Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: immunocompromised

34 Myroides Bacteremia: A Case Report

Authors: Jamie Lynn Co, Mary Shiela Ariola-Ramos

Abstract:

Myroides are aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, non-fermenting gram-negative rods. They are commonly found in the environment such as water and soil. Although found in the environment, Myroides are rare pathogens of humans. Myroides spp. primarily infect immunocompromised patients, often with diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or prolonged corticosteroid therapy. We present a case of a 70-year-old immunocompromised patient with diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, diagnosed with sepsis caused by Myroides spp. The primary portal and source of infection were the pustules and boils found on the lower extremities of the patient. Susceptibility testing showed that our isolate was only susceptible to ciprofloxacin and meropenem; and following the treatment, the patient recovered. Myroides continues to be a rare pathogen of humans that is prevalent in our environment. It primarily affects immunocompromised patients such as those with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, etc. Despite their low virulence, physicians should consider this opportunistic pathogen as possible etiologic agent especially in cases wherein there is lack of response to commonly used antibiotics.

Keywords: bacteremia, immunocompromised, gram negative rods, Myroides

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
33 Antepartum and Postpartum Pulmonary Cryptococcosis: A Case Report and Systematic Review

Authors: Ghadeer M Alkusayer, Adelicia Yu, Pamela Orr

Abstract:

Study objective: To report a case of postpartum pulmonary cryptococcal infection (CCI) in an otherwise healthy 35-year-old woman. Additionally, the cases of pulmonary cryptococcal infections either in the antepartum or the postpartum period with pregnancy outcomes, were systematically reviwed. Methods: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE was conducted for peer-reviewed studies without date restrictions, published in English and relating to CCI during pregnancy or postpartum period. Conference press, editorials, opinion pieces and letters were excluded. Two authors independently screened citations and full-text articles, extracted data and assessed study quality. Given the heterogeneity of study designs, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The search identified 128 references, of which 22 case reports and series met the inclusion criteria. This is a total of 29 women (including the current case) . The mean age of the women was 28.3 ± 12.3 years. Nine (31.03%) presented and were diagnosed in the postpartum period. Two (6.90%) of the patients were reported as immunocompromised with HIV. Four maternal deaths (13.79%) were found in this case series with one (4.3%) patient with severe neurological deficits. Four (17.4%) infant deaths were reported. Women primary presentation varied with chest pain 13 (44.82%), headache 10 (35.70%), dyspnea 19 (65.51%), or fever 12 (41.38%). Three studies reported placental pathology positive for C. neoformans. Conclusion: This case of pulmonary cryptococcal infection in the postpartum period is an important addition to the literature of this rare infection in pregnancy. The patient is not immunocompromised. The patient was successfully treated with 4 months of Fluconazole 400 mg and continued to breastfeed the healthy baby.

Keywords: pulmonary cryptococcus, pregnancy, cryptococci , postpartum

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
32 Bacteremia Caused by Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in an Immunocompromised Patient in Istanbul, Turkey

Authors: Fatma Koksal Çakirlar, Si̇nem Ozdemir, Selcan Akyol, Revazi̇ye Gulesen, Murat Gunaydin, Nevri̇ye Gonullu, Belkis Levent, Nuri̇ Kiraz

Abstract:

Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 are the causative agent of epidemic or pandemic cholera. V. cholerae O1 is generally accepted as a non-invasive enterotoxigenic organism causing gastroenteritis of various severities. Non-O1 V. cholerae can cause small outbreaks of diarrhea due to consumption of contaminated food and water. Particularly, the patients with achlorydria have a risk for vibrio infections. There are numerous case reports of bacteremia caused by vibrio in patients with predisposing conditions like cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes, hematologic malignancy, gastrectomy, and AIDS. We described in this study the first case of nontoxigenic, non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae isolated from the blood culture of a 77-year-old female patient with hipertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, gout and about 9 years ago migrated breast cancer history. The patient with complaints of shortness of breath, fever and malaise admitted to our emergency clinic were evaluated. There was no diarrhea or abdominal symptoms in the patient. No growth in her urine culture, but blood culture (BACTEC 9120 system, Becton Dickinson, USA) was positive for non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that was identified by conventional methods and Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD). It does not secrete the cholera toxin. The agglutination test was negative with polyvalent O1 antisera and O139 antiserum. Empirically ceftriaxone was administered to the patient and she was discharged with improvement in general condition. In this study we report bacteremia by non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that is rare in the worldwide and first in Turkey.

Keywords: bacteremia, blood culture, immunocompromised patient, Non-O1 vibrio cholerae

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
31 Epidemiology and Jeopardy Aspect of Febrile Neutropenia Patients by Means of Infectious Maladies

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

Conclusions of the sort and setting of observational treatment for immunocompromised patients with fever are confused by the qualities of the hidden disease and the impacts of medications previously got, just as by changing microbiological examples and patterns in sedate obstruction at national and institutional levels. A few frameworks have been proposed to recognize patients who could profit by outpatient anti-infection treatment from patients who require hospitalization. Useful contemplations may choose whether the fundamental checking during the time of neutropenia can be accomplished.

Keywords: microbiology, infectious, neutropenia, epidemiology

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
30 Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among Hemato-Oncology Patients in Tertiary Hospital of East Cost Malaysia

Authors: Aisha Khodijah Kholib Jati, Suharni Mohamad, Azlan Husin, Wan Suriana Wan Ab Rahman

Abstract:

Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). It is commonly asymptomatic in normal individual, but it can be fatal to immunocompromised patients as it can lead to severe complications such as encephalitis, chorioetinitis and myocarditis. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and its association with socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics among hemato-oncology patients in Hospital USM. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 56 hemato-oncology patients were screened for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and IgG avidity of T. gondii by using ELISA Kit (BioRad, USA). For anti-T. gondii IgG antibody, titer ≥ 9 IU/ml was considered as recent infection, while for IgM, ratio ≥ 1.00 was considered as reactive for the anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Low avidity index is considered as recent infection within 20 weeks while high avidity considered as past infection. T. gondii exposure, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was assessed by a questionnaire and interview. Results: A total of 28 (50.0%) hemato-oncology patients were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Out of that total, 27 (48.21%) patients were IgG+/IgM- and one patient (1.79%) was IgG+/IgM+ with high avidity index. Univariate analysis showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, employment status, stem cell transplant, blood transfusion, close contact with cats, water supply, and consumption of undercooked meat were not significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity rate. Discussion: The seropositivity rate of IgG anti-T. gondii was high among hemato-oncology patients in Hospital USM. With impaired immune system, these patients might have a severe consequence if the infection reactivated. Therefore, screening for anti-T. gondii may be considered in the future. Moreover, health programme towards healthy food and good hygiene practice need to be implemented.

