Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 3988

Search results for: ethnobotanical survey

3988 Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants from Bechar Region, South-West of Algeria

Authors: Naima Fatehi

Abstract:

The paper reports on 107 medicinal plants, traditionally used in the South-West of Algeria (Bechar region). The information has been documented by interviewing traditional herbalists, various elderly men and women following different ethnobotanical methods. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by botanical name, followed by family name, vernacular name, and part used. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants used extensively in Bechar region for treating various diseases and provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

Keywords: medicinal plants, ethnobotanical survey, South-West Algeria, Bechar region

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3987 Ethnobotanical Survey of Vegetable Plants Traditionally Used in Kalasin Thailand

Authors: Aree Thongpukdee, Chockpisit Thepsithar, Chuthalak Thammaso

Abstract:

Use of plants grown in local area for edible has a long tradition in different culture. The indigenous knowledge such as usage of plants as vegetables by local people is risk to disappear when no records are done. In order to conserve and transfer this valuable heritage to the new generation, ethnobotanical study should be investigated and documented. The survey of vegetable plants traditionally used was carried out in the year 2012. Information was accumulated via questionnaires and oral interviewing from 100 people living in 36 villages of 9 districts in Amphoe Huai Mek, Kalasin, Thailand. Local plant names, utilized parts and preparation methods of the plants were recorded. Each mentioned plant species were collected and voucher specimens were prepared. A total of 55 vegetable plant species belonging to 34 families and 54 genera were identified. The plant habits were tree, shrub, herb, climber, and shrubby fern at 21.82%, 18.18%, 38.18%, 20.00% and 1.82% respectively. The most encountered vegetable plant families were Leguminosae (20%), Cucurbitaceae (7.27%), Apiaceae (5.45%), whereas families with 3.64% uses were Araceae, Bignoniaceae, Lamiaceae, Passifloraceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. The most common consumptions were fresh or brief boiled young shoot or young leaf as side dishes of ‘jaeo, laab, namprik, pon’ or curries. Most locally known vegetables included 45% of the studied plants which grow along road side, backyard garden, hedgerow, open forest and rice field.

Keywords: vegetable plants, ethnobotanical survey, Kalasin, Thailand

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3986 Antimicrobial Value of Olax subscorpioidea and Bridelia ferruginea on Micro-Organism Isolates of Dental Infection

Authors: I. C. Orabueze, A. A. Amudalat, S. A. Adesegun, A. A. Usman

Abstract:

Dental and associated oral diseases are increasingly affecting a considerable portion of the population and are considered some of the major causes of tooth loss, discomfort, mouth odor and loss of confidence. This study focused on the ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in oral therapy and evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of two selected plants from the survey for their efficacy against dental microorganisms. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out in six herbal markets in Lagos State, Nigeria by oral interviewing and information obtained from an old family manually complied herbal medication book. Methanolic extracts of Olax subscorpioidea (stem bark) and Bridelia ferruginea (stem bark) were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against clinical oral isolates (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). In vitro microbial technique (agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay) were employed for the assay. Chlorhexidine gluconate was used as the reference drug for comparison with the extract results. And the preliminary phytochemical screening of the constituents of the plants were done. The ethnobotanical survey produced plants (28) of diverse family. Different parts of plants (seed, fruit, leaf, root, bark) were mentioned but 60% mentioned were either the stem or the bark. O. subscorpioidea showed considerable antifungal activity with zone of inhibition ranging from 2.650 – 2.000 cm against Aspergillus fumigatus but no such encouraging inhibitory activity was observed in the other assayed organisms. B. ferruginea showed antibacterial sensitivity against Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone of inhibitions ranging from 3.400 - 2.500, 2.250 - 1.600, 2.700 - 1.950, 2.225 – 1.525 cm respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of O. subscorpioidea against Aspergillus fumigatus was 51.2 mg ml-1 while that of B. ferruginea against Streptococcus spp was 0.1mg ml-1 and for Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 25.6 mg ml-1. A phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycoside, tannins, phenols and terpenoids in both plants, with steroids only in B. ferruginea. No toxicity was observed among mice given the two methanolic extracts (1000 mg Kg-1) after 21 days. The barks of both plants exhibited antimicrobial properties against periodontal diseases causing organisms assayed, thus up-holding their folkloric use in oral disorder management. Further research could be done viewing these extracts as combination therapy, checking for possible synergistic value in toothpaste and oral rinse formulations for reducing oral bacterial flora and fungi load.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, Bridelia ferruginea, dental disinfection, methanolic extract, Olax subscorpioidea, ethnobotanical survey

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3985 Chemical and Biological Studies of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Calophyllaceae) Based on Ethnobotanical Survey of Rural Community from Brazil

Authors: Vanessa G. P. Severino, Eliangela Cristina Candida Costa, Nubia Alves Mariano Teixeira Pires Gomides, Lucilia Kato, Afif Felix Monteiro, Maria Anita Lemos Vasconcelos Ambrosio, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins

Abstract:

One of the biomes present in Brazil is known as Cerrado, which is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion, particularly in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Minas Gerais. Many species of plants are characterized as endemic and they have therapeutic value for a large part of the population, especially to the rural communities. Given that, the southeastern region of the state of Goiás contains about 21 rural communities, which present a form of organization based on the use of natural resources available. One of these rural communities is named of Coqueiros, where the knowledge about the medicinal plants was very important to this research. Thus, this study focuses on the ethnobotanical survey of this community on the use of Kielmeyera coriacea to treat diseases. From the 37 members interviewed, 76% indicated this species for the treatment of intestinal infection, leukemia, anemia, gastritis, gum pain, toothache, cavity, arthritis, arthrosis, healing, vermifuge, rheumatism, antibiotic, skin problems, mycoses and all kinds of infections. The medicinal properties attributed during the interviews were framed in the body system (disease categories), adapted from ICD 10; thus, 20 indications of use were obtained, among five body systems. Therefore, the root of this species was select to chemical and biological (antioxidant and antimicrobial) studies. From the liquid-liquid extraction of ethanolic extract of root (EER), the hexane (FH), ethyl acetate (FAE), and hydro alcoholic (FHA) fractions were obtained. The chemical profile study of these fractions was performed by LC-MS, identifying major compounds such as δ-tocotrienol, prenylated acylphoroglucinol, 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone and quercitrin. EER, FH, FAE and FHA were submitted to biological tests. FHA presented the best antioxidant action (EC50 201.53 μg mL-1). EER inhibited the bacterial growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, microorganisms associated with rheumatism, at Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 6.25 μg mL-1. In addition, the FH-10 subfraction, obtained from FH fractionation, presented MIC of 1.56 μg mL-1 against S. pneumoniae; EER also inhibited the fungus Candida glabrata (MIC 7.81 μg mL- 1). The FAE-4.7.3 fraction, from the fractionation of FAE, presented MIC of 200 μg mL-1 against Lactobacillus casei, which is one of the causes of caries and oral infections. By the correlation of the chemical and biological data, it is possible to note that the FAE-4.7.3 and FH-10 are constituted 4-hydroxy-2,3-methylenedioxy xanthone, 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethoxy xanthone, lupeol, prenylated acylphoroglucinol and quercitrin, which could be associated with the biological potential found. Therefore, this study provides an important basis for further investigations regarding the compounds present in the active fractions of K. coriacea, which will permit the establishment of a correlation between ethnobotanical survey and bioactivity.

Keywords: biological activity, ethnobotanical survey, Kielmeyera coriacea Mart., LC-MS profile

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3984 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous People of Community Forest User Groups of Parbat District, Nepal

Authors: Gokul Gaudel, Zhang Wen Hui, Dang Quang Hung, Le Thi Hien, Liang Xiao

Abstract:

The community forests of Nepal serve as a major source of medicinal plants for majority of local people who are dependent on traditional health care system. This study aims to explore the ethnobotanical information of the medicinal plants used by five different community forest user groups of Parbat district of Nepal. The research was conducted during different periods of the year 2015, using semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires, formal and informal interviews, and group discussions. In total 145 different plant species within 77 families were documented, the majority of them being herb were found to be used to treat 84 different ailments. In terms of plant parts use: whole plants, barks, fruits, leaves were found to be in top priorities. Oral administration was the dominant route (57%), followed by both oral and dermal route (29%) and dermal only (14%). Females were found to have 24% more ethnobotanical knowledge than male. The knowledge of ethnobotanical medicinal plants was found excellent on age group 65-75. This study showed that community forests of Parbat district are rich in medicinal plants but the new generation was found less interested in using them. Easy access to modern medicines, lack of documentation and knowledge transfer to young generations are the major causes of diminishing utility of traditional medicinal practices.

Keywords: ailments, community forest, ethnobotany, medicinal plants, Parbat

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3983 Traditional Uses of Medicinal Plants in Albania: Historical and Theoretical Considerations

Authors: Ani Bajrami

Abstract:

The birth of traditional medicine is related to plant diversity in a region, and the knowledge regarding them has been used and culturally transmitted over generations by members of a certain society. In this context, Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) concerning the use of plants for medicinal purposes had survival value and was adaptive for people living in different habitats around the world. Albanian flora has a high considerably number of medicinal plants, and they have been extensively used albeit expressed in folk medicinal knowledge and practices. Over the past decades, a number of ethnobotanical studies and extensive fieldwork has been conducted in Albania both by local and foreign scientists. In addition, ethnobotany is experiencing a theoretical and conceptual diversification. This article is a historical review of ethnobotanical studies conducted in Albania after the Second World War and provides theoretical considerations on how these studies should be conducted in the future.

Keywords: medicinal plants, traditional ecological knowledge, historical ethnobotany, theory, albania

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3982 Market Value of Ethno-Medicinally Important Plants of the Dughalgay Valley District Swat, Pakistan

Authors: Akbar Zeb, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Habib Ahmad, Manzoor Hussain, Mujtaba Shah

Abstract:

An ethnobotanical project was carried out in the Dughalgay valley District Swat in Hindu Kush region. The Local population not only use indigenous knowledge to use medicinal plants for curing various diseases but also earn their live hood by selling some of them in the local markets. An ethnobotanical project was carried out in the Doghalgay valley of upper Swat. The Local population not only use indigenous medicinal plants for curing various diseases but also earn their live hood by selling some of them in the local market. 102 of these medicinal plants were reported to be used in the region during questionnaire survey in spring 2007. Out of them 10 species are used as diuretic, 9 in stomachic and laxative each. Similarly 6, 5, 5, 4, 4, and 4 species of them are used as antiseptic, Anthelmintic, Carminative, Expectorant, Astringent and purgative respectively, while the remaining species have one or more than one medicinal use in the local community. 30 of these species are collected for marketing purposes, in which these medicinal plants such as Berberis lycium, Origanum vulgare, Bergenia ciliata, Aesculus indica, Podophyllum emodi, Pteredium aquilinum, Bergenia himalyca, Viola spp., Ajuga bracteosa, Morchella esculenta, Paeonia emodi, Atropa acuminate, Aconitum violaceum, Polygonum amplexicaulis, Bupleurum longicaule, Juglans regia, Diospyrus lotus, and Mentha longifolia are important. Study concluded that availability of medicinal plants is decreasing day by day due to human population pressure, marketing pressure, grazing and unwise collection. Therefore it is recommended that Governmental organizations and non Governmental organization should pay possible attention to make aware the local people about the future threats.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, ethnomedicinal uses, marketing, Hindu Kush

