Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3890

Search results for: horizontal gene transfer

3890 Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Clinical Specimens

Authors: Sadaf Ilyas, Saba Riaz

Abstract:

The extensive use of antibiotics has led to increases emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Pseudomonas is a notorious opportunistic pathogen involoved in nosocomial infections and exhibit innate resistance to many antibiotics. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, levels of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas. A total of thirty clinical strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from different clinical sites of infection. All clinical specimens were collected from Chughtais Lahore Lab. Jail road, during 8-07-2010 to 11-01-2011. Biochemical characterization was done using routine biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Baeur method. The plasmids were isolated from all the strains and digested with restriction enzyme PstI and EcoRI. Transfer of Multi-resistance plasmid was checked via transformation and conjugation to confirm the plasmid mediated resistance to antibiotics. The prevalence of Pseudomonas in clinical specimens was found out to be 14% of all bacterial infections. IPM has shown to be the most effective drug against Pseudomonas followed by CES, PTB and meropenem, wheareas most of the Pseudomonas strains have developed significant resistance against Penicillins and some Cephalasporins. Antibiotic resistance determinants were carried by plasmids, as they conferred resistance to transformed K1 strains. The isolates readily undergo conjugation, transferring the resistant genes to other strains, illustrating the high rates of cross infection and nosocomial infection in the immunocompromised patients.

Keywords: pseudomonas, antibiotics, drug resistance, horizontal gene transfer

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3889 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Adding CuO Nanoparticles to R-600a Refrigerant on Heat Transfer Enhancement of a Horizontal Flattened Tube

Authors: M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, M. Najafi, A. Abbasi

Abstract:

An empirical investigation was performed in order to study the heat transfer characteristics of R600a flow boiling inside horizontal flattened tubes and the simultaneous effect of nanoparticles on boiling heat transfer in flattened channel. Round copper tubes of 8.7 mm I.D. were deformed into flattened shapes with different inside heights of 6.9, 5.5, and 3.4 mm as test areas. The effect of different parameters such as mass flux, vapor quality and inside height on heat transfer coefficient was studied. Flattening the tube caused significant enhancement in heat transfer performance so that the maximum augmentation ratio of 163% was obtained in flattened channel with lowest internal height. A new correlation was developed based on the present experimental data to predict the heat transfer coefficient in flattened tubes. This correlation estimated 90% of the entire database within ±20%.

Keywords: nano particles, flattend tube, R600a, CuO

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3888 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluid in Horizontal Rectangular Duct

Authors: Nur Irmawati, H. A. Mohammed

Abstract:

In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on flow and heat transfer characteristics were studied in detail. This study covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2×106≤Ra≤2×107 and Reynolds number in the range of 100≤Re≤1100. Results reveal that the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers increase. It was also found that the dimensionless temperature distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.

Keywords: numerical simulation, mixed convection, horizontal rectangular duct, nanofluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
3887 Heat Transfer of an Impinging Jet on a Plane Surface

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu

Abstract:

A cold, thin film of liquid impinging on an isothermal hot, horizontal surface has been investigated. An approximate solution for the velocity and temperature distributions in the flow along the horizontal surface is developed, which exploits the hydrodynamic similarity solution for thin film flow. The approximate solution may provide a valuable basis for assessing flow and heat transfer in more complex settings.

Keywords: flux, free impinging jet, solid-surface, uniform wall temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
3886 Generalized Correlation for the Condensation and Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficients of Propane (R290), Butane (R600), R134a, and R407c in Porous Horizontal Tubes: Experimental Investigation

Authors: M. Tarawneh

Abstract:

This work is an experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of different refrigerants during the condensation and evaporation processes in porous media. Four different refrigerants (R134a, R407C, 600a, R290), with different porosities were used to reach a real understanding of the actual heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop when using porous material inside the condenser and evaporator. Steel balls were used as porous media with different porosities (38%, 43%, 48%). The main goal of this project is to enhance the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation and evaporation processes when using different refrigerants and different porosities. Different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the different refrigerants were developed. Also a generalized empirical correlation was developed for the different refrigerants. The experimental and predicted heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were compared. It was found that, the Absolute standard deviation for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop not exceeded values of 15% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: condensation, evaporation, porous media, horizontal tubes, heat transfer coefficient, propane, butane

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
3885 The Effect of Adding CuO Nanoparticles on Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Horizontal Flattened Tubes

Authors: M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, M. Najafi, A. Abbasi

Abstract:

An empirical investigation was performed in order to study the heat transfer characteristics of R600a flow boiling inside horizontal flattened tubes and the simultaneous effect of nanoparticles on boiling heat transfer in flattened channel. Round copper tubes of 8.7 mm I.D. were deformed into flattened shapes with different inside heights of 6.9, 5.5, and 3.4 mm as test areas. The effect of different parameters such as mass flux, vapor quality and inside height on heat transfer coefficient was studied. Flattening the tube caused a significant enhancement in heat transfer performance, so that the maximum augmentation ratio of 163% was obtained in flattened channel with lowest internal height. A new correlation was developed based on the present experimental data to predict the heat transfer coefficient in flattened tubes. This correlation estimated 90% of the entire database within ±20%. The best flat channel with the point of view of heat transfer performance was selected to study the effect of nanoparticle on heat transfer enhancement. Four homogenized mixtures containing 1% weight fraction of R600a/oil with different CuO nanoparticles concentration including 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% mass fraction of R600a/oil/CuO were studied. Observations show that heat transfer was improved by adding nanoparticles, which lead to maximum enhancement of 79% compare to the pure refrigerant at the same test condition.

Keywords: nano fluids, heat transfer, flattend tube, transport phenomena

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
3884 Experimental on Free and Forced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Horizontal and Inclined Microfin Tube

Authors: F. Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, B. Sajadi

Abstract:

In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar, and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated with the Richardson number which is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlations are suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, CuO-HTO nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.

Keywords: nanofluid, heat transfer oil, mixed convection, inclined tube, laminar flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
3883 Effect of Thermal Radiation on Flow, Heat, and Mass Transfer of a Nanofluid over a Stretching Horizontal Cylinder Embedded in a Porous Medium with Suction/Injection

Authors: Elsayed M. A. Elbashbeshy, T. G. Emam, M. S. El-Azab, K. M. Abdelgaber

Abstract:

The effect of thermal radiation on flow, heat and mass transfer of an incompressible viscous nanofluid over a stretching horizontal cylinder embedded in a porous medium with suction/injection is discussed numerically. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations. Mathematica has been used to solve such system after obtaining the missed initial conditions. Comparison of obtained numerical results is made with previously published results in some special cases, and found to be in a good agreement.

Keywords: laminar flow, boundary layer, stretching horizontal cylinder, thermal radiation, suction/injection, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
3882 Effect of Two Radial Fins on Heat Transfer and Flow Structure in a Horizontal Annulus

Authors: Anas El Amraoui, Abdelkhalek Cheddadi, Mohammed Touhami Ouazzani

Abstract:

Laminar natural convection in a cylindrical annular cavity filled with air and provided with two fins is studied numerically using the discretization of the governing equations with the Centered Finite Difference method based on the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The fins are attached to the inner cylinder of radius ri (hot wall of temperature Ti). The outer cylinder of radius ro is maintained at a temperature To (To < Ti). Two values of the dimensionless thickness of the fins are considered: 0.015 and 0.203. We consider a low fin height equal to 0.078 and medium fin heights equal to 0.093 and 0.203. The position of the fin is 0.82π and the radius ratio is equal to 2. The effect of Rayleigh number, Ra, on the flow structure and heat transfer is analyzed for a range of Ra from 103 to 104. The results for established flow structures and heat transfer at low height indicate that the flow regime that occurs is unicellular for all Ra and fin thickness; in addition, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing Rayleigh number and is the same for both thicknesses. At median fin heights 0.093 and 0.203, the increase of Rayleigh number leads to transitions of flow structure which correspond to significant variations of the heat transfer. The critical Rayleigh numbers, Rac.app and Rac.disp corresponding to the appearance of the bicellular flow regime and its disappearance, are determined and their influence on the change of heat transfer rate is analyzed.