Keywords: immunocompromised, seroprevalence, socio-demographic, toxoplasmosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
29 Prevalence of Seropositivity for Cytomegalovirus in Patients with Hereditary Bleeding Diseases in West Azerbaijan of Iran

Authors: Zakieh Rostamzadeh, Zahra Shirmohammadi

Abstract:

Human cytomegalovirus is a species of the cytomegalovirus family of viruses, which in turn is a member of the viral family known as herpesviridae or herpesviruses. Although they may be found throughout the body, HCMV infections are frequently associated with the salivary glands. HCMV infection is typically unnoticed in healthy people, but can be life-threatening for the immunocompromised such as HIV-infected persons, organ transplant recipients, or newborn infants. After infection, HCMV has an ability to remain latent within the body over long periods. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes infection in immunocompromised, hemophilia patients and those who received blood transfusion frequently. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies in hemophilia patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out in Urmia, North West of Iran. The study population comprised a sample of 50 hemophilic patients born after 1985 and have received blood factors in West Azerbaijan. The exclusion criteria include: drug abusing, high risk sexual contacts, vertical transmission of mother to fetus and suspicious needling. All samples were evaluated with the method of ELISA, with a certain kind of kit and by a certain laboratory. Results: Fifty hemophiliacs from 250 patients registered with Urmia Hemophilia Society were enrolled in the study including 43 (86%) male, and 7 (14%) female. The mean age of patients was 10.3 years, range 3 to 25 years. None of patients had risk factors mentioned above. Among our studied population, 34(68%) had hemophilia A, 1 (2%) hemophilia B, 8 (16%) VWF, 3(6%) factor VII deficiency, 1 (2%) factor V deficiency, 1 (2%) factor X deficiency, 1 (2%). Sera of 50 Hemodialysis patients were investigated for CMV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. % 91.89 patients were anti-CMV IgG positive and %40.54 was seropositive for anti-CMV IgM. 37.8% patient had serological evidence of reactivation and 2.7% of patients had the primary infection. Discussion: There was no relationship between the antibody titer and: drug abusing, high risk sexual contacts, vertical transmission of mother to fetus and suspicious needling.

Keywords: bioinformatics, biomedicine, cytomegalovirus, immunocompromise

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
28 Blindness and Deafness, the Outcomes of Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis in HIV Positive Patient

Authors: Hadiseh Hosamirudsari, Farhad Afsarikordehmahin, Pooria Sekhavatfar

Abstract:

Concomitant cortical blindness and deafness that follow varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is rare. We describe a case of ophthalmic zoster that caused cortical blindness and deafness after central nervous system (CNS) involvement. A 42-year old, HIV infected woman has developed progressive blurry vision and deafness, 4 weeks after ophthalmic zoster. A physical examination and positive VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggested VZV encephalitis. Complication of VZV encephalitis is considered as the cause of blindness and deafness. In neurological deficit patient especially with a history of herpes zoster, VZV infection should be regarded as the responsible agent in inflammatory disorders of nervous system. The immunocompromised state of patient (including HIV) is as important an agent as VZV infection in developing the disease.

Keywords: blindness, deafness, hiv, VZV encephalitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
27 Determination of Biofilm Formation in Different Clinical Candida Species and Investigation of Effects of Some Plant Substances on These Biofilms

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Isil Seyis Bilkay

Abstract:

Candida species which often exist as commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals are major causes of important infections, especially in AIDS and immunocompromised patients, by means of their biofilm formation abilities. Therefore, in this study, determination of biofilm formation in different clinical strains of Candida species, investigation of strong biofilm forming Candida strains, examination of clinical information of each strong and weak biofilm forming Candida strains and investigation of some plant substances’ effects on biofilm formation of strong biofilm forming strains were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Candida strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm levels of strains belong to different Candida species were different from each other. Additionally, it is also found that some plant substances effect biofilm formation. All these results indicate that, as well as C. albicans strains, other non-albicans Candida species also emerge as causative agents of infections and have biofilm formation abilities. In addition, usage of some plant substances in different concentrations may provide a new treatment against biofilm related Candida infections.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, Candida species, biosystems engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
26 Molecular Identification of Pneumocystis SPP Isolated from Wild Rats in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Babak Rezavand

Abstract:

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised and HIV-positive patients and remained one of the most important common opportunistic infections in these individuals in the world. Pneumocystis infection has been reported in many mammals. The aim of this study was to determine the Pneumocystis infection in wild rats as natural reservoirs of this organism in Tehran city, Iran. Fifty three rats (Rattus rattus) were live trapped in different areas of Tehran city, Iran. After isolation of their lung tissues and homogenization in sterile conditions, DNA was extracted. DNAs from all of the Pneumocystis species were amplified by pAZ102-H and pAZ102-E primers, and Nested PCR was performed using pAZ102-X and pAZ102-W primers from the initial PCR product for all the species of Pneumocystis. Amplification of the genome revealed the presence of Pneumocystis in the lungs of 17 rats (32%) through a PCR product with a bandwidth of 346 bp. In the Nested PCR amplification, from the PCR product of 53 rats, 64.2% of the samples were positive with a bandwidth of 261bp. Pneumocystis SPP infestation is highly prevalent among wild rats in Tehran city, indicating the existence of infection in the natural ecosystem of these rodents. As a host, rat plays an important role in the transmission of the microorganism in the world.

Keywords: pneumocystis SPP, rattus rattus, nested PCR, Tehran

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
25 Cryptosporidium Parvum oocytic Antigen Induced a Pro-Inflammatory DC Phenotype

Authors: Connick K, Lalor R, Murphy A, O’Neill SM, Rabab S. Zalat, Eman E. El Shanawany

Abstract:

Cryptosporidium parvum is an opportunistic intracellular parasite that causes mild to severe diarrhea in human and animal populations and is an important zoonotic disease globally. In immunocompromised hosts, infection Canbe life-threatening as no effective treatments are currently available to control infection. To increase our understanding of the mechanisms that play a role in host-parasite interactions at the level of the immune response, we investigated the effects of Cryptosporidium parvum antigen (CPA) on bone marrow-derived (DCS). Herein we examined cytokine secretion and cell surface marker expression on DCs exposed to CPA. We also measured cytokine production in CD4+ cells co-cultured with CPA primed DCs in the presence of anti-CD3. CPA induced a significant increase in the production of interleukin(IL)-12p40, IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-α by DCs and enhanced the expression of the cell surface markers TLR4, CD80, CD86, and MHC11. CPA primed DC co-cultured in the presence of anti-CD3 with CD4+ T-cells inhibited the secretion of Th2 associated cytokines, notably IL-5 and IL-13, with no effects on the secretions of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and IL-10. These findings support studies in the literature that CPA can induce the full maturation of DCs that subsequently initiate Th1 immune responses critical to the resolution of C. parvum infection.