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3981 Variation in the Traditional Knowledge of Curcuma longa L. in North-Eastern Algeria

Authors: A. Bouzabata, A. Boukhari

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Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as turmeric, has a long history of traditional uses for culinary purposes as a spice and a food colorant. The present study aimed to document the ethnobotanical knowledge about Curcuma longa and to assess the variation in the herbalists’ experience in Northeastern Algeria. Data were collected by semi-structured questionnaires and direct interviews with 30 herbalists. Ethnobotanical indices, including the fidelity level (FL%), the relative frequency citation (RFC) and use value (UV) were determined by quantitative methods. Diversity in the knowledge was analyzed using univariate, non-parametric and multivariate statistical methods. Three main categories of uses were recorded for C. longa: for food, for medicine and for cosmetic purposes. As a medicine, turmeric was used for the treatment of gastrointestinal, dermatological and hepatic diseases. Medicinal and food uses were correlated with both forms of use (rhizome and powder). The age group did not influence the use. Multivariate analyses showed a significant variation in traditional knowledge, associated with the use value, origin, quality and efficacy of the drug. These findings suggested that the geographical origin of C. longa affected the use in Algeria.

Keywords: curcuma, indices, knowledge, variation

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3980 Diabetes and Medical Plant's Treatment: Ethnobotanical Studies Carried out in Morocco

Authors: Jamila Fakchich, Mostafa Jamila Lazaar Elachouri, Lakhder Fakchich, Fatna Ouali, Abd Errazzak Belkacem

Abstract:

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that has a significant impact on the health, quality of life, and life expectancy of patients as well as the health care system. By its nature diabetes, is a multisystem disease with wide-ranging complication that span nearly all region of the body. This epidemic problem, however, is not unique to the industrialized society, but has also hardly struck the developing countries. In Morocco, as developing country, there is an epidemic rise in diabetes, with ensuing concern about the management and control of this disease; it began a chronic burdensome disease of largely middle-aged and elderly people, with a long course and serious complications often resulting in high death-rate, the treatment of diabetes spent vast amount of resources including medicines, diets, physical training. Treatment of this disease is considered problematic due to the lack of effective and safe drugs capable of inducing sustained clinical, biochemical, and histological cure. In Moroccan society, the phytoremedies are some times the only affordable sources of healthcare, particularly for the people in remote areas. In this paper, we present a synthesis work obtained from the ethnobotanical data reported in different specialized journals. A Synthesis of four published ethnobotanical studies that have been carried out in different region of Morocco by different team seekers during the period from 1997 to 2015. Medicinal plants inventoried by different seekers in four Moroccan’s areas have been regrouped and codified, then, Factorial Analysis (FA) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used to analyse the aggregated data from the four studies and plants are classified according to their frequency of use by population. Our work deals with an attempt to gather information on some traditional uses of medicinal plants from different regions of Morocco, also, it was designed to give a set of medicinal plants commonly used by Moroccan people in the treatment of diabetes; In this paper, we intended to provide a basic knowledge about plant species used by Moroccan society for treatment of diabetes. One of the most interesting aspects of this type of works is to assess the relative cultural importance of medicinal plants for specific illnesses and exploring its usefulness in the context of diabetes.

Keywords: Morocco, medicinal plants, ethnobotanical, diabetes, phytoremedies

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3979 Ethnobotanical Study of Spontaneous Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Viral Respiratory Diseases in the Prerif, Morocco

Authors: El Amane Salma, Rahou Abdelilah

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Viral respiratory infections (common cold, flu, sinusitis, bronchiolitis, etc.) are among the most common infections in the world with severe symptoms. In Morocco, as everywhere in the world, especially in developing countries, the therapeutic indications of medicinal plants are very present to treat several diseases, including the respiratory system. The objective of our study is to identify and document medicinal plants used in traditional medicine to treat viral respiratory infections and alleviate their symptoms in order to generate interest for future studies in verifying the efficacy of these traditional medicines and their conservation. The information acquired from 81 questionnaires and the floristic identification allowed us to identify 19 spontaneous species belonging to 11 families, used as traditional therapies for viral respiratory diseases in the Prerif. The herbs are the most used life form. The results also showed that leaves were the most commonly used plant parts and most of the herbal medicines were prepared in the form of infusions and administered orally. Documented data was evaluated using use value (UV), family importance value (FIV) and relative frequency citation (RCF).

