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Search results for: blood culture

4763 Evaluation of the Safety and Performance of Blood Culture Practices Using BD Safety-Lokᵀᴹ Blood Collection Sets in the Emergency Room

Authors: Jeonghyun Chang, Taegeun Lee, Heungsup Sung, Yoon-Seon Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Mi-Na Kim

Abstract:

Background: Safety device has been applied to improve safety and performance of blood culture practice. BD vacutainer® Safety-Lokᵀᴹ blood collection sets with pre-attached holder (Safety-Lok) (BD, USA) was evaluated in the emergency room (ER) of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: From April to June 2017, interns and nurses in ER were surveyed for blood culture practices with a questionnaire before and after 2 or 3 weeks of experience of Safety-Lok. All of them participated in exercise workshop for 1 hour combined with video education prior to the initial survey. The blood volume, positive and contamination rates of Safety-Lok-drawn (SD) blood cultures were compared to those of overall blood cultures. Results: Eighteen interns and 30 nurses were enrolled. As a result of the initial survey, interns had higher rates of needlestick incidence (27.8%), carriage of the blood-filled syringe with needle (88.9%) and lower rates of vacutainer use (38.9%) than nurses (13.3%, 53.3%, and 60.0%). Interns preferred to use safety devices (88.9%) rather than nurses (40.0%). The number of overall blood cultures and SD blood cultures was 9,053 and 555, respectively. While the overall blood volume of aerobic bottles was 2.6±2.1 mL, those of SD blood cultures were 5.0±3.0 mL in aerobic bottles and 6.0±3.0 mL in anaerobic bottles. Positive and contamination rates were 6.5% and 0.72% with SD blood cultures and 6.2% and 0.3% with overall blood cultures. Conclusions: The introduction of the safety device would encourage healthcare workers to collect adequate blood volume as well as lead to safer practices in the ER.

Keywords: blood culture, needlestick, safety device, volume

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4762 Comparison of Bactec plus Blood Culture Media to BacT/Alert FAN plus Blood Culture Media for Identification of Bacterial Pathogens in Clinical Samples Containing Antibiotics

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Ela Tasdogan, Ercan Kurtipek

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare resin based Bactec plus aerobic/anaerobic blood culture bottles (Becton Dickinson, MD, USA) and polymeric beads based BacT/Alert FA/FN plus blood culture bottles (bioMerieux, NC, USA) in terms of microorganisms recovery rates and time to detection (TTD) in the patients receiving antibiotic treatment. Method: Blood culture samples were taken from the patients who admitted to the intensive care unit and received antibiotic treatment. Forty milliliters of blood from patients were equally distributed into four types of bottles: Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus. Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media were compared to culture recovery rates and TTD. Results: Blood culture samples were collected from 382 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit and 245 patients who were diagnosed as having bloodstream infections were included in the study. A total of 1528 Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus blood culture bottles analyzed and 176, 144, 154, 126 bacteria or fungi were isolated, respectively. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were significantly more frequently isolated in the resin-based Bactec Plus bottles than in the polymeric beads based BacT/Alert Plus bottles. The Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media recovery rates were similar for fungi and anaerobic bacteria. The mean TTDs in the Bactec Plus bottles were shorter than those in the BacT/Alert Plus bottles regardless of the microorganisms. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resin-containing media is a reliable and time-saving tool for patients who are receiving antibiotic treatment due to sepsis in the intensive care unit.

Keywords: Bactec Plus, BacT/Alert Plus, blood culture, antibiotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
4761 Evaluation of DNA Microarray System in the Identification of Microorganisms Isolated from Blood

Authors: Merih Şimşek, Recep Keşli, Özgül Çetinkaya, Cengiz Demir, Adem Aslan

Abstract:

Bacteremia is a clinical entity with high morbidity and mortality rates when immediate diagnose, or treatment cannot be achieved. Microorganisms which can cause sepsis or bacteremia are easily isolated from blood cultures. Fifty-five positive blood cultures were included in this study. Microorganisms in 55 blood cultures were isolated by conventional microbiological methods; afterwards, microorganisms were defined in terms of the phenotypic aspects by the Vitek-2 system. The same microorganisms in all blood culture samples were defined in terms of genotypic aspects again by Multiplex-PCR DNA Low-Density Microarray System. At the end of the identification process, the DNA microarray system’s success in identification was evaluated based on the Vitek-2 system. The Vitek-2 system and DNA Microarray system were able to identify the same microorganisms in 53 samples; on the other hand, different microorganisms were identified in the 2 blood cultures by DNA Microarray system. The microorganisms identified by Vitek-2 system were found to be identical to 96.4 % of microorganisms identified by DNA Microarrays system. In addition to bacteria identified by Vitek-2, the presence of a second bacterium has been detected in 5 blood cultures by the DNA Microarray system. It was identified 18 of 55 positive blood culture as E.coli strains with both Vitek 2 and DNA microarray systems. The same identification numbers were found 6 and 8 for Acinetobacter baumanii, 10 and 10 for K.pneumoniae, 5 and 5 for S.aureus, 7 and 11 for Enterococcus spp, 5 and 5 for P.aeruginosa, 2 and 2 for C.albicans respectively. According to these results, DNA Microarray system requires both a technical device and experienced staff support; besides, it requires more expensive kits than Vitek-2. However, this method should be used in conjunction with conventional microbiological methods. Thus, large microbiology laboratories will produce faster, more sensitive and more successful results in the identification of cultured microorganisms.

