Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 369

Search results for: endophytic fungi

369 Growth of Albizia in vitro: Endophytic Fungi as Plant Growth Promote of Albizia

Authors: Reine Suci Wulandari, Rosa Suryantini

Abstract:

Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) is a woody plant species that has a high economic value and multifunctional. Albizia is important timber, medicinal plants and can also be used as a plant to rehabilitate critical lands. The demand value of Albizia is increased so that the large quantities and high quality of seeds are required. In vitro propagation techniques are seed propagation that can produce more seeds and quality in a short time. In vitro cultures require growth regulators that can be obtained from biological agents such as endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi are micro fungi that colonize live plant tissue without producing symptoms or other negative effects on host plants and increase plant growth. The purposes of this research were to isolate and identify endophytic fungi isolated from the root of Albizia and to study the effect of endophytic fungus on the growth of Albizia in vitro. The methods were root isolation, endophytic fungal identification, and inoculation of endophytic fungi to Albizia plants in vitro. Endophytic fungus isolates were grown on PDA media before being inoculated with Albizia sprouts. Incubation is done for 4 (four) weeks. The observed growth parameters were live explant percentage, percentage of explant shoot, and percentage of explant rooted. The results of the research showed that 6 (six) endophytic fungal isolates obtained from the root of Albizia, namely Aspergillus sp., Verticillium sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., and Acremonium sp. Statistical analysis found that Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium sp. affect in vitro growth of Albizia. Endophytic fungi from the results of this research were potential as plant growth promoting. It can be applied to increase productivity either through increased plant growth and increased endurance of Albizia seedlings to pests and diseases.

Keywords: Albizia, endophytic fungi, propagation, in vitro

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368 Media Manipulations and the Culture of Beneficial Endophytic Fungi in the Leaves and Stem Bark of Grewia lasiocarpa E. Mey. Ex Harv

Authors: Akwu A. Nneka, Naidoo, Yougasphree

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A significantly high number of microbes exist in higher plants; these microbes include bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. There are reports on the benefits of endophytic fungi and their products of metabolism to the host plant and man, consequently, it is expedient to explore the changes that could arise as a result of manipulating their growth media. Grewia lasiocarpa E. Mey. ex Harv. (Malvaceae) is an indigenous Southern African plant, that belongs to a genus with known medicinal properties. Three media were used to culture the endophytic fungi viz., Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Malt Extract Agar (MEA), and Bacteriological Agar (BA) were used singly, and supplemented with three dilutions of the leaves and stem bark extracts. The manipulated growth media composition had a significant effect on the diversity of the isolated fungal populations. Several endophytic fungi were isolated; their distribution and diversity revealed a significant relatedness with the manipulated media. The media supplemented with the plant extracts was observed to give a significant increase in the growth rate and yield of the endophytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing the endophytic fungi present in the leaves and stem bark of G. lasiocarpa E. Mey. ex Harv.

Keywords: Grewia lasiocarpa, plant-based extracts, endophytic fungi, Malvaceae

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367 Morphological and Molecular Identification of Endophytic Colletotrichum Species from Medicinal Plants and Their Antimicrobial Potential

Authors: Gauravi Agarkar, Mahendra Rai

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Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants are important source of numerous pharmacologically important compounds. In the present investigation, the endophytic fungi were isolated from three medicinal plants; Andrographis paniculata, Rauwolfia serpentina and Tridax procumbens. Endophytic Colletotrichum sp. were identified on the basis of cultural and morphological characteristics as well as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of endophytic Colletotrichum sp. was evaluated against seven different human pathogenic bacteria and six Candida sp. The extracts were effective and showed significant activity against all the test pathogens. In case of yeast Candida, the combined effect of extracts and standard antibiotic was enhanced greatly showing synergistic activity. Further, the extracts were assayed for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) where, MIC values were in the range of 100-250 μg/ml. These results suggest that the endophytic Colletotrichum sp. isolated from the medicinal plants are capable of producing promising antimicrobial metabolites.

Keywords: antimicrobial, colletotrichum, endophytic fungi, medicinal plants

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366 Biotransformation of Monoterpenes by Whole Cells of Eleven Praxelis clematidea-Derived Endophytic Fungi

Authors: Daomao Yang, Qizhi Wang

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Monoterpenoids are mainly found in plant essential oils and they are ideal substrates for biotransformation into oxygen-containing derivatives with important commercial value due to their low price and simple structure. In this paper, eleven strains of endophytic fungi from Praxelis clematidea were used as test strains to conduct the whole cell biotransformation of the monoterpenoids: (+)-limonene, (-)-limonene and myrcene. The fungi were inoculated in 50 ml Sabouraud medium and incubated at 30 ℃ with the agitation of 150 r/min for 6 d, and then 0.5% (v/v) substrates were added into the medium and biotransformed for further 3 d. Afterwards the cultures were filtered, and extracted using equal volume of ethyl acetate. The metabolites were analyzed by GC-MS technique with NIST database. The Total Ion Chromatogram of the extractions from the eleven strains showed that the main product of (+)- and (-)-limonene biotransformation was limonene-1,2-diol, while it is limonene and linalool oxide for biotransformation of myrcene. This work will help screen the microorganisms to biotransform the monoterpenes.

