Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3734

Search results for: drug resistance

3734 In Silico Studies on Selected Drug Targets for Combating Drug Resistance in Plasmodium Falcifarum

Authors: Deepika Bhaskar, Neena Wadehra, Megha Gulati, Aruna Narula, R. Vishnu, Gunjan Katyal

Abstract:

With drug resistance becoming widespread in Plasmodium falciparum infections, development of the alternative drugs is the desired strategy for prevention and cure of malaria. Three drug targets were selected to screen promising drug molecules from the GSK library of around 14000 molecules. Using an in silico structure-based drug designing approach, the differences in binding energies of the substrate and inhibitor were exploited between target sites of parasite and human to design a drug molecule against Plasmodium. The docking studies have shown several promising molecules from GSK library with more effective binding as compared to the already known inhibitors for the drug targets. Though stronger interaction has been shown by several molecules as compare to reference, few molecules have shown the potential as drug candidates though in vitro studies are required to validate the results.

Keywords: plasmodium, malaria, drug targets, in silico studies

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3733 Computer Based Identification of Possible Molecular Targets for Induction of Drug Resistance Reversion in Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Authors: Oleg Reva, Ilya Korotetskiy, Marina Lankina, Murat Kulmanov, Aleksandr Ilin

Abstract:

Molecular docking approaches are widely used for design of new antibiotics and modeling of antibacterial activities of numerous ligands which bind specifically to active centers of indispensable enzymes and/or key signaling proteins of pathogens. Widespread drug resistance among pathogenic microorganisms calls for development of new antibiotics specifically targeting important metabolic and information pathways. A generally recognized problem is that almost all molecular targets have been identified already and it is getting more and more difficult to design innovative antibacterial compounds to combat the drug resistance. A promising way to overcome the drug resistance problem is an induction of reversion of drug resistance by supplementary medicines to improve the efficacy of the conventional antibiotics. In contrast to well established computer-based drug design, modeling of drug resistance reversion still is in its infancy. In this work, we proposed an approach to identification of compensatory genetic variants reducing the fitness cost associated with the acquisition of drug resistance by pathogenic bacteria. The approach was based on an analysis of the population genetic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and on results of experimental modeling of the drug resistance reversion induced by a new anti-tuberculosis drug FS-1. The latter drug is an iodine-containing nanomolecular complex that passed clinical trials and was admitted as a new medicine against MDR-TB in Kazakhstan. Isolates of M. tuberculosis obtained on different stages of the clinical trials and also from laboratory animals infected with MDR-TB strain were characterized by antibiotic resistance, and their genomes were sequenced by the paired-end Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology. A steady increase in sensitivity to conventional anti-tuberculosis antibiotics in series of isolated treated with FS-1 was registered despite the fact that the canonical drug resistance mutations identified in the genomes of these isolates remained intact. It was hypothesized that the drug resistance phenotype in M. tuberculosis requires an adjustment of activities of many genes to compensate the fitness cost of the drug resistance mutations. FS-1 cased an aggravation of the fitness cost and removal of the drug-resistant variants of M. tuberculosis from the population. This process caused a significant increase in genetic heterogeneity of the Mtb population that was not observed in the positive and negative controls (infected laboratory animals left untreated and treated solely with the antibiotics). A large-scale search for linkage disequilibrium associations between the drug resistance mutations and genetic variants in other genomic loci allowed identification of target proteins, which could be influenced by supplementary drugs to increase the fitness cost of the drug resistance and deprive the drug-resistant bacterial variants of their competitiveness in the population. The approach will be used to improve the efficacy of FS-1 and also for computer-based design of new drugs to combat drug-resistant infections.

Keywords: complete genome sequencing, computational modeling, drug resistance reversion, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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3732 Prevalence and Genetic Determinant of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis among Patients Completing Intensive Phase of Treatment in a Tertiary Referral Center in Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Bashir Mohammad, Agwu Ezera, Abdulrazaq G. Habib, Garba Iliyasu

Abstract:

Background: Drug resistance tuberculosis (DR-TB) continues to be a challenge in developing countries with poor resources. Routine screening for primary DR-TB before commencing treatment is not done in public hospitals in Nigeria, even with the large body of evidence that shows a high prevalence of primary DR-TB. Data on drug resistance and its genetic determinant among follow up TB patients is lacking in Nigeria. Hence the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genetic determinant of drug resistance among follow up TB patients in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional laboratory-based study conducted on 384 sputum samples collected from consented follow-up tuberculosis patients. Standard microbiology methods (Zeil-Nielsen staining and microscopy) and PCR (Line Probe Assay)] were used to analyze the samples collected. Person’s Chi-square was used to analyze the data generated. Results: Out of three hundred and eighty-four (384) sputum samples analyzed for mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and DR-TB twenty-five 25 (6.5%) were found to be AFB positive. These samples were subjected to PCR (Line Probe Assay) out of which 18(72%) tested positive for DR-TB. Mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin (rpo B) and isoniazid (katG, and or inhA) were detected in 12/18(66.7%) and 6/18(33.3%), respectively. Transmission dynamic of DR-TB was not significantly (p>0.05) dependent on demographic characteristics. Conclusion: There is a need to strengthened the laboratory capacity for diagnosis of TB and drug resistance testing and make these services available, affordable, and accessible to the patients who need them.