Keywords: microarray, Vitek-2, blood culture, bacteremia

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4760 The in vitro Effects of Various Immunomodulatory Nutritional Compounds on Antigen-Stimulated Whole-Blood Culture Cytokine Production

Authors: Ayu S. Muhamad, Michael Gleeson

Abstract:

Immunomodulators are substances that alter immune system via dynamic regulation of messenger molecules. It can be divided into immunostimulant and immunosuppressant. It can help to increase immunity of people with a low immune system, and also can help to normalize an overactive immune system. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of in vitro exposure to low and high doses of several immunomodulators which include caffeine, kaloba and quercetin on antigen-stimulated whole blood culture cytokine production. Whole blood samples were taken from 5 healthy males (age: 32 ± 12 years; weight: 75.7 ± 6.1 kg; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.5 kg/m2) following an overnight fast with no vigorous activity during the preceding 24 h. The whole blood was then stimulated with 50 µl of 100 x diluted Pediacel vaccine and low or high dose of immunomodulators in the culture plate. After 20 h incubation (5% CO2, 37°C), it was analysed using the Evidence Investigator to determine the production of cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-1α. Caffeine and quercetin showed a tendency towards decrease cytokine production as the doses were increased. On the other hand, an upward trend was evident with kaloba, where a high dose of kaloba seemed to increase the cytokine production. In conclusion, we found that caffeine and quercetin have potential as immunosuppressant and kaloba as immunostimulant.

Keywords: caffeine, cytokine, immunomodulators, kaloba, quercetin

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4759 EhfadHaya (SaveLife) / AateHayah (GiveLife) Blood Donor Website

Authors: Sameer Muhammad Aslam, Nura Said Mohsin Al-Saifi

Abstract:

This research shows the process of creating a blood donation website for Oman. Blood donation is a widespread, crucial, ongoing process, so it is important that this website is easy to use. Several automated blood management systems are available, but none provides an effective algorithm that takes into account variables such as frequency of donation, donation date, and gender. In Oman, the Ministry of Health maintains a blood bank and keeps donors informed about the need for blood through a website. They also inform donors and the wider public where and when is their next blood donation event. The website's main goals are to educate the community about the benefits of blood donation. It also manages donor and receiver documentation and encourages voluntary blood donation by providing easy access to information about blood types and blood distribution in various hospitals in Oman, based on hospital needs.

Keywords: Oman, blood bank, blood donors, donor website

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
4758 Signal Processing of the Blood Pressure and Characterization

Authors: Hadj Abd El Kader Benghenia, Fethi Bereksi Reguig

Abstract:

In clinical medicine, blood pressure, raised blood hemodynamic monitoring is rich pathophysiological information of cardiovascular system, of course described through factors such as: blood volume, arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. In this work, we are interested in analyzing these signals to propose a detection algorithm to delineate the different sequences and especially systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the wave and dicrotic to do their analysis in order to extract the cardiovascular parameters.

Keywords: blood pressure, SBP, DBP, detection algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
4757 Effect of Yeast Culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Blood Metabolites in Beetal Male Goats

Authors: Saeed Ahmed, Tamoor Abbas, M. Amir, M. S. Iqbal, D. Hussain

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of different levels of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Beetal male goats diets on growth performance, digestibility of nutrients and selected blood metabolites. Another objective was to determine the inclusion level of yeast culture for optimal growth performance of Beetal male goats. Eighteen (n=18) Beetal male goats were randomly assigned to three total mixed ration treatments (n=6 goats/treatment): T1, T2 and T3 containing 0gm, 3gm and 6gm/day yeast culture (YC) mixed with total mixed ration (TMR). The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric having crude protein 15.2% and ME 2.6Mcal/kg. The total duration of the experiment was 8 weeks. Beetal bucks were fed on TMR diets (T1, T2 and T3) having blend of oat silage, Lucerne hay and concentrate mixed with yeast culture (YC). Bucks were housed individually and feed was offered @ 4% of body weight on dry matter basis. Samples of fresh feed and refusal were collected twice weekly of moisture percentage using hot air oven. Data for daily dry matter intake, body weight gain, nutrient digestibility and selected blood metabolites were analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique under Complete randomised design (SAS Institute Inc, 2002-03). Results were declared significant at P≤0.05. Overall, DMI was not affected (P≥0.05) by dietary treatments. Body weight gain, digestibility of crude protein and crude fibre were improved. Blood glucose concentration was detected higher in the group having supplementation of yeast culture (YC) 6gm/day compared to other two dietary treatments. This study suggested the positive impact of inclusion of yeast culture (YC) up to 6gm/day in the TMR diet for optimal growth performance and digestibility of nutrients in Beetal male goats.