Keywords: medicinal plants, ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological, viral respiratory diseases, Morocco

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3978 Medicinal Plants Used by Moroccan People in the Management of Diabetes and Hypertension

Authors: Alami Ilyass, Kharchoufa Loubna, Alachouri Mostafa

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Cardiovascular disease (CDV) remains the major cause of morbidity; mortality and disability throughout the world. The ethnopharmcological and ethnobotanical studies are the paramount importance to set a high value on phytogenetic resources and to address health problems of some communities; especially poor peoples. Our work presents an analysis of published data from studies, that have been undertaken, in Morocco, by different seeker teams in separately areas during the last decades. Objectives: Evaluate and identify medicinal plants used for cardiovascular treatment by Moroccan people. Methodology: All these studies have the same approaches ; they were conducted by interviewing people suffering from diabetes. We use Factorial Analysis (FA) and principal Components analysis (PCA) to analyse the aggregated data from the different studies. Results: globally; 95 plants species were listed; all these plant were used empirically by Moroccan society for treating cardiovascular problems. These plants were divided in to 42 families and 87 genus. The lamiaceae; asteraceae; Apiaceae and poaceae are the botanical families with high number of plant species. Coclusion: Traditional medecine has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular problems and it has been recognized as an interesting alternative to conventional medicine.

Keywords: cardiovascular, ethnobotanical, medicinal plants, Morocco

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3977 Ethnobotanical Medicines for Treating Snakebites among the Indigenous Maya Populations of Belize

Authors: Kerry Hull, Mark Wright

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This paper brings light to ethnobotanical medicines used by the Maya of Belize to treat snake bites. The varying ecological zones of Belize boast over fifty species of snakes, nine of which are poisonous and dangerous to humans. Two distinct Maya groups occupy neighboring regions of Belize, the Q’eqchi’ and the Mopan. With Western medical care often far from their villages, what traditional methods are used to treat poisonous snake bites? Based primarily on data gathered with native consultants during the authors’ fieldwork with both groups, this paper details the ethnobotanical resources used by the Q’eqchi’ and Mopan traditional healers. The Q’eqchi’ and Mopan most commonly rely on traditional ‘bush doctors’ (ilmaj in Mopan), both male and female, and specialized ‘snake doctors’ to heal bites from venomous snakes. First, this paper presents each plant employed by healers for bites for the nine poisonous snakes in Belize along with the specific botanical recipes and methods of application for each remedy. Individual chemical and therapeutic qualities of some of those plants are investigated in an effort to explain their possible medicinal value for different toxins or the symptoms caused by those toxins. In addition, this paper explores mythological associations with certain snakes that inform local understanding regarding which plants are considered efficacious in each case, arguing that numerous oral traditions (recorded by the authors) help to link botanical medicines to episodes within their mythic traditions. Finally, the use of plants to counteract snakebites brought about through sorcery is discussed inasmuch as some snakes are seen as ‘helpers’ of sorcerers. Snake bites given under these circumstances can only be cured by those who know both the proper corresponding plant(s) and ritual prayer(s). This paper provides detailed documentation of traditional ethnomedicines and practices from the dying art of traditional Maya healers and argues for multi-faceted diagnostic techniques to determine toxin severity, the presence or absence of sorcery, and the appropriate botanical remedy.

Keywords: ethnobotany, Maya, medicine, snake bites

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3976 Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Tribal People of Kodagu District, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India

Authors: Anush Patric, M. Jadeyegowda, M. N. Ramesh, M. Ravikumar, C. R. Ajay

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Kodagu district which is situated in Central Western Ghats regions falls in one of the hottest of hot spots of biodiversity which is recognised by UNESCO. The district has one of the highest densities of community managed sacred forests in the world with rich floral and faunal diversity. It is a habitat for more than ten different types of Ethnic Indigenous tribal groups commonly called ‘Girijanas’ (Soligas, Yarvas, Jenukuruba, Bettakuruba etc.), who are having the rich knowledge of medicinal value of the plants that are commonly available in the forest. The tribal men of this region are the treasure house of the traditional plant knowledge and health care practices. An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in tribal areas of the district to collect information about some of the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge of tribal people by semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises and field observations on their native habitat in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants. The study revealed that, the ethnobotanical information of 83 plant species belonging to 45 families, of the total 83 species documented, most plants used in the treatment were trees (11 species), shrubs (41 species), herbs (22 species) and rarely climbers (9 species) which are used in the treatment of Hyperacidity, Respiratory disorders, Snake bite Abortifacient, Anthelmintic, Paralysis, Antiseptic, Fever, Chest pain, Stomachic, Jaundice, Piles, Asthma, Malaria, Renal disorders, Malaria and many other diseases. Maximum of 6 plant species each of Acanthaceae, Apiaceae and were used for drug preparation, followed by Asclepiadaceae, Liliaceae, Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Bombaceae, Papilonaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Ascelepidaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Apocyanaceae, and Solanaceae etc. In our present study, only medicinal plants and their local medicinal uses are recorded and presented. Information was obtained by local informants having the knowledge about medicinal plants. About 23 local tribes were interviewed. For each plant, necessary information like botanical name, family of plant species, local name and uses are given. Recent trend shows a decline in the number of traditional herbal healers in the tribal areas since the younger generation is not interested to continue this tradition. Hence, there is an urgent need to record and preserve all information on plants used by different ethnic/tribal communities for various purposes before it reaches to verge of extinction. In addition, several wild medicinal plants are declining in numbers due to deforestation and forest fires. There is need for phytochemical analysis and conservation measures to be taken for conserving medicinal plant species which is far better than allopathic medicines and these do not cause any side effects as they are the natural disease healers. So, conservation strategies have to be practiced in all levels and sectors by creating awareness about the value of such medicinal plants, and it is necessary to save the disappearing plants to strengthen the document and to conserve them for future generation.