Keywords: natural convection, fins, critical Rayleigh number, heat transfer, fluid flow regime, horizontal annulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
3881 Investigation of Heat Transfer Mechanism Inside Shell and Tube Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Saeid Seddegh, Xiaolin Wang, Alan D. Henderson, Dong Chen, Oliver Oims

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to study the heat transfer processes and phase change behaviour of a phase change material (PCM) in shell and tube latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. The thermal behaviour in a vertical and horizontal shell-and-tube heat energy storage system using a pure thermal conduction model and a combined conduction-convection heat transfer model is compared in this paper. The model is first validated using published experimental data available in literature and then used to study the temperature variation, solid-liquid interface, phase distribution, total melting and solidification time during melting and solidification processes of PCMs. The simulated results show that the combined convection and conduction model can better describe the energy transfer in PCMs during melting process. In contrast, heat transfer by conduction is more significant during the solidification process since the two models show little difference. Also, it was concluded that during the charging process for the horizontal orientation, convective heat transfer has a strong effect on melting of the upper part of the solid PCM and is less significant during melting of the lower half of the solid PCM. However, in the vertical orientation, convective heat transfer is the same active during the entire charging process. In the solidification process, the thermal behavior does not show any difference between horizontal and vertical systems.

Keywords: latent heat thermal energy storage, phase change material, natural convection, melting, shell and tube heat exchanger, melting, solidification

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
3880 Application of Artificial Neural Network for Single Horizontal Bare Tube and Bare Tube Bundles (Staggered) of Large Particles: Heat Transfer Prediction

Authors: G. Ravindranath, S. Savitha

Abstract:

This paper presents heat transfer analysis of single horizontal bare tube and heat transfer analysis of staggered arrangement of bare tube bundles bare tube bundles in gas-solid (air-solid) fluidized bed and predictions are done by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on experimental data. Fluidized bed provide nearly isothermal environment with high heat transfer rate to submerged objects i.e. due to through mixing and large contact area between the gas and the particle, a fully fluidized bed has little temperature variation and gas leaves at a temperature which is close to that of the bed. Measurement of average heat transfer coefficient was made by local thermal simulation technique in a cold bubbling air-fluidized bed of size 0.305 m. x 0.305 m. Studies were conducted for single horizontal Bare Tube of length 305mm and 28.6mm outer diameter and for bare tube bundles of staggered arrangement using beds of large (average particle diameter greater than 1 mm) particle (raagi and mustard). Within the range of experimental conditions influence of bed particle diameter ( Dp), Fluidizing Velocity (U) were studied, which are significant parameters affecting heat transfer. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been receiving an increasing attention for simulating engineering systems due to some interesting characteristics such as learning capability, fault tolerance, and non-linearity. Here, feed-forward architecture and trained by back-propagation technique is adopted to predict heat transfer analysis found from experimental results. The ANN is designed to suit the present system which has 3 inputs and 2 out puts. The network predictions are found to be in very good agreement with the experimental observed values of bare heat transfer coefficient (hb) and nusselt number of bare tube (Nub).