Keywords: cryptosporidium parvum, dendritic cells, IL-12 p70, cell surface marker

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
24 Differential Infection of Primary Human B-Cells and EBV Positive B-Lymphoma Cell Lines by Recombinant AAV Serotypes

Authors: Elham Ahmadi, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Joyce Fingeroth, Mazyar Ziyaeyan, Rajesh Panigrahi, Jun Xie, Gao Guangping

Abstract:

B-cell proliferative disorders often occur among persons that are T-cell compromised. These disorders are primarily EBV+ and can first present with a focal lesion. Direct introduction of oncolytic viruses into localized tumors provides theoretical advantages over chemotherapy and immunotherapy by reducing systemic toxicity, to which the immunocompromised host is most vulnerable. Widely studied as a vehicle for gene therapy, AAV has only rarely been applied to treat cancer. As a prelude to development of a therapeutic vehicle, we assessed the ability of 15 distinct recombinant AAV serotypes (rAAV1, rAAV2, rAAV3b, rAAV4, rAAV5, rAAV6, rAAV6.2, rAAV6TM, rAAV7, rAAV8, rAAVrh8, rAAV9, rAAVrh10, rAAV39, rAAV43) bearing eGFP to infect human B-cell tumor lines compared with primary B-cells in vitro. Enhanced infection of tumor lines by AAV 6.2 was demonstrated by flow cytometry. EBV superinfection of EBV negative B-cell tumor lines increased susceptibility to AAV6.2 infection. As proof of concept, AAV6.2 bearing HSV-1 thymidine kinase in place of eGFP eliminated tumor cells upon exposure to ganciclovir.

Keywords: AAV, gene therapy, lymphoma, malignancy, tropism

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
23 In vivo Anticandida Activity of Three Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants in East Africa

Authors: Daniel P. Kisangau, Ken M. Hosea, Herbert V. M. Lyaruu, Cosam C. Josep, Zakaria H. Mbwambo, Pax J. Masimba

Abstract:

Crude extracts of Dracaena steudneri bark (DSB), Sapium ellipticum bark (SEB) and Capparis erythrocarpos root (CER) were investigated for their antifungal activity in immunocompromised mice infected with Candida albicans in an in vivo mice infection model. The results revealed a substantial dose dependency in all treatments given, with mice survival to the end of the experiment correlating well to the dose levels. At a dose of 400 mg/kg, C. erythrocarpos was the most effective with mice survival of 60% and organ burden clearance ranging from 64.0%-99.9% (P<0.0001) in all treatments. At the same dose, the least effective plant was S. ellipticum which had a mice survival of 20% and organ burden clearance ranging from 78.0%-96.6 (P>0.05). Mice survival for D. steudneri was 30% with organ burden clearance ranging from 89.0%-99.9% (P<0.05). All mice receiving no active treatment died before ten days post infection. In all treatment groups, there was a steady decline in mean weights of mice immediately after immunosuppression followed by gradual recovery in some cases which appeared to be dose dependent a few days post infection. Thus, extracts of D. steudneri and C. erythrocarpos portrayed the most significant potential as sources of antifungal drugs.

Keywords: antifungal activity, medicinal plants, candida albicans, East Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
22 Covid Encephalopathy & New-Onset Seizures In The Context Of A Prior Brain Abnormality: A Case Report

Authors: Omar Sorour, Michael Leahy, Thomas Irvine, Vladimir Koren

Abstract:

Introduction: Covid encephalitis is a rare yet dangerous complication, particularly affecting the older and immunocompromised. Symptoms range from confusion to delirium, coma, and seizures. Although neurological manifestations have become more well-characterized in COVID patients, little is known about whether priorneurological abnormalities may predispose patients to COVID encephalopathy. Case Description: A 73 y.o. male with a CT and MRI-confirmed stable, prior 9 mm cavernoma in the right frontal lobe and no past history of seizures was hospitalized with generalized weakness, abdominal pain, nausea, and shortness of breath with subsequent COVID pneumonia. Three days after the initial presentation, the patient developed a spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizure consistent with presumed COVID encephalitis, along with somnolence and confusion. A day later, the patient had two other seizure episodes. Follow-up EEG suggested an inter-ictal epileptic focus with sharp waves corresponding to roughly the same location as the patient’s pre-existing cavernoma. The patient’s seizures stopped shortly thereafter, while his encephalopathy continued for days. Conclusion: We illustrate that a pre-existing anatomic cortical abnormality may act as a potential nidus for new-onset seizure activity in the context of suggested COVID encephalopathy. Future studies may further demonstrate that manifestations of COVIDencephalopathy in certain patients may be more predictable than initially assumed.

Keywords: cavernoma, covid, encephalopathy, seizures

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
21 Genome-Wide Functional Analysis of Phosphatase in Cryptococcus neoformans

Authors: Jae-Hyung Jin, Kyung-Tae Lee, Yee-Seul So, Eunji Jeong, Yeonseon Lee, Dongpil Lee, Dong-Gi Lee, Yong-Sun Bahn

Abstract:

Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcal meningoencephalitis mainly in immunocompromised patients as well as immunocompetent people. But therapeutic options are limited to treat cryptococcosis. Some signaling pathways including cyclic AMP pathway, MAPK pathway, and calcineurin pathway play a central role in the regulation of the growth, differentiation, and virulence of C. neoformans. To understand signaling networks regulating the virulence of C. neoformans, we selected the 114 putative phosphatase genes, one of the major components of signaling networks, in the genome of C. neoformans. We identified putative phosphatases based on annotation in C. neoformans var. grubii genome database provided by the Broad Institute and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and performed a BLAST search of phosphatases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus nidulans, Candida albicans and Fusarium graminearum to Cryptococcus neoformans. We classified putative phosphatases into 14 groups based on InterPro phosphatase domain annotation. Here, we constructed 170 signature-tagged gene-deletion strains through homologous recombination methods for 91 putative phosphatases. We examined their phenotypic traits under 30 different in vitro conditions, including growth, differentiation, stress response, antifungal resistance and virulence-factor production.

Keywords: human fungal pathogen, phosphatase, deletion library, functional genomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
20 Routine pus Swabs for Uncomplicated Abscesses – Do They Alter Our Management Plan?