Keywords: drug resistance tuberculosis, genetic determinant, intensive phase, Nigeria

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3731 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Molecular Epidemiology: An Overview

Authors: Asho Ali

Abstract:

Tuberculosis is a disease of grave concern which infects one-third of the global population. The high incidence of tuberculosis is further compounded by the increasing emergence of drug resistant strains including multi drug resistant (MDR). Global incidence MDR-TB is ~4%. Molecular epidemiological studies, based on the assumption that patients infected with clustered strains are epidemiologically linked, have helped understand the transmission dynamics of disease. It has also helped to investigate the basis of variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains, differences in transmission, and severity of disease or drug resistance mechanisms from across the globe. This has helped in developing strategies for the treatment and prevention of the disease including MDR.

Keywords: Mycobcaterium tuberculosis, molecular epidemiology, drug resistance, disease

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3730 Clinical Impact of Ultra-Deep Versus Sanger Sequencing Detection of Minority Mutations on the HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotype Interpretations after Virological Failure

Authors: S. Mohamed, D. Gonzalez, C. Sayada, P. Halfon

Abstract:

Drug resistance mutations are routinely detected using standard Sanger sequencing, which does not detect minor variants with a frequency below 20%. The impact of detecting minor variants generated by ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) on HIV drug-resistance (DR) interpretations has not yet been studied. Fifty HIV-1 patients who experienced virological failure were included in this retrospective study. The HIV-1 UDS protocol allowed the detection and quantification of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase variants related to genotypes A, B, C, E, F, and G. DeepChek®-HIV simplified DR interpretation software was used to compare Sanger sequencing and UDS. The total time required for the UDS protocol was found to be approximately three times longer than Sanger sequencing with equivalent reagent costs. UDS detected all of the mutations found by population sequencing and identified additional resistance variants in all patients. An analysis of DR revealed a total of 643 and 224 clinically relevant mutations by UDS and Sanger sequencing, respectively. Three resistance mutations with > 20% prevalence were detected solely by UDS: A98S (23%), E138A (21%) and V179I (25%). A significant difference in the DR interpretations for 19 antiretroviral drugs was observed between the UDS and Sanger sequencing methods. Y181C and T215Y were the most frequent mutations associated with interpretation differences. A combination of UDS and DeepChek® software for the interpretation of DR results would help clinicians provide suitable treatments. A cut-off of 1% allowed a better characterisation of the viral population by identifying additional resistance mutations and improving the DR interpretation.

Keywords: HIV-1, ultra-deep sequencing, Sanger sequencing, drug resistance

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3729 Surface Modified Polyamidoamine Dendrimer with Gallic Acid Overcomes Drug Resistance in Colon Cancer Cells HCT-116

Authors: Khushbu Priyadarshi, Chandramani Pathak

Abstract:

Cancer cells can develop resistance to conventional therapies especially chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to chemotherapy is another challenge in cancer therapeutics. Therefore, it is important to address this issue. Gallic acid (GA) is a natural plant compound that exhibits various biological properties including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial. Despite of the wide spectrum biological properties GA has cytotoxic response and low bioavailability. To overcome this problem, GA was conjugated with the Polyamidoamine(PAMAM) dendrimer for improving the bioavailability and efficient delivery in drug-resistant HCT-116 Colon Cancer cells. Gallic acid was covalently linked to 4.0 G PAMAM dendrimer. PAMAM dendrimer is well established nanocarrier but has cytotoxicity due to presence of amphiphilic nature of amino group. In our study we have modified surface of PAMAM dendrimer with Gallic acid and examine their anti-proliferative effects in drug-resistant HCT-116 cells. Further, drug-resistant colon cancer cells were established and thereafter treated with different concentration of PAMAM-GA to examine their anti-proliferative potential. Our results show that PAMAM-GA conjugate induces apoptotic cell death in HCT-116 and drug-resistant cells observed by Annexin-PI staining. In addition, it also shows that multidrug-resistant drug transporter P-gp protein expression was downregulated with increasing the concentration of GA conjugate. After that we also observed the significant difference in Rh123 efflux and accumulation in drug sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, our study suggests that conjugation of anti-cancer agents with PAMAM could improve drug resistant property and cytotoxic response to treatment of cancer.

Keywords: drug resistance, gallic acid, PAMAM dendrimer, P-glycoprotein

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3728 Development and in vitro Evaluation of Polymer-Drug Conjugates Containing Potentiating Agents for Combination Therapy

Authors: Blessing A. Aderibigbe

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Combination therapy is a treatment approach that is used to prevent the emergence of drug resistance. This approach is used for the treatment of many chronic and infectious diseases. Potentiating agents are currently explored in combination therapy, resulting in excellent therapeutic outcomes. Breast cancer and malaria are two chronic conditions responsible globally for high death rates. In this research, a class of polymer-drug conjugates containing potentiating agents with either antimalarial or anticancer drugs were prepared by Michael Addition Polymerization reaction and ring-opening polymerization reaction. Conjugation of potentiating agents with bioactive compounds into the polymers resulted in conjugates with good water solubility, highly selective and non-toxic. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro antiplasmodial evaluation on the conjugates revealed that the conjugates were more effective when compared to the free drugs. The drug release studies further showed that the release profile of the drugs from the conjugates was sustained. The findings revealed the potential of polymer-drug conjugates to overcome drug toxicity and drug resistance, which is common with the currently used antimalarial and anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, antimalarials, combination therapy, polymer-drug conjugates