Keywords: fluidized bed, large particles, particle diameter, ANN

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3879 Numerical Study of Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid in a Concentric Annular Tube Using Two-Phase Mixture Model

Authors: Roghayyeh Motallebzadeh, Shahin Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza Ghasemi

Abstract:

Laminar mixed convection heat transfer of a nanofluid with prescribed constant heat flux on the inner wall of horizontal annular tube has been studied numerically based on two-phase mixture model in different Rayleigh numbers and Azimuth angles. Effects of applying of different volume fractions of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water as a base fluid on hydrodynamic and thermal behaviours of the fluid flow such as axial velocity, secondary flow, temperature, heat transfer coefficient and friction coefficient at the inner and outer wall region, has been investigated. Conservation equations in elliptical form has been utilized and solved in three dimensions for a steady flow. It is observed that, there is a good agreement between results in this work and previously published experimental and numerical works on mixed convection in horizontal annulus. These particles cause to increase convection heat transfer coefficient of the fluid, meanwhile there is no considerable effect on friction coefficient.

Keywords: buoyancy force, laminar mixed convection, mixture model, nano-fluid, two-phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
3878 An Improved Heat Transfer Prediction Model for Film Condensation inside a Tube with Interphacial Shear Effect

Authors: V. G. Rifert, V. V. Gorin, V. V. Sereda, V. V. Treputnev

Abstract:

The analysis of heat transfer design methods in condensing inside plain tubes under existing influence of shear stress is presented in this paper. The existing discrepancy in more than 30-50% between rating heat transfer coefficients and experimental data has been noted. The analysis of existing theoretical and semi-empirical methods of heat transfer prediction is given. The influence of a precise definition concerning boundaries of phase flow (it is especially important in condensing inside horizontal tubes), shear stress (friction coefficient) and heat flux on design of heat transfer is shown. The substantiation of boundary conditions of the values of parameters, influencing accuracy of rated relationships, is given. More correct relationships for heat transfer prediction, which showed good convergence with experiments made by different authors, are substantiated in this work.

Keywords: film condensation, heat transfer, plain tube, shear stress

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3877 A Study of Laminar Natural Convection in Annular Spaces between Differentially Heated Horizontal Circular Cylinders Filled with Non-Newtonian Nano Fluids

Authors: Behzad Ahdiharab, Senol Baskaya, Tamer Calisir

Abstract:

Heat exchangers are one of the most widely used systems in factories, refineries etc. In this study, natural convection heat transfer using nano-fluids in between two cylinders is numerically investigated. The inner and outer cylinders are kept at constant temperatures. One of the most important assumptions in the project is that the working fluid is non-Newtonian. In recent years, the use of nano-fluids in industrial applications has increased profoundly. In this study, nano-Newtonian fluids containing metal particles with high heat transfer coefficients have been used. All fluid properties such as homogeneity has been calculated. In the present study, solutions have been obtained under unsteady conditions, base fluid was water, and effects of various parameters on heat transfer have been investigated. These parameters are Rayleigh number (103 < Ra < 106), power-law index (0.6 < n < 1.4), aspect ratio (0 < AR < 0.8), nano-particle composition, horizontal and vertical displacement of the inner cylinder, rotation of the inner cylinder, and volume fraction of nanoparticles. Results such as the internal cylinder average and local Nusselt number variations, contours of temperature, flow lines are presented. The results are also discussed in detail. From the validation study performed it was found that a very good agreement exists between the present results and those from the open literature. It was found out that the heat transfer is always affected by the investigated parameters. However, the degree to which the heat transfer is affected does change in a wide range.

Keywords: heat transfer, circular space, non-Newtonian, nano fluid, computational fluid dynamics.

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3876 Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Aluminium Oxide Nanofluid: Effect of the Base Fluid

Authors: M. Amoura, M. Benmoussa, N. Zeraibi

Abstract:

The flow and heat transfer is an important phenomenon in engineering systems due to its wide application in electronic cooling, heat exchangers, double pane windows etc.. The enhancement of heat transfer in these systems is an essential topic from an energy saving perspective. Lower heat transfer performance when conventional fluids, such as water, engine oil and ethylene glycol are used hinders improvements in performance and causes a consequent reduction in the size of such systems. The use of solid particles as an additive suspended into the base fluid is a technique for heat transfer enhancement. Therefore, the heat transfer enhancement in a horizontal circular tube that is maintained at a constant temperature under laminar regime has been investigated numerically. A computational code applied to the problem by use of the finite volume method was developed. Nanofluid was made by dispersion of Al2O3 nanoparticles in pure water and ethylene glycol. Results illustrate that the suspended nanoparticles increase the heat transfer with an increase in the nanoparticles volume fraction and for a considered range of Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the heat transfer is very sensitive to the base fluid.