Authors: Abdelrahman Abdelrahman, Lawrence Nip, Seun Ikotun, Iman Satar, Anur Miah

Abstract:

Introduction: Incision and drainage of an abscess is a common procedure performed by the general surgeon. Pus swabs are often obtained routinely for MC&S.Our study aimed to investigate whether swabs taken at our local institution had any impact on the overall management plan for uncomplicated abscesses. Methods: We retrospectively assessed all patients presenting to University Hospital Lewisham with an abscess between October 2020 – April 2021. Exclusion criteria were recurrent abscesses, patients admitted with sepsis, known inflammatory bowel disease, immunocompromised, and those managed non-operatively. Results: We identified 131 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Two thirds were performed in theatre under general anaesthetic and the other one third under local. 63% of patients had a pus swab collected. Of these, 96% were not followed up by the requesting doctor, and there was no further patient contact. In the other 4%, the organisms cultured were flagged as atypical such as MRSA. In these cases, microbiology advice was that if the patient was clinically well and adequate drainage was achieved, then no furtherantibiotics were required. All patients were discharged before any microbiology results had come back with no subsequent change in the management plan. Average cost of pus swab = £10.10 – potentially cost saving of £1656.4 annually. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the majority of pus swabs taken from uncomplicated abscessesare not followed up by requesting doctor with no impact on the overall management plan. We, therefore, do not recommend the routine use of pus swabs for uncomplicated abscesses.

Keywords: pus swabs, uncomplated abscess, Pus MCS, follow up of uncomplicated abscess

Procedia PDF Downloads 0
19 Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Clinical Specimens

Authors: Sadaf Ilyas, Saba Riaz

Abstract:

The extensive use of antibiotics has led to increases emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Pseudomonas is a notorious opportunistic pathogen involoved in nosocomial infections and exhibit innate resistance to many antibiotics. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, levels of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas. A total of thirty clinical strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from different clinical sites of infection. All clinical specimens were collected from Chughtais Lahore Lab. Jail road, during 8-07-2010 to 11-01-2011. Biochemical characterization was done using routine biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Baeur method. The plasmids were isolated from all the strains and digested with restriction enzyme PstI and EcoRI. Transfer of Multi-resistance plasmid was checked via transformation and conjugation to confirm the plasmid mediated resistance to antibiotics. The prevalence of Pseudomonas in clinical specimens was found out to be 14% of all bacterial infections. IPM has shown to be the most effective drug against Pseudomonas followed by CES, PTB and meropenem, wheareas most of the Pseudomonas strains have developed significant resistance against Penicillins and some Cephalasporins. Antibiotic resistance determinants were carried by plasmids, as they conferred resistance to transformed K1 strains. The isolates readily undergo conjugation, transferring the resistant genes to other strains, illustrating the high rates of cross infection and nosocomial infection in the immunocompromised patients.

Keywords: pseudomonas, antibiotics, drug resistance, horizontal gene transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
18 Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water Collected from Different Regions of Kuwait

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa

Abstract:

Water plays a major role in maintaining life on earth, but it can also serve as a matrix for pathogenic organisms, posing substantial health threats to humans. Although, outbreaks of diseases attributable to drinking water may not be common in industrialized countries, they still occur and can lead to serious acute, chronic, or sometimes fatal health consequences. The analysis of drinking water samples from different regions of Kuwait was performed in this study for bacterial and viral contaminations. Drinking tap water samples were collected from 15 different locations of the six Kuwait governorates. All samples were analyzed by confocal microscopy for the presence of bacteria. The samples were cultured in vitro to detect cultivable organisms. DNA was isolated from the cultured organisms and the identity of the bacteria was determined by sequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA genes, followed by BLAST analysis in the database of NCBI, USA. RNA was extracted from water samples and analyzed by real-time PCR for the detection of viruses with potential health risks, i.e. Astrovirus, Enterovirus, Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A. Confocal microscopy showed the presence of bacteria in some water samples. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of culture grown organisms, followed by BLAST analysis, identified the presence of several non-pathogenic bacterial species. However, one sample had Acinetobacter baumannii, which often causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised people, but none of the studied viruses could be detected in the drinking water samples analyzed. The results indicate that drinking water samples analyzed from various locations in Kuwait are relatively safe for drinking and do not contain many harmful pathogens.

Keywords: drinking water, microbial contaminant, 16S rDNA, Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
17 Growth Inhibition of Candida Albicans Strains Co-Cultured with Lactobacillus Strains in a Cereal Medium

Authors: Richard Nyanzi, Maupi E. Letsoalo, Jacobus N. Eloff, Piet J. Jooste

Abstract:

Candida albicans naturally occurs in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of more than 50% of humans. Overgrowth of the fungus causes several forms of candidiasis including oral thrush. Overgrowth tends to occur in immunocompromised humans such as diabetic, cancer and HIV patients. Antifungal treatment is available, but not without shortcomings. In this study, inhibitory activity of five probiotic Lactobacillus strains was demonstrated against the growth of seven clinical strains of Candida albicans by co-culturing of the organisms in a maize gruel (MG) medium. Phenotypic tests, molecular techniques and phylogenetic analysis have enabled precise identification of the organisms used in the study. The quantitative pour plate technique was used to enumerate colonies of the yeasts and the lactobacilli and the Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA tests were employed to compare the distributions of the colonies of the organisms. The cereal medium, containing added carbon sources, was inoculated with a Candida and a Lactobacillus strain in combination and incubated at 37 °C for 168 h. Aliquots were regularly taken and subjected to pH determination and colony enumeration. Certain Lactobacillus strains proved to be inhibitory and also lethal to some Candida albicans strains. A low pH due to Lactobacillus acid production resulted in significant low Candida colony counts. Higher Lactobacillus colony counts did not necessarily result in lower Candida counts suggesting that inhibitory factors besides low pH and competitive growth by lactobacilli contributed to the reduction in Candida counts. Such anti-Candida efficacy however needs to be confirmed by in vivo studies.

Keywords: candida albicans, oral thrush, candidiasis, lactobacillus, probiotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
16 Impact of Mucormycosis Infection In Limb Salvage for Trauma Patients

Authors: Katie-Beth Webster

Abstract:

Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that, if left untreated, can cause large scale tissue necrosis and death. There are a number of cases of this in the literature, most commonly in the head and neck region arising from sinuses. It is also usually found in immunocompromised patient subgroups. This study reviewed a number of cases of mucormycosis in previously fit and healthy young trauma patients to assess predisposing factors for infection and adequacy of current treatment paradigms. These trauma patients likely contracted the fungal infection from the soil at the site of the incident. Despite early washout and debridement of the wounds at the scene of the injury and on arrival in hospital, both these patients contracted mucormycosis. It was suspected that inadequate early debridement of soil contaminated limbs was one of the major factors that can lead to catastrophic tissue necrosis. In both cases, this resulted in the patients having a higher level of amputation than would have initially been required based on the level of their injury. This was secondary to cutaneous and soft tissue necrosis secondary to the fungal infiltration leading to osteomyelitis and systemic sepsis. In the literature, it appears diagnosis is often protracted in this condition secondary to inadequate early treatment and long processing times for fungal cultures. If fungal cultures were sent at the time of first assessment and adequate debridements are performed aggressively early, it could lead to these critically unwell trauma patients receiving appropriate antifungal and surgical treatment earlier in their episode of care. This is likely to improve long term outcomes for these patients.