Keywords: yeast culture, growth performance, digestibility, beetle goat

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
4756 Thrombocytopenia and Prolonged Prothrombin Time in Neonatal Septicemia

Authors: Shittu Bashirat, Shittu Mujeeb, Oluremi Adeolu, Orisadare Olayiwola, Jikeme Osameke, Bello Lateef

Abstract:

Septicemia in neonates refers to generalized bacterial infection documented by positive blood culture in the first 28 days of life and is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality in sub-Sahara Africa. Thrombocytopenia in newborns is a result of increased platelet consumption; sepsis was found to be the most common risk factor. The objective of the study was to determine if there are organism-specific platelet responses among the 2 groups of bacterial agents: Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also to examine the association of platelet count and prothrombin time with neonatal septicemia. 232 blood samples were collected for this study. The blood culture was performed using Bactec 9050, an instrumented blood culture system. The platelet count and prothrombin time were performed using Abacus Junior 5 hematology analyzer and i-STAT 1 analyzer respectively. Of the 231 neonates hospitalized with clinical sepsis, blood culture reports were positive in 51 cases (21.4%). Klebsiella spp. (35.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (27.5%) were the most common Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates respectively. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 30 (58.8%) of the neonates with septicemia. Of the 9 (17.6%) patients with severe thrombocytopenia, seven (77.8%) had Klebsiella spp. septicemia. Out of the 21(63.6%) of thrombocytopenia produced by Gram-negative isolate, 17 (80.9) had increased prothrombin time. In conclusion, Gram-negative organisms showed the highest cases of severe thrombocytopenia and prolonged PT. This study has helped to establish a disturbance in hemostatic systems in neonates with septicemia. Further studies, however, may be required to assess other hemostasis parameters in order to understand their interaction with the infectious organisms in neonates.

Keywords: neonates, septicemia, thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, platelet count

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4755 Simulation of Remove the Fouling on the in vivo By Using MHD

Authors: Farhad Aalizadeh, Ali Moosavi

Abstract:

When a blood vessel is injured, the cells of your blood bond together to form a blood clot. The blood clot helps you stop bleeding. Blood clots are made of a combination of blood cells, platelets(small sticky cells that speed up the clot-making process), and fibrin (protein that forms a thread-like mesh to trap cells). Doctors call this kind of blood clot a “thrombus.”We study the effects of different parameters on the deposition of Nanoparticles on the surface of a bump in the blood vessels by the magnetic field. The Maxwell and the flow equations are solved for this purpose. It is assumed that the blood is non-Newtonian and the number of particles has been considered enough to rely on the results statistically. Using MHD and its property it is possible to control the flow velocity, remove the fouling on the walls and return the system to its original form.

Keywords: MHD, fouling, in-vivo, blood clots, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
4754 Retrospective Study of Positive Blood Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, P. Christodoulou, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Purpose: Microbial infection of the blood is a serious condition where bacteria invade the bloodstream and cause systemic disease. In such cases, blood cultures are performed. Blood cultures are a key diagnostic test for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Material and method: The BacT/Alert system, which measures the production of carbon dioxide with metabolic organisms, is used. The positive result in the BacT/Alert system is followed by culture in the following selective media: Blood, Mac Conkey No 2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Sabaureaud agar. Gram staining method was used to differentiate bacterial species. The microorganisms were identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan (Siemens) system and followed by a sensitivity test on the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer-based test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 3347 blood cultures. Of these, 170 came from the ICU. 116 found positive. Of these S. epidermidis was identified in 42, A. baumannii in 27, K. pneumoniae in 12 (4 of these KPC ‘Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase’), S. hominis in 8, E. faecium in 7, E. faecalis in 5, P. aeruginosa in 3, C. albicans in 3, S. capitis in 2, K. oxytoca in 2, P. mirabilis in 2, E. coli in 1, S. intermidius in 1 and S. lugdunensis in 1. Conclusions: The study of epidemiological data and microbial resistance phenotypes is essential for the choice of therapeutic regimen for the early treatment and limitation of multivalent strains, while it is a crucial factor to solve diagnostic problems.

Keywords: blood culture, bloodstream, infection, intensive care unit

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4753 The Influence of Bacteriocins Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Multiplied in an Alternative Substrate on Calves Blood Parameters

Authors: E. Bartkiene, V. Krungleviciute, J. Kucinskiene, R. Antanaitis, A. Kucinskas

Abstract:

In calves less than 10-day-old, infection commonly cause severe diarrhoea and high mortality. To prevention of calves diseases a common practice is to treat calves with prophylactic antibiotics, in this case the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is promising. Often LAB strains are incubated in comercial de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium, the culture are centrifuged, the cells are washing with sterile water, and this suspension is used as a starter culture for animal health care. Juice of potatoe tubers is industrial wastes, wich may constitute a source of digestible nutrients for microorganisms. In our study the ability of LAB to utilize potatoe tubers juice in cell synthesis without external nutrient supplement was investigated, and the influence of multiplied LAB on calves blood parameters was evaluated. Calves were selected based on the analogy principle (treatment group (n=6), control group (n=8)). For the treatment group 14 days was given a 50 ml of fermented potatoe tubers juice containing 9.6 log10 cfu/ml of LAB. Blood parameters (gas and biochemical) were assessed by use of an auto-analyzers (Hitachi 705 and EPOC). Before the experiment, blood pH of treatment group calves was 7.33, control – 7.36, whereas, after 14 days, 7.28 and 7.36, respectively. Calves blood pH in the treatment group remained stable over the all experiment period. Concentration of PCO2 in control calves group blood increased from 63.95 to 70.93, whereas, in the treatment group decreased from 63.08 to 60.71. Concentration of lactate in the treatment group decreased from 3.20 mmol/l to 2.64 mmol/l, whereas, in control - increased from 3.95 mmol/l to 4.29 mmol/l. Concentration of AST in the control calves group increased from 50.18 IU/L to 58.9 IU/L, whereas, in treatment group decreased from 49.82 IU/L to 33.1 IU/L. We conclude that the 50 ml of fermented potatoe tubers juice containing 9.6 log10 cfu/ml of LAB per day, by using 14 days, reduced risk of developing acidosis (stabilizes blood pH (p < 0.05)), reduces lactates and PCO2 concentration (p < 0.05) and risk of liver lesions (reduces AST concentration (p < 0.005)) in blood of calves.

