Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 614

Search results for: rare

614 Emerging Policy Landscape of Rare Disease Registries in India: An Analysis in Evolutionary Policy Perspective

Authors: Yadav Shyamjeet Maniram

Abstract:

Despite reports of more than seventy million population of India affected by rare diseases, it rarely figured on the agenda of the Indian scientist and policymakers. Hitherto ignored, a fresh initiative is being attempted to establish the first national registry for rare diseases. Though there are registries for rare diseases, established by the clinicians and patient advocacy groups, they are isolated, scattered and lacks information sharing mechanism. It is the first time that there is an effort from the government of India to make an initiative on the rare disease registries, which would be more formal and systemic in nature. Since there is lack of epidemiological evidence for the rare disease in India, it is interesting to note how rare disease policy is being attempted in the vacuum of evidence required for the policy process. The objective of this study is to analyse rare disease registry creation and implementation from the parameters of evolutionary policy perspective in the absence of evidence for the policy process. This study will be exploratory and qualitative in nature, primarily based on the interviews of stakeholders involved in the rare disease registry creation and implementation. Some secondary data will include various documents related to rare disease registry. The expected outcome of this study would be on the role of stakeholders in the generation of evidence for the rare disease registry creation and implementation. This study will also try to capture negotiations and deliberations on the ethical issues in terms of data collection, preservation, and protection.

Keywords: evolutionary policy perspective, evidence for policy, rare disease policy, rare disease in India

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613 Fused Salt Electrolysis of Rare-Earth Materials from the Domestic Ore and Preparation of Rare-Earth Hydrogen Storage Alloys

Authors: Jeong-Hyun Yoo, Hanjung Kwon, Sung-Wook Cho

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Fused salt electrolysis was studied to make the high purity rare-earth metals using domestic rare-earth ore. The target metals of the fused salt electrolysis were Mm (Misch metal), La, Ce, Nd, etc. Fused salt electrolysis was performed with the supporting salt such as chloride and fluoride at the various temperatures and ampere. The metals made by fused salt electrolysis were analyzed to identify the phase and composition using the methods of XRD and ICP. As a result, the acquired rare-earth metals were the high purity ones which had more than 99% purity. Also, VIM (vacuum induction melting) was studied to make the kg level rare-earth alloy for the use of secondary battery and hydrogen storage. In order to indentify the physicochemical properties such as phase, impurity gas, alloy composition and hydrogen storage, the alloys were investigated. The battery characteristics were also analyzed through the various tests in the real production line of a battery company.

Keywords: domestic rare-earth ore, fused salt electrolysis, rare-earth materials, hydrogen storage alloy, secondary battery

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612 Separation of Rare-Earth Metals from E-Wastes

Authors: Gulsara Akanova, Akmaral Ismailova, Duisek Kamysbayev

Abstract:

The separation of rare earth metals (REM) from a neodymium magnet has been widely studied in the last year. The waste of computer hard disk contains 25.41 % neodymium, 64.09 % iron, and <<1 % boron. To further the separation of rare-earth metals, the magnet dissolved in open and closed systems with nitric acid. In the closed system, the magnet was dissolved in a microwave sample preparation system at different temperatures and pressures and the dissolution process lasted 1 hour. In the open system, the acid dissolution of the magnet was conducted at room temperature and the process lasted 30-40 minutes. To remove the iron in the magnet, oxalic acid was used and precipitated as oxalates under both conditions. For separation of rare earth metals (Nd, Pr and Dy) from magnet waste is used sorption method.

Keywords: dissolution of the magnet, Neodymium magnet, rare earth metals, separation, Sorption

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611 Proficient Estimation Procedure for a Rare Sensitive Attribute Using Poisson Distribution

Authors: S. Suman, G. N. Singh

Abstract:

The present manuscript addresses the estimation procedure of population parameter using Poisson probability distribution when characteristic under study possesses a rare sensitive attribute. The generalized form of unrelated randomized response model is suggested in order to acquire the truthful responses from respondents. The resultant estimators have been proposed for two situations when the information on an unrelated rare non-sensitive characteristic is known as well as unknown. The properties of the proposed estimators are derived, and the measure of confidentiality of respondent is also suggested for respondents. Empirical studies are carried out in the support of discussed theory.

Keywords: Poisson distribution, randomized response model, rare sensitive attribute, non-sensitive attribute

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610 Flotation of Rare Earth Oxides from Iron-Oxide Silicate Rich Tailings Using Fatty Acids

Authors: George B. Abaka-Wood, Massimiliano Zanin, Jonas Addai-Mensah, William Skinner

Abstract:

The versatility of froth flotation has made it vital in the beneficiation of rare earth elements minerals from either high or low-grade ores. There has been a significant increase in the quantity of iron oxide silicate-rich tailings generated from the extraction of primary commodities such as copper and gold in Australia, which have been identified to contain very low-grade rare earth oxides (≤ 1%). There is a vast knowledge gap in the beneficiation of rare earth oxides from such tailings. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using fatty acids as collectors for the flotation recovery and upgrade of rare earth oxides from selected iron-oxide silicate-rich tailings. Two forms of fatty acid collectors (oleic acid and sodium oleate) were tested in this investigation. Flotation tests were carried out using a 1.2 L Denver D-12 cell. The effects of pulp pH, fatty acid dosage, particle size distribution (-150 +75 µm, -75 +38 µm and -38 µm) and conventional depressants (sodium silicate and starch) dosage on flotation recovery of rare earth oxides were investigated. A comparison of the flotation results indicated that sodium oleate was the more efficient fatty acid for rare earth oxides flotation at all the pulp pH investigated. The flotation performance was found to be particle size-dependent. Both sodium silicate and starch were unselective in decreasing the recovery of iron oxides and silicate minerals, respectively with the corresponding decrease in rare earth oxides recovery. Generally, iron oxides and silicate minerals formed the substantial fraction of the flotation concentrates obtained, both in the absence and presence of depressants, resulting in a generally low rare earth oxides upgrade, even though rare earth oxides recoveries were high. The flotation tests carried out on the tailings sample suggest the feasibility of rare earth oxides recovery using fatty acids, although particle size distribution and minerals liberation are key limiting factors in achieving selective rare earth oxides upgrade.

Keywords: depressants, flotation, oleic acid, sodium oleate

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609 Rare Earth Element (REE) Geochemistry of Tepeköy Sandstones (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

Authors: Mehmet Yavuz Hüseyinca, Şuayip Küpeli

Abstract:

Sandstones from Upper Eocene - Oligocene Tepeköy formation (Member of Mezgit Group) that exposed on the eastern edge of Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) were analyzed for their rare earth element (REE) contents. Average concentrations of ΣREE, ΣLREE (Total light rare earth elements) and ΣHREE (Total heavy rare earth elements) were determined as 31.37, 26.47 and 4.55 ppm respectively. These values are lower than UCC (Upper continental crust) which indicates grain size and/or CaO dilution effect. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern is characterized by the average ratios of (La/Yb)cn = 6.20, (La/Sm)cn = 4.06, (Gd/Lu)cn = 1.10, Eu/Eu* = 0.99 and Ce/Ce* = 0.94. Lower values of ΣLREE/ΣHREE (Average 5.97) and (La/Yb)cn suggest lower fractionation of overall REE. Moreover (La/Sm)cn and (Gd/Lu)cn ratios define less inclined LREE and almost flat HREE pattern when compared with UCC. Almost no Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) emphasizes that REE were originated from terrigenous material. Also depleted LREE and no Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*) suggest an undifferentiated mafic provenance for the sandstones.

Keywords: central Anatolia, provenance, rare earth elements, REE, Tepeköy sandstone

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608 Structural and Optical Properties of Ce3+ Doped YPO4: Nanophosphors Synthesis by Sol Gel Method

Authors: B. Kahouadji, L. Guerbous, L. Lamiri, A. Mendoud

Abstract:

Recently, nanomaterials are developed in the form of nano-films, nano-crystals and nano-pores. Lanthanide phosphates as a material find extensive application as laser, ceramic, sensor, phosphor, and also in optoelectronics, medical and biological labels, solar cells and light sources. Among the different kinds of rare-earth orthophosphates, yttrium orthophosphate has been shown to be an efficient host lattice for rare earth activator ions, which have become a research focus because of their important role in the field of light display systems, lasers, and optoelectronic devices. It is in this context that the 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of rare earth in insulating materials, lying in the UV and VUV, are the aim of large number of studies .Though there has been a few reports on Eu3+, Nd3+, Pr3+,Er3+, Ce3+, Tm3+ doped YPO4. The 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of the rare earth dependent to the host-matrix, several matrices ions were used to study these transitions, in this work we are suggesting to study on a very specific class of inorganic material that are orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions. This study focused on the effect of Ce3+ concentration on the structural and optical properties of Ce3+ doped YPO4 yttrium orthophosphate with powder form prepared by the Sol Gel method.

Keywords: YPO4, Ce3+, 4fn- <->4fn-1 5d transitions, scintillator

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607 Sol-Gel Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of YPO4: Pr3+ Nanophosphors

Authors: Badis Kahouadji, Lakhdar Guerbous, Lyes Lamiri

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For many years, the luminescent materials were investigated principally in the infrared and visible areas, because the ultraviolet (UV) and especially in vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) are technically more difficult to explore, especially absence of applications requiring of materials suitable to short wavelengths.Recent necessary, related to the development of certain technologies, encouraged research in these spectra domains. It is in this context that the 4Fn-4Fn-1 5d transitions of rare earth in insulating materials, lying in the UV and VUV, are the aim of large number of studies. These studies relate in particular to search for new scintillator materials used for spectroscopy and X-ray, ɤ, as well as medical imaging. The 4Fn- 4Fn-15d transitions of the rare earth dependent to the host-matrix, several matrices ions were used to study these transitions, in this work we are suggeting to study on a very specific class of inorganic scintillators that are orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions, this study focused on the Pr3+ concentration on the structural and optical properties of Pr3+ doped YPO4 (yttriumorthophosphate) with powder form prepared by the Sol Gel method.

Keywords: rare earth, scintillator, YPO4:Pr3+ nanophosphors, sol gel, 4Fn-4Fn-15d transitions

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606 Deformability of the Rare Earth Metal Modified Metastable-β Alloy Ti-15Mo

Authors: F. Brunke, L. Waalkes, C. Siemers

Abstract:

Due to reduced stiffness, research on second generation titanium alloys for implant applications, like the metastable β-titanium alloy Ti-15Mo, become more and more important in the recent years. The machinability of these alloys is generally poor leading to problems during implant production and comparably large production costs. Therefore, in the present study, Ti 15Mo was alloyed with 0.8 wt.-% of the rare earth metals lanthanum (Ti-15Mo+0.8La) and neodymium (Ti-15Mo+0.8Nd) to improve its machinability. Their microstructure consisted of a titanium matrix and micrometer-size particles of the rare earth metals and two of their oxides. The particles stabilized the micro structure as grain growth was minimized. As especially the ductility might be affected by the precipitates, the behavior of Ti-15Mo+0.8La and Ti-15Mo+0.8Nd was investigated during static and dynamic deformation at elevated temperature to develop a processing route. The resulting mechanical properties (static strength and ductility) were similar in all investigated alloys.

Keywords: Ti 15Mo, titanium alloys, rare earth metals, free machining alloy

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605 Structural and Magnetic Properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method and Annealing Effect

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jaromir Havlica, Zuzana Kozakova, Jiri Masilko, Lukas Kalina, Miroslava Hajdúchová, Vojtěch Enev, Jaromir Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this work, we investigated the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) doped CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed the effect of annealing temperature on size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and particles were in the range of 10-100 nm. The magnetic properties of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with annealing temperature/ particle size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: starch, sol-gel combustion method, rare-earth ions, spinel ferrite nanoparticles, magnetic properties

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604 Magnetic Properties of Layered Rare-Earth Oxy-Carbonates Ln2O2CO3 (Ln = Nd, Sm, and Dy)

Authors: U. Arjun, K. Brinda, M. Padmanabhan, R. Nath

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Polycrystalline samples of rare-earth oxy-carbonates Ln2O2CO3 (Ln = Nd, Sm, and Dy) are synthesized, and their structural and magnetic properties are investigated. All of them crystallize in a hexagonal structure with space group P6_3/mmc. They form a double layered structure with frustrated triangular arrangement of rare-earth magnetic ions. An antiferromagnetic transition is observed at TN ≈ 1.25 K, 0.61 K, and 1.21 K for Nd2O2CO3, Sm2O2CO3, and Dy2O2CO3, respectively. From the analysis of magnetic susceptibility, the value of the Curie-Weiss temperature θ_CW is obtained to be ≈ 21.7 K, 18 K, and 10.6 K for Nd2O2CO3, Sm2O2CO3, and Dy2O2CO3, respectively. The magnetic frustration parameter f ( = |θ_CW|/T_N) is calculated to be ≈ 17.4, 31, and 8.8 for Nd2O2CO3, Sm2O2CO3, and Dy2O2CO3, respectively which indicates that Sm2O2CO3 is strongly frustrated compared to its Nd and Dy analogues.

Keywords: chemical synthesis, exchange and superexchange, heat capacity, magnetically ordered materials

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603 Adsorption of Cerium as One of the Rare Earth Elements Using Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes from Aqueous Solution: Modeling, Equilibrium and Kinetics

Authors: Saeb Ahmadi, Mohsen Vafaie Sefti, Mohammad Mahdi Shadman, Ebrahim Tangestani

Abstract:

Carbon nanotube has shown great potential for the removal of various inorganic and organic components due to properties such as large surface area and high adsorption capacity. Central composite design is widely used method for determining optimal conditions. Also due to the economic reasons and wide application, the rare earth elements are important components. The analyses of cerium (Ce(III)) adsorption as one of the Rare Earth Elements (REEs) adsorption on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been studied. The optimization process was performed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum amount conditions were pH of 4.5, initial Ce (III) concentration of 90 mg/l and MWCNTs dosage of 80 mg. Under this condition, the optimum adsorption percentage of Ce (III) was obtained about 96%. Next, at the obtained optimum conditions the kinetic and isotherm studied and result showed the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm are more fitted with experimental data than other models.

Keywords: cerium, rare earth element, MWCNTs, adsorption, optimization

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602 Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Liquidity and Mechanical Properties of Phase Formation Reaction Change in Cast Iron by Cooling Curve Analysis

Authors: S. Y. Park, S. M. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. M. Lim

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In this research analyzed the effects that phase formation reaction change in the grey cast iron makes on characteristics of microstructures, liquidity, and mechanical properties through cooling curve when adding rare earth elements (R.E). This research was analyzed with comparison between the case of not adding the rare earth elements (R.E) into the grey cast iron with the standard composition (as 3.3%C-2.1%Si-0.7%Mn-0.1%S) and the case of adding 0.3% rare earth elements (R.E). The thermal analysis parameters have been drawn through eutectic temperature theoretically calculated, recalescence temperature, and undercooling temperature measured from start of eutectic reaction to end of solidification in the cooling curve obtained by thermal analysis to analyze formation behavior of graphite, and the effects by addition of rare earth elements on this have been reviewed. When adding rare earth elements (R.E), the cause of liquidity slowdown was analyzed trough the solidification starting temperature and change of solidification ending temperature. The strength and hardness have been measured to evaluate the mechanical properties, and the sound tensile strength has been evaluated through quality coefficient after measuring relative hardness and normality degree of tensile strength by calculating theoretical tensile strength and theoretical hardness. The change of Pearlite Inter-lamellar Spacing of matrix microstructure and eutectic cell count of macrostructure was measured to analyze the effects of the rare earth elements on the sound tensile strength. The change of eutectic cell count has been clarified through activation of the eutectic reaction, and the cause of pearlite inter-lamellar spacing clarified through eutectoid reaction temperature.

Keywords: cooling curve, element, grey cast iron, thermal analysis, rare earth element

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601 CMT4G: Rare Form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease in Slovak Roma Patient

Authors: Dana Gabriková, Martin Mistrík, Jarmila Bernasovská, Iveta Tóthová, Jana Kisková

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The Roma (Gypsies) is a transnational minority with a high degree of consanguineous marriages. Similar to other genetically isolated founder populations, the Roma harbor a number of unique or rare genetic disorders. This paper discusses about a rare form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease – type 4G (CMT4G), also called Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy type Russe, an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutation private to Roma characterized by abnormally increased density of non-myelinated axons. CMT4G was originally found in Bulgarian Roma and in 2009 two putative causative mutations in the HK1 gene were identified. Since then, several cases were reported in Roma families mainly from Bulgaria and Spain. Here we present a Slovak Roma family in which CMT4G was diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination and genetic testing. This case is a further proof of the role of the HK1 gene in pathogenesis of the disease. It confirms that mutation in the HK1 gene is a common cause of autosomal recessive CMT disease in Roma and should be considered as a common part of a diagnostic procedure.

Keywords: gypsies, HK1, HSMN-Russe, rare disease

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600 Study of Adsorption Isotherm Models on Rare Earth Elements Biosorption for Separation Purposes

Authors: Nice Vasconcelos Coimbra, Fábio dos Santos Gonçalves, Marisa Nascimento, Ellen Cristine Giese

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The development of chemical routes for the recovery and separation of rare earth elements (REE) is seen as a priority and strategic action by several countries demanding these elements. Among the possibilities of alternative routes, the biosorption process has been evaluated in our laboratory. In this theme, the present work attempts to assess and fit the solution equilibrium data in Langmuir, Freundlich and DKR isothermal models, based on the biosorption results of the lanthanum and samarium elements by Bacillus subtilis immobilized on calcium alginate gel. It was observed that the preference of adsorption of REE by the immobilized biomass followed the order Sm (III)> La (III). It can be concluded that among the studied isotherms models, the Langmuir model presented better mathematical results than the Freundlich and DKR models.

Keywords: rare earth elements, biosorption, Bacillus subtilis, adsorption isotherm models

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599 Synthesis of Rare-Earth Pyrazolate Compounds

Authors: Nazli Eslamirad, Peter C. Junk, Jun Wang, Glen B. Deacon

Abstract:

Since coordination behavior of pyrazoles and pyrazolate ions are widely versatile towards a great range of metals such as d-block, f-block as well as main group elements; they attract interest as ligands for preparing compounds. A variety of rare-earth pyrazolate complexes have been synthesized by redox transmetalation/protolysis (RTP) previously, therefore, a variety of rare-earth pyrazolate complexes using two pyrazoles, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (Me₂pzH) and 3,5-di-tert -butylpyrazolate (t-Bu₂pzH), in which the structures span the whole La-Lu array beside Sc and Y has