Keywords: mucormycosis, plastic surgery, osteomyelitis, trauma

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
15 Trends in the Incidence of Bloodstream Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies in the Period 1991–2012

Authors: V. N. Chebotkevich, E. E. Schetinkina, V. V. Burylev, E. I. Kaytandzhan, N. P. Stizhak

Abstract:

Objective: Blood stream infections (BSI) are severe, life-threatening illness for immuno compromised patients with hematological malignancies. We report the trend in blood-stream infections in this group of patients in the period 1991-2013. Methods: A total of 4742 blood samples investigated. All blood cultures were incubated in a continuous monitoring system for 7 days before discarding negative. On signaled positive, organism was identified by conventional methods. The Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the indication of human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Results: Between 1991 and 2001 the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus) being the most common germs isolated (70,9%) were as Gram-negative rods (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp.) – 29,1%. In next decade 2002-2012 the number of Gram-negative bacteria was increased up to 40.2%. It is shown that the incidence of bacteremia was significantly more frequent at the background of detectable Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus-specific DNA in blood. Over recent years, an increased frequency of micro mycetes was registered in blood of the patients with hematological malignancies (Candida spp. was predominant). Conclusion: Accurate and timely detection of BSI is important in determining appropriate treatment of infectious complications in patients with hematological malignancies. The isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis from blood cultures remains a clinical dilemma for physicians and microbiologists. But in many cases this agent is of the clinical significance in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies. The role of CMV and EBV in development of bacteremia was demonstrated.

Keywords: infectious complications, blood stream infections, bacteremia, hemoblastosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
14 Neurological Complications of HIV/AIDS: Case of Meningitis Caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Tuberculous Meningitis

Authors: Ndarusanze Berchmans

Abstract:

This research work focused on the analysis of the observations of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-positive patients who were treated by the Prince Regent Charles Hospital in Bujumbura. A number of 246 seropositive patients were examined by the laboratory of Prince Regent Charles in the period between 2010 and 2015. We did a retrospective study; we used data from the registers of the laboratories mentioned above; the objective was to approach the epidemiological, biological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of tuberculosis meningitis infection: 124 women (50.40% of AIDS patients) and 122 men (49.59% of AIDS patients) were subject to the diagnosis by identification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The average age of the patients was 30 years for this period. The population at risk has an average age of between 34 and 42 years for the years between 2010-2015. From 2010 to 2012, cases of opportunistic diseases (e.g., tuberculous meningitis and Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis), often found in immunocompromised, were observed at a high rate; in this period, there was a disturbance of the rhythm providing antiretroviral drugs to people with AIDS. The rate of the two meningitis (tuberculous meningitis and Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis) remained above 10% to gradually decrease until 2015, with the gradual return of antiretrovirals. This period records an overall average of 25 cases of tuberculous meningitis, or a percentage of 10.16%. For the year 2015, there were 4 cases of tuberculous meningitis out of a total of 35 seropositive examined (11.42%). This year's percentage shows that the number of tuberculous meningitis cases has fallen from the rate in previous years. This is the result of the care given by associations against HIV/AIDS to HIV-positive people. This decrease in cases of tuberculous meningitis is due to the acquisition of antiretrovirals by all HIV-positive people treated by hospitals. For the moment, these hospitals are taking care of many AIDS patients by providing them permanently with antiretrovirals; Besides that, there are many patients who are supported by associations whose activities are directed against HIV/AIDS.

Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis, tuberculosis meningitis, neurological complications, epidemiology of meningitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
13 Factors Associated with Oral Cavity Colonization by Candida albicans

Authors: Nwafia Ifeyinwa Nkeiruka, Nwafia Walter Chukwuma

Abstract:

Since the early 1980’s fungi have emerged as major causes of human diseases, especially among immunocompromised. The most commonly isolated yeast is Candida albicans and constitutes the 4th most common nosocomial BSI in humans. It is progressive and cumulative and become more complex over time.It can even lead to leaky gut syndrome that causes food and environmental allergies. It is worthy of note that all the available data on oral Candida risk factors in humans were documented essentially using data from studies conducted in other areas, hence there is need for comparative and complementary information from the South eastern part of Nigeria. Method: 200 subjects of all age groups of both sexes were randomly examined,by swabbing their palatine mucosa and dorsal tongue with sterile cotton wool,then cultured into Sabouraud dextrose agar plates supplemented with antibiotics and incubated aerobically at 37 degree for 48 hrs. Identification of Candida albicans was done by germ tubes tests, chlamydospores production on cornmeal agar supplemented with 1% Tween 80.Sugar and nitrogen assimilation test using API 20C Auxanogram and potassium nitrate agar. Results: Out of 30 samples that were positive for candida, 15 (50%) were candida albicans. Using the anova test (P < 0.05) this variation is significant (P = 0016). followed by C. dublinensis 3 (13%), C. tropicalis 3 (10%), C. pseudotropicalis 3 (10%), C, glabrata 2 (7%), C. parapsilosis 2 (7%) and lastly C. krusei 1 (3%).However, 53% of the patients were female while 47% were male. Among the HIV positive isolates.67% were HIV isolates not on drugs while 33% positives isolates were on drugs and the percentages of candida species in these patients were as follows C. albicans were 45% followed by C. glabrata and C.tropicalis which were 17% each, C.parapsilosis, C.dubliensis and C.pseudotropicalis were all 8% each. Conclusion: Oral Candidiasis is a marker of systemic diseases and in some cases, it may be the first clinical presentation. There is need for more intensive clinical and laboratory monitoring and possible early intervention to prevent the reoccurrence and resistance to treatment.