Keywords: alternative substrate, blood parameters, calves, lactic acid bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
4752 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement

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4751 A Retrospective Cross Sectional Study of Blood Culture Results in a Tertiary Hospital, Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: S. I. Nwadioha, M. S. Odimayo, J. A. Omotayo, A. Olu Taiwo, O. E. Olabiyi

Abstract:

The current study was conducted to determine the epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from blood of septicemic patients for improved antibiotic therapy. A three-year descriptive study has been carried out at Microbiology Laboratory, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, from April 2012 to April 2015. Information compiled from patients’ records includes age, sex, isolated organisms and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Three hundred and thirteen blood cultures were collected from neonatology and pediatrics wards, Out Patients’ Department (OPD) and from other adult patients. Forty-one cultures yielded mono microbial growth (no polymicrobial growth), giving an incidence of 13.1% positive blood culture (N=41/313). There were 58.4% Gram-negative bacilli and 41.6% Gram-positive cocci in the microbial growth. Bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus 34%(14/41), Klebsiella species22% (9/41), Enterococci 17%(7/41), Proteus species12%(5/41), Escherichia coli 7%(3/41) and Streptococcal pneumoniae 7%(3/41). There was a (35%) higher occurrence of septicemia in neonates than in any other age groups in the hospital. Bacterial sensitivity to 13 antibiotic agents was determined by antibiotics disc diffusion using modified Kirby Bauer’s method. Gram-positive organisms showed a higher antibiotic sensitivity ranging from 14- 100% than the Gram-negative bacteria (11-80%). Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella species are the most prevalent organisms. The third generation Cephalosporins (Ceftriaxone) and Floroquinolone(Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin) have proved reliable for management of these blood infections.

Keywords: blood cultures, septicemia, antibiogram, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
4750 The Amount of Organic Phosphates (Like DPG) Existing in Blood is Determining Factor of Mammal’s Bulk

Authors: Ramin Amirmardfar

Abstract:

Throughout Necessary oxygen should be supplied for all cells of a mammal at any moment through blood to make it possible remain alive all cells the mammal’s body. In case a mammal’s bulk is large, there is a farther distance between cells in different tissues and mammals’ heart. Therefore red blood cells in bulky mammal’s body should be capable of conveying oxygen to farther distances. To make it practical, oxygen should be glued red blood cells tenaciously. In other words, cohesion strength of oxygen to red blood cell of bulky mammal’s blood should be much more than the same of small mammal’s blood. In mammal’s bodies, the controlling factor of amount of cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell, are organic phosphates (like DPG). The less DPG in red blood cells of a mammal, the more cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell (at the same rate). As much as oxygen is glued more tenacious to red blood cells, oxygen could been carried to farther distance and as much as oxygen could be conveyed to farther points of heart, bulk of mammal could be larger at the same rate.

Keywords: mammals size, animals size, organic phosphates, DPG, red blood cell, metabolism

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4749 Bacteremia Caused by Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in an Immunocompromised Patient in Istanbul, Turkey

Authors: Fatma Koksal Çakirlar, Si̇nem Ozdemir, Selcan Akyol, Revazi̇ye Gulesen, Murat Gunaydin, Nevri̇ye Gonullu, Belkis Levent, Nuri̇ Kiraz

Abstract:

Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 are the causative agent of epidemic or pandemic cholera. V. cholerae O1 is generally accepted as a non-invasive enterotoxigenic organism causing gastroenteritis of various severities. Non-O1 V. cholerae can cause small outbreaks of diarrhea due to consumption of contaminated food and water. Particularly, the patients with achlorydria have a risk for vibrio infections. There are numerous case reports of bacteremia caused by vibrio in patients with predisposing conditions like cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes, hematologic malignancy, gastrectomy, and AIDS. We described in this study the first case of nontoxigenic, non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae isolated from the blood culture of a 77-year-old female patient with hipertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, gout and about 9 years ago migrated breast cancer history. The patient with complaints of shortness of breath, fever and malaise admitted to our emergency clinic were evaluated. There was no diarrhea or abdominal symptoms in the patient. No growth in her urine culture, but blood culture (BACTEC 9120 system, Becton Dickinson, USA) was positive for non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that was identified by conventional methods and Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD). It does not secrete the cholera toxin. The agglutination test was negative with polyvalent O1 antisera and O139 antiserum. Empirically ceftriaxone was administered to the patient and she was discharged with improvement in general condition. In this study we report bacteremia by non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that is rare in the worldwide and first in Turkey.