Keywords: diseases, ethnic groups, folk medicine, Kodagu, medicinal plants

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3975 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Leguminosae in Kantharalak Community Forest, Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand

Authors: W. Promprom, W. Chatan

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Leguminosae is a large plant family and its members are important for local people utilization in the Northeast of Thailand. This research aimed to survey medicinal plants in this family in Kantharalak Community forest. The plant collection and exploration were made from October 2017 to September 2018. Folk medicinal uses were studied by interviewing villagers and folk medicine healers living around the community forest by asking about local names, using parts, preparation and properties. The results showed that 65 species belonging to 40 genera were found. Among these, 30 species were medicinal plant. The most used plant parts were leaf. Decoction and drinking were mostly preparation method and administration mode used. All medicinal plants could be categorized into 17 diseases/symptoms. Most plant (56.66%) were used for fever. The voucher specimens were deposited in Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Thailand. Therefore, the data from this study might be widely used by the local area and further scientific study.

Keywords: ethnobotany, ethnophamacology, medicinal plant, taxonomy, utilization

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3974 Ethnobotanical and Laboratory Investigations of Plants Used for the Treatment of Typhoid Fever in Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Abubakar Bello Usman, Alhassan Muhammad Gani, Kolo Ibrahim

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The use of botanical raw materials to produce pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, teas, spirits, cosmetics, sweets, dietary supplements, special industrial compounds and crude materials constitute an important global resource in terms of healthcare and economy. In Nigeria and other developing countries, the indigenous knowledge on the uses of plants lies with the older generation and the traditional healers. However, these custodians are decreasing in number due to death and other unforeseen occurrences. An Ethno-botanical survey was carried out to obtain information on the ethno medical values of wide range of plants used by the people of Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria, in the practice of healing and cure of typhoid (enteric) fever. Oral interviews were conducted so as to consider those with low literacy level who are involved in the practice of traditional medicine and thirty four (34) informants availed themselves for the interview and were consulted. All relevant information obtained from the respondents was recorded. A recent and valid nomenclature, along with local names, family names, part of the plant(s) used, methods of preparation and administration and fifty four (54) plant species belonging to 27 families as well as 7 unidentified species that are commonly used by the people of the state in ethnomedical treatment of the ailment were tabulated. Those interviewed included traditional practitioners, local herb sellers, traditional rulers, hunters, farmers and patients. Specific questions were asked and information supplied by informants was promptly documented. Results showed that the people of Gombe State are knowledgeable on herbal medicine in the treatment of diseases and ailments. Furthermore, the aqueous leaf extracts of Senna siamea, the plant species with the highest PPK (percentage of people who have knowledge about the use of a species for treating typhoid fever) in this ethnobotanical survey, was tested for its activity against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi using the agar well diffusion method. The aqueous extracts showed some activity (zones of inhibition 11, 9, 7.5, 3.5, 1.3 mm) at 2000, 1800, 1600, 1400, 1200 µg/ml concentrations respectively. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the aqueous leaf extracts of the plant revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. Though a large number of traditionally used plants for the treatment of enteric fever were identified, further scientific validation of the traditional claims of anti-typhoid properties is imperative. This would establish their candidature for any possible future research for active principles and the possible development of new cheaper and more effective anti-typhoid drugs, as well as in the conservation of this rich diversity of medicinal plants.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, ethnobotany, gombe state, north-eastern Nigeria, phytochemical screening, senna siamea, typhoid fever

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3973 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Properties of Some Selected Wild Edible Fruits Used Traditionally as a Source of Food

Authors: Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange, Darky Cheron Modishane, Frederick Tawi Tabit

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The fruit pulp extracts of twelve selected ethnobotanical wild edible fruits from Mutale local municipality in Venda (Limpopo Province, South Africa) were investigated for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities. Methanol extracts were prepared and tested against six micro-organisms (Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using the micro-dilution method, while for antioxidant activity the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method was used. Of the 12 extracts tested, Adonsonia digitata, Berchemia discolor, Manilkara mochisia, Xanthocercis zambesiaca, Landolphia kirkii and Garcinia livingstonei showed antimicrobial activity, with MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 0.4 mg/ml. Gram negative bacteria were more resistant to the extracts in comparison to Gram positive bacteria. Antioxidant activity was only detected in Adonsonia digitata extract and the IC50 (substrate concentration to produce 50% reduction) was found to be 16.18µg/ml. The cytotoxicity of the extracts that showed antimicrobial and antioxidant activities was also determined. All plant extracts tested were non-toxic against human kidney cells (HEK293), with IC50 values of >400 µg/ml. The results presented in this study provide support to some traditional uses of wild edible fruits.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity, ethnobotanical, fruits

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3972 Ethnobotanical Study on the Usage of Toxic Plants in Traditional Medicine in the City Center of Tlemcen, Algeria