Keywords: endophytic fungi, (+)–limonene, (-)–limonene, myrcene

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365 Isolation and Identification Fibrinolytic Protease Endophytic Fungi from Hibiscus Leaves in Shah Alam

Authors: Mohd Sidek Ahmad, Zainon Mohd Noor, Zaidah Zainal Ariffin

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Fibrin degradation is an important part in prevention or treatment of intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Plasmin like fibrinolytic enzymes has given new hope to patient with cardiovascular diseases by treating fibrin aggregation related diseases with traditional plasminogen activator which have many side effects. Various researches involving wide range of sources for production of fibrinolytic proteases, from bacteria, fungi, insects and fermented foods. But few have looked into endophytic fungi as a potential source. Sixteen (16) endophytic fungi were isolated from Hibiscus sp. leaves from six different locations in Shah Alam, Selangor. Only two endophytic fungi, FH3 and S13 showed positive fibrinolytic protease activities. FH3 produced 5.78cm and S13 produced 4.48cm on Skim Milk Agar after 4 days of incubation at 27°C. Fibrinolytic activity was observed; 3.87cm and 1.82cm diameter clear zone on fibrin plate of FH3 and S13 respectively. 18srRNA was done for identification of the isolated fungi with positive fibrinolytic protease. S13 had the highest similarity (100%) to that of Penicillium citrinum strain TG2 and FH3 had the highest similarity (99%) to that of Fusarium sp. FW2PhC1, Fusarium sp. 13002, Fusarium sp. 08006, Fusarium equiseti strain Salicorn 8 and Fungal sp. FCASAn-2. Media composition variation showed the effects of carbon nitrogen on protein concentration, where the decrement of 50% of media composition caused drastic decrease in protease of FH3 from 1.081 to 0.056 and also S13 from 2.946 to 0.198.

Keywords: isolation, identification, fibrinolytic protease, endophytic fungi, Hibiscus leaves

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364 Molecular Profiling and Potential Bioactive Characteristics of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Leptadenia Pyrotechnica

Authors: Walaa Al-Maghraby

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Endophytes are organisms that colonize internal plant tissues without causing apparent harm to their host. Almost all groups of microorganisms have been found in endophytic association with plants may be fungi. They stimulate the production of secondary metabolites with a diverse range of biological activities. Leptadenia pyrotechnica is a more or less leafless, erect shrub with straight stems which is highly distributed in Saudi Arabia. Four endophytes fungi were isolated from Leptadenia pyrotechnica and identified using 18S ribosomal RNA sequences, which revealed four fungi genuses, namely Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus welwitschiae; Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. In this present study, four endophytic fungi from Leptadenia pyrotechnica were used for obtaining crude aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts for antimicrobial screening against 6 human pathogens, the antibacterial tests presented satisfactory results, where the pathogenic bacteria were inhibited by the four extracts tested, except for Escherichia coli that was inhibited by all extracts except ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus terreus. Analysis of variance showed that the extract produced by endophyte Leptadenia pyrotechnica was the most effective against all bacteria, either gram-negative or positive. However, the extract was not efficient against pathogenic fungi. Therefore, this study indicates that endophytes from medicinal plant Leptadenia pyrotechnica could be potential sources of antibacterial substances.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Aspergillus sp, endophytes, Leptadenia pyrotechnica

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363 Lifestyle Switching Phenomenon of Plant Associated Fungi

Authors: Gauravi Agarkar, Mahendra Rai

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Fungi are closely associated with the plants in various types of interactions such as mycorrhizal, parasitic or endophytic. Some of these interactions are beneficial and a few are harmful to the host plants. It has been suggested that these plant-associated fungi are able to change their lifestyle abd this means endophyte may become parasite or vice versa. This phenomenon may have profound effect on plant-fungal interactions and various ecological niches. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors that trigger the change in fungal lifestyle and understand whether these different lifestyles are interconnected at some points either by physiological, biochemical or molecular routes. This review summarizes the factors affecting plant fungal interactions and discusses the possible mechanisms for lifestyles switching of fungi based on available experimental evidences. Research should be boosted in this direction to fetch more advantages in future and to avoid the severe consequences in agriculture and other related fields.

Keywords: endophytic, lifestyle switching, mycorrhizal, parasitic, plant-fungal interactions

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362 Prevalence and Fungicidal Activity of Endophytic Micromycetes of Plants in Kazakhstan

Authors: Lyudmila V. Ignatova, Yelena V. Brazhnikova, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ramza Zh. Berzhanova, Anel A. Omirbekova

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Endophytic microorganisms are presented in plants of different families growing in the foothills and piedmont plains of Trans-Ili Alatau. It was found that the maximum number of endophytic micromycetes is typical to the Fabaceae family. The number of microscopic fungi in the roots reached (145.9±5.9)×103 CFU/g of plant tissue; yeasts - (79.8±3.5)×102 CFU/g of plant tissue. Basically, endophytic microscopic fungi are typical for underground parts of plants. In contrast, yeasts more infected aboveground parts of plants. Small amount of micromycetes is typical to inflorescence and fruits. Antagonistic activity of selected micromycetes against Fusarium graminearum, Cladosporium sp., Phytophtora infestans and Botrytis cinerea phytopathogens was detected. Strains with a broad, narrow and limited range of action were identified. For further investigations Rh2 and T7 strains were selected, they are characterized by a broad spectrum of fungicidal activity and they formed the large inhibition zones against phytopathogens. Active antagonists are attributed to the Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Beauveria bassiana species.