Keywords: bacteremia, blood culture, immunocompromised patient, Non-O1 vibrio cholerae

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4748 Microfluidic Method for Measuring Blood Viscosity

Authors: Eunseop Yeom

Abstract:

Many cardiovascular diseases, such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis, can change biochemical molecules in plasma and red blood cell. These alterations lead to excessive increase of blood viscosity contributing to peripheral vascular diseases. In this study, a simple microfluidic-based method is used to measure blood viscosity. Microfluidic device is composed of two parallel side channels and a bridge channel. To estimate blood viscosity, blood samples and reference fluid are separately delivered into each inlet of two parallel side channels using pumps. An interfacial line between blood samples and reference fluid occurs by blocking the outlet of one side-channel. Since width for this interfacial line is determined by pressure ratio between blood and reference flows, blood viscosity can be estimated by measuring width for this interfacial line. This microfluidic-based method can be used for evaluating variations in the viscosity of animal models with cardiovascular diseases under flow conditions.

Keywords: blood viscosity, microfluidic chip, pressure, shear rate

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4747 Biophysical Features of Glioma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Potential Diagnostic Markers

Authors: Abhimanyu Thakur, Youngjin Lee

Abstract:

Glioma is a lethal brain cancer whose early diagnosis and prognosis are limited due to the dearth of a suitable technique for its early detection. Current approaches, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and invasive biopsy for the diagnosis of this lethal disease, hold several limitations, demanding an alternative method. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been used in numerous biomarker studies, majorly exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), which are found in most of the cells and biofluids, including blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine. Remarkably, glioma cells (GMs) release a high number of EVs, which are found to cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and impersonate the constituents of parent GMs including protein, and lncRNA; however, biophysical properties of EVs have not been explored yet as a biomarker for glioma. We isolated EVs from cell culture conditioned medium of GMs and regular primary culture, blood, and urine of wild-type (WT)- and glioma mouse models, and characterized by nano tracking analyzer, transmission electron microscopy, immunogold-EM, and differential light scanning. Next, we measured the biophysical parameters of GMs-EVs by using atomic force microscopy. Further, the functional constituents of EVs were examined by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Exosomes and MVs-derived from GMs, blood, and urine showed distinction biophysical parameters (roughness, adhesion force, and stiffness) and different from that of regular primary glial cells, WT-blood, and -urine, which can be attributed to the characteristic functional constituents. Therefore, biophysical features can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for glioma.

Keywords: glioma, extracellular vesicles, exosomes, microvesicles, biophysical properties

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4746 Effect of Hypertension Exercise and Slow Deep Breathing Combination to Blood Pressure: A Mini Research in Elderly Community

Authors: Prima Khairunisa, Febriana Tri Kusumawati, Endah Luthfiana

Abstract:

Background: Hypertension in elderly, caused by cardiovascular system cannot work normally, because the valves thickened and inelastic blood vessels. It causes vasoconstriction of the blood vessels. Hypertension exercise, increase cardiovascular function and the elasticity of the blood vessels. While slow deep breathing helps the body and mind feel relax. Combination both of them will decrease the blood pressure. Objective: To know the effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to blood pressure in elderly. Method: The study conducted with one group pre-post test experimental design. The samples were 10 elderly both male and female in a Village in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The tool was manual sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure. Result: Based on paired t-test between hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with systole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0.045, while paired t-test between hypertension exercise hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with diastole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0,343. The changes of systole blood pressure were 127.5 mmHg, and diastole blood pressure was 80 mmHg. Systole blood pressure decreases significantly because the average of systole blood pressure before implementation was 135-160 mmHg. While diastole blood pressure was not decreased significantly. It was influenced by the average of diastole blood pressure before implementation of hypertension exercise was not too high. It was between 80- 90 mmHg. Conclusion: There was an effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to the blood pressure in elderly after 6 times implementations.

Keywords: hypertension exercise, slow deep breathing, elderly, blood pressure

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4745 Blood Clot Emulsification via Ultrasonic Thrombolysis Device

Authors: Sun Tao, Lou Liang, Tan Xing Haw Marvin, Gu Yuandong Alex

Abstract:

Patients with blood clots in their brains can experience problems with their vision or speech, seizures and general weakness. To treat blood clots, clinicians presently have two options. The first involves drug therapy to thin the blood and thus reduce the clot. The second choice is to invasively remove the clot using a plastic tube called a catheter. Both approaches carry a high risk of bleeding, and invasive procedures, such as catheter intervention, can also damage the blood vessel wall and cause infection. Ultrasonic treatment as a potential alternative therapy to break down clots is attracting growing interests due to the reduced adverse effects. To demonstrate the concept, in this investigation a microfabricated ultrasonic device was electrically packaged with printed circuit board to treat healthy human blood. The red blood cells could be broken down after 3-hour ultrasonic treatment.