Keywords: Al2O3 nanoparticles, circular tube, heat transfert enhancement, numerical simulation

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3875 Modeling the Effect of Scale Deposition on Heat Transfer in Desalination Multi-Effect Distillation Evaporators

Authors: K. Bourouni, M. Chacha, T. Jaber, A. Tchantchane

Abstract:

In Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) desalination evaporators, the scale deposit outside the tubes presents a barrier to heat transfers reducing the global heat transfer coefficient and causing a decrease in water production; hence a loss of efficiency and an increase in operating and maintenance costs. Scale removal (by acid cleaning) is the main maintenance operation and constitutes the major reason for periodic plant shutdowns. A better understanding of scale deposition mechanisms will lead to an accurate determination of the variation of scale thickness around the tubes and an improved accuracy of the overall heat transfer coefficient calculation. In this paper, a coupled heat transfer-calcium carbonate scale deposition model on a horizontal tube bundle is presented. The developed tool is used to determine precisely the heat transfer area leading to a significant cost reduction for a given water production capacity. Simulations are carried to investigate the influence of different parameters such as water salinity, temperature, etc. on the heat transfer.

Keywords: multi-effect-evaporator, scale deposition, water desalination, heat transfer coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
3874 Analyses of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Duct

Authors: H. Bhowmik, A. Faisal, Ahmed Al Yaarubi, Nabil Al Alawi

Abstract:

Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m2 to 2426 W/m2 and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×104 to 4.35×104. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0o, 90o, 180o) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90o and 180o are higher than that of stagnation point (0o). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.

Keywords: Fourier number, Nusselt number, Rayleigh number, steady state, transient

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
3873 Flow Dynamics of Nanofluids in a Horizontal Cylindrical Annulus Using Nonhomogeneous Dynamic Model

Authors: M. J. Uddin, M. M. Rahman

Abstract:

Transient natural convective flow dynamics of nanofluids in a horizontal homocentric annulus using nonhomogeneous dynamic model has been experimented numerically. The simulation is carried out for four different shapes of the inner wall, which is either cylindrical, elliptical, square or triangular. The outer surface of the annulus is maintained at constant low temperature while the inner wall is maintained at a uniform temperature; higher than the outer one. The enclosure is permeated by a uniform magnetic field having variable orientation. The Brownian motion and thermophoretic deposition phenomena of the nanoparticles are taken into account in model construction. The governing nonlinear momentum, energy, and concentration equations are solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual finite element method. To find the best performer, the local Nusselt number is demonstrated for different shapes of the inner wall. The heat transfer enhancement for different nanofluids for four different shapes of the inner wall is exhibited.

Keywords: nanofluids, annulus, nonhomogeneous dynamic model, heat transfer

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3872 Design and Validation of an Aerodynamic Model of the Cessna Citation X Horizontal Stabilizer Using both OpenVSP and Digital Datcom

Authors: Marine Segui, Matthieu Mantilla, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez

Abstract:

This research is the part of a major project at the Research Laboratory in Active Controls, Avionics and Aeroservoelasticity (LARCASE) aiming to improve a Cessna Citation X aircraft cruise performance with an application of the morphing wing technology on its horizontal tail. However, the horizontal stabilizer of the Cessna Citation X turns around its span axis with an angle between -8 and 2 degrees. Within this range, the horizontal stabilizer generates certainly some unwanted drag. To cancel this drag, the LARCASE proposes to trim the aircraft with a horizontal stabilizer equipped by a morphing wing technology. This technology aims to optimize aerodynamic performances by changing the conventional horizontal tail shape during the flight. As a consequence, this technology will be able to generate enough lift on the horizontal tail to balance the aircraft without an unwanted drag generation. To conduct this project, an accurate aerodynamic model of the horizontal tail is firstly required. This aerodynamic model will finally allow precise comparison between a conventional horizontal tail and a morphed horizontal tail results. This paper presents how this aerodynamic model was designed. In this way, it shows how the 2D geometry of the horizontal tail was collected and how the unknown airfoil’s shape of the horizontal tail has been recovered. Finally, the complete horizontal tail airfoil shape was found and a comparison between aerodynamic polar of the real horizontal tail and the horizontal tail found in this paper shows a maximum difference of 0.04 on the lift or the drag coefficient which is very good. Aerodynamic polar data of the aircraft horizontal tail are obtained from the CAE Inc. level D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X.

Keywords: aerodynamic, Cessna, citation, coefficient, Datcom, drag, lift, longitudinal, model, OpenVSP

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
3871 Construction of the Large Scale Biological Networks from Microarrays

Authors: Fadhl Alakwaa

Abstract:

One of the sustainable goals of the system biology is understanding gene-gene interactions. Hence, gene regulatory networks (GRN) need to be constructed for understanding the disease ontology and to reduce the cost of drug development. To construct gene regulatory from gene expression we need to overcome many challenges such as data denoising and dimensionality. In this paper, we develop an integrated system to reduce data dimension and remove the noise. The generated network from our system was validated via available interaction databases and was compared to previous methods. The result revealed the performance of our proposed method.

Keywords: gene regulatory network, biclustering, denoising, system biology

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3870 Identification of Mx Gene Polymorphism in Indragiri Hulu duck by PCR-RFLP

Authors: Restu Misrianti

Abstract:

The amino acid variation of Asn (allele A) at position 631 in Mx gene was specific to positive antiviral to avian viral desease. This research was aimed at identifying polymorphism of Mx gene in duck using molecular technique. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to select the genotype of AA, AG and GG. There were thirteen duck from Indragiri Hulu regency (Riau Province) used in this experiment. DNA amplification results showed that the Mx gene in duck is found in a 73 bp fragment. Mx gene in duck did not show any polymorphism. The frequency of the resistant allele (AA) was 0%, while the frequency of the susceptible allele (GG) was 100%.

Keywords: duck, Mx gene, PCR, RFLP

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
3869 Investigating Convective Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of R-1234ze and R-134a Refrigerants in a Microfin and Smooth Tube

Authors: Kaggwa Abdul, Chi-Chuan Wang

Abstract:

This research is based on R-1234ze that is considered to substitute R-134a due to its low global warming potential in a microfin tube with outer diameter 9.52 mm, number of fins 70, and fin height 0.17 mm. In comparison, a smooth tube with similar geometries was used to study pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients related to the two fluids. The microfin tube was brazed inside a stainless steel tube and heated electrically. T-type thermocouples used to measure the temperature distribution during the phase change process. The experimental saturation temperatures and refrigerant mass velocities varied from 10 – 20°C and 50 – 300 kg/m2s respectively. The vapor quality from 0.1 to 0.9, and heat flux ranged from 5 – 11kW/m2. The results showed that heat transfer performance of R-134a in both microfin and smooth tube was better than R-1234ze especially at mass velocities above G = 50 kg/m2s. However, at low mass velocities below G = 100 kg/m2s R-1234ze yield better heat transfer coefficients than R-134a. The pressure gradient of R-1234ze was markedly higher than that of R-134a at all mass flow rates.