Authors: Nassima Elyebdri, Asma Boumediou, Soumia Addoun

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Traditional medicine has been part of the Algerian culture for decades. In particular, the city of Tlemcen still retains practices based on phytotherapy to the present day, as this kind of medicine fulfills the needs of its followers among the local population. The toxic plants contain diverse natural substances which supplied a lot of medicine in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to explore new medicinal sources among toxic plants, an ethnobotanical study was carried out on the use of these plants by the population, at Emir Abdelkader Square of the city of Tlemcen, a rather busy place with a high number of traditional health practitioners and herbalists. This is a descriptive and transversal study aimed at estimating the frequency of using toxic plants among the studied population, for a period of 4 months. The information was collected, using self-anonymous questionnaires, and analyzed by the IBM SPSS Statistics software used for statistical analysis. A sample of 200 people, including 120 women and 80 men, were interviewed. The mean age was 41 ± 16 years. Among those questioned, 83.5% used plants; 8% of them used toxic plants and 35% used plants that can be toxic under certain conditions. Some improvements were observed in 88% of the cases where toxic plants were used. 80 medicinal plants, belonging to 36 botanical families, were listed, identified and classified. The most frequent indications for these plants were for respiratory diseases in 64.7% of cases, and for digestive disorders in 51.5% of cases. 11% of these plants are toxic, 26% could be toxic under certain conditions. Among toxics plants, the most common ones are Berberis vulgaris with 5.4%, indicated in the treatment of uterine fibroids and thyroid, Rhamnus alaternus with 4.8% for hepatic jaundice, Nerium oleander with 3% for hemorrhoids, Ruta chalepensis with 1.2%, indicated for digestive disorders and dysmenorrhea, and Viscum album with 1.2%, indicated for respiratory diseases. The most common plants that could be toxic are Mentha pulegium (15.6%), Eucalyptus globulus (11.4%), and Pimpinella anisum (10.2%). This study revealed interesting results on the use of toxic plants, which are likely to serve as a basis for further ethno-pharmacological investigations in order to get new drug sources.

Keywords: ethnobotany, phytotherapy, Tlemcen, toxic plants

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3971 Potential of Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaeaceae) in the Treatment of Metoclopramide-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Female Wistar Rats

Authors: O. J. Sharaibi, O. T. Ogundipe, O. A. Magbagbeola, M. I. Kazeem, A. J. Afolayan, M. T. Yakubu

Abstract:

Hyperprolactinemia is a condition of elevated levels of serum prolactin in humans. It is one of the major causes of female infertility because, excess prolactin inhibits gonadotropin secretion. When gonadotropin is low, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretions are low and so, do not stimulate gamete production and gonadal steroid synthesis. The aim of this study is to identify and investigate indigenous medicinal plants that can be used in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Based on the frequency of mentioning during the ethnobotanical survey, Nymphaea lotus L. was selected for studies. The prolactin-lowering potential of aqueous extract of N. lotus and its effects on other female reproductive hormones in comparison with bromocritptine was evaluated by inducing hyperprolactinemia with metoclopramide at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight of the animals for 21 days and then administered various doses of aqueous extract of N. lotus for another 21 days. Aqueous extract of N. lotus at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the serum prolactin levels in female Wistar rats by 40.06, 52.60 and 61.92 % respectively. The extract at 200 mg/kg body weight had higher prolactin-lowering effect (61.92%) than bromocriptine (53.53%). Aqueous extract of N. lotus significantly increased (p < 0.05) the serum concentrations of FSH, LH and progesterone while estradiol concentrations were reduced. This study shows that Nymphaea lotus is a medicinal plant that can be used in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia.

Keywords: hyperprolactinemia, infertility, metoclopramide, Nymphaea lotus

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
3970 The Impact on the Composition of Survey Refusals΄ Demographic Profile When Implementing Different Classifications

Authors: Eva Tsouparopoulou, Maria Symeonaki

Abstract:

The internationally documented declining survey response rates of the last two decades are mainly attributed to refusals. In fieldwork, a refusal may be obtained not only from the respondent himself/herself, but from other sources on the respondent’s behalf, such as other household members, apartment building residents or administrator(s), and neighborhood residents. In this paper, we investigate how the composition of the demographic profile of survey refusals changes when different classifications are implemented and the classification issues arising from that. The analysis is based on the 2002-2018 European Social Survey (ESS) datasets for Belgium, Germany, and United Kingdom. For these three countries, the size of selected sample units coded as a type of refusal for all nine under investigation rounds was large enough to meet the purposes of the analysis. The results indicate the existence of four different possible classifications that can be implemented and the significance of choosing the one that strengthens the contrasts of the different types of respondents' demographic profiles. Since the foundation of social quantitative research lies in the triptych of definition, classification, and measurement, this study aims to identify the multiplicity of the definition of survey refusals as a methodological tool for the continually growing research on non-response.

Keywords: non-response, refusals, European social survey, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
3969 Building an Interactive Web-Based GIS System for Planning of Geological Survey Works

Authors: Wu Defu, Kiefer Chiam, Yang Kin Seng

Abstract:

The planning of geological survey works is an iterative process which involves planner, geologist, civil engineer and other stakeholders, who perform different roles and have different points of view. Traditionally, the team used paper maps or CAD drawings to present the proposal which is not an efficient way to present and share idea on the site investigation proposal such as sitting of borehole location or seismic survey lines. This paper focuses on how a GIS approach can be utilised to develop a web-based system to support decision making process in the planning of geological survey works and also to plan site activities carried out by Singapore Geological Office (SGO). The authors design a framework of building an interactive web-based GIS system, and develop a prototype, which enables the users to obtain rapidly existing geological information and also to plan interactively borehole locations and seismic survey lines via a web browser. This prototype system is used daily by SGO and has shown to be effective in increasing efficiency and productivity as the time taken in the planning of geological survey works is shortened. The prototype system has been developed using the ESRI ArcGIS API 3.7 for Flex which is based on the ArcGIS 10.2.1 platform.