Keywords: endophytic micromycetes, fungicidal activity, prevalence, plants

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361 Effect of Biostimulants on Downstream Processing of Endophytic Fungi Hosted in Aromatic Plant, Ocimum basicilium

Authors: Kanika Chowdhary, Satyawati Sharma

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Endophytic microbes are hosted inside plants in a symbiotic and hugely benefitting relationship. Exploring agriculturally beneficial endophytes is quite a prospective field of research. In the present work fungal endophytes associated with aromatic plant Ocimum basicilium L. were investigated for biocontrol potential. The anti-plant pathogenic activity of fungal endophytes was tested against causal agent of stem rot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. 75 endophytic fungi were recovered through culture-dependent approach. Fungal identification was performed both microscopically and by rDNA ITS sequencing. Curvuaria lunata (Sb-6) and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sb-8) inhibited 86% and 72% mycelia growth of S. sclerotinia on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium at 7.4 pH. Small-scale fermentation was carried out on sterilised oatmeal grain medium. In another set of experiment, fungi were grown in oatmeal grain medium amended with certain biostimulants such as aqueous seaweed extract (10% v/w); methanolic seaweed extract (5% v/w); cow urine (20% v/w); biochar (10% w/w) in triplicate along with control of each to ascertain the degree of metabolic difference and anti-plant pathogenic activity induced. Phytochemically extracts of both the fungal isolates showed the presence of flavanoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids and terpenoids. Ethylacetate extract of C. lunata and C. lindemuthianum suppressed S. sclerotinia conidial germination at IC50 values of 0.514± 0.02 and 0.913± 0.04 mg/ml. Therefore, fungal endophytes of O. basicilium are highly promising bio-resource agent, which can be developed further for sustainable agriculture.

Keywords: endophytic fungi, ocimum basicilium, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, biostimulants

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360 Endophytic Fungi Recovered from Lycium arabicum as an Eco-Friendly Alternative for Fusarium Crown and Root Rot Disease Control and Tomato Growth Enhancement

Authors: Ahlem Nefzi, Rania Aydi Ben Abdallah, Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Ammar Nawaim, Rabiaa Haouala, Mejda Daami-Remadi

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Seven endophytic fungi were isolated from the wild Solanaceous species Lycium arabicum growing in the Tunisian Centre-East and were assessed for their ability to suppress Fusarium Crown and Root Rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) and to enhance plant growth. Fungal isolates were shown able to colonize tomato cv. Rio Grande roots, crowns, and stems. A significant promotion in all studied growth parameters (root length, shoot height, and roots and shoots fresh weight) was recorded in tomato plants treated with fungal conidial suspensions or their cell-free culture filtrates compared to FORL-inoculated or pathogen-free controls. I15 and I18 isolates were shown to be the most effective leading to 85.7-87.5 and 93.6-98.4% decrease in leaf and root damage index and the vascular discoloration extent, respectively, over FORL-inoculated and untreated control. These two bioactive and growth-promoting isolates (I15 and I18) were morphologically characterized and identified using rDNA sequencing gene as being Alternaria alternata (MF693801) and Fusarium fujikuroi (MF693802). These fungi significantly suppressed FORL mycelial growth and showed chitinolytic, proteolytic and amylase activities whereas only F. fujikuroi displayed a lipolytic activity. This study clearly demonstrated the potential use of fungi naturally associated with L. arabicum as biocontrol and bio-fertilizing agents.

Keywords: biocontrol, endophytic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, tomato promotion, Lycium arabicum

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359 Screening of Four Malaysian Isolated Endophytes with Candesartan in a Microtiter Plate

Authors: Rasha Saad, Jean Frederic Weber, Fatimah Bebe, Sadia Sultan

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The goal of study was to screen the effects of candesartan and four endophytic fungi for their potential in microbial biotransformation. In this experiment, four types of unidentified fungi with the codes of TH2L1, TH2R10, TH1P35 and TH1S46 were used in screening process by MECFUS (Microtiter plate, Elicitors, Combination, Freeze-drying, UHPLC, Statistical analysis) protocol. The experiment was carried out by using 96-well microtiter plate (MTP) with different media and elicitors. Various media with two concentrations of Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) and elicitors used were to induce the production of secondary metabolites from the fungi as well as the biotransformation of the drug compound. After incubation, cultures were extracted by freeze drying method and finally analyzed by ultra-High performance Liquid Chromatography (uHPLC). The extracts analyzed by uHPLC followed by LC/Ms, demonstrated the presence of biotransformation products from the drug compound and elicitation of the secondary metabolism from the fungi by the occurrence of the additional peaks. From the four fungi, TH1S46 showed highly potential produced secondary metabolites as well as the biotransformation of candesartan. For other fungi, they responded when candesartan was introduced. Moreover, the additional peaks produced in uHPLC need to be further investigation by using LC-MS or NMR.

Keywords: biotransformation, candesartan, endophytes, secondary metabolites

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358 Comparative Production of Secondary Metabolites by Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman Provenances in Cameroon and Some Associated Endophytic Fungi