Keywords: R-1234ze and R-134a, horizontal flow boiling, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients, micro-fin and smooth tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
3868 Investigation of Riders' Path on Horizontal Curves

Authors: Lemonakis Panagiotis, Eliou Nikos, Karakasidis Theodoros, Botzoris George

Abstract:

It is well known that trajectory along with speed are two of the most important contributing factors in road accidents. Trajectory is meant as the "line“, usually different from the center-line that a driver traverses through horizontal curves which depends on the characteristics of the road environment (especially the curvature), the vehicle and the driver himself. Drivers and especially riders, tend to broaden their paths in order to succeed greater path radiuses and hence, reduce the applied centrifugal force enhancing safety. The objective of the present research is to investigate riders’ path on horizontal curves. Within the context of the research, field measurements were conducted on a rural two lane highway, with the participation of eight riders and the use of an instrumented motorcycle. The research has shown that the trajectory of the riders is correlated to the radius and the length of the horizontal curve as well.

Keywords: trajectory, path, riders, horizontal curves

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
3867 Effects of Viscous Dissipation on Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow towards a Horizontal Circular Cylinder

Authors: Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed, Mohd Zuki Salleh, Anuar Ishak, Nor Aida Zuraimi Md Noar

Abstract:

In this study, the numerical investigation of viscous dissipation on convective boundary layer flow towards a horizontal circular cylinder with constant wall temperature is considered. The transformed partial differential equations are solved numerically by using an implicit finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical solutions are obtained for the reduced Nusselt number and the skin friction coefficient as well as the velocity and temperature profiles. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for various values of the Prandtl number and Eckert number are analyzed and discussed. The results in this paper is original and important for the researchers working in the area of boundary layer flow and this can be used as reference and also as complement comparison purpose in future.

Keywords: free convection, horizontal circular cylinder, viscous dissipation, convective boundary layer flow

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3866 Droplet Entrainment and Deposition in Horizontal Stratified Two-Phase Flow

Authors: Joshua Kim Schimpf, Kyun Doo Kim, Jaseok Heo

Abstract:

In this study, the droplet behavior of under horizontal stratified flow regime for air and water flow in horizontal pipe experiments from a 0.24 m, 0.095 m, and 0.0486 m size diameter pipe are examined. The effects of gravity, pipe diameter, and turbulent diffusion on droplet deposition are considered. Models for droplet entrainment and deposition are proposed that considers developing length. Validation for experimental data dedicated from the REGARD, CEA and Williams, University of Illinois, experiment were performed using SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants).

Keywords: droplet, entrainment, deposition, horizontal

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
3865 Molecular Evolutionary Relationships Between O-Antigens of Enteric Bacteria

Authors: Yuriy A. Knirel

Abstract:

Enteric bacteria Escherichia coli is the predominant facultative anaerobe of the colonic flora, and some specific serotypes are associated with enteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shigella spp. are human pathogens that cause diarrhea and bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). They are in effect E. coli with a specific mode of pathogenicity. Strains of Salmonella enterica are responsible for a food-borne infection (salmonellosis), and specific serotypes cause typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. All these bacteria are closely related in respect to structure and genetics of the lipopolysaccharide, including the O-polysaccharide part (O‑antigen). Being exposed to the bacterial cell surface, the O antigen is subject to intense selection by the host immune system and bacteriophages giving rise to diverse O‑antigen forms and providing the basis for typing of bacteria. The O-antigen forms of many bacteria are unique, but some are structurally and genetically related to others. The sequenced O-antigen gene clusters between conserved galF and gnd genes were analyzed taking into account the O-antigen structures established by us and others for all S. enterica and Shigella and most E. coli O-serogroups. Multiple genetic mechanisms of diversification of the O-antigen forms, such as lateral gene transfer and mutations, were elucidated and are summarized in the present paper. They include acquisition or inactivation of genes for sugar synthesis or transfer or recombination of O-antigen gene clusters or their parts. The data obtained contribute to our understanding of the origins of the O‑antigen diversity, shed light on molecular evolutionary relationships between the O-antigens of enteric bacteria, and open a way for studies of the role of gene polymorphism in pathogenicity.

Keywords: enteric bacteria, O-antigen gene cluster, polysaccharide biosynthesis, polysaccharide structure

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3864 Predictive Pathogen Biology: Genome-Based Prediction of Pathogenic Potential and Countermeasures Targets

Authors: Debjit Ray

Abstract:

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination leads to the emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance and pathogenic traits. HGT events can be identified by comparing a large number of fully sequenced genomes across a species or genus, define the phylogenetic range of HGT, and find potential sources of new resistance genes. In-depth comparative phylogenomics can also identify subtle genome or plasmid structural changes or mutations associated with phenotypic changes. Comparative phylogenomics requires that accurately sequenced, complete and properly annotated genomes of the organism. Assembling closed genomes requires additional mate-pair reads or “long read” sequencing data to accompany short-read paired-end data. To bring down the cost and time required of producing assembled genomes and annotating genome features that inform drug resistance and pathogenicity, we are analyzing the performance for genome assembly of data from the Illumina NextSeq, which has faster throughput than the Illumina HiSeq (~1-2 days versus ~1 week), and shorter reads (150bp paired-end versus 300bp paired end) but higher capacity (150-400M reads per run versus ~5-15M) compared to the Illumina MiSeq. Bioinformatics improvements are also needed to make rapid, routine production of complete genomes a reality. Modern assemblers such as SPAdes 3.6.0 running on a standard Linux blade are capable in a few hours of converting mixes of reads from different library preps into high-quality assemblies with only a few gaps. Remaining breaks in scaffolds are generally due to repeats (e.g., rRNA genes) are addressed by our software for gap closure techniques, that avoid custom PCR or targeted sequencing. Our goal is to improve the understanding of emergence of pathogenesis using sequencing, comparative genomics, and machine learning analysis of ~1000 pathogen genomes. Machine learning algorithms will be used to digest the diverse features (change in virulence genes, recombination, horizontal gene transfer, patient diagnostics). Temporal data and evolutionary models can thus determine whether the origin of a particular isolate is likely to have been from the environment (could it have evolved from previous isolates). It can be useful for comparing differences in virulence along or across the tree. More intriguing, it can test whether there is a direction to virulence strength. This would open new avenues in the prediction of uncharacterized clinical bugs and multidrug resistance evolution and pathogen emergence.

Keywords: genomics, pathogens, genome assembly, superbugs

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3863 Macronutrients and the FTO Gene Expression in Hypothalamus: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

Authors: Saeid Doaei

Abstract:

The various studies have examined the relationship between FTO gene expression and macronutrients levels. In order to obtain better viewpoint from this interactions, all of the existing studies were reviewed systematically. All published papers have been obtained and reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords from databases such as CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane, from 1990 to 2016. The results indicated that all of 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria (from a total of 428 published article) found FTO gene expression changes at short-term follow-ups. Four of six studies found an increased FTO gene expression after calorie restriction, while two of them indicated decreased FTO gene expression. The effect of protein, carbohydrate and fat were separately assessed and suggested by all of six studies. In conclusion, the level of FTO gene expression in hypothalamus is related to macronutrients levels. Future research should evaluate the long-term impact of dietary interventions.

Keywords: obesity, gene expression, FTO, macronutrients

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3862 Integration of Microarray Data into a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model to Study Flux Distribution after Gene Knockout

Authors: Mona Heydari, Ehsan Motamedian, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati

Abstract:

Prediction of perturbations after genetic manipulation (especially gene knockout) is one of the important challenges in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced that integrates microarray data into the metabolic model. The algorithm was used to study the change in the cell phenotype after knockout of Gss gene in Escherichia coli BW25113. Algorithm implementation indicated that gene deletion resulted in more activation of the metabolic network. Growth yield was more and less regulating gene were identified for mutant in comparison with the wild-type strain.

Keywords: metabolic network, gene knockout, flux balance analysis, microarray data, integration

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3861 Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Fares Senouci, Bachir Imine

Abstract:

This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.

Keywords: aerodynamics, drag, lift, turbulence model, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 144