Keywords: microfabrication, blood clot, ultrasonic thrombolysis device, ultrasonic device

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4744 Development of Monitoring Blood Bank Center Based PIC Microcontroller Using CAN Communication

Authors: Kaiwan S. Ismael, Ergun Ercelebi, Majeed Nader

Abstract:

This paper describes the design and implementation of a hardware setup for online monitoring of 24 refrigerators inside blood bank center using the microcontroller and CAN bus for communications between each node. Due to the security of locations in the blood bank hall and difficulty of monitoring of each refrigerator separately, this work proposes a solution to monitor all the blood bank refrigerators in one location. CAN-bus system is used because it has many applications and advantages, especially for this system due to easy in use, low cost, providing a reduction in wiring, fast to repair and easily expanding the project without a problem.

Keywords: control area network (CAN), monitoring blood bank center, PIC microcontroller, MPLAB IDE

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
4743 The Effect of Antibiotic Use on Blood Cultures: Implications for Future Policy

Authors: Avirup Chowdhury, Angus K. McFadyen, Linsey Batchelor

Abstract:

Blood cultures (BCs) are an important aspect of management of the septic patient, identifying the underlying pathogen and its antibiotic sensitivities. However, while the current literature outlines indications for initial BCs to be taken, there is little guidance for repeat sampling in the following 5-day period and little information on how antibiotic use can affect the usefulness of this investigation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using inpatients who had undergone 2 or more BCs within 5 days between April 2016 and April 2017 at a 400-bed hospital in the west of Scotland and received antibiotic therapy between the first and second BCs. The data for BC sampling was collected from the electronic microbiology database, and cross-referenced with data from the hospital electronic prescribing system. Overall, 283 BCs were included in the study, taken from 92 patients (mean 3.08 cultures per patient, range 2-10). All 92 patients had initial BCs, of which 83 were positive (90%). 65 had a further sample within 24 hours of commencement of antibiotics, with 35 positive (54%). 23 had samples within 24-48 hours, with 4 (17%) positive; 12 patients had sampling at 48-72 hours, 12 at 72-96 hours, and 10 at 96-120 hours, with none positive. McNemar’s Exact Test was used to calculate statistical significance for patients who received blood cultures in multiple time blocks (Initial, < 24h, 24-120h, > 120h). For initial vs. < 24h-post BCs (53 patients tested), the proportion of positives fell from 46/53 to 29/53 (one-tailed P=0.002, OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.48-7.96). For initial vs 24-120h (n=42), the proportions were 38/42 and 4/42 respectively (P < 0.001, OR 35.0, 95% CI 4.79-255.48). For initial vs > 120h (n=36), these were 33/36 and 2/36 (P < 0.001,OR ∞). These were also calculated for a positive in initial or < 24h vs. 24-120h (n=42), with proportions of 41/42 and 4/42 (P < 0.001, OR 38.0, 95% CI 5.22-276.78); and for initial or < 24h vs > 120h (n=36), with proportions of 35/36 and 2/36 respectively (P < 0.001, OR ∞). This data appears to show that taking an initial BC followed by a BC within 24 hours of antibiotic commencement would maximise blood culture yield while minimising the risk of false negative results. This could potentially remove the need for as many as 46% of BC samples without adversely affecting patient care. BC yield decreases sharply after 48 hours of antibiotic use, and may not provide any clinically useful information after this time. Further multi-centre studies would validate these findings, and provide a foundation for future health policy generation.

Keywords: antibiotics, blood culture, efficacy, inpatient

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4742 Cultural Studies: The Effect of Western Culture on Muslim Lifestyle

Authors: Farah Wahida Binti Mohamad Said

Abstract:

Islamic culture is the way of life a Muslim is defined by the Qur’an and Sunnah. On the other hand, Western culture is fashioned by a host of people; Capitalists, atheists, people who believe in same-gender marriages and others of a similar nature. The main issue that faced by the Muslim in Malaysia is the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This is because of the influence from western culture that dominates mind of the Muslim and also impressed on their lifestyle. Practically, majority all things have connected with western culture. However, the main objective for this project is to develop the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This project also focuses on a few aspects that relate with cultural of Muslim and western culture nowadays. This paper will include a few method .The methods for this project are a video, interview etc. Another methodology we will put on next paper for more detail information. As a result, this research found that western cultural will be effect on Muslim lifestyle.

Keywords: effect of western culture, Muslim lifestyle, western culture, western and Muslim culture

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4741 Examining the Role of Corporate Culture in Driving Firm Performance

Authors: Lovorka Galetić, Ivana Načinović Braje, Nevenka Čavlek

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between corporate culture and firm performance. Extensive theoretical and empirical evidence on this issue is provided. A quantitative methodology was used to explore relationship between corporate culture and performance among large Croatian companies. Corporate culture was explored by using Denison framework. The research revealed a positive, statistically significant relationship between mission and performance. Other dimensions of corporate culture (involvement, consistency and adaptability) show only partial relationship with performance.

Keywords: corporate culture, Croatia, Denison culture model, performance

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4740 Culture Sensitization: Understanding German Culture by Learning German

Authors: Lakshmi Shenoy

Abstract:

In today’s era of Globalization, arises the need that students and professionals relocate temporarily or permanently to another country in order to pursue their respective academic and career goals. This involves not only learning the local language of the country but also integrating oneself into the native culture. This paper explains the method of understanding a nation’s culture through the study of its language. The method uses language not as a series of rules that connect words together but as a social practice in which one can actively participate. It emphasizes on how culture provides an environment in which languages can flourish and how culture dictates the interpretation of the language especially in case of German. This paper introduces language and culture as inseparable entities, as two sides of the same coin.