Authors: Gloria M. Ntuba-Jua, Afui M. Mih, Eneke E. T. Bechem

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Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, commonly known as Pygeum or African cherry belongs to the Rosaceae family. It is a medium to large, evergreen tree with a spreading crown of 10 to 20 m. It is used by the traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of over 45ailments in Cameroon and sub-Sahara Africa. In modern medicine, it is used in the treatment of benign prostrate hyperplasia (BPH), prostate gland hypertrophy (enlarged prostate glands). This is possible because of its ability to produce some secondary metabolites which are believed to have bioactivity against these ailments. The ready international market for the sale of Prunus bark, uncontrolled exploitation, illegal harvesting using inappropriate techniques and poor timing of harvesting have contributed enormously to making the plant endangered. It is known to harbor a large number of endophytic fungi with the potential to produce similar secondary metabolites as the parent plant. Alternative sourcing of medicinal principles through endophytic fungi requires succinct knowledge of the endophytic fungi. This will serve as a conservation measure for Prunus africana by reducing dependence on Prunus bark for such metabolites. This work thus sought to compare the production of some major secondary metabolites produced by P. africana and some of its associated endophytic fungi. The leaves and stem bark of the plant from different provenances were soaked in methanol for 72 hrs to yield the methanolic crude extract. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic crude extracts using different standard procedures revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenolics and steroids. Pure cultures of some predominantly isolated endophyte species from the difference Prunus provenances such as Curvularia sp, and Morphospecies P001 were also grown in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) for 21 days and later extracted with Methylene dichloride (MDC) solvent after 24hrs to produce crude culture extracts. Qualitative assessment of crude culture extracts showed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, phenolics and steroids particularly β-Sitosterol, (a major bioactive metabolite) as did the plant tissues. Qualitative analysis by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was done to confirm and compare the production of β-Sitosterol (as marker compounds) in the crude extracts of the plant and endophyte. Samples were loaded on TLC silica gel aluminium barked plate (Kieselgel 60 F254, 0.2 mm, Merck) using acetone/hexane, (3.0:7.0) solvent system. They were visualized under an ultra violet lamp (UV254 and UV360). TLC revealed that leaves had a higher concentration of β-sitosterol in terms of band intensity than stem barks from the different provenances. The intensity of β-sitosterol bands in the culture extracts of endophytes was comparable to the plant extracts except for Curvularia sp (very minute) whose band was very faint. The ability of these fungi to make β-sitosterol was confirmed by TLC analysis with the compound having chromatographic properties (retention factor) similar to those of β-sitosterol standard. The ability of these major endophytes to produce secondary metabolites similar to the host has therefore been demonstrated. There is, therefore, the potential of developing the in vitro production system of Prunus secondary metabolites thereby enhancing its conservation.

Keywords: Caneroon, endophytic fungi, Prunus africana, secondary metabolite

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357 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Enzyme Activities of Geosmithia pallida (KU693285): A Fungal Endophyte Associated with Brucea mollis Wall Ex. Kurz, an Endangered and Medicinal Plant of N. E. India

Authors: Deepanwita Deka, Dhruva Kumar Jha

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Endophytes are the microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects. Endophytes are rich source of therapeutic substances like antimicrobial, anticancerous, herbicidal, insecticidal, immunomodulatory compounds. Brucea mollis, commonly known as Quinine in Assam, belonging to the family Simaroubaceae, is a shrub or small tree, recorded as endangered species in North East India by CAMP survey in 2003. It is traditionally being used as antimalarial and antimicrobial agent and has antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, anticancer, diuretic, cardiovascular effect etc. Being endangered and medicinal; this plant may host certain noble endophytes which need to be studied in depth. The aim of the present study was isolation and identification of potent endophytic fungi from Brucea mollis, an endangered medicinal plant, to protect it from extinction due to over use for medicinal purposes. Aseptically collected leaves, barks and roots samples of healthy plants were washed and cut into a total of 648 segments of about 2 cm long and 0.5 cm broad with sterile knife, comprising 216 segments each from leaves, barks and roots. These segments were surface sterilized using ethanol, mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Different media viz., Czapeck-Dox-Agar (CDA, Himedia), Potato-Dextrose-Agar (PDA, Himedia), Malt Extract Agar (MEA, Himedia), Sabourad Dextrose Agar (SDA, Himedia), V8 juice agar, nutrient agar and water agar media and media amended with plant extracts were used separately for the isolation of the endophytic fungi. A total of 11 fungal species were recovered from leaf, bark and root tissues of B. mollis. The isolates were screened for antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzymatic activities using certain protocols. Cochliobolus geniculatus was identified as the most dominant species. The mycelia sterilia (creamy white) showing highest inhibitory activity against Candida albicans (MTCC 183) was induced to sporulate using modified PDA media. The isolate was identified as Geosmithia pallida. The internal transcribed spacer of rDNA was sequenced for confirmation of the taxonomic identity of the sterile mycelia (creamy white). The internal transcribed spacer r-DNA sequence was submitted to the NCBI (KU693285) for the first time from India. G. pallida and Penicillium showed highest antioxidant activity among all the isolates. The antioxidant activity of G. pallida and Penicillium didn’t show statistically significant difference (P˃0.05). G. pallida, Cochliobolus geniculatus and P. purpurogenum respectively showed highest cellulase, amylase and protease activities. Thus, endopytic fungal isolates may be used as potential natural resource of pharmaceutical importance. The endophytic fungi, Geosmithia pallida, may be used for synthesis of pharmaceutically important natural products and consequently can replace plants hitherto used for the same purpose. This study suggests that endophytes should be investigated more aggressively to better understand the endophyte biology of B. mollis.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, Brucea mollis, endophytic fungi, enzyme activity, Geosmithia pallida

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356 Characterization of Fungal Endophytes in Leaves, Stems and Roots of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa Hochst ex. A. Rich Harms)

Authors: Iyabode A. Kehinde, Joshua O. Oyekanmi, Jumoke T. Abimbola, Olajumoke E. Ayanda

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African yam bean (AYB), (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is a leguminous crop that provides nutritionally rich seeds, tubers and leaves for human consumption. AYB potentials as an important food security crop is yet to be realized and thus classified as underutilized crop. Underutilization of the crop has been partly associated with scarce information on the incidence and characterization of fungal endophytes infecting vascular parts of AYB. Accurate and robust detection of these endophytic fungi is essential for diagnosis, modeling, surveillance and protection of germplasm (seed) health. This work aimed at isolating and identifying fungal endophytes associated with leaves, stems and roots of AYB in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study investigated both cultural and molecular properties of endophytic fungi in AYB for its characterization and diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated and culturally identified. DNA extraction, PCR amplification using ITS primers and analyses of nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA fragments were conducted on selected isolates. BLAST analysis was conducted on consensus nucleotide sequences of 28 out of 30 isolates and results showed similar homology with genera of Rhizopus, Cunninghamella, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Diaporthe, Nigrospora, Purpureocillium, Corynespora, Magnaporthe, Macrophomina, Curvularia, Acrocalymma, Talaromyces and Simplicillium. Slight similarity was found with endophytes associated with soybean. Phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method showed high diversity among the general. These organisms have high economic importance in crop improvement. For an instance, Purpureocillium lilacinum showed high potential in control of root rot caused by nematodes in tomatoes. Though some can be pathogens, but many of the fungal endophytes have beneficial attributes to plant in host health, uptake of nutrients, disease suppression, and host immunity.

