Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Indha Annisa

19 The Introduction of Medicine Plants in Bogor Agricultural University: A Case Study in Cikabayan and Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory

Authors: Eki Devung, Eka Tyastutik, Indha Annisa, Digdaya Anoraga, Jamaluddin Arsyad

Abstract:

Plant medicine is a whole species of plants are known to have medicinal properties. Bogor Agricultural University has high biodiversity, one of which flora potential as a drug. This study was conducted from 19 September to 10 October 2016 at Bogor Agricultural University using literature study and field observation. There are 85 species of medicinal plants which include a medicinal plant cultivation and wild plants. Family herbs most commonly found in Cikabayan that while the Euphorbiaceae, family which is found in the Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory is the family of Achantaceae. Species of medicinal plants is dominated by herbs and shrubs. Part herbs most widely used are the leaves. The diversity of diseases that can be treated with medicine plants include digestive system diseases and metabolic disorder.

Keywords: benefits, biodiversity, Bogor Agricultural University, medicinal plants

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18 Annexation (Al-Iḍāfah) in Thariq bin Ziyad’s Speech

Authors: Annisa D. Febryandini

Abstract:

Annexation is a typical construction that commonly used in Arabic language. The use of the construction appears in Arabic speech such as the speech of Thariq bin Ziyad. The speech as one of the most famous speeches in the history of Islam uses many annexations. This qualitative research paper uses the secondary data by library method. Based on the data, this paper concludes that the speech has two basic structures with some variations and has some grammatical relationship. Different from the other researches that identify the speech in sociology field, the speech in this paper will be analyzed in linguistic field to take a look at the structure of its annexation as well as the grammatical relationship.

Keywords: annexation, Thariq bin Ziyad, grammatical relationship, Arabic syntax

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17 The Names of the Traditional Motif of Batik Solo

Authors: Annisa D. Febryandini

Abstract:

Batik is a unique cultural heritage that strongly linked with its community. As a product of current culture in Solo, Batik Solo not only has a specific design and color to represent the cultural identity, cultural values, and spirituality of the community, but also has some specific names given by its community which are not arbitrary. This qualitative research paper uses the primary data by interview method as well as the secondary data to support it. Based on the data, this paper concludes that the names consist of a word or words taken from a current name of things in Javanese language. They indicate the cultural meaning such as a specific event, a hope, and the social status of the people who use the motif. Different from the other research, this paper takes a look at the names of traditional motif of Batik Solo which analyzed linguistically to reveal the cultural meaning.

Keywords: traditional motif, Batik, solo, anthropological linguistics

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16 Attitude of Tertiary Students on Multiculturalism in Indonesia

Authors: Budi Annisa Sidi

Abstract:

Present-day Indonesia maintains a narrative of a culturally plural but unified nation. At the same time, multicultural policies extend different degrees of recognition, accommodation, toleration and even discrimination towards different socio-cultural groups. In conjunction with different ethnographic landscapes across regions in Indonesia, this approach leads to a varied experience and understanding of national identity and multiculturalism among people. As a result, governments seeking to maintain national unity while practicing multiculturalism have to juggle different expectations. This situation is examined through the microcosms of university students using questionnaires followed up by focus group discussions and personal interviews. A comparison between university students across four different provinces in Indonesia (Aceh, Jakarta, West Java and the Moluccas) highlights the influence of one’s surroundings on their perception of multiculturalism. Students in the more heterogeneous areas generally show more acceptance towards diversity compared to students in primarily homogenous areas who have little actual experience in dealing with diversity. Regardless of their environment, students claim to have positive feelings and a strong sense of attachment to Indonesia but hold different ideas of what constitutes an ideal Indonesian national identity.