Keywords: oral cavity, Candida species, oral Candidiasis, risk factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
12 Non-Candida Albicans Candida: Virulence Factors and Species Identification in India

Authors: Satender Saraswat, Dharmendra Prasad Singh, Rajesh Kumar Verma, Swati Sarswat

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: The predominant cause of candidiasis was Candida albicans which has shifted towards non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) (Candida species other than the C. albicans). NCAC, earlier considered non-pathogenic or minimally virulent, are now considered a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised. With the NCAC spp. gaining weightage in the clinical cases, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of NCAC spp. in different clinical specimens and to assess a few of their virulence factors. Material and Methods: Routine samples for bacterial culture and sensitivity, showing colony characteristics like Candida on Blood Agar and microscopic features resembling Candida spp. were processed further. Candida isolates were tested for chlamydospore formation, biochemical tests including sugar fermentation and sugar assimilation tests, and growth at 42oC, colony colour on HiCrome™ Candida Differential Agar, HiCandida Identification Kit and VITEK-2 Compact. Virulence factors like adherence to buccal epithelial cells (ABEC), biofilm formation, hemolytic activity, and production of coagulase enzyme were also tested. Results: Mean age of the patients was 38.46 with a male-female ratio of 1.36:1. 137 Candida isolates were recovered. 45.3% isolates were isolated from urine, 19.7% from vaginal swabs and 13.9% from oropharyngeal swabs. 55 (40.1%) isolates of C. albicans and 82 (59.9%) of NCAC spp. were identified, with C. tropicalis (23.4%) in NCAC. C. albicans (3; 50%) was the commonest species in cases of candidemia. Haemolysin production (85.5%) and ABEC (78.2%) were the major virulence factors in C. albicans. C. tropicalis (59.4%) and C. dubliniensis (50%) showed maximum ABEC. Biofilm forming capacity was higher in C. tropicalis (78.1%) than C. albicans (67%). Conclusion: This study suggests varied prevalence and virulence based on geographical locations, even within a subcontinent. It clearly demarcates the emergence of NCAC and their predominance in different body fluids. Identification of Candida to species level should become a routine in all the laboratories.

Keywords: ABEC, NCAC, non-Candida albicans Candida, Vitek-2TM compact

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
11 Immune Modulation and Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Sepsis-Induced Immunosuppression

Authors: G. Lambe, D. Mansukhani, A. Shetty, S. Khodaiji, C. Rodrigues, F. Kapadia

Abstract:

Introduction: Sepsis is known to cause impairment of both innate and adaptive immunity and involves an early uncontrolled inflammatory response, followed by a protracting immunosuppression phase, which includes decreased expression of cell receptors, T cell anergy and exhaustion, impaired cytokine production, which may cause high risk for secondary infections due to reduced response to antigens. Although human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is widely recognized as a serious viral pathogen in sepsis and immunocompromised patients, the incidence of CMV reactivation in patients with sepsis lacking strong evidence of immunosuppression is not well defined. Therefore, it is important to determine an association between CMV reactivation and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Aim: To determine the association between incidence of CMV reactivation and immune modulation in sepsis-induced immunosuppression with time. Material and Methods: Ten CMV-seropositive adult patients with severe sepsis were included in this study. Blood samples were collected on Day 0, and further weekly up to 21 days. CMV load was quantified by real-time PCR using plasma. The expression of immunosuppression markers, namely, HLA-DR, PD-1, and regulatory T cells, were determined by flow cytometry using whole blood. Results: At Day 0, no CMV reactivation was observed in 6/10 patients. In these patients, the median length for reactivation was 14 days (range, 7-14 days). The remaining four patients, at Day 0, had a mean viral load of 1802+2599 copies/ml, which increased with time. At Day 21, the mean viral load for all 10 patients was 60949+179700 copies/ml, indicating that viremia increased with the length of stay in the hospital. HLA-DR expression on monocytes significantly increased from Day 0 to Day 7 (p = 0.001), following which no significant change was observed until Day 21, for all patients except 3. In these three patients, HLA-DR expression on monocytes showed a decrease at elevated viral load (>5000 copies/ml), indicating immune suppression. However, the other markers, PD-1 and regulatory T cells, did not show any significant changes. Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest that CMV reactivation can occur in patients with severe sepsis. In fact, the viral load continued to increase with the length of stay in the hospital. Immune suppression, indicated by decreased expression of HLA-DR alone, was observed in three patients with elevated viral load.

Keywords: CMV reactivation, immune suppression, sepsis immune modulation, CMV viral load

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
10 Fastidious Enteric Pathogens in HIV

Authors: S. Pathak, R. Lazarus

Abstract:

A 25-year-old male HIV patient (CD4 cells 20/µL and HIV viral load 14200000 copies/ml) with a past medical history of duodenal ulcer, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, oesophageal candidiasis presented with fever and a seizure to hospital. The only recent travel had been a religious pilgrimage from Singapore to Malaysia 5 days prior; during the trip he sustained skin abrasions. The patient had recently started highly active antiretroviral therapy 2 months prior. Clinical examination was unremarkable other than a temperature of 38.8°C and perianal warts. Laboratory tests showed a leukocyte count 12.5x109 cells/L, haemoglobin 9.4 g/dL, normal biochemistry and a C-reactive protein 121 mg/L. CT head and MRI head were unremarkable and cerebrospinal fluid analysis performed after a delay (due to technical difficulties) of 11 days was unremarkable. Blood cultures (three sets) taken on admission showed Gram-negative rods in the anaerobic bottles only at the end of incubation with culture result confirmed by molecular sequencing showing Helicobacter cinaedi. The patient was treated empirically with ceftriaxone for seven days and this was converted to oral co-amoxiclav for a further seven days after the blood cultures became positive. A Transthoracic echocardiogram was unremarkable. The patient made a full recovery. Helicobacter cinaedi is a gram-negative anaerobic fastidious organism affecting patients with comorbidity. Infection may manifest as cellulitius, colitis or as in this case as bloodstream infection – the latter is often attributed to faeco-oral infection. Laboratory identification requires prolonged culture. Therapeutic options may be limited by resistance to macrolides and fluoroquinolones. The likely pathogen inoculation routes in the case described include gastrointestinal translocation due to proctitis at the site of perianal warts, or breach of the skin via abrasions occurring during the pilgrimage. Such organisms are increasing in prevalence as our patient population ages and patients have multiple comorbidities including HIV. It may be necessary in patients with unexplained fever to prolong incubation of sterile sites including blood in order to identify this unusual fastidious organism.