Keywords: molecular characterization, African Yam Bean, fungal endophyte, plant parts

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355 Biological Control of Fusarium Crown and Root and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Growth Promotion Using Endophytic Fungi from Withania somnifera L.

Authors: Nefzi Ahlem, Aydi Ben Abdallah Rania, Jabnoun-Khiareddine Hayfa, Ammar Nawaim, Mejda Daami-Remadi

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Fusarium Crown and Root Rot (FCRR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) is a serious tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) disease in Tunisia. Its management is very difficult due to the long survival of its resting structures and to the luck of genetic resistance. In this work, we explored the wild Solanaceae species Withania somnifera, growing in the Tunisian Centre-East, as a potential source of biocontrol agents effective in FCRR suppression and tomato growth promotion. Seven fungal isolates were shown able to colonize tomato roots, crowns, and stems. Used as conidial suspensions or cell-free culture filtrates, all tested fungal treatments significantly enhanced tomato growth parameters by 21.5-90.3% over FORL-free control and by 27.6-93.5% over pathogen-inoculated control. All treatments significantly decreased the leaf and root damage index by 28.5-92.8 and the vascular browning extent 9.7-86.4% over FORL-inoculated and untreated control. The highest disease suppression ability (decrease by 86.4-92.8% in FCRR severity) over pathogen-inoculated control and by 81.3-88.8 over hymexazol-treated control) was expressed by I6 based treatments. This endophytic fungus was morphologically characterized and identified using rDNA sequencing gene as Fusarium sp. I6 (MG835371). This fungus was shown able to reduce FORL radial growth by 58.5–83.2% using its conidial suspension or cell-free culture filtrate. Fusarium sp. I6 showed chitinolytic, proteolytic and amylase activities. The current study clearly demonstrated that Fusarium sp. (I6) is a promising biocontrol candidate for suppressing FCRR severity and promoting tomato growth. Further investigations are required for elucidating its mechanism of action involved in disease suppression and plant growth promotion.

Keywords: antifungal activity, associated fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Withania somnifera, tomato growth

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354 Biological Control of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep: Gelechiidae) with Enthomopathogenic Fungi

Authors: Dahliz Abderrahmène, Lakhdari Wassim, Bouchikh Yamina, Hammi Hamida, Soud Adila, M’lik Randa, Benglia Sara

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Devastating insects constitute one of strains for cultivate tomato. Among this vandal insects, the tomato leafminer (T. absoluta), which has been introduced in Algeria constitute a challenge for both agricultures and scientists. Firstly, this insect is introduced without their natural enemies which may reduce their damage. Secondly, this species has developed insecticide resistance to many active matters. To contribute to establish a control strategy for T. absoluta we have mad an inventory for their enthomopathogenic fungi. Two fungi were identified among others taken from adults and pupae. These fungi are Aspergillus flavus and Metarhizium sp. A study was conducted in laboratory to recognize the efficiency of these antagonists. These species had unregistered a mortality mounts of 42% and 56% respectively.

Keywords: Tuta absoluta, enthomopathogenic fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Metarhizium sp, control strategy

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353 Microbial Diversity of El-Baida Marsh: Setif, Algeria

Authors: H. Necef, A. Benayad

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Fungi are becoming more and more important in our life. Therefore, as a start for the symposium on filamentous fungi in biotechnology a short survey of the role of fungi in biotechnology. Salin soils occupy about 7% of land area; they are characterized by unsuitable physical conditions for the growth of living organisms. However, researches showed that some microorganisms especially fungi are able to grow and adapt to such extreme conditions; it is due to their ability to develop different physiological mechanisms in their adaptation. This is the first study on the physiological and biological characteristics of El-Beida marsh. Nine soil samples were taken at different points in two steps, the first was in winter (low temperature), and the second was in summer (high temperature). The physicochemical analyses of the soil were conducted, then the isolation process was applied using two methods, direct method and dilution method (10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4). Different species of fungi were identified belong to 21 genera in addition to 3 yeast species, Aspergillus showed the highest proportion by 43%, then Penicillium by 20% then Alternaria by 7%, in addition to various genera in different proportions. As for the sampling periods, it was observed that the spread of fungi in winter was higher than in summer with the proportion 75.47% and 24.53% respectively. Some halotolerant fungi have a biotechnological importance especially if the salinity of the medium is necessary for the fermentation, and if the halotolerance genes of the fungus will define, this will open the research to study and improve this property for the industrial important micro-organisms.

Keywords: salinity, identification, aspergillus oryzae, halotolerance, fungi

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352 Antifungal Nature of Bacillus Subtilis in Controlling Post Harvest Fungal Rot of Yam

Authors: Ifueko Oghogho Ukponmwan, Mike O. Orji

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This study investigated the antifungal activity of Bacilluss subtilis in the control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea spp). Bacillus subtilis was isolated from the soil and fungi (Aspergillus spp, Mucor and yeasts) were isolated from rotten yam. The organisms were paired in yam nutrient agar (YNA) and yam Sabourraud dextrose agar media. In the yam dextrose agar media (YSDA) plates, the Bacillus grew rapidly and established itself and restricted the growth of the fungi organisms, but there was no zone of inhibition. This behaviour of Bacillus on the plates of YSDA was also observed in the yams where the fungi caused rot but the rot was suppressed by the presence of the Bacillus as compared to the degree of rot observed in the control that had only spoilage fungi. The control yam showed greater rot than other yams that contained a combination of Bacillus and fungi. The t-Test analysis showed that the difference in the rot between the treated samples and the control sample is significant and this implies that the presence of Bacillus significantly reduced the growth of fungi in the samples (yams). It was revealed from this study that Bacillus subtilis treatment can be successfully used to preserve white yams in storage. Its fast growth and early establishment in the sample accounts for its antifungal strength.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, rot, fungi, yam