Keywords: language and culture, sociolinguistics, Ronald Wardhaugh, German

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4739 Lead in The Blood and Hypertension in Indonesia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Ainia Nurul Aqida

Abstract:

Lead is one of the sources of air pollution. The use of lead on motor vehicle fuels resulted in the increasing contamination of lead in the air. The polluted air that has been inhaled by many people, especially guards and sellers of retail gasoline filling stations. The impact is increased levels of lead in blood. One result is an increase in blood pressure that causes hypertension. This research would like to know the relationship between blood lead levels in the incidence of hypertension in Indonesia. The method used in this study is a systematic review of the three journals have been published in the year 2007 to the year 2010 with the total sample is 312 samples. Odd ratio values obtained in the first article was OR = 6.50 pvalue = 0.000, CI = 95 % (2.89 to 14.60), and the second article was obtained OR 2.619 (95 % CI: 0.944 to 7.625) pvalue = 0.028, and the third article was obtained 0.002 r = 0.324 R2 = 10.5 %. Over all, there is a relationship between blood lead levels with the incidence of hypertension in Indonesia.

Keywords: lead, blood, air pollution, hypertension

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4738 Monitoring Blood Pressure Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Qasem Qananwah, Ahmad Dagamseh, Hiam AlQuran, Khalid Shaker Ibrahim

Abstract:

Blood pressure helps the physicians greatly to have a deep insight into the cardiovascular system. The determination of individual blood pressure is a standard clinical procedure considered for cardiovascular system problems. The conventional techniques to measure blood pressure (e.g. cuff method) allows a limited number of readings for a certain period (e.g. every 5-10 minutes). Additionally, these systems cause turbulence to blood flow; impeding continuous blood pressure monitoring, especially in emergency cases or critically ill persons. In this paper, the most important statistical features in the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals were extracted to estimate the blood pressure noninvasively. PPG signals from more than 40 subjects were measured and analyzed and 12 features were extracted. The features were fed to principal component analysis (PCA) to find the most important independent features that have the highest correlation with blood pressure. The results show that the stiffness index means and standard deviation for the beat-to-beat heart rate were the most important features. A model representing both features for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) was obtained using a statistical regression technique. Surface fitting is used to best fit the series of data and the results show that the error value in estimating the SBP is 4.95% and in estimating the DBP is 3.99%.

Keywords: blood pressure, noninvasive optical system, principal component analysis, PCA, continuous monitoring

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4737 Evaluation of Different Anticoagulant Effects on Flow Properties of Human Blood Using Falling Needle Rheometer

Authors: Hiroki Tsuneda, Takamasa Suzuki, Hideki Yamamoto, Kimito Kawamura, Eiji Tamura, Katharina Wochner, Roberto Plasenzotti

Abstract:

Flow property of human blood is one of the important factors on the prevention of the circulatory condition such as a high blood pressure, a diabetes mellitus, and a cardiac infarction. However, the measurement of flow property of human blood, especially blood viscosity, is not so easy, because of their coagulation or aggregation behaviors after taking a sample from blood vessel. In the experiment, some kinds of anticoagulant were added into the human blood to avoid its solidification. Anticoagulant used in the blood test has been chosen for each purpose of blood test, for anticoagulant effect on blood is different mechanism for each. So that, there is a problem that the evaluation of measured blood property with different anticoagulant is so difficult. Therefore, it is so important to make clear the difference of anticoagulant effect on the blood property. In the previous work, a compact-size falling needle rheometer (FNR) has been developed in order to measure the flow property of human blood such as a flow curve, an apparent viscosity. It was found that FNR system can apply to a rheometer or a viscometry for various experimental conditions for not only human blood but also mammalians blood. In this study, the measurements of human blood viscosity with different anticoagulant (EDTA and Heparin) were carried out using newly developed FNR system. The effect of anticoagulant on blood viscosity was also tested by using the standard liquid for each. The accuracy on the viscometry was also tested by using the standard liquid for calibrating materials (JS-10, JS-20) and observed data have satisfactory agreement with reference data around 1.0% at 310K. The flow curve of six males and females with different anticoagulant were measured using FNR. In this experiment, EDTA and Heparin were chosen as anticoagulant for blood. Heparin can inhibit the coagulation of human blood by activating the body of anti-thrombin. To examine the effect of human blood viscosity on anticoagulant, flow curve was measured at high shear rate (>350s-1), and apparent viscosity of each person were determined with different anticoagulant. The apparent viscosity of human blood with heparin was 2%-9% higher than that with EDTA. However, the difference of blood viscosity for two anticoagulants for same blood was different for each. Further discussion, we need the consideration of effect on other physical property, such as cellular component and plasma component.