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3727 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Nanofluid Containing Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Antibiotic on Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Erfan Rahimi, Hadi Bahari Far, Mojgan Shikhpour

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections, especially among women. E. coli is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections and one of the most common antibiotics to fight this bacterium is ampicillin. As conventional antibiotics led to bacterial antibiotic resistance, modification of the pure drugs can address this issue. The aim of this study was to prepare nanofluids containing carbon nanotubes conjugated with ampicillin to improve drug performance and reduce antibiotic resistance. Methods: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were activated with thionyl chloride by reflux system and nanofluids containing antibiotics were prepared by ultrasonic method. The properties of the prepared nano-drug were investigated by general element analysis, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After the treatment of the desired strain with nanofluid, microbial studies were performed to evaluate the antibacterial effects and molecular studies were carried out to measure the expression of the resistance gene AcrAB. Result: We have shown that the antimicrobial effect of ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs at low concentrations performed better than that of the conventional drug in both resistant and ATCC strains. Also, a decrease in antibiotic resistance of bacteria treated with ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs compared to the pure drug was observed. Also, ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs downregulated the expression of AcrAB in treated bacteria. Conclusion: Because carbon nanotubes are capable of destroying the bacterial wall, which provides antibiotic resistance features in bacteria, their usage in the form of nanofluids can make lower dosages (about three times less) than that of the pure drug more effective. Additionally, the expression of the bacterial resistance gene AcrAB decreased, thereby reducing antibiotic resistance and improving drug performance against bacteria.

Keywords: urinary tract infection, antibiotic resistance, carbon nanotube, nanofluid

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3726 Intensive Crosstalk between Autophagy and Intracellular Signaling Regulates Osteosarcoma Cell Survival Response under Cisplatin Stress

Authors: Jyothi Nagraj, Sudeshna Mukherjee, Rajdeep Chowdhury

Abstract:

Autophagy has recently been linked with cancer cell survival post drug insult contributing to acquisition of resistance. However, the molecular signaling governing autophagic survival response is poorly explored. In our study, in osteosarcoma (OS) cells cisplatin shock was found to activate both MAPK and autophagy signaling. An activation of JNK and autophagy acted as pro-survival strategy, while ERK1/2 triggered apoptotic signals upon cisplatin stress. An increased sensitivity of the cells to cisplatin was obtained with simultaneous inhibition of both autophagy and JNK pathway. Furthermore, we observed that the autophagic stimulation upon drug stress regulates other developmentally active signaling pathways like the Hippo pathway in OS cells. Cisplatin resistant cells were thereafter developed by repetitive drug exposure followed by clonal selection. Basal levels of autophagy were found to be high in resistant cells to. However, the signaling mechanism leading to autophagic up-regulation and its regulatory effect differed in OS cells upon attaining drug resistance. Our results provide valuable clues to regulatory dynamics of autophagy that can be considered for development of improved therapeutic strategy against resistant type cancers.

Keywords: JNK, autophagy, drug resistance, cancer

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3725 Characterization of PRL-3 Oncogenic Phosphatase in Its Role in Mediating Acquired Resistance to Bortezomib in Multiple Myeloma

Authors: Shamill Amedot Udonwa, Phyllis S. Y. Chong, Lim S. L. Julia, Wee-Joo Chng

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigated how PRL-3 expression in H929 and U266 cells affects the efficacy of drug treatment. H929 and U266 cells were treated with Bortezomib (BTZ) of different concentrations, and it was observed that H929 cells were resistant to BTZ, while U266 cells were not viable. Investigations into how BTZ targets these cells were conducted, and it was observed that BTZ affects the PARP-Caspase3 pathway as well as PRL-3-Leo1 pathways. These pathways regulate cell proliferation and cell cycle, respectively. Hence, we are able to show the mechanism of how BTZ affects cells and also the role PRL-3 plays on downstream oncogenes such as cyclin-D1 and c-MYC. More importantly, this investigation into PRL-3 in BTZ resistance will be highly applicable in the future as the first clinical trials of PRL-3 antibody (PRL3-zumab) are ongoing at the National University Hospital, Singapore (NUHS). This would mean that understanding the mechanism of resistance through PRL-3, which has yet to be studied, will demonstrate the potential of PRL-3 in developing novel strategies to improve the treatment of MM.

Keywords: drug resistance, hematology, multiple myeloma, oncogene

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3724 Is Presence of Psychotic Features Themselves Carry a Risk for Metabolic Syndrome?

Authors: Rady A., Elsheshai A., Elsawy M., Nagui R.