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351 Secondary Metabolites from Turkish Marine-Derived Fungi Hypocrea nigricans

Authors: H. Heydari, B. Konuklugil, P. Proksch

Abstract:

Marine-derived fungi can produce interesting bioactive secondary metabolites that can be considered the potential for drug development. Turkey is a country of a peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea at the north, the Aegean Sea at the west, and the Mediterranean Sea at the south. Despite the approximately 8400 km of coastline, studies on marine secondary metabolites and their biological activity are limited. In our ongoing search for new natural products with different bioactivities produced by the marine-derived fungi, we have investigated secondary metabolites of Turkish collection of the marine sea slug (Peltodoris atromaculata) associated fungi Hypocrea nigricans collected from Seferihisar in the Egean sea. According to the author’s best knowledge, no study was found on this fungal species in terms of secondary metabolites. Isolated from ethyl acetate extract of the culture of Hypocrea nigricans were (isodihydroauroglaucin,tetrahydroauroglaucin and dihydroauroglaucin. The structures of the compounds were established based on an NMR and MS analysis. Structural elucidation of another isolated secondary metabolite/s continues.

Keywords: Hypocrea nigricans, isolation, marine fungi, secondary metabolites

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350 Test of Biological Control against Brachytrupes Megacephalus Lefèbre, 1827 (Orthoptera, Gryllinae) by Using Entomopathogenic Fungi

Authors: W. Lakhdari, B. Doumendji-Mitich, A. Dahliz, S. Doumendji, Y. Bouchikh, R. M'lik, H. Hammi, A. Soud

Abstract:

This work was done in order to fight against Brachytrupes megacephalus, a major pest in the Algerian oasis and promote one aspect of biological control against it. He wears a hand on the isolation and identification of indigenous fungi on imagos of this insect harvested in the station of INRAA Touggourt and secondly, the study of the pathogenicity of these strains fungal on this orthoptère adults. The results obtained showed the presence of six different species of entomopathogenic fungi, it is: Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp, Beauveria bassiana, Penicillium sp, Metharizium anisopliae and Aspergillus Niger. The pathogenicity test using fungi Beauveria bassiana strains and Metharizium anisopliae. On adult of B. megacephalus highlights the effectiveness of these strains of predatory adults, with a mortality rate approaching 100% after 11 days.

Keywords: biological control, brachytrupes megacephalus, entomopathogenic fungi, Southeastern Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
349 The Existence of Beauveria bassiana in the Third Generation of Corn Seedling

Authors: Itji Diana Daud, Nuniek Widiayani

Abstract:

The fungus Beauveria bassiana can be endophytic in maize. The fungus was recovered in culture from stems, leaves and roots after a month planting. This phenomenon was shown until the third generation of the corn. The result from laboratory shows that B. bassiana appear in F1, F2 and F3 in order 70, 80 and 90% in the roots, 80% in the stems in all generation, 90, 80 and 70% in leaves. In CFU’s ml-1 of B. bassiana in corn seed, show F1 was 8.9 x 106, F2 was 8.1 x 106 and F3 was 7.8 x 106. The research showed that B. Bassiana as endophyte still remain to the third generation. Innovation to the corn seed which is endophyte seed is essential to protect from the attack of corn borer and to avoid the usage of insecticide.

Keywords: endophytic, recovered, third generation, Beauveria bassiana

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348 Distribution and Taxonomy of Marine Fungi in Nha Trang Bay and Van Phong Bay, Vietnam

Authors: Thu Thuy Pham, Thi Chau Loan Tran, Van Duy Nguyen

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Marine fungi play an important role in the marine ecosystems. Marine fungi also supply biomass and metabolic products of industrial value. Currently, the biodiversity of marine fungi along the coastal areas of Vietnam has not yet been studied fully. The objective of this study is to assess the spatial and temporal diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal waters of Nha Trang Bay and Van Phong Bay in Central Vietnam using culture-dependent and independent approach. Using culture-dependent approach, filamentous fungi and yeasts were isolated on selective media and then classified by phenotype and genotype based on the sequencing of ITS (internal transcribed spacers) regions of rDNA with two primer pairs (ITS1F_KYO2 and ITS4; NS1 and NS8). Using culture-independent approach, environmental DNA samples were isolated and amplified using fungal-specific ITS primer pairs. A total of over 160 strains were isolated from 10 seawater sampling stations at 50 cm depth. They were classified into diverse genera and species of both yeast and mold. At least 5 strains could be potentially novel species. Our results also revealed that planktonic fungi were molecularly diverse with hundreds of phylotypes recovered across these two bays. The results of the study provide data about the distribution and taxonomy of mycoplankton in this area, thereby allowing assessment of their positive role in the biogeochemical cycle of coastal ecosystems and the development of new bioactive compounds for industrial applications.