Keywords: engineering geology, flex, geological survey planning, geoscience, GIS, site investigation, WebGIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
3968 Survey of Rate and Causes of Literacy Preservation in Adult Newly Learners

Authors: Mohammad Narimani, Zahra Rostamoghli

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is the survey of rate and causes of literacy preservation in adult newly learners. Statistical sample consists of 384 adults who are newly learners of literacy, at 2002, who were selected by stratified sampling method. This is a correlation cross-sectional survey research, in which authors-constructed measures were used for data collection. Results of survey showed that learners' literacy preservation rate after two years was 70%, 61% and 57%, in reading, dictation and mathematic tests, respectively.Following can be noted as factors correlated with literacy preservation; repetition of subjects and learners' subjective review, access to and using the library and publications, feeling of need to and interest in educated matters, socio cultural class of learners, and literacy level of learners' family.

Keywords: literacy preservation, new learner, literacy improvement movement, mathematic test

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
3967 A Survey on Early Screen Exposure during Infancy and Autism

Authors: I. Mahmood

Abstract:

This survey was conducted to explore the hypothesis that excessive screen exposure combined with a subsequent decrease in parent-child interaction during infancy might be associated with autism. The main questions being asked are: Were children with autism exposed to long hours of screen time during the first 2 years of life? And what was the reason(s) for exposure at such an early age? Other variables were also addressed in this survey. An Arabic questionnaire was administered online (June 2019) via a Facebook page, relatively well-known in Arab countries. 1725 parents of children diagnosed with autism participated in this survey. Results show that 80.9% of children surveyed who were diagnosed with autism had been exposed to screens for long periods of time during the first 2 years of life. It can be inferred from the results of this survey that over-exposure to screens disrupt the parent-child interaction which is shown to be associated with ASD. The results of this survey highlight the harmful effects of screen exposure during infancy and the importance of parent-child interaction during the critical period of brain development. This paper attempts to further explore the connection between parent-child interaction and ASD, as well as serve as a call for further research and investigation of the relation between screens and parent-child interactions during infancy and Autism.

Keywords: attachment disorder, autism, screen exposure, virtual autism

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
3966 The Role of Business Survey Measures in Forecasting Croatian Industrial Production

Authors: M. Cizmesija, N. Erjavec, V. Bahovec

Abstract:

While the European Union (EU) harmonized methodology is a benchmark of worldwide used business survey (BS) methodology, the choice of variables that are components of the confidence indicators, as the leading indicators, is not strictly determined and unique. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate and to quantify the relationship between all business survey variables in manufacturing industry and industrial production as a reference macroeconomic series in Croatia. The assumption is that there are variables in the business survey, that are not components of Industrial Confidence Indicator (ICI) and which can accurately (and sometimes better then ICI) predict changes in Croatian industrial production. Empirical analyses are conducted using quarterly data of BS variables in manufacturing industry and Croatian industrial production over the period from the first quarter 2005 to the first quarter 2013. Research results confirmed the assumption: three BS variables which is not components of ICI (competitive position, demand and liquidity) are the best leading indicator then ICI, in forecasting changes in Croatian industrial production instantaneously, with one, two or three quarter ahead.

Keywords: balance, business survey, confidence indicators, industrial production, forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
3965 Major Causes of Delay in Construction Projects

Authors: Y. Gholipour, E. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

Delay is one of the most serious and common problems of construction project that can affect project delivery unfavorably. This research presents the most important causes of delay in large dam projects based on a survey on some executed dam construction in Iran. In this survey a randomly selected samples of owners, consultants and contractors have been involved. The outcome of this survey revealed that scheduled payments, site management, shop drawing review process, unforeseen ground conditions and contractor experience as the most important factors affecting on delay in dam construction projects.

Keywords: delay, dam construction, project management, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
3964 A Survey on the Status of Test Automation

Authors: Andrei Contan, Richard Torkar

Abstract:

Aim: The process of test automation and its practices in industry have to be better understood, both for the industry itself and for the research community. Method: We conducted a quantitative industry survey by asking IT professionals to answer questions related to the area of test automation. Results: Test automation needs and practices vary greatly between organizations at different stages of the software development life cycle. Conclusions: Most of the findings are general test automation challenges and are specific to small- to medium-sized companies, developing software applications in the web, desktop or mobile domain.

Keywords: survey, testing, test automation, status of test automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
3963 The State of Research on Medicinal Plants in Morocco

Authors: Alami Ilyass, Loubna Kharchoufa, Elachouri Mostafa

Abstract:

The two great realms of living diversity are cultural and biological. Today, both are being lost at an alarming rate. Of all the Earth’s biological diversity, plant kingdom is of high significance, and most essential to human welfare, in fact, medicinal plants are extensively exploited for countless purposes. Among these multiple uses, medicinal plants are the most important source of medicine for humankind healthcare and well being. In recent years there has been a great surge of public interest in the use of herbs and plants. Some scientists have viewed this phenomenon as a modern “herbal renaissance”. The importance of plants as medicines in developed and developing countries has recently been acknowledged by the United Nations (UN). However, to date fewer than 5% of the approximately 250,000 species of higher plants have been exhaustively studied for their potential pharmacological activity. A number of drugs from ethnobotanical leads have provided significant milestones in Western medicine. Despite this success, pharmacognosy research on Moroccan flora needs more studies aimed at the exploration of their therapeutic potential. A major weakness is the absence of strong funding agencies in the country, and a real national drug discovery program. Moreover, the lack of the coordination between different universities and research institutions leads, in most cases, to a waste of time, money and efforts of many researchers. In this work, we focus our attention on research into traditional indigenous medicinal plants in Morocco. Three parts constitute the head lines of this work: In the first one, we take up Moroccan biodiversity matter, the second part is devoted principally to the state of research into medicinal plants by Moroccan scholars and the last one is consecrated to the debate of factors which handicap the progress of research on phytomedicine in Morocco. The objectives of the present study are twofold: first, to highlight the state of the medicinal plants researches in Morocco. Second goal is to assess and correlate the levels of knowledge of the local flora to the research on medicinal plants to attempt to build capacity for research within Moroccan Scientific community at rate of developing country.

