subjected to samples collected samples for laboratory analysis. 0.91% of the plants tested orchards were infected with CTV, while no positive case was detected at the nursery the yard, however, it is reported that an alarming rate of 10,5% of orchards tested at the common Chettia were infected with tristeza virus. The investigation was launched to identify the vector species tristeza revealed the presence of a vector is important Aphis gossypii.

Keywords: aphis, chlef, citrus, DAS-ELISA, DTBIA, tristeza

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284 ELISA Based hTSH Assessment Using Two Sensitive and Specific Anti-hTSH Polyclonal Antibodies

Authors: Maysam Mard-Soltani, Mohamad Javad Rasaee, Saeed Khalili, Abdol Karim Sheikhi, Mehdi Hedayati

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Production of specific antibody responses against hTSH is a cumbersome process due to the high identity between the hTSH and the other members of the glycoprotein hormone family (FSH, LH and HCG) and the high identity between the human hTSH and host animals for antibody production. Therefore, two polyclonal antibodies were purified against two recombinant proteins. Four possible ELISA tests were designed based on these antibodies. These ELISA tests were checked against hTSH and other glycoprotein hormones, and their sensitivity and specificity were assessed. Bioinformatics tools were used to analyze the immunological properties. After the immunogen region selection from hTSH protein, c terminal of B hTSH was selected and applied. Two recombinant genes, with these cut pieces (first: two repeats of C terminal of B hTSH, second: tetanous toxin+B hTSH C terminal), were designed and sub-cloned into the pET32a expression vector. Standard methods were used for protein expression, purification, and verification. Thereafter, immunizations of the white New Zealand rabbits were performed and the serums of them were used for antibody titration, purification and characterization. Then, four ELISA tests based on two antibodies were employed to assess the hTSH and other glycoprotein hormones. The results of these assessments were compared with standard amounts. The obtained results indicated that the desired antigens were successfully designed, sub-cloned, expressed, confirmed and used for in vivo immunization. The raised antibodies were capable of specific and sensitive hTSH detection, while the cross reactivity with the other members of the glycoprotein hormone family was minimum. Among the four designed tests, the test in which the antibody against first protein was used as capture antibody, and the antibody against second protein was used as detector antibody did not show any hook effect up to 50 miu/l. Both proteins have the ability to induce highly sensitive and specific antibody responses against the hTSH. One of the antibody combinations of these antibodies has the highest sensitivity and specificity in hTSH detection.

Keywords: hTSH, bioinformatics, protein expression, cross reactivity

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283 Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Synthetic Cannabinoids

Authors: Hiroshi Nakayama, Yuji Ito

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Synthetic cannabinoids have attracted much public attention recently in Japan. 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole (JWH-018), 1-pentyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl) indole (JWH-015), 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3- (1-(2,2,3,3- tetramethylcyclopropyl)) indole (XLR-11) and 1-methyl-3- (1-admantyl) indole (JWH-018 adamantyl analog) are known as synthetic cannabinoids and are also considered dangerous illegal drugs in Japan. It has become necessary to develop sensitive and useful methods for detection of synthetic cannabinoids. We produced two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against synthetic cannabinoids, named NT1 (IgG1) and NT2 (IgG1), using Hybridoma technology. The cross-reactivity of these produced MAbs was evaluated using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the results, we found both of these antibodies recognize many kinds of synthetic cannabinoids analog. However, neither of these antibodies recognizes naphtoic acid, 1-methyl-indole and indole known as a raw material of synthetic cannabinoid. Thus, the MAbs produced in this study could be a useful tool for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids.

Keywords: ELISA, monoclonal antibody, sensor, synthetic cannabinoid

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282 Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among Pregnant Women in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Hassan Waseem

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is ubiquitously distributed viral agent responsible for different clinical manifestations that may vary according to the immunologic status of the patient. CMV can cause morbidity and mortality among fetuses and patients with compromised immune system. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Islamabad to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with CMV infection among pregnant women. Blood samples of 172 pregnant women visiting Mother and Child Healthcare, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Islamabad were taken. In present study, serum samples of the women were checked for CMV-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical, obstetrical and socio-demographical characteristics of the women were collected by using structured questionnaires. Out of 172 pregnant women included in the study, 171 (99.4%) were CMV specific IgG positive and 30 (17.4%) were found positive for CMV-IgM antibodies. The CMV has taken an endemic form in Pakistan so, routine screening of CMV among pregnant women is recommended.

Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, blood transfusion, ELISA, seroprevalence

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281 Dicarbonyl Methylglyoxal Induces Structural Perturbations, Aggregation and Immunogenicity in IgG with Implications in Auto-Immune Response in Diabetes

Authors: Sidra Islam, Moin Uddin, Mir A. Rouf

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A wide variety of pathological disorders owing to hyperglycemic conditions involves structural rearrangements and condensations of proteins. The implication of methylglyoxal (MG) modified immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the onset and progression of diabetes type 2 (T2DM) is studied in the present study. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches MG was found to perturb the structure of IgG, effect its microenvironment and leads to aggregate formation. Furthermore, MG-IgG was found to be highly immunogenic inducing high titre antibodies in female rabbits. Clinical studies revealed the presence of circulating anti-MG-IgG antibodies as analyzed by direct binding ELISA. The circulating auto antibodies were highly specific for MG-IgG as revealed by inhibition ELISA. Thus it can be concluded that MG is a powerful agent with a high damaging potential. To IgG. It is highly capable of generating immune response that contributes to the immunopathology associated with diabetes. Dicarbonyl adducts may emerge as potential biomarkers for T2DM.

Keywords: immunogenicity, Immunoglobulin G, methylglyoxal, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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280 ANA Negative but FANA Positive Patients with Clinical Symptoms of Rheumatic Disease: The Suggestion for Clinicians

Authors: Abdolreza Esmaeilzadeh, Mehri Mirzaei

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Objective: Rheumatic disease is a chronic disease that causes pain, stiffness, swelling and limited motion and function of many joints. RA is the most common form of autoimmune arthritis, affecting more than 1.3 million Americans. Of these, about 75% are women. Materials and Methods: This study was formed due to the misconception about ANA test, which is frequently performed with methods based upon solid phase as ELISA. This experiment was conducted on 430 patients, with clinical symptoms that are likely affected with rheumatic diseases, simultaneously by means of ANA and FANA. Results: 36 cases (8.37%) of patients, despite positive ANA, have demonstrated negative results via Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IIFA), (false positive). 116 cases (27%) have demonstrated negative ANA results, by means of the ELISA technique, although they had positive IIFA results. Conclusion: Other advantages of IIFA are antibody titration and specific pattern detection that have the capability of distinguishing positive dsDNA results. According to the restrictions and false negative cases, in patients, IIFA test is highly recommended for these disease's diagnosis.

Keywords: autoimmune disease, IIFA, EIA, rheumatic disease

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279 Serological IgG Testing to Diagnose Alimentary Induced Diseases and Monitoring Efficacy of an Individual Defined Diet in Dogs