Keywords: biodiversity, ITS, marine fungi, Nha Trang Bay, Van Phong Bay

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347 Treatment of Grey Water from Different Restaurants in FUTA Using Fungi

Authors: F. A. Ogundolie, F. Okogue, D. V. Adegunloye

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Greywater samples were obtained from three restaurants in the Federal University of Technology; Akure coded SSR, MGR and GGR. Fungi isolates obtained include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of these fungi isolates obtained, R. stolonifer, A. niger and A. flavus showed significant degradation ability on grey water and was used for this research. A simple bioreactor was constructed using biodegradation process in purification of waste water samples. Waste water undergoes primary treatment; secondary treatment involves the introduction of the isolated organisms into the waste water sample and the tertiary treatment which involved the use of filter candle and the sand bed filtration process to achieve the end product without the use of chemicals. A. niger brought about significant reduction in both the bacterial load and the fungi load of the greywater samples of the three respective restaurants with a reduction of (1.29 × 108 to 1.57 × 102 cfu/ml; 1.04 × 108 to 1.12 × 102 cfu/ml and 1.72 × 108 to 1.60 × 102 cfu/ml) for bacterial load in SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Reduction of 2.01 × 104 to 1.2 × 101; 1.72 × 104 to 1.1 × 101, and 2.50 × 104 to 1.5 × 101 in fungi load from SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Result of degradation of these selected waste water by the fungi showed that A. niger was probably more potent in the degradation of organic matter and hence, A. niger could be used in the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, greywater, bacterial, fungi, microbial load, bioreactor, biodegradation, purification, organic matter and filtration

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346 Degradation of Poly -β- Hydroxybutyrate by Trichoderma asperellum

Authors: Nuha Mansour Alhazmi

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Replacement of petro-based plastics by a biodegradable plastic are vastly growing process. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable biopolymer, synthesized by some bacterial genera. The objective of the current study is to explore the ability of some fungi to biodegrade PHB. The degradation of (PHB) was detected in Petri dish by the formation of a clear zone around the fungal colonies due to the production of depolymerase enzyme which has an interesting role in the PHB degradation process. Among 10 tested fungi, the most active PHB biodegraded fungi were identified as Trichoderma asperellum using morphological and molecular characters. The highest PHB degradation was at 25°C, pH 7.5 after 7 days of incubation for the tested fungi. Finally, the depolymerase enzyme was isolated, purified using column chromatography and characterized. In conclusion, PHB can be biodegraded in solid and liquid medium using depolymerase enzyme from T. asperellum.

Keywords: degradation, depolymerase enzyme, PHB, Trichoderma asperellum

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345 Variability of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Communities Associated with Wild Agraz Plants (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz) in the Colombian Andes

Authors: Gabriel Roveda-Hoyos, Margarita Ramirez-Gomez, Adrian Perez, Diana Paola Serralde

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The objective of this study was to determine the variability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (HFMA) communities associated with wild agraz plants (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz) in the Colombian Andes. This species is one of the most promising fruits within the genus Vaccinium because of the high content of anthocyanins and antioxidants in its fruits, and like other species of the Ericaceae family, it depends on the association with HFM for its development in the natural environment. In this study, the presence of mycorrhizae in wild communities of V. meridionale was evaluated, and their relationship with the edaphic and climatic conditions of the study area was analyzed. Sampling was conducted in the rural area of the municipalities of Raquira, and Chiquinquira, Chia, and Tabio in the departments of Cundinamarca and Boyaca, Colombia. Seven sites were selected, and in each site, 5 plants were randomly selected, root and soil samples were taken from each plant in the rhizosphere zone for the quantification of colonization and the presence of spores. The samples were collected on different soils, taxonomic orders Entisols, Inceptisols, and Alfisols, located at altitudes between 2,600 and 3,000 above sea level in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. The physicochemical characteristics of the soil were compared with the density of spores and the percentage of presence of mycorrhizae in the roots and variables with the morphometric and physiological characteristics of the plants. Four types of mutual associations were found: arbuscular mycorrhizae, ectendomycorrhiza, ericoid mycorrhizae, and endophytic septate fungi. The main results obtained show a predominance of spores of the genera Glomus and Acaulsopora, in most of the soils analyzed. The spore density of Glomeromycete fungi in the soil varied considerably between the different sites; it was higher ( > 50 spores/g of dry soil) in soil samples with lower bulk density and higher content of organic matter; in these soils a higher cation exchange capacity was found, as well as of nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, manganese and zinc concentration. It can be concluded that Vaccinium meridionale is able to establish in a natural way, association with HFMA.

Keywords: Ericaceae, Arbuscular mycorrhizae, Andes, soils, Glomus sp.

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344 Screening for Antibacterial Activity of Fungi from Indian Marine Environments: A Possible Alternative for New Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin Microbial Infections

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Colin Barrow, Alok Adholeya

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Millions of people worldwide are affected by infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) represent a significant category of infectious disease. Unexpectedly, many pathogens have developed resistance towards current antibiotics and over the time this problem has become more and more serious. All these new problems necessitate the continuous search for novel and alternative antibiotics and antifungals. The aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine fungi for their antibacterial activity against bacteria causing skin and wound infection in humans. A total of 40 marine samples were collected from west coast and Andaman Island of India and 35 morphologically different marine fungi were isolated using natural sea water medium. Among 35 marine fungi, eight isolates exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. In the course of systematic screening program for bioactive marine fungi, strain 'D5' was found to be most potent strain with MIC value of 1 mg/mL, which was morphologically identified as Simplicillium lamellicola. The effects of the most active crude extracts against their susceptible test microorganisms were also investigated by SEM analysis. Purification and characterization of crude extracts for identification of active lead molecule is under process. The results of diversity and antimicrobial activity have increased the scope of finding industrially important marine fungi from Indian marine environments and these organisms could be vital sources for the discovery of pharmaceutically useful molecules.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, antibiotic, marine fungi, skin infections

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343 Combined Aplication of Indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens and the AM Fungi as the Potential Biocontrol Agents of Banana Fusarium wilt