Keywords: Indonesia, multiculturalism, national identity, nationalism

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15 Educating Children with the Child-Friendly Smartphone Operation System

Authors: Wildan Maulana Wildan, Siti Annisa Rahmayani Icha

Abstract:

Nowadays advances in information technology are needed by all the inhabitants of the earth for the sake of ease all their work, but it is worth to introduced the technological advances in the world of children. Before the technology is growing rapidly, children busy with various of traditional games and have high socialization. Moreover, after it presence, almost all of children spend more their time for playing gadget, It can affect the education of children and will change the character and personality children. However, children also can not be separated with the technology. Because the technology insight knowledge of children will be more extensive. Because the world can not be separated with advances in technology as well as with children, there should be developed a smartphone operating system that is child-friendly. The operating system is able to filter contents that do not deserve children, even in this system there is a reminder of a time study, prayer time and play time for children and there are interactive contents that will help the development of education and children's character. Children need technology, and there are some ways to introduce it to children. We must look at the characteristics of children in different environments. Thus advances in technology can be beneficial to the world children and their parents, and educators do not have to worry about advances in technology. We should be able to take advantage of advances in technology best possible.

Keywords: information technology, smartphone operating system, education, character

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14 Mechanical Properties of Ancient Timber Structure Based on the Non Destructive Test Method: A Study to Feiyun Building, Shanxi, China

Authors: Annisa Dewanti Putri, Wang Juan, Y. Qing Shan

Abstract:

The structural assessment is one of a crucial part for ancient timber structure, in which this phase will be the reference for the maintenance and preservation phase. The mechanical properties of a structure are one of an important component of the structural assessment of building. Feiyun as one of the particular preserved building in China will become one of the Pioneer of Timber Structure Building Assessment. The 3-storey building which is located in Shanxi Province consists of complex ancient timber structure. Due to condition and preservation purpose, assessments (visual inspections, Non-Destructive Test and a Semi Non-Destructive test) were conducted. The stress wave measurement, moisture content analyzer, and the micro-drilling resistance meter data will overview the prediction of Mechanical Properties. As a result, the mechanical properties can be used for the next phase as reference for structural damage solutions.

Keywords: ancient structure, mechanical properties, non destructive test, stress wave, structural assessment, timber structure

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13 Cultural Traditions Petik Laut and Onjem in Gili Island, Indonesia That Potential as Ecotourism to Bring Indonesia's Culture to the World

Authors: Dwi Yulian Fahruddin Shah, Mochammad Luthfy Rizaldy Dwi Putra, Tommy Adi Rachmawan, Mona Annisa Matondang, Nadya Sylvia, Hilmy Ramzy Rinaldy

Abstract:

Gili island is one of the island in Indonesia which is located in Probolinggo city, East Java. Gili Island has some potential culture as local wisdom that can be used as tourism commodity because it can be used as attractive ecotourism. With the ecotourism that utilize local wisdom of Indonesian’s culture that located in Gili can introduce the richness of Indonesian culture in the world that will increase foreign exchange. One of the cultural potential as local wisdom in Gili island are Petik Laut and Onjem. It are a culture in Gili island that can’t be found in other island in Indonesia. Not just that but also it are a cultural identity that is owned by Gili island which has fill the criteria to be used as local wisdom that can be used as ecotourism that can bring Indonesian culture to the world so that the tourists of the world will visit to Indonesia, especially to Gili island to see Petik Laut and Onjem culture directly.

Keywords: Gili island, petik laut and onjem culture, ecotourism, indonesia’s culture

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12 Synthesis of Brominated Pyrazoline Derived from Chalcone and Its Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Annisa I. Reza, Jasril Karim

Abstract:

Despite the availability of antimicrobial agents in the market, the urge to study and find other chemical compounds with the better potential of replacing them still tempting the scientists. This experiment is in the aim to explore a novel brominated pyrazoline ring which was made from intermediate chalcone as a candidate to answer the challenge. Using green chemistry approach by microwave irradiation from domestic oven, both known chalcone and 5-(2-bromophenyl)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole were successfully synthesized. Pyrazoline’s structure was confirmed based on UV, IR, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and MS and together with its intermediate were examined against some microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) under agar diffusion method. The results collected during experiment revealed that both tested compounds showed weak activity on B.subtilis which was proven by a zone of inhibitions, while there was no zone of inhibitions observed in E. coli and C. albicans. This is suggested because of the bulky structure around pyrazoline could not provide the main ring to interact with microbial’s cell wall. The study shows that the proposed compound had the low capability as a promising antimicrobial agent, yet it still enriches the information about pyrazoline ring.