Authors: Anne-Margré C. Vink

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Background: Food-related allergies and intolerances are frequently occurring in dogs. Diagnosis and monitoring according to ‘Golden Standard’ of elimination efficiency are time-consuming, expensive, and requires expert clinical setting. In order to facilitate rapid and robust, quantitative testing of intolerance, and determining the individual offending foods, a serological test is implicated. Method: As we developed Medisynx IgG Human Screening Test ELISA before and the dog’s immune system is most similar to humans, we were able to develop Medisynx IgG Dog Screening Test ELISA as well. In this study, 47 dogs suffering from Canine Atopic Dermatitis (CAD) and several secondary induced reactions were included to participate in serological Medisynx IgG Dog Screening Test ELISA (within < 0,02 % SD). Results were expressed as titers relative to the standard OD readings to diagnose alimentary induced diseases and monitoring the efficacy of an individual eliminating diet in dogs. Split sample analysis was performed by independently sending 2 times 3 ml serum under two unique codes. Results: The veterinarian monitored these dogs to check dog’ results at least at 3, 7, 21, 49, 70 days and after period of 6 and 12 months on an individual negative diet and a positive challenge (retrospectively) at 6 months. Data of each dog were recorded in a screening form and reported that a complete recovery of all clinical manifestations was observed at or less than 70 days (between 50 and 70 days) in the majority of dogs(44 out of 47 dogs =93.6%). Conclusion: Challenge results showed a significant result of 100% in specificity as well as 100% positive predicted value. On the other hand, sensitivity was 95,7% and negative predictive value was 95,7%. In conclusion, an individual diet based on IgG ELISA in dogs provides a significant improvement of atopic dermatitis and pruritus including all other non-specific defined allergic skin reactions as erythema, itching, biting and gnawing at toes, as well as to several secondary manifestations like chronic diarrhoea, chronic constipation, otitis media, obesity, laziness or inactive behaviour, pain and muscular stiffness causing a movement disorders, excessive lacrimation, hyper behaviour, nervous behaviour and not possible to stay alone at home, anxiety, biting and aggressive behaviour and disobedience behaviour. Furthermore, we conclude that a relatively more severe systemic candidiasis, as shown by relatively higher titer (class 3 and 4 IgG reactions to Candida albicans), influence the duration of recovery from clinical manifestations in affected dogs. These findings are consistent with our preliminary human clinical studies.

Keywords: allergy, canine atopic dermatitis, CAD, food allergens, IgG-ELISA, food-incompatibility

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278 Virus Diseases of Edible Seed Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in Aksaray Province

Authors: Serkan Yesil

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Cucurbits (the Cucurbitaceae family) include 119 genera and 825 species distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The major cultivated cucurbit species such as melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum.&Nakai) are important vegetable crops worldwide. Squash is grown for fresh consuming, as well as its seeds are used as a snack in Turkey like some Mediterranean countries and Germany, Hungary, Austria and China. Virus diseases are one of the most destructive diseases on squash which is grown for seeds in Aksaray province. In this study, it was aimed to determine the virus infections in major squash growing areas in Aksaray province. Totally 153 plant samples with common virus symptoms like mosaic, curling, blistering, mottling, distortion, shoestring, stunting and vine decline were collected from squash plants during 2014. In this study, DAS-ELISA method is used for identifying the virus infections on the plant samples. According to the results of the DAS-ELISA 84.96 % of plant samples were infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic Potyvirus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic Potyvirus-2 (WMV-2), Cucumber mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV), Papaya ringspot Potyvirus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) and Squash mosaic Comovirus (SqMV). ZYMV was predominant in the research area with the ratio of 66.01 %. WMV-2 was the second important virus disease in the survey area, it was detected on the samples at the ratio of 57.51 %. Also, mixed infections of those virus infections were detected commonly in squash. Especially, ZYMV+WMV-2 mixed infections were common. Cucumber green mottle mosaic Tobamovirus (CGMMV) was not present in the research area.

Keywords: Aksaray, DAS-ELISA, edible seed squash, WMV-2, ZYMV

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277 Biospiral-Detect to Distinguish PrP Multimers from Monomers

Authors: Gulyas Erzsebet

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The multimerisation of proteins is a common feature of many cellular processes; however, it could also impair protein functions and/or be associated with the occurrence of diseases. Thus, development of a research tool monitoring the appearance/presence of multimeric protein forms has great importance for a variety of research fields. Such a tool is potentially applicable in the ante-mortem diagnosis of certain conformational diseases, such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and Alzheimer’s disease. These conditions are accompanied by the appearance of aggregated protein multimers, present in low concentrations in various tissues. This detection is particularly relevant for TSE where the handling of tissues derived from affected individuals and of meat products of infected animals have become an enormous health concern. Here we demonstrate the potential of such a multimer detection approach in TSE by developing a facile approach. The Biospiral-Detect system resembles a traditional sandwich ELISA, except that the capturing antibody that is attached to a solid surface and the detecting antibody is directed against the same or overlapping epitopes. As a consequence, the capturing antibody shields the epitope on the captured monomer from reacting with the detecting antibody, therefore monomers are not detected. Thus, MDS is capable of detecting only protein multimers with high specificity. We developed an alternative system as well, where RNA aptamers were employed instead of monoclonal antibodies. In order to minimize degradation, the 3' and 5' ends of the aptamer contained deoxyribonucleotides and phosphorothioate linkages. When compared the monoclonal antibodies-based system with the aptamers-based one, the former proved to be superior. Thus all subsequent experiments were conducted by employing the Biospiral -Detect modified sandwich ELISA kit. Our approach showed an order of magnitude higher sensitivity toward mulimers than monomers suggesting that this approach may become a valuable diagnostic tool for conformational diseases that are accompanied by multimerization.