Keywords: falling-needle rheometer, human blood, viscosity, anticoagulant

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4736 Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measurements: A Correlational Study

Authors: Abdul-Monim Batiha, Manar AlAzzam, Mohammed ALBashtawy, Loai Tawalbeh, Ahmad Tubaishat, Fadwa N. Alhalaiqa

Abstract:

Background: Obesity is the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic illnesses especially high blood pressure. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric indices and high blood pressure, and which one was most strongly correlated with high blood pressure in Jordanian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total 622 students and workers from three Jordanian universities. Results: Nearly half of the participant are overweight (34.7%) and obese (15.4%) and hypertension was detected among 138 (22.2%) of the participants. Linear correlation was significant (p<0.01) between both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure for all anthropometric indices, except for A body shape index and diastolic blood pressure was significant at p< 0.05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of age and anthropometric measurements. Conclusions: The waist circumference was the only independent predictor of hypertension, showing that this simple measurement may be an importance marker of high blood pressure in Jordanian population.

Keywords: anthropometric indices, Jordan, blood pressure, cross-sectional study, obesity, hypertension, waist circumference

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4735 An AFM Approach of RBC Micro and Nanoscale Topographic Features During Storage

Authors: K. Santacruz-Gomez, E. Silva-Campa, S. Álvarez-García, V. Mata-Haro, D. Soto-Puebla, M. Pedroza-Montero

Abstract:

Blood gamma irradiation is the only available method to prevent transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD). However, when blood is irradiated, determine blood shelf time is crucial. Non-irradiated blood has a self-time from 21 to 35 days when is preserved with an anticoagulated solution and stored at 4°C. During their storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo a series of biochemical, biomechanical and molecular changes involving what is known as storage lesion (SL). SL include loss of structural integrity of RBC, a decrease of 2,3-diphosphatidylglyceric acid levels, and an increase of both ion potassium concentration and hemoglobin (Hb). On the other hand, Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) represents a versatile tool for a nano-scale high-resolution topographic analysis in biological systems. In order to evaluate SL in irradiated and non-irradiated blood, RBC topography and morphometric parameters were obtained from an AFM XE-BIO system. Cell viability was followed using flow cytometry. Our results showed that early markers as nanoscale roughness, allow us to evaluate blood quality since another perspective.

Keywords: AFM, blood γ-irradiation, roughness, storage lesion

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4734 A Genetic Identification of Candida Species Causing Intravenous Catheter-Associated Candidemia in Heart Failure Patients

Authors: Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Shirin Sadat Hashemi Fesharaki, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Bahar Salmanian

Abstract:

Introduction: Intravenous catheter-associated fungal infection as nosocomial infection continue to be a deep problem among hospitalized patients, decreasing quality of life and adding healthcare costs. The capacity of catheters in the spread of candidemia in heart failure patients is obvious. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and genetic identification of Candida species in heart disorder patients. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in Tehran Hospital of Cardiology Center (Tehran, Iran, 2014) during 1.5 years on the patients hospitalized for at least 7 days and who had central or peripheral vein catheter. Culture of catheters, blood and skin of the location of catheter insertion were applied for detecting Candida colonies in 223 patients. Identification of Candida species was made on the basis of a combination of various phenotypic methods and confirmed by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region amplified from the genomic DNA using PCR and the NCBI BLAST. Results: Of the 223 patients samples tested, we identified totally 15 Candida isolates obtained from 9 (4.04%) catheter cultures, 3 (1.35%) blood cultures and 2 (0.90%) skin cultures of the catheter insertion areas. On the base of ITS region sequencing, out of nine Candida isolates from catheter, 5(55.6%) C. albicans, 2(22.2%) C. glabrata, 1(11.1%) C. membranifiaciens and 1 (11.1%) C. tropicalis were identified. Among three Candida isolates from blood culture, C. tropicalis, C. carpophila and C. membranifiaciens were identified. Non-candida yeast isolated from one blood culture was Cryptococcus albidus. One case of C. glabrata and one case of Candida albicans were isolated from skin culture of the catheter insertion areas in patients with positive catheter culture. In these patients, ITS region of rDNA sequence showed a similarity between Candida isolated from the skin and catheter. However, the blood samples of these patients were negative for fungal growth. We report two cases of catheter-related candidemia caused by C. membranifiaciens and C. tropicalis on the base of genetic similarity of species isolated from blood and catheter which were treated successfully with intravenous fluconazole and catheter removal. In phenotypic identification methods, we could only identify C. albicans and C. tropicalis and other yeast isolates were diagnosed as Candida sp. Discussion: Although more than 200 species of Candida have been identified, only a few cause diseases in humans. There is some evidence that non-albicans infections are increasing. Many risk factors, including prior antibiotic therapy, use of a central venous catheter, surgery, and parenteral nutrition are considered to be associated with candidemia in hospitalized heart failure patients. Identifying the route of infection in candidemia is difficult. Non-albicans candida as the cause of candidemia is increasing dramatically. By using conventional method, many non-albicans isolates remain unidentified. So, using more sensitive and specific molecular genetic sequencing to clarify the aspects of epidemiology of the unknown candida species infections is essential. The positive blood and catheter cultures for candida isolates and high percentage of similarity of their ITS region of rDNA sequence in these two patients confirmed the diagnosis of intravenous catheter-associated candidemia.

Keywords: catheter-associated infections, heart failure patient, molecular genetic sequencing, ITS region of rDNA, Candidemia

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