Keywords: antimicrobial, chalcone, microwave irradiation, pyrazoline

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11 Performance Analysis of MIMO-OFDM Using Convolution Codes with QAM Modulation

Authors: I Gede Puja Astawa, Yoedy Moegiharto, Ahmad Zainudin, Imam Dui Agus Salim, Nur Annisa Anggraeni

Abstract:

Performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system can be improved by adding channel coding (error correction code) to detect and correct the errors that occur during data transmission. One can use the convolution code. This paper presents performance of OFDM using Space Time Block Codes (STBC) diversity technique use QAM modulation with code rate 1/2. The evaluation is done by analyzing the value of Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Energy per Bit to Noise Power Spectral Density Ratio (Eb/No). This scheme is conducted 256 sub-carrier which transmits Rayleigh multipath channel in OFDM system. To achieve a BER of 10-3 is required 30 dB SNR in SISO-OFDM scheme. For 2x2 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 10 dB to achieve a BER of 10-3. For 4x4 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 5 dB while adding convolution in a 4x4 MIMO-OFDM can improve performance up to 0 dB to achieve the same BER. This proves the existence of saving power by 3 dB of 4x4 MIMO-OFDM system without coding, power saving 7 dB of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM system without coding and significant power savings from SISO-OFDM system.

Keywords: convolution code, OFDM, MIMO, QAM, BER

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10 Comparison of the Effectiveness of Neisseria gonorrhea Crude Protein Injections with Intravenous, Intracutaneous, and Subcutaneous

Authors: Annisa Amalina, Lintang Sekar Sari, Khairunnisa Salsabila, Astya Gema Ramadhan, M. Fatkhi, Andani Eka Putra

Abstract:

Gonorrhea is one of the sexually transmitted diseases by genito-genital, oro-genital and anogenital. Gonorrhea disease will cause complications if not treated properly. The diagnostic tool that has been used nowadays is microscopic. Thus a rapid diagnostic tool for gonorrhea is required, using polyclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of injections of intravenous, subcutaneous and intracutaneous crude protein gonorrhea. The research method used in this research is experimental explorative. This research was conducted in Molecular Microbiology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University for 3 months from April to June 2017. This study used 3 groups of rabbit with intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous injections. Each group was treated on days 1, 7, 21, and 28 with crude protein injection. After that, the examination of antibody levels held by using ELISA, followed by the antibody comparative tests contained in all three groups. The results examined by One Way ANOVA test on SPSS 21 and showed that there is no significant difference between intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous use p=0.69 (p < 0.05). However, there is an increased level (0.047 to 1.171) in antibodies from day 1 to day 14. In addition, subcutaneous use is preferred because it has minimal side effects compared to intravenous and intracutaneous use.

Keywords: crude protein, Neisseria gonorrhea, polyclonal antibodies, subcutaneous

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9 The Differences on the Surface Roughness of Glass Ionomer Cement as the Results of Brushing with Whitening and Conventional Toothpaste

Authors: Aulina R. Rahmi, Farid Yuristiawan, Annisa Ibifadillah, Ummu H. Amri, Hidayati Gunawan

Abstract:

Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used on the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration`s surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. In the oral cavity, GIC was exposed to various substances, such as toothpaste, an oral care product used during toothbrushing. One of the popular toothpaste is whitening toothpaste. Abrasive and chemical agents such as hydrogen peroxide in whitening toothpaste could increase the surface roughness of restorative materials. Objective: To determine the differences on the surface roughness of glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste. Method: This study was done using experimental laboratory method with pre and post test design. There were 36 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with conventional toothpaste, each for 2 minutes. Surface roughness value of the specimens was measured by using Roughness Tester test. Result: The data was analyzed by using independent t-test and the result of this study showed there was a significant difference between the surface of glass ionomer cement which was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste (p=0,000). Conclusion: Glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening toothpaste produced more roughness than conventional toothpaste.