Keywords: Morocco, medicinal plants, ethnobotanical, pharmacognosy, phytomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
3962 Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally for the Treatment of Fungal Infections and Related Ailments in South Africa

Authors: T. C. Machaba, S. M. Mahlo

Abstract:

The current study investigates the antifungal properties of crude plant extracts from selected medicinal plant species. Eight plant species used by the traditional healers and local people to treat fungal infections were selected for further phytochemical analysis and biological assay. The selected plant species were extracted with solvent of various polarities such as acetone, methanol, ethanol, hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water. Leaf, roots and bark extracts of Maerua juncea Pax, Albuca seineri (Engl & K. Krause) J.C Manning & Goldblatt, Senna italica Mill., Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels, Indigofera circinata Benth., Schinus molle L., Asparagus buchananii Bak., were screened for antifungal activity against three animal fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans). All plant extracts were active against the tested microorganisms. Acetone, dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol extracts of Senna italica and Elephantorrhiza elephantine had excellent activity against Candida albicans and A. fumigatus with the lowest MIC value of 0.02 mg/ml. Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds presence in the plant extracts. No active compounds were observed in plant extracts of Indigofera circinnata, Schinus molle and Pentarrhinum insipidum with good antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. fumigatus indicating possible synergism between separated metabolites.

Keywords: antifungal activity, bioautography, ethnobotanical survey, minimum inhibitory concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
3961 Building an Integrated Relational Database from Swiss Nutrition National Survey and Swiss Health Datasets for Data Mining Purposes

Authors: Ilona Mewes, Helena Jenzer, Farshideh Einsele

Abstract:

Objective: The objective of the study was to integrate two big databases from Swiss nutrition national survey (menuCH) and Swiss health national survey 2012 for data mining purposes. Each database has a demographic base data. An integrated Swiss database is built to later discover critical food consumption patterns linked with lifestyle diseases known to be strongly tied with food consumption. Design: Swiss nutrition national survey (menuCH) with approx. 2000 respondents from two different surveys, one by Phone and the other by questionnaire along with Swiss health national survey 2012 with 21500 respondents were pre-processed, cleaned and finally integrated to a unique relational database. Results: The result of this study is an integrated relational database from the Swiss nutritional and health databases.

Keywords: health informatics, data mining, nutritional and health databases, nutritional and chronical databases

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
3960 A Study to Design a Survey to Encourage the University-Industry Relation

Authors: Lizbeth Puerta, Enselmina Marín

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to present a survey to be applied to professors of public universities, to identify the factors that benefit or hinder the university-industry relation. Hence, this research studies some elements that integrate the variables: Knowledge management, technology management, and technology transfer; to define the existence of a relation between these variables and the industry necessities of innovation. This study is exploratory, descriptive and non-experimental. The research question is: What is the impact of the knowledge management, the technology management, and the technology transfer, made by administrative support areas of the public universities, in the industries innovation? Thus, literature review was made to identify some elements that should be considered to design a survey that allows to obtain valid information to the study variables. After this, the survey was developed, and the Content Validity Analysis was made through the Lawshe Model. The analysis indicated that the Content Validity Index (CVI) was 0.80. Hence, it was determined that this survey presents acceptable psychometric properties to be used as an evaluation tool.

Keywords: innovation, knowledge management, technology management, technology transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
3959 Submarine Topography and Beach Survey of Gang-Neung Port in South Korea, Using Multi-Beam Echo Sounder and Shipborne Mobile Light Detection and Ranging System

Authors: Won Hyuck Kim, Chang Hwan Kim, Hyun Wook Kim, Myoung Hoon Lee, Chan Hong Park, Hyeon Yeong Park

Abstract:

We conducted submarine topography & beach survey from December 2015 and January 2016 using multi-beam echo sounder EM3001(Kongsberg corporation) & Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System. Our survey area were the Anmok beach in Gangneung, South Korea. We made Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System for these survey. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System includes LiDAR (RIEGL LMS-420i), IMU ((Inertial Measurement Unit, MAGUS Inertial+) and RTKGNSS (Real Time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System, LEIAC GS 15 GS25) for beach's measurement, LiDAR's motion compensation & precise position. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System scans beach on the movable vessel using the laser. We mounted Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System on the top of the vessel. Before beach survey, we conducted eight circles IMU calibration survey for stabilizing heading of IMU. This exploration should be as close as possible to the beach. But our vessel could not come closer to the beach because of latency objects in the water. At the same time, we conduct submarine topography survey using multi-beam echo sounder EM3001. A multi-beam echo sounder is a device observing and recording the submarine topography using sound wave. We mounted multi-beam echo sounder on left side of the vessel. We were equipped with a motion sensor, DGNSS (Differential Global Navigation Satellite System), and SV (Sound velocity) sensor for the vessel's motion compensation, vessel's position, and the velocity of sound of seawater. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System was able to reduce the consuming time of beach survey rather than previous conventional methods of beach survey.

Keywords: Anmok, beach survey, Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System, submarine topography

Procedia PDF Downloads 313