Keywords: fastidious, Helicobacter cinaedi, HIV, immunocompromised

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
9 Comparision of Neutrophil Response to Curvularia, Bipolaris and Aspergillus Species

Authors: Eszter J. Tóth, Alexandra Hoffmann, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp

Abstract:

Members of the genera Curvularia and Bipolaris are closely related melanin producing filamentous fungi; both of them have the teleomorph states in genus Cochliobolus. While Bipolaris species infect only plants and may cause serious agriculture damages, some Curvularia species was recovered from opportunistic human infections. The human pathogenic species typically cause phaeohyphomycoses, i.e. mould infections caused by melanised fungi, which can manifest as invasive mycoses with frequent involvement of the central nervous system in immunocompromised patients or as local infections (e.g. keratitis, sinusitis, and cutaneous lesions) in immunocompetent people. Although their plant-fungal interactions have been intensively studied, there is only little information available about the human pathogenic feature of these fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the neutrophil granulocytes’ response to hyphal forms of Curvularia and Bipolaris in comparison with the response to Aspergillus. In the present study Curvularia lunata SZMC 23759 and Aspergillus fumigatus SZMC 23245 both isolated from human eye infection, and Bipolaris zeicola BRIP 19582b isolated from plant leaf were examined. Neutrophils were isolated from heparinised venous blood of healthy donors with dextran sedimentation followed by centrifugation over Ficoll and hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Viability and purity of the cells were checked with trypan blue and Wright staining, respectively. Infection of neutrophils was carried out with germinated conidia in a ratio of 5:1. Production of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, and nitrogen monoxide was measured both intracellularly and extracellularly in response to the germinated spores with or without the supernatant and after serum treatment. ROS and NOS production of neutrophils in interaction with the three fungi were compared. It is already known that Aspergillus species induce ROS production of neutrophils only after serum treatment. Although, in case of C. lunata, serum opsonisation also induced an intensive production of reactive species, lower level of production was measured in the lack of serum as well. After interaction with the plant pathogenic B. zeicola, amount of reactive species found to be similar with and without serum treatment. The presence of germination supernatant decreased the reactive species production in case of each fungus. Interaction with Curvularia, Bipolaris and Aspergillus species induced different response of neutrophils. It seems that recognition of C. lunata and B. zeicola is independent of serum opsonisation, albeit it increases the level of the produced reactive species in response for C. lunata. The study was supported by the grant LP2016-8/2016.

Keywords: Curvularia, neutrophils, NOS, ROS, serum opsonisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
8 The Diagnostic Utility and Sensitivity of the Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay in Diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bone Marrow Aspirate Specimens

Authors: Nadhiya N. Subramony, Jenifer Vaughan, Lesley E. Scott

Abstract:

In South Africa, the World Health Organisation estimated 454000 new cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection (MTB) in 2015. Disseminated tuberculosis arises from the haematogenous spread and seeding of the bacilli in extrapulmonary sites. The gold standard for the detection of MTB in bone marrow is TB culture which has an average turnaround time of 6 weeks. Histological examinations of trephine biopsies to diagnose MTB also have a time delay owing mainly to the 5-7 day processing period prior to microscopic examination. Adding to the diagnostic delay is the non-specific nature of granulomatous inflammation which is the hallmark of MTB involvement of the bone marrow. A Ziehl-Neelson stain (which highlights acid-fast bacilli) is therefore mandatory to confirm the diagnosis but can take up to 3 days for processing and evaluation. Owing to this delay in diagnosis, many patients are lost to follow up or remain untreated whilst results are awaited, thus encouraging the spread of undiagnosed TB. The Xpert® MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is the molecular test used in the South African national TB program as the initial diagnostic test for pulmonary TB. This study investigates the optimisation and performance of the Xpert® MTB/RIF on bone marrow aspirate specimens (BMA), a first since the introduction of the assay in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. BMA received for immunophenotypic analysis as part of the investigation into disseminated MTB or in the evaluation of cytopenias in immunocompromised patients were used. Processing BMA on the Xpert® MTB/RIF was optimised to ensure bone marrow in EDTA and heparin did not inhibit the PCR reaction. Inactivated M.tb was spiked into the clinical bone marrow specimen and distilled water (as a control). A volume of 500mcl and an incubation time of 15 minutes with sample reagent were investigated as the processing protocol. A total of 135 BMA specimens had sufficient residual volume for Xpert® MTB/RIF testing however 22 specimens (16.3%) were not included in the final statistical analysis as an adequate trephine biopsy and/or TB culture was not available. Xpert® MTB/RIF testing was not affected by BMA material in the presence of heparin or EDTA, but the overall detection of MTB in BMA was low compared to histology and culture. Sensitivity of the Xpert® MTB/RIF compared to both histology and culture was 8.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-28.04%) and sensitivity compared to histology only was 11.1% (95% CI: 1.38-34.7%). Specificity of the Xpert® MTB/RIF was 98.9% (95% CI: 93.9-99.7%). Although the Xpert® MTB/RIF generates a faster result than histology and TB culture and is less expensive than culture and drug susceptibility testing, the low sensitivity of the Xpert® MTB/RIF precludes its use for the diagnosis of MTB in bone marrow aspirate specimens and warrants alternative/additional testing to optimise the assay.

Keywords: bone marrow aspirate , extrapulmonary TB, low sensitivity, Xpert® MTB/RIF

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
7 Estimation of Level of Pesticide in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Its Correlation with Paraoxanase1 Gene in North Indian Population

Authors: Apurva Singh, S. P. Jaiswar, Apala Priyadarshini, Akancha Pandey

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study is to find the association of PON1 gene polymorphism with pesticides In RPL subjects. Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as three or more sequential abortions before the 20th week of gestation. Pesticides and its derivatives (organochlorine and organophosphate) are proposed to accommodate a ruler chemical for RPL in the sub-humid region of India. The paraoxonase-1 enzyme (PON1) plays an important role in the toxicity of some organophosphate pesticides, with low PON1 activity being associated with higher pesticide sensitivity Methodology: This is a case-control study done in Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology & Department of Biochemistry, K.G.M.U, Lucknow, India. The subjects were enrolled after fulfilling the inclusion & exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria: Cases- Subject having two or more spontaneous abortions & Control- Healthy female having one or more alive child was selected. Exclusion criteria: Cases & Control- Subject having the following disease will be excluded from the study Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Tuberculosis, Immunocompromised patients, any endocrine disorder and genital, colon or breast cancer any other malignancies. Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes from cases & healthy control women & genomic DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method. The estimation of pesticides residue from blood was done by HPLC. Biochemical estimation was also performed. Genotyping of PON1 gene polymorphism was performed by RFLP. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the SPSS16.3 software. Results: A sum of total 14 pesticides (12 organochlorine and 2 organophosphate) selected on the basis of their persistent nature and consumption rate. The significant level of pesticide (ppb) estimated by the Mann whiney test and it was found to be significant at higher level of β-HCH (p:0.04), γ-HCH (p:0.001), δ-HCH (p: 0.002), chloropyrifos (p:0.001), pp-DDD (p:0.001) and fenvalrate (p: 0.001) in case group compare to its control. The level of antioxidant enzymes were found to be significantly decreased among the cases. Wild homozygous TT was more frequent and prevalent among control groups. However, heterozygous group (Tt) was more in cases than control groups (CI-0.3-1.3) (p=0.06). Conclusion: Higher levels of pesticides with endocrine disrupting potential in cases indicate the possible role of these compounds as one of the causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. Possibly, increased pesticide level appears to indicate increased levels of oxidative damage that has been associated with the possible cause of Recurrent Miscarriage, it may reflect indirect evidence of toxicity rather than the direct cause. Since both factors are reported to increase risk, individuals with higher levels of these 'Toxic compounds' especially in 'high-risk genotypes' might be more susceptible to recurrent pregnancy loss.