Keywords: glass ionomer cement, surface roughness, toothpaste, roughness tester

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8 Examination of Predictive Factors of Depression among Asian American Adolescents: A Narrative Review

Authors: Annisa Siu, Ping Zou

Abstract:

Background: Existent literature addressing Asian American children and adolescents reveals that this population is experiencing rates of depression comparable to those of European American and other ethnic minority youths. Within the last decade, increased attention has been given to Asian American adolescent mental health. Methods: 44 articles were extracted from Pubmed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Proquest CINAHL. Data were subject to thematic analyses and categorized into factors under individual, familial, and community levels. Results: Of all the individual factors, age and gender were the most supported in their relationship with depressive symptoms. Likewise, living situations, parent-child relations, peer relations, and broader environmental factors were strongly evidenced. The remaining psychosocial factors faced contrary evidence or were insubstantially addressed in the empirical literature. Discussion: The identified psychosocial factors within this study offer a starting point for future research to examine what factors should be included in formal or informal methods of screening/consultations. Clinicians should aim to understand the cultural influences specific to Asian American adolescents, particularly the central role that family relations may have on their depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Low awareness of culturally linked expressions of psychological distress can lead to misdiagnosis or under-diagnosis of depression in Asian American youth. Further evidence is needed to clarify the relationship of psychosocial factors linked to Asian American adolescent depressive symptoms.

Keywords: adolescent, Asian American, depression, psychosocial factors

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7 Evaluate the Possibility of Using ArcGIS Basemaps as GCP for Large Scale Maps

Authors: Jali Octariady, Ida Herliningsih, Ade K. Mulyana, Annisa Fitria, Diaz C. K. Yuwana

Abstract:

Awareness of the importance large-scale maps for development of a country is growing in all walks of life, especially for governments in Indonesia. Various parties, especially local governments throughout Indonesia demanded for immediate availability the large-scale maps of 1:5000 for regional development. But in fact, the large-scale maps of 1:5000 is only available less than 5% of the entire territory of Indonesia. Unavailability precise GCP at the entire territory of Indonesia is one of causes of slow availability the large scale maps of 1:5000. This research was conducted to find an alternative solution to this problem. This study was conducted to assess the accuracy of ArcGIS base maps coordinate when it shall be used as GCP for creating a map scale of 1:5000. The study was conducted by comparing the GCP coordinate from Field survey using GPS Geodetic than the coordinate from ArcGIS basemaps in various locations in Indonesia. Some areas are used as a study area are Lombok Island, Kupang City, Surabaya City and Kediri District. The differences value of the coordinates serve as the basis for assessing the accuracy of ArcGIS basemaps coordinates. The results of the study at various study area show the variation of the amount of the coordinates value given. Differences coordinate value in the range of millimeters (mm) to meters (m) in the entire study area. This is shown the inconsistency quality of ArcGIS base maps coordinates. This inconsistency shows that the coordinate value from ArcGIS Basemaps is careless. The Careless coordinate from ArcGIS Basemaps indicates that its cannot be used as GCP for large-scale mapping on the entire territory of Indonesia.

Keywords: accuracy, ArcGIS base maps, GCP, large scale maps

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6 Rapid Degradation of High-Concentration Methylene Blue in the Combined System of Plasma-Enhanced Photocatalysis Using TiO₂-Carbon

Authors: Teguh Endah Saraswati, Kusumandari Kusumandari, Candra Purnawan, Annisa Dinan Ghaisani, Aufara Mahayum

Abstract:

The present study aims to investigate the degradation of methylene blue (MB) using TiO₂-carbon (TiO₂-C) photocatalyst combined with dielectric discharge (DBD) plasma. The carbon materials used in the photocatalyst were activated carbon and graphite. The thin layer of TiO₂-C photocatalyst was prepared by ball milling method which was then deposited on the plastic sheet. The characteristic of TiO₂-C thin layer was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. The XRD diffractogram patterns of TiO₂-G thin layer in various weight compositions of 50:1, 50:3, and 50:5 show the 2θ peaks found around 25° and 27° are the main characteristic of TiO₂ and carbon. SEM analysis shows spherical and regular morphology of the photocatalyst. Analysis using UV-Vis diffuse reflectance shows TiO₂-C has narrower band gap energy. The DBD plasma reactor was generated using two electrodes of Cu tape connected with stainless steel mesh and Fe wire separated by a glass dielectric insulator, supplied by a high voltage 5 kV with an air flow rate of 1 L/min. The optimization of the weight composition of TiO₂-C thin layer was studied based on the highest reduction of the MB concentration achieved, examined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The changes in pH values and color of MB indicated the success of MB degradation. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of MB was also studied in various higher concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300 ppm treated for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 min. The degradation efficiency of MB treated in combination system of photocatalysis and DBD plasma reached more than 99% in 6 min, in which the greater concentration of methylene blue dye, the lower degradation rate of methylene blue dye would be achieved.

Keywords: activated carbon, DBD plasma, graphite, methylene blue, photocatalysis

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5 Bio-Nano Mask: Antivirus and Antimicrobial Mouth Mask Coating with Nano-TiO2 and Anthocyanin Utilization as an Effective Solution of High ARI Patients in Riau

Authors: Annisa Ulfah Pristya, Andi Setiawan

Abstract:

Indonesia placed in sixth rank total Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) patient in the world and Riau as one of the province with the highest number of people with respiratory infection in Indonesia reached 37 thousand people. Usually society using a mask as prevention action. Unfortunately the commercial mouth mask only can work maximum for 4 hours and the pores are too large to filter out microorganisms and viruses carried by infectious droplets nucleated 1-5 μm. On the other hand, Indonesia is rich with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and purple sweet potato anthocyanin pigment. Therefore, offered Bio-nano-mask which is a antimicrobial and antiviral mouth mask with Nano-TiO2 coating and purple sweet potato anthocyanins utilization as an effective solution to high ARI patients in Riau, which has the advantage of the mask surface can’t be attached by infectious droplets, self-cleaning and have anthocyanins biosensors that give visual response can be understood easily by the general public in the form of a mask color change from blue/purple to pink when acid levels increase. Acid level is an indicator of microorganisms accumulation in the mouth and surrounding areas. Bio-nano mask making process begins with the preparation (design, Nano-TiO2 liquid preparation, anthocyanins biosensors manufacture) and then superimposing the Nano-TiO2 on the outer surface of spunbond color using a sprayer, then superimposing anthocyanins biosensors film on the Meltdown surface, making bio nano-mask and it pack. Bio-nano mask has the advantage is effectively preventing pathogenic microorganisms and infectious droplets and has accumulated indicator microorganisms that color changes which easily observed by the common people though.

Keywords: anthocyanins, ARI, nano-TiO2 liquid, self cleaning

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4 Effect of Anion and Amino Functional Group on Resin for Lipase Immobilization with Adsorption-Cross Linking Method

Authors: Heri Hermansyah, Annisa Kurnia, A. Vania Anisya, Adi Surjosatyo, Yopi Sunarya, Rita Arbianti, Tania Surya Utami

Abstract:

Lipase is one of biocatalyst which is applied commercially for the process in industries, such as bioenergy, food, and pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, biocatalysts are preferred in industries because they work in mild condition, high specificity, and reduce energy consumption (high pressure and temperature). But, the usage of lipase for industry scale is limited by economic reason due to the high price of lipase and difficulty of the separation system. Immobilization of lipase is one of the solutions to maintain the activity of lipase and reduce separation system in the process. Therefore, we conduct a study about lipase immobilization with the adsorption-cross linking method using glutaraldehyde because this method produces high enzyme loading and stability. Lipase is immobilized on different kind of resin with the various functional group. Highest enzyme loading (76.69%) was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous which have anion functional group (OH). However, highest activity (24,69 U/g support) through olive oil emulsion method was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-chitosan which have amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group. In addition, it also success to produce biodiesel until reach yield 50,6% through interesterification reaction and after 4 cycles stable 63.9% relative with initial yield. While for Aspergillus, niger lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-kitosan have unit activity 22,84 U/g resin and yield biodiesel higher than commercial lipase (69,1%) and after 4 cycles stable reach 70.6% relative from initial yield. This shows that optimum functional group on support for immobilization with adsorption-cross linking is the support that contains amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group because they can react with glutaraldehyde and binding with enzyme prevent desorption of lipase from support through binding lipase with a functional group on support.

Keywords: adsorption-cross linking, immobilization, lipase, resin

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3 Geological Engineering Mapping Approach to Know Factor of Safety Distribution and Its Implication to Landslide Potential at Muria Mountain, Kudus, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Sony Hartono, Azka Decana, Vilia Yohana, Annisa Luthfianihuda, Yuni Faizah, Tati Andriani, Dewi Kania, Fachri Zulfiqar, Sugiar Yusup, Arman Nugraha

Abstract:

Landslide is a geological hazard that is quite common in some areas in Indonesia and have disadvantages impact for public around. Due to the high frequency of landslides in Indonesia, and extensive damage, landslides should be specifically noted. Landslides caused by a soil or rock unit that has been in a state of unstable slopes and not in ideal state again, so the value of ground resistance or the rock been passed by the value of the forces acting on the slope. Based on this fact, authors held a geological engineering mapping at Muria Mountain, Kudus, Central Java province which is known as an agriculture and religion tourism area. This geological engineering mapping is performed to determine landslides potential at Muria Mountain. Slopes stability will be illustrated by a number called the “factor of safety” where the number can describe how much potential a slope to fall. Slopes stability can be different depending on the physical and mechanical characteristics of the soil and slope conditions. Testing of physical and mechanical characteristics of the soil conducted in the geotechnical laboratory. The characteristics of the soil must be same when sampled as well as in the test laboratory. To meet that requirement, authors used "undisturb sample" method that will be guarantee sample will not be distracted by environtment influences. From laboratory tests on soil physical and mechanical properties obtained characteristics of the soil on a slope, and then inserted into a Geological Information Software that would generate a value of factor of safety and give a visualization slope form area of research. Then, as a result of the study, obtained a map of the ground movement distribution map and i is implications for landslides potential areas.

Keywords: factor of safety, geological engineering mapping, landslides, slope stability, soil

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2 Nano-MFC (Nano Microbial Fuel Cell): Utilization of Carbon Nano Tube to Increase Efficiency of Microbial Fuel Cell Power as an Effective, Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Alternative Energy Sources

Authors: Annisa Ulfah Pristya, Andi Setiawan

Abstract:

Electricity is the primary requirement today's world, including Indonesia. This is because electricity is a source of electrical energy that is flexible to use. Fossil energy sources are the major energy source that is used as a source of energy power plants. Unfortunately, this conversion process impacts on the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and causes an increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, disrupting health, ozone depletion, and the greenhouse effect. Solutions have been applied are solar cells, ocean wave power, the wind, water, and so forth. However, low efficiency and complicated treatment led to most people and industry in Indonesia still using fossil fuels. Referring to this Fuel Cell was developed. Fuel Cells are electrochemical technology that continuously converts chemical energy into electrical energy for the fuel and oxidizer are the efficiency is considerably higher than the previous natural source of electrical energy, which is 40-60%. However, Fuel Cells still have some weaknesses in terms of the use of an expensive platinum catalyst which is limited and not environmentally friendly. Because of it, required the simultaneous source of electrical energy and environmentally friendly. On the other hand, Indonesia is a rich country in marine sediments and organic content that is never exhausted. Stacking the organic component can be an alternative energy source continued development of fuel cell is A Microbial Fuel Cell. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) is a tool that uses bacteria to generate electricity from organic and non-organic compounds. MFC same tools as usual fuel cell composed of an anode, cathode and electrolyte. Its main advantage is the catalyst in the microbial fuel cell is a microorganism and working conditions carried out in neutral solution, low temperatures, and environmentally friendly than previous fuel cells (Chemistry Fuel Cell). However, when compared to Chemistry Fuel Cell, MFC only have an efficiency of 40%. Therefore, the authors provide a solution in the form of Nano-MFC (Nano Microbial Fuel Cell): Utilization of Carbon Nano Tube to Increase Efficiency of Microbial Fuel Cell Power as an Effective, Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Alternative Energy Source. Nano-MFC has the advantage of an effective, high efficiency, cheap and environmental friendly. Related stakeholders that helped are government ministers, especially Energy Minister, the Institute for Research, as well as the industry as a production executive facilitator. strategic steps undertaken to achieve that begin from conduct preliminary research, then lab scale testing, and dissemination and build cooperation with related parties (MOU), conduct last research and its applications in the field, then do the licensing and production of Nano-MFC on an industrial scale and publications to the public.

Keywords: CNT, efficiency, electric, microorganisms, sediment

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1 Eco-Nanofiltration Membranes: Nanofiltration Membrane Technology Utilization-Based Fiber Pineapple Leaves Waste as Solutions for Industrial Rubber Liquid Waste Processing and Fertilizer Crisis in Indonesia

Authors: Andi Setiawan, Annisa Ulfah Pristya

Abstract:

Indonesian rubber plant area reached 2.9 million hectares with productivity reached 1.38 million. High rubber productivity is directly proportional to the amount of waste produced rubber processing industry. Rubber industry would produce a negative impact on the rubber industry in the form of environmental pollution caused by waste that has not been treated optimally. Rubber industrial wastewater containing high-nitrogen compounds (nitrate and ammonia) and phosphate compounds which cause water pollution and odor problems due to the high ammonia content. On the other hand, demand for NPK fertilizers in Indonesia continues to increase from year to year and in need of ammonia and phosphate as raw material. Based on domestic demand, it takes a year to 400,000 tons of ammonia and Indonesia imports 200,000 tons of ammonia per year valued at IDR 4.2 trillion. As well, the lack of phosphoric acid to be imported from Jordan, Morocco, South Africa, the Philippines, and India as many as 225 thousand tons per year. During this time, the process of wastewater treatment is generally done with a rubber on the tank to contain the waste and then precipitated, filtered and the rest released into the environment. However, this method is inefficient and thus require high energy costs because through many stages before producing clean water that can be discharged into the river. On the other hand, Indonesia has the potential of pineapple fruit can be harvested throughout the year in all of Indonesia. In 2010, production reached 1,406,445 tons of pineapple in Indonesia or about 9.36 percent of the total fruit production in Indonesia. Increased productivity is directly proportional to the amount of pineapple waste pineapple leaves are kept continuous and usually just dumped in the ground or disposed of with other waste at the final disposal. Through Eco-Nanofiltration Membrane-Based Fiber Pineapple leaves Waste so that environmental problems can be solved efficiently. Nanofiltration is a process that uses pressure as a driving force that can be either convection or diffusion of each molecule. Nanofiltration membranes that can split water to nano size so as to separate the waste processed residual economic value that N and P were higher as a raw material for the manufacture of NPK fertilizer to overcome the crisis in Indonesia. The raw materials were used to manufacture Eco-Nanofiltration Membrane is cellulose from pineapple fiber which processed into cellulose acetate which is biodegradable and only requires a change of the membrane every 6 months. Expected output target is Green eco-technology so with nanofiltration membranes not only treat waste rubber industry in an effective, efficient and environmentally friendly but also lowers the cost of waste treatment compared to conventional methods.

Keywords: biodegradable, cellulose diacetate, fertilizers, pineapple, rubber

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