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Metabolic syndrome affect around 20% of general population , authors have incriminated antipsychotics as serious risk factor that may provoke such derangement. The aim of our study is to assess metabolic syndrome in patients presenting psychotic features (delusions and hallucinations) whether schizophrenia or mood disorder and compare results in terms of drug naïf, on medication and healthy control. Subjects and Methods: The study recruited 40 schizophrenic patients, half of them drug naïf and the other half on antipsychotics, 40 patients with mood disorder with psychotic features, half of them drug naïf and the other half on medication, 20 healthy control. Exclusion criteria were put in order to exclude patients having already endocrine or metabolic disorders that my interfere with results obtain to minimize confusion bias. Metabolic syndrome assessed by measuring parameters including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride level, HDL, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance Results: No difference was found when comparing drug naïf to those on medication in both schizophrenic and psychotic mood disorder arms, schizophrenic patients whether on medication or drug naïf should difference with control group for fasting glucose, schizophrenic patients on medication also showed difference in insulin resistance compared to control group. On the other hand, patients with psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication showed difference from control group for fasting insulin level. Those on medication also differed from control for insulin resistance Conclusion: Our study didn’t reveal difference in metabolic syndrome among patients with psychotic features whether on medication or drug naïf. Only patients with Psychotic features on medication showed insulin resistance. Schizophrenic patients drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting glucose while psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting insulin. This study suggest that presence of psychotic features themselves regardless being on medication or not carries a risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Limitation: This study is limited by number of participants and larger numbers in future studies should be included in order to extrapolate results. Cohort longitudinal studies are needed in order to evaluate such hypothesis.

Keywords: schizophrenia, metabolic syndrome, psychosis, insulin, resistance

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3723 In-silico Design of Riboswitch Based Potent Inhibitors for Vibrio cholera

Authors: Somdutt Mujwar, Kamal Raj Pardasani

Abstract:

Cholera pandemics are caused by facultative pathogenic Vibrio cholera bacteria persisting in the countries having warmer climatic conditions as well as the presence of large water bodies with huge amount of organic matter, it is responsible for the millions of deaths annually. Presently the available therapy for cholera is Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) with an antibiotic drug. Excessive utilization of life saving antibiotics drugs leads to the development of resistance by the infectious micro-organism against the antibiotic drugs resulting in loss of effectiveness of these drugs. Also, many side effects are also associated with the use of these antibiotic drugs. This riboswitch is explored as an alternative drug target for Vibrio cholera bacteria to overcome the problem of drug resistance as well as side effects associated with the antibiotics drugs. The bacterial riboswitch is virtually screened with 24407 legends to get possible drug candidates. The 10 ligands showing best binding with the riboswitch are selected to design a pharmacophore, which can be utilized to design lead molecules by using the phenomenon of bioisosterism.

Keywords: cholera, drug design, ligand, riboswitch, pharmacophore

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3722 Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Clinical Specimens

Authors: Sadaf Ilyas, Saba Riaz

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The extensive use of antibiotics has led to increases emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Pseudomonas is a notorious opportunistic pathogen involoved in nosocomial infections and exhibit innate resistance to many antibiotics. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, levels of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas. A total of thirty clinical strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from different clinical sites of infection. All clinical specimens were collected from Chughtais Lahore Lab. Jail road, during 8-07-2010 to 11-01-2011. Biochemical characterization was done using routine biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Baeur method. The plasmids were isolated from all the strains and digested with restriction enzyme PstI and EcoRI. Transfer of Multi-resistance plasmid was checked via transformation and conjugation to confirm the plasmid mediated resistance to antibiotics. The prevalence of Pseudomonas in clinical specimens was found out to be 14% of all bacterial infections. IPM has shown to be the most effective drug against Pseudomonas followed by CES, PTB and meropenem, wheareas most of the Pseudomonas strains have developed significant resistance against Penicillins and some Cephalasporins. Antibiotic resistance determinants were carried by plasmids, as they conferred resistance to transformed K1 strains. The isolates readily undergo conjugation, transferring the resistant genes to other strains, illustrating the high rates of cross infection and nosocomial infection in the immunocompromised patients.

Keywords: pseudomonas, antibiotics, drug resistance, horizontal gene transfer

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3721 Solid Dosages Form Tablet: A Summary on the Article by Shashank Tiwari

Authors: Shashank Tiwari

Abstract:

The most common method of drug delivery is the oral solid dosage form, of which tablets and capsules are predominant. The tablet is more widely accepted and used compared to capsules for a number of reasons, such as cost/price, tamper resistance, ease of handling and packaging, ease of identification, and manufacturing efficiency. Over the past several years, the issue of tamper resistance has resulted in the conversion of most over-the-counter (OTC) drugs from capsules to predominantly all tablets.

Keywords: capsule, drug delivery, dosages, solid, tablet

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3720 Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Daptomycin

Authors: Ji-Chan Jang

Abstract:

Tuberculosis is still major health problem because there is an increase of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of the disease. Therefore, the most urgent clinical need is to discover potent agents and develop novel drug combination capable of reducing the duration of MDR and XDR tuberculosis therapy. Three reference strains H37Rv, CDC1551, W-Beijing GC1237 and six clinical isolates of MDRTB were tested to daptomycin in the range of 0.013 to 256 mg/L. Daptomycin is resistant to all tested M. tuberculosis strains not only laboratory strains but also clinical MDR strains that were isolated at different source. Daptomycin will not be an antibiotic of choice for treating infection of Gram positive atypical slowly growing M. tuberculosis.

Keywords: tuberculosis, daptomycin, resistance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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3719 Investigating the Essentiality of Oxazolidinones in Resistance-Proof Drug Combinations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Selected under in vitro Conditions

Authors: Gail Louw, Helena Boshoff, Taeksun Song, Clifton Barry

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Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily attributed to mutations in target genes. These mutations incur a fitness cost and result in bacterial generations that are less fit, which subsequently acquire compensatory mutations to restore fitness. We hypothesize that mutations in specific drug target genes influence bacterial metabolism and cellular function, which affects its ability to develop subsequent resistance to additional agents. We aim to determine whether the sequential acquisition of drug resistance and specific mutations in a well-defined clinical M. tuberculosis strain promotes or limits the development of additional resistance. In vitro mutants resistant to pretomanid, linezolid, moxifloxacin, rifampicin and kanamycin were generated from a pan-susceptible clinical strain from the Beijing lineage. The resistant phenotypes to the anti-TB agents were confirmed by the broth microdilution assay and genetic mutations were identified by targeted gene sequencing. Growth of mono-resistant mutants was done in enriched medium for 14 days to assess in vitro fitness. Double resistant mutants were generated against anti-TB drug combinations at concentrations 5x and 10x the minimum inhibitory concentration. Subsequently, mutation frequencies for these anti-TB drugs in the different mono-resistant backgrounds were determined. The initial level of resistance and the mutation frequencies observed for the mono-resistant mutants were comparable to those previously reported. Targeted gene sequencing revealed the presence of known and clinically relevant mutations in the mutants resistant to linezolid, rifampicin, kanamycin and moxifloxacin. Significant growth defects were observed for mutants grown under in vitro conditions compared to the sensitive progenitor. Mutation frequencies determination in the mono-resistant mutants revealed a significant increase in mutation frequency against rifampicin and kanamycin, but a significant decrease in mutation frequency against linezolid and sutezolid. This suggests that these mono-resistant mutants are more prone to develop resistance to rifampicin and kanamycin, but less prone to develop resistance against linezolid and sutezolid. Even though kanamycin and linezolid both inhibit protein synthesis, these compounds target different subunits of the ribosome, thereby leading to different outcomes in terms of fitness in the mutants with impaired cellular function. These observations showed that oxazolidinone treatment is instrumental in limiting the development of multi-drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in vitro.

Keywords: oxazolidinones, mutations, resistance, tuberculosis

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3718 Drug Susceptibility and Genotypic Assessment of Mycobacterial Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in North East Ethiopia

Authors: Minwuyelet Maru, Solomon Habtemariam, Endalamaw Gadissa, Abraham Aseffa

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Background: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The burden of TB is aggravated by emergence and expansion of drug resistant tuberculosis and different lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) have been reported in many parts of the country. Describing strains of Mycobacterial isolates and drug susceptibility pattern is necessary. Method: Sputum samples were collected from smear positive pulmonary TB patients age >= 7 years between October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013 and Mycobacterial strains isolated on Loweensten Jensen (LJ) media. Each strain was characterized by deletion typing and Spoligotyping. Drug sensitivity testing was determined with the indirect proportion method using Middle brook 7H10 media and association to determine possible risk factors to drug resistance was done. Result: A total of 144 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were enrolled. The age of participants ranged from 7 to 78 with mean age of 29.22 (±10.77) years. In this study 82.2% (n=97) of the isolates were sensitive to the four first line anti-tuberculosis drugs and resistance to any of the four drugs tested was 17.8% (n=21). A high frequency of any resistance was observed in isoniazid, 13.6%, (n=16) followed by streptomycin, 11.8% (n=14). No significant association of isoniazid resistance with HIV, sex and history of previous TB treatment was observed but there was significant association with age, high between 31-35 years of age (p=0.01). Majority, 89.9% (n=128) of participants were new cases and only 11.1% (n=16) had history of previous TB treatment. No MDR-TB from new cases and 2 MDRTB (13.3%) was isolated from re-treatment cases which was significantly associated with previous TB treatment (p<0.01). Thirty two different types of spoligotype patterns were identified and 74.1% were grouped in to 13 clusters. The dominant strains were SIT 25, 18.1% (n=21), SIT 53, 17.2% (n=20) and SIT 149, 8.6% (n=10). Lineage 4 is the predominant lineage followed by lineage 3 and lineage 7 comprising 65.5% (n=76), 28.4% (n=33) and 6% (n=7) respectively. Majority of strains from lineage 3 and 4 were SIT 25 (63.6%) and SIT 53 (26.3%) whereas SIT 343 was the dominant strain from lineage 7 (71.4%). Conclusion: Wide spread of lineage 3 and lineage 4 of the modern lineage and high number of strain cluster indicates high ongoing transmission. The high proportion resistance to any of the first line anti-tuberculosis drugs may be a potential source in the emergence of MDR-TB. Wide spread of SIT 25 and SIT 53 having a tendency of ease transmission and presence of higher resistance of isoniazid in working and mobile age group, 31-35 years of age may increase risk of drug resistant strains transmission.

Keywords: tuberculosis, drug susceptibility, strain diversity, lineage, Ethiopia, spoligotyping

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3717 Synthesis of New Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs

Authors: M. S. Deshpande, Snehal D. Bomble

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Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly contagious disease that is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. More than sixty years ago, the introduction of the first anti-TB drugs for the treatment of TB (streptomycin (STR), p-aminosalcylic acid (PAS), isoniazid (INH), and then later ethambutol (EMB) and rifampicin (RIF)) gave optimism to the medical community, and it was believed that the disease would be completely eradicated soon. Worldwide, the number of TB cases has continued to increase, but the incidence rate has decreased since 2003. Recently, highly drug-resistant forms of TB have emerged worldwide. The prolonged use of classical drugs developed a growing resistance and these drugs have gradually become less effective and incapable to meet the challenges, especially those of multi drug resistant (MDR)-TB, extensively drug resistant (XDR)-TB, and HIV-TB co-infections. There is an unmet medical need to discover newer synthetic molecules and new generation of potent drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis which will shorten the time of treatment, be potent and safe while effective facing resistant strains and non-replicative, latent forms, reduce adverse side effect and not interfere in the antiretroviral therapy. This paper attempts to bring out the review of anti-TB drugs, and presents a novel method of synthesizing new anti-tuberculosis drugs and potential compounds to overcome the bacterial resistance and combat the re-emergence of tuberculosis.

Keywords: tuberculosis, mycobacterium, multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB, extensively drug resistant (XDR)-TB

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3716 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

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Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

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3715 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Fatma M. Benrabha

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The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis were 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), microorganism, drug sensitivity

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3714 In silico Analysis of Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: A. Nusrath Unissa, Sameer Hassan, Luke Elizabeth Hanna

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Altered drug binding may be an important factor in isoniazid (INH) resistance, rather than major changes in the enzyme’s activity as a catalase or peroxidase (KatG). The identification of structural or functional defects in the mutant KatGs responsible for INH resistance remains as an area to be explored. In this connection, the differences in the binding affinity between wild-type (WT) and mutants of KatG were investigated, through the generation of three mutants of KatG, Ser315Thr [S315T], Ser315Asn [S315N], Ser315Arg [S315R] and a WT [S315]) with the help of software-MODELLER. The mutants were docked with INH using the software-GOLD. The affinity is lower for WT than mutant, suggesting the tight binding of INH with the mutant protein compared to WT type. These models provide the in silico evidence for the binding interaction of KatG with INH and implicate the basis for rationalization of INH resistance in naturally occurring KatG mutant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, KatG, INH resistance, mutants, modelling, docking

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3713 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Nagat M. Saeed, Mabruka S. Elashheb, Fatma M. Ben Rabaha, Aisha M Edrah

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis was 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in the treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), microorganisms, drug sensitivity

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3712 Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Pigs at Slaughterhouses in Northeast of Thailand

Authors: Sunpetch Angkititrakul, Seree Klaengair, Dusadee Phongaran, Arunee Ritthipanun

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. isolated from pigs at slaughterhouses in the northeast of Thailand. During 2015-2016, all samples were isolated and identified by ISO 6579:2002. A total of 699 samples of rectal swab were collected and isolated for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 275 of 699 (39.34%) samples. 24 serovars were identified in the 275 isolates. The most prevalent serovars were rissen (36.97%), S. enterica ser.4,5,12:i: (25.35%) and typhimurium (21.33%). In this study, 76.30% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug and 38.39% were multidrug resistant. The highest resistances were found in ampicillin (69.20%), tetracycline (66.35%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (35.55%) and chloramphenicol (9.00%) The results showed high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pigs and high antimicrobial resistance among the isolates, and indicated the need for monitoring program to control Salmonella contamination and reduce the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in pig supply chain.

Keywords: prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella spp., pig

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3711 Virtual Screening of Potential Inhibitors against Efflux Pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Gagan Dhawan

Abstract:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis was described as ‘captain of death’ with an inherent property of multiple drug resistance majorly caused by the competent mechanism of efflux pumps. In this study, various open source tools combining chemo-informatics with bioinformatics were used for efficient in-silico drug designing. The efflux pump, Rv1218c, belonging to the ABC transporter superfamily, which is predicted to be a tetronasin-transporter in M. tuberculosis was targeted. Recent studies have shown that Rv1218c forms a complex with two more efflux pumps (Rv1219c and Rv1217c) to provide multidrug resistance to the bacterium. The 3D structure of the protein was modeled (as the structure was unavailable in the previously collected databases on this gene). The TMHMM analysis of this protein in TubercuList has shown that this protein is present in the outer membrane of the bacterium. Virtual screening of compounds from various publically available chemical libraries was performed on the M. tuberculosis protein using various open source tools. These ligands were further assessed where various physicochemical properties were evaluated and analyzed. On comparison of different physicochemical properties, toxicity and docking, the ligand 2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[4, 5, 6-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahydropyran-3-yl] oxy-tetrahydropyran-3, 4, 5-triol was found to be best suited for further studies.

Keywords: drug resistance, efflux pump, molecular docking, virtual screening

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3710 Malaria Management among Dispensers in Drug Retail Outlets in Buea Community: An Assessment of Knowledge of Malaria and Antimalarial Drug Prescription and Dispensing Practices

Authors: Marcelus U. Ajonina, Deodata B. Ngonga, Kenric B. Ware, Carine K. Nfor

Abstract:

Background: Lack of knowledge of rational use of antimalarial drugs among dispensers is a serious problem, especially in areas of intense transmission, thus increasing the risk of resistance and adverse drug reactions. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of malaria as well as perception and dispensing practices of antimalarials among vendors in Buea community. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 140 drug vendors living within the Buea community was conducted between March and June 2017. A questionnaire was designed to obtain information from drug vendors on the general knowledge of malaria as well as dispensing practices. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 20.0 and were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Knowledge of malaria symptoms, transmission, and prevention was reasonable among 55.8% (77) of the respondents. Only 33.6% (47) of the respondents could attribute the cause of malaria to protozoan of genus Plasmodium species. Of the 140 vendors, 115 (82.7%) prescribe antimalarial drugs. The knowledge of the national protocol was malaria case management among dispensers was 35.0%. Vendors in hospital/community pharmacies were 2.4 times (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 4.14 - 8.74, p < 0.001) more knowledgeable about malaria treatment protocol than those of in drugstores. The prevalence of self-prescription of antimalarials was 39.3%. Self-prescription was significantly higher in drugstores than hospital/community pharmacies (p=0.004). In all, 56 (40.6%) of vendors showed good practices regarding antimalarial drug dispensing with the majority (51.7%) from community pharmacies (OR=2.27,95% CI: 1.13-4.56). Conclusion: Findings reveal moderate knowledge of malaria but poor prescription and dispensing practices of antimalarial drugs among vendors, thus indicating a need for routine monitoring and evaluation to prevent the emergence of resistant strains to current efficacious antimalarials.

Keywords: antimalarials, drug retail outlets, dispensing, drug resistance, prescription

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3709 Emergence of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Pigs, Nigeria

Authors: Igbakura I. Luga, Alex A. Adikwu

Abstract:

A comparison of resistance to quinolones was carried out on isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coliO157:H7 from cattle and mecA and nuc genes harbouring Staphylococcus aureus from pigs. The isolates were separately tested in the first and current decades of the 21st century. The objective was to demonstrate the dissemination of resistance to this frontline class of antibiotic by bacteria from food animals and bring to the limelight the spread of antibiotic resistance in Nigeria. A total of 10 isolates of the E. coli O157:H7 and 9 of mecA and nuc genes harbouring S. aureus were obtained following isolation, biochemical testing, and serological identification using the Remel Wellcolex E. coli O157:H7 test. Shiga toxin-production screening in the E. coli O157:H7 using the verotoxin E. coli reverse passive latex agglutination (VTEC-RPLA) test; and molecular identification of the mecA and nuc genes in S. aureus. Detection of the mecA and nuc genes were carried out using the protocol by the Danish Technical University (DTU) using the following primers mecA-1:5'-GGGATCATAGCGTCATTATTC-3', mecA-2: 5'-AACGATTGTGACACGATAGCC-3', nuc-1: 5'-TCAGCAAATGCATCACAAACAG-3', nuc-2: 5'-CGTAAATGCACTTGCTTCAGG-3' for the mecA and nuc genes, respectively. The nuc genes confirm the S. aureus isolates and the mecA genes as being methicillin-resistant and so pathogenic to man. The fluoroquinolones used in the antibiotic resistance testing were norfloxacin (10 µg) and ciprofloxacin (5 µg) in the E. coli O157:H7 isolates and ciprofloxacin (5 µg) in the S. aureus isolates. Susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar. Fluoroquinolone resistance was not detected from isolates of E. coli O157:H7 from cattle. However, 44% (4/9) of the S. aureus were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance of up to 44% in isolates of mecA and nuc genes harbouring S. aureus is a compelling evidence for the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance from bacteria in food animals from Nigeria. Ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice for the treatment of Typhoid fever, therefore widespread resistance to it in pathogenic bacteria is of great public health significance. The study concludes that antibiotic resistance in bacteria from food animals is on the increase in Nigeria. The National Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) agency in Nigeria should implement the World Health Organization (WHO) global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. A good starting point can be coordinating the WHO, Office of International Epizootics (OIE), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) tripartite draft antimicrobial resistance monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework in Nigeria.

Keywords: Fluoroquinolone, Nigeria, resistance, Staphylococcus aureus

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3708 Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Salmonella spp. Isolate from Chickens at Slaughterhouses in Northeast of Thailand

Authors: Seree Klaengair, Sunpetch Angkititrakul, Dusadee Phongaran, Chaiyaporn Soikum

Abstract:

The objectives of this study is to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. isolated from chickens at slaughterhouses in northeast of Thailand. During 2015-2016, all samples were isolated and identified by ISO 6579:2002. A total of 604 samples of rectal swab were collected and isolated for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 109 of 604 (18.05%) samples. The most prevalent serovars were Salmonella Kentucky (22.94%), Give (20.18%) and Typhimurium (7.34%). In this study, 66.97% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug and 38.39% were multidrug resistant. The highest resistances were found in nalidixic acid (49.54%), ampicillin (30.28%), tetracycline (27.52%), amoxicillin (26.61%), ciprofloxacin (23.85) and norfloxacin (19.27%). The results showed high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in chickens and antimicrobial resistance patterns. Prevention and control of Salmonella contamination in chickens should be consumer healthy.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella spp., chicken, slaughterhouse

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3707 Mutations in rpoB, katG and inhA Genes: The Association with Resistance to Rifampicin and Isoniazid in Egyptian Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates

Authors: Ayman K. El Essawy, Amal M. Hosny, Hala M. Abu Shady

Abstract:

The rapid detection of TB and drug resistance, both optimizes treatment and improves outcomes. In the current study, respiratory specimens were collected from 155 patients. Conventional susceptibility testing and MIC determination were performed for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). Genotype MTBDRplus assay, which is a molecular genetic assay based on the DNA-STRIP technology and specific gene sequencing with primers for rpoB, KatG, and mab-inhA genes were used to detect mutations associated with resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid. In comparison to other categories, most of rifampicin resistant (61.5%) and isoniazid resistant isolates (47.1%) were from patients relapsed in treatment. The genotypic profile (using Genotype MTBDRplus assay) of multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates showed missing of katG wild type 1 (WT1) band and appearance of mutation band katG MUT2. For isoniazid mono-resistant isolates, 80% showed katG MUT1, 20% showed katG MUT1, and inhA MUT1, 20% showed only inhA MUT1. Accordingly, 100% of isoniazid resistant strains were detected by this assay. Out of 17 resistant strains, 16 had mutation bands for katG distinguished high resistance to isoniazid. The assay could clearly detect rifampicin resistance among 66.7% of MDR isolates that showed mutation band rpoB MUT3 while 33.3% of them were considered as unknown. One mono-resistant rifampicin isolate did not show rifampicin mutation bands by Genotype MTBDRplus assay, but it showed an unexpected mutation in Codon 531 of rpoB by DNA sequence analysis. Rifampicin resistance in this strain could be associated with a mutation in codon 531 of rpoB (based on molecular sequencing), and Genotype MTBDRplus assay could not detect the associated mutation. If the results of Genotype MTBDRplus assay and sequencing were combined, this strain shows hetero-resistance pattern. Gene sequencing of eight selected isolates, previously tested by Genotype MTBDRplus assay, could detect resistance mutations mainly in codon 315 (katG gene), position -15 in inhA promotes gene for isoniazid resistance and codon 531 (rpoB gene) for rifampicin resistance. Genotyping techniques allow distinguishing between recurrent cases of reinfection or reactivation and supports epidemiological studies.

Keywords: M. tuberculosis, rpoB, KatG, inhA, genotype MTBDRplus

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3706 Frequency of Polymorphism of Mrp1/Abcc1 And Mrp2/Abcc2 in Healthy Volunteers of the Center Savannah (Colombia)

Authors: R. H. Bustos, L. Martinez, J. García, F. Suárez

Abstract:

MRP1 (Multi-drug resistance associated protein 1) and MRP2 (Multi-drug resistance associated protein 2) are two proteins belonging to the transporters of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette). These transporter proteins are involved in the efflux of several biological drugs and xenobiotic and also in multiple physiological, pathological and pharmacological processes. Evidence has been found that there is a correlation among different polymorphisms found and their clinical implication in the resistance to antiepileptic, chemotherapy and anti-infectious drugs. In our study, exonic regions of MRP1/ABCC1 y MRP2/ABCC2 were studied in the Colombian population, specifically in the region of the central Savannah (Cundinamarca) to determinate SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) and determinate its allele frequency and its genomics frequency. Results showed that for our population, SNP are found that have been previously reported for MRP1/ABCC1 (rs200647436, rs200624910, rs150214567) as well as for MRP2/ABCC2 (rs2273697, rs3740066, rs142573385, rs17216212). In addition, 13 new SNP were identified. Evidences show an important clinic correlation for polymorphisms rs3740066 and rs2273697. The study object population displays genetic variability as compared to the one reported in other populations.

Keywords: ATP-binding cassette (ABCC), Colombian population, multidrug-resistance protein (MRP), pharmacogenetic, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

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3705 Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist Drug on Extracellular Lipase Activityof Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani

Abstract:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, rode shape and aerobic bacterium that has shown to be resistance to many antibiotics. This resistance makes the bacterium very harmful in some diseases. It can also generate diseases in any part of the gastrointestinal tract from oropharynx to rectum. P. aeruginosa has become an important cause of infection, especially in patients with compromised host defense mechanisms. One of the most important reasons that make P. aeruginosa an emerging opportunistic pathogen in patients is its ability to use various compounds as carbon sources. Lipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids. Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of lipid substrate. Some lipases are expressed and secreted by pathogenic organisms during the infection. Muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. The drug has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms. Aim: In this study the inhibitory effect of a muscarinic antagonist on lipase of P. aeruginosa was investigated. Methods: P. aeruginosa was cultured in minimal salt medium with 1% olive oil as carbon source. The cells were harvested and the supernatant, which contained lipase, was used for enzyme assay. Results: Our results showed that the drug can inhibit P. aeruginosa lipase by competitive manner. In the presence of different concentrations of the drug, the Vmax (2 mmol/min/mg protein) of enzyme did not change, while the Km raised by increasing the drug concentration. The Ki (inhibition constant) and IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) value of drug was estimated to be about 30 uM and 60 uM which determined that the drug binds to enzyme with high affinity. Maximum activity of the enzyme was observed at pH 8 in the absence and presence of muscarinic antagonist, respectively. The maximum activity of lipase was observed at 600C and the enzyme became inactive at 900C. Conclusion: The muscarinic antagonist drug could inhibit lipase of P. aeruginosa and changed the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. The drug binded to enzyme with high affinity and did not chang the optimum pH of the enzyme. Temperature did not affect the binding of drug to musmuscarinic antagonist.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, drug, enzyme, inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 343