Keywords: diagnosis, ELISA, Prion, TSE

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276 Soluble CD36 and Cardiovascular Risk in Middle-Aged Subjects

Authors: Mohammad Alkhatatbeh, Nehad Ayoub, Nizar Mhaidat, Nesreen Saadeh, Lisa Lincz

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CD36 is involved in the development of atherosclerosis by enhancing macrophage endocytosis of oxidized-low density lipoproteins and foam cell formation. Soluble CD36 (sCD36) was found to be elevated in type 2 diabetic patients and was supposed to act as a marker of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In young subjects, sCD36 was associated with cardiovascular risk factors including obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. This study was conducted to further investigate the relationship between plasma sCD36 and cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and healthy controls. SCD36 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for 41 patients with MetS and 36 healthy controls. Data for other variables were obtained from patients' medical records. SCD36 concentrations were relatively low compared to most other studies and were not significantly different between the MetS group and controls (P-value=0.17). SCD36 was also not correlated with age, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, serum electrolytes and blood counts. SCD36 was not significantly different between subjects with obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension or cardiovascular disease and those without these abnormalities (P-value > 0.05). The inconsistency between results reported in this study and other studies may be unique to the study population or be a result of the lack of a reliable standardized method for determining absolute sCD36 concentrations. However, further investigations are required to assess CD36 tissue expression in the study population and to assess the accuracy of various commercially available sCD36 ELISA kits. Thus, the availability of a standardized simple sCD36 ELISA that could be performed in any basic laboratory would be more favorable to the specialized flow cytometry methods that detect CD36+ microparticles if it was to be used as a biomarker.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, CD36, cardiovascular risk, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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275 Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis under Diverse Production Systems in Central Punjab, Paksitan

Authors: A. Khan, I. Khan, M. Younus, S. E. Haque, U. Waheed, H. Neubauer, A. A. Anjum, S. A. Muhammad, A. Idrees T. Abbas, S. Raza, M. A. Ali, M. Farooq, M. Mahmood, A. Hussain, H. Danish, U. Tayyab, M. Zafar, M. Aslam.

Abstract:

Brucellosis is one of the major problems of milk producing animals in our country which deteriorate the health of livestock. It is a disease of zoonotic significance which is capable of producing disease in humans leading to infertility, orchitis, abortions, and synovitis. In this particular study, milk and serum samples of cattle and buffalo (n=402) were collected from different districts of Punjab including Narowal, Gujranwala and Gujrat. Milk samples were analyzed by Milk Ring Test (MRT), while serum samples were tested through Rose Bengal Plate agglutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (i-ELISA). The sample tested with MRT were 9.5% positive, including cattle 9.6% and buffalo 9.3%. While using the RBPT test for the detection of serum samples and for screening purpose it was observed that 16.4% animals were seropositive, cattle were 18.8% and buffalo were 13.9% seropositive. The higher prevalence of brucellosis indicates the danger of the disease to human population. The serum samples positive by RBPT were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 11.4% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle 13.5% seropositive and buffalo 9.3%. The results indicated high seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle as compared to buffalos. Different risk factors were also studied to know the association between disease and their spread. Advanced age, larger herds, history of abortion and pregnancy of the animals is considered to be the important factors for the prevalence and spread of the hazardous zoonotic disease. It is a core issue of developing countries like Pakistan and has major public health impact.