Authors: Eri Sulyanti, Trimurti Habazar, Eti Farda Husen, Abdi Dharma, Nasril Nasir

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In this study, combination of some biocontrol agents with different mechanisms was an alternative to improve the effectiveness of the biological control agents. Single and combined applications of indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens and Arbuscular Mychorrhizae Fungi (AM Fungi) isolates were tested to induce the resistance on susceptible Cavendish banana against F.oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 under greenhouse conditions. These isolates originally isolated from healthy banana rhizosphere at endemic Fusarium wilt areas in the centre of production banana in West Sumatra. These researches were conducted with Randomized Block Design with 16 treatments and 10 replications. The treatments were three indigenous isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Par1-Cv, Par4-Rj1, Par2-Jt1) and 3 isolates of AM Fungi (Gl1BuA4, Gl2BuA6, and Gl1KeP3. The biocontrol agents were applied as single agents and combination two of them. This study demonstrated that the application of combination biocontrol organisms Pseudomonas fluorescens and AM Fungi provided were more effective than single application. The combination of Par1-Cv and Gl1BuA4 isolates was the most effective to control Fusarium wilt and followed by the combination of Par1-Cv and Gl2BuA6 and Par2-Jt1 and Gl1P3.

Keywords: pseudomonad fluorescens (Pf), arbuscular mychorrhizae fungi (AM Fungi) indigenous isolates, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, soil rhizosphere

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342 Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Root-Nodules of Medicago sativa in Al-Ahasa Region

Authors: Ashraf Y. Z. Khalifa, Mohammed A. Almalki

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Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) is an important forage crop legume worldwide including Saudia Arabia due to its high nutritive value. Soil bacteria exist in root or root-nodules of Medicago sativa in either symbiotic relationships or in associations. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria that live in association with non-nodulated roots of Medicago sativa growing in Al-Ahsaa region, Saudia Arabia. Several bacterial strains were isolated from sterilized roots of Medicago sativa. Strains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequences, phylogenetic relationships analysis, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The strains utilized 50% (10 out of 20) of the different chemical substrates contained in the API20E strip. In general, many strains had the ability to ferment/oxidise all the carbohydrate tested except for rhamnose and the polyol carbohydrate, inositol. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene indicated that the strains were closely related to the genus Bacillus. Furthermore, the growth parameters of Vigna sinensis were enhanced upon single-inoculation of the isolated strains, compared to the uninoculated control plants. The results highlighted that the root-nodules of Medicago sativa harbor non-nodulating bacterial strains that could have significant agricultural applications.

Keywords: Medicago sativa, endophytic bacteria, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis

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341 Efficiency for Enzyme Production of Fungi Isolated from the Stomach of Buffalo

Authors: Suphalucksana, Wichai, Sangsoponjit Settasit, Soytong Kasem

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A study on the efficiency for enzyme production of fungi isolated from stomach of buffalo was conducted. The fungi were collected from 4 parts of stomach as rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasums. The objective to study the efficiency of fungi from stomach of buffalo had effected to produced enzyme and to selected fungi for their ability to produced enzyme cellulase, hemicellulase and ligninase. Results shown that the fungi isolated from rumen were: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Rhyzopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4) and Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2). From the reticulum, Aspergillus glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus orchraceus (B-RET-02-2) and Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4) were found. In the omasum Aspergillus fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4) and Rhizopus stolonifer (B-OMA-02-3) were isolated and in the abomasums Aspergillus flavas (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillus fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillus niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). Results of enzyme analysis revealed that cellulase was produced by isolated: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4). Hemicellulase was produced Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Rhizopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4), Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA -01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1) Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4), Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). For the enzyme ligninase, two isolates were found to produced this enzyme namely : Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G).

Keywords: enzyme production from fungi, enzyme production, fungi, agricultural technology

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340 Crop Genotype and Inoculum Density Influences Plant Growth and Endophytic Colonization Potential of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Sohail Yousaf, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Birgit Mitter, Angela Sessitsch

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Most bacterial endophytes originate from the soil and enter plants via the roots followed by further spread through the inner tissues. The mechanisms allowing bacteria to colonize plants endophytically are still poorly understood for most bacterial and plant species. Specific bacterial functions are required for plant colonization, but also the plant itself is a determining factor as bacterial ability to establish endophytic populations is very often dependent on the plant genotype (cultivar) and inoculums density. The effect of inoculum density (107, 108, 109 CFU mL-1) of Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN was evaluated on growth and endophytic colonization of different maize and potato cultivars under axenic and natural soil conditions. PsJN inoculation significantly increased maize seedling growth and tuber yield of potato at all inoculum density compared to uninoculated control. Under axenic condition, PsJN inoculation (108 CFU mL-1) significantly improved the germination, root/shoot length and biomass up to 62, 115, 98 and 135% of maize seedling compared to uninoculated control. In case of potato, PsJN inoculation (109 CFU mL-1) showed maximum response and significantly increased root/shoot biomass and tuber yield under natural soil condition. We confirmed that PsJN is able to colonize the rhizosphere, roots and shoots of maize and potato cultivars. The endophytic colonization increased linearly with increasing inoculum density (within a range of 8 x 104 – 3 x 107 CFU mL-1) and were highest for maize (Morignon) and potato (Romina) as compared to other cultivars. Efficient colonization of cv. Morignon and Romina by strain PsJN indicates the specific cultivar colonizing capacity of the bacteria. The findings of the study indicate the non-significant relationship between colonization and plant growth promotion in maize under axenic conditions. However, the inoculum level (109 CFU mL-1) that promoted colonization of rhizosphere and plant interior (endophytic) also best promoted growth and tuber yield of potato under natural soil conditions.

Keywords: crop genotype, inoculum density, Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN, colonization, growth, potato

Procedia PDF Downloads 365