Keywords: paraoxonase, pesticides, PON1, RPL

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
6 Analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus IgG Serologic Cut-Off Values to Increase Diagnostic Specificity of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

Authors: Sushmita Roy Chowdhury, Steve Holding, Sujoy Khan

Abstract:

The immunogenic responses of the lung towards the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus may range from invasive aspergillosis in the immunocompromised, fungal ball or infection within a cavity in the lung in those with structural lung lesions, or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis are particularly predisposed to ABPA. There are consensus guidelines that have established criteria for diagnosis of ABPA, but uncertainty remains on the serologic cut-off values that would increase the diagnostic specificity of ABPA. We retrospectively analyzed 80 patients with severe asthma and evidence of peripheral blood eosinophilia ( > 500) over the last 3 years who underwent all serologic tests to exclude ABPA. Total IgE, specific IgE and specific IgG levels against Aspergillus fumigatus were measured using ImmunoCAP Phadia-100 (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sweden). The Modified ISHAM working group 2013 criteria (obligate criteria: asthma or cystic fibrosis, total IgE > 1000 IU/ml or > 417 kU/L and positive specific IgE Aspergillus fumigatus or skin test positivity; with ≥ 2 of peripheral eosinophilia, positive specific IgG Aspergillus fumigatus and consistent radiographic opacities) was used in the clinical workup for the final diagnosis of ABPA. Patients were divided into 3 groups - definite, possible, and no evidence of ABPA. Specific IgG Aspergillus fumigatus levels were not used to assign the patients into any of the groups. Of 80 patients (males 48, females 32; mean age 53.9 years ± SD 15.8) selected for the analysis, there were 30 patients who had positive specific IgE against Aspergillus fumigatus (37.5%). 13 patients fulfilled the Modified ISHAM working group 2013 criteria of ABPA (‘definite’), while 15 patients were ‘possible’ ABPA and 52 did not fulfill the criteria (not ABPA). As IgE levels were not normally distributed, median levels were used in the analysis. Median total IgE levels of patients with definite and possible ABPA were 2144 kU/L and 2597 kU/L respectively (non-significant), while median specific IgE Aspergillus fumigatus at 4.35 kUA/L and 1.47 kUA/L respectively were significantly different (comparison of standard deviations F-statistic 3.2267, significance level p=0.040). Mean levels of IgG anti-Aspergillus fumigatus in the three groups (definite, possible and no evidence of ABPA) were compared using ANOVA (Statgraphics Centurion Professional XV, Statpoint Inc). Mean levels of IgG anti-Aspergillus fumigatus (Gm3) in definite ABPA was 125.17 mgA/L ( ± SD 54.84, with 95%CI 92.03-158.32), while mean Gm3 levels in possible and no ABPA were 18.61 mgA/L and 30.05 mgA/L respectively. ANOVA showed a significant difference between the definite group and the other groups (p < 0.001). This was confirmed using multiple range tests (Fisher's least significant difference procedure). There was no significant difference between the possible ABPA and not ABPA groups (p > 0.05). The study showed that a sizeable proportion of patients with asthma are sensitized to Aspergillus fumigatus in this part of India. A higher cut-off value of Gm3 ≥ 80 mgA/L provides a higher serologic specificity towards definite ABPA. Long-term studies would provide us more information if those patients with 'possible' APBA and positive Gm3 later develop clear ABPA, and are different from the Gm3 negative group in this respect. Serologic testing with clear defined cut-offs are a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis of ABPA.

Keywords: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, asthma, IgE level

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
5 Life-Saving Design Strategies for Nursing Homes and Long-Term Care Facilities

Authors: Jason M. Hegenauer, Nicholas Fucci

Abstract:

In the late 1990s, a major deinstitutionalization movement of elderly patients took place, since which, the design of long-term care facilities has not been adequately analyzed in the United States. Over the course of the last 25 years, major innovations in construction methods, technology, and medicine have been developed, drastically changing the landscape of healthcare architecture. In light of recent events, and the expected increase in elderly populations with the aging of the baby-boomer generation, it is evident that reconsideration of these facilities is essential for the proper care of aging populations. The global response has been effective in stifling this pandemic; however, widespread disease still poses an imminent threat to the human race. Having witnessed the devastation Covid-19 has reaped throughout nursing homes and long-term care facilities, it is evident that the current strategies for protecting our most vulnerable populations are not enough. Light renovation of existing facilities and previously overlooked considerations for new construction projects can drastically lower the risk at nursing homes and long-term care facilities. A reconfigured entry sequence supplements several of the features which have been long-standing essentials of the design of these facilities. This research focuses on several aspects identified as needing improvement, including indoor environment quality, security measures incorporated into healthcare architecture and design, and architectural mitigation strategies for sick building syndrome. The results of this study have been compiled as 'best practices' for the design of future healthcare construction projects focused on the health, safety, and quality of life of the residents of these facilities. These design strategies, which can easily be implemented through renovation of existing facilities and new construction projects, minimize risk of infection and spread of disease while allowing routine functions to continue with minimal impact, should the need for future lockdowns arise. Through the current lockdown procedures, which were implemented during the Covid-19 pandemic, isolation of residents has caused great unrest and worry for family members and friends as they are cut off from their loved ones. At this time, data is still being reported, leaving infection and death rates inconclusive; however, recent projections in some states list long-term care facility deaths as high as 60% of all deaths in the state. The population of these facilities consists of residents who are elderly, immunocompromised, and have underlying chronic medical conditions. According to the Centers for Disease Control, these populations are particularly susceptible to infection and serious illness. The obligation to protect our most vulnerable population cannot be overlooked, and the harsh measures recently taken as a response to the Covid-19 pandemic prove that the design strategies currently utilized for doing so are inadequate.

Keywords: building security, healthcare architecture and design, indoor environment quality, new construction, sick building syndrome, renovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 24