Keywords: humans, bovines, infertility, orchitis, abortions, seroprevalence, brucellosis

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274 Prevalence, Isolation and Identification of Feline Panleukopaenia Virus from Wild Felids in Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha

Authors: Arun Kharate, Sarata Kumar Sahu, Susen Kumar Panda, Niranjan Sahoo, H. K. Panda

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In the present study, an attempt has been made for isolation and identification of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) from wild felids of Nandankanan zoo, Odisha, India, along with prevalence study of FPLV. Fecal samples collected from wild felids (26 tigers, 22 lions, 5 leopards, 3 hyenas, 1 jaguar, 2 foxes and 1 wild cat) were subjected to hemagglutinnation test and fluorescent antibody test. In hemagglutinnation test 13 (50%) samples from tiger, 14 (63.63%) samples from lions, 1 (20%) sample from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) samples from hyenas and 1 (100%) sample from wild cat were positive. On fluorescent antibody test (FAT), 15 (57.69%) samples from tiger, 18 (81.81%) from lions, 2 (40%) from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) from hyenas and 1 (100%) from wild cat were positive. FPLV was isolated using MDBK cell line and preliminary characterization was done on the basis of characteristic cytopathic effect. The virus samples were quantified through titration in MDBK cells. Serological confirmation of FPLV isolates was carried out by HI test, micro-SNT and indirect-ELISA. Physico-chemical characters like pH and temperature resistance along molecular identification using specific FPLV primers was carried out. Seroprevalence study of 36 serum samples employing HI test, micro SNT and indirect-ELISA revealed prevalence of 38.8, 44.4 and 72.2% respectively. During study period an adult tigress and a tiger cub died suspected of feline panleukopenia. The necropsy findings in both animals showed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. The cytological examination revealed presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the intestinal epithelial cells. Spleen, mesenteric lymph node and intestine were positive for feline panleukopenia by FAT. The investigation revealed that feline panleukopenia was prevalent in wild felines of Nandankanan zoo.

Keywords: Feline panleukopenia, fluorescent antibody test, hemagglutination test, indirect-ELISA, Nandankanan zoo

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273 Seroprevalence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-Cov) Infection among Healthy and High Risk Individuals in Qatar

Authors: Raham El-Kahlout, Hadi Yassin, Asmaa Athani, Marwan Abou Madi, Gheyath Nasrallah

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Background: Since its first isolation in September 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has diffused across 27 countries infecting more than two thousand individuals with a high case fatality rate. MERS-CoV–specific antibodies are widely found in Dromedary camel along with viral shedding of similar viruses detected in human at same region, suggesting that MERS epidemiology may be central role by camel. Interestingly, MERS-CoV has also been also reported to be asymptomatic or to cause influenza-like mild illnesses. Therefore, in a country like Qatar (bordered Saudi Arabia), where camels are widely spread, serological surveys are important to explore the role of camels in MERS-CoV transmission. However, widespread strategic serological surveillances of MERS-CoV among populations, particularly in endemic country, are infrequent. In the absence of clear epidemiological view, cross-sectional MERS antibody surveillances in human populations are of global concern. Method: We performed a comparative serological screening of 4719 healthy blood donors, 135 baseline case contacts (high risk individual), and four MERS confirmed patients (by PCR) for the presence of anti-MERS IgG. Initially, samples were screened using Euroimmune anti- MERS-CoV IgG ELISA kit, the only commercial kit available in the market and recommended by the CDC as a screening kit. To confirm ELISA test results, farther serological testing was performed for all borderline and positive samples using two assays; the anti MERS-CoV IgG and IgM Euroimmune indirect immunofluorescent test (IIFT) and pseudoviral particle neutralizing assay (PPNA). Additionally, to test cross reactivity of anti-MERS-CoV antibody with other family members of coronavirus, borderline and positive samples were tested for the presence of the of IgG antibody of the following viruses; SARS, HCoV-229E, HKU1 using the Euroimmune IIFT for SARS and HCoV-229E and ELISA for HKU1. Results: In all of 4858 screened 15 samples [10 donors (0.21%, 10/4719), 1 case contact (0.77 %, 1/130), 3 patients (75%, 3/4)] anti-MERS IgG reactive/borderline samples were seen in ELISA. However, only 7 (0.14%) of them gave positive with in IIFT and only 3 (0.06%) was confirmed by the specific anti-MERS PPNA. One of the interesting findings was, a donor, who was selected in the control group as a negative anti-MERS IgG ELISA, yield reactive for anti-MERS IgM IIFT and was confirmed with the PPNA. Further, our preliminary results showed that there was a strong cross reactivity between anti- MERS-COV IgG with both HCoV-229E or anti-HKU1 IgG, yet, no cross reactivity of SARS were found. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that MERS-CoV is not heavily circulated among the population of Qatar and this is also indicated by low number of confirmed cases (only 18) since 2012. Additionally, the presence of antibody of other pathogenic human coronavirus may cause false positive results of both ELISA and IIFT, which stress the need for more evaluation studies for the available serological assays. Conclusion: this study provides an insight about the epidemiological view for MERS-CoV in Qatar population. It also provides a performance evaluation for the available serologic tests for MERS-CoV in a view of serologic status to other human coronaviruses.

Keywords: seroprevalence, MERS-CoV, healthy individuals, Qatar

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272 The Determination of Aflatoxins in Paddy and Milled Fractions of Rice in Guyana: Preliminary Results

Authors: Donna M. Morrison, Lambert Chester, Coretta A. N. Samuels, David R. Ledoux

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A survey was conducted in the five rice-growing regions in Guyana to determine the presence of aflatoxins in multiple fractions of rice in June/October 2015 growing season. The fractions were paddy, steamed paddy, cargo rice, white rice and parboiled rice. Samples were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A subset of the samples was further analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for concurrence. All analyses were conducted at the University of Missouri, USA. Of the 186 samples tested, 16 had aflatoxin concentrations greater than 20 ppb the recommended limit for aflatoxins in food according to the United States Food and Drug Administration. An additional three samples had aflatoxin B1 concentrations greater than the European Union Commission maximum levels for aflatoxin B1 in rice at 5 µg/kg and total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) at 10 µg/kg. The survey indicates that there is no widespread aflatoxin problem in rice in Guyana. The incidence of aflatoxins appears to be localized.

Keywords: aflatoxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), rice fractions

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
271 Determination of Chemical Contaminants in UHT Milk Consumed in Sharjah, UAE

Authors: Adem Rama, Rabiha Seboussi, Mahmoud Muhamadin, Sultan Alzarooni, Fatima Mohamed, Khuloud Al Ali

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To assess public health hazards associated with the occurrence of Antibiotics and AFM1 residues in UHT milk, a survey was carried out in Sharjah, UAE. In the present study, a total of 42 UHT milk samples analyzed were from different commercial brands manufactured in industrial dairy units in the UAE and from foreign producers. Milk samples were collected for four months (January to April 2020). The occurrence and concentration range of Antibiotics (Streptomycin and Gentamycin) and AFM1 in the samples were investigated by applying the ELISA method. According to the methodology used in this study, in total, 2 (5%) out of 42(95%) samples tested positive on the presence of AFM1. While, 1(2.4%) out of 41(97.6%) positive samples were found to contain Streptomycin and Gentamycin, respectively. The positive incidence of AFM1 in the UHT milk samples ranged from 58.8 to 1074 µg/L, for Streptomycin from up to 1004 µg/L, and Gentamycin up to 6909 µg/L. There were no positive samples found in locally produced UHT milk. AFM1 and antibiotic levels in positive samples UHT milk samples exceeded the maximum tolerable limits as set by the European Union - EC guidelines/standards. These levels in the samples show a presence of contaminants that might constitute a human health risk in Sharjah. The results of this study imply that more emphasis should be given to the routine inspection of milk and dairy products in the Sharjah region.

Keywords: milk, contaminant residues, ELISA, public health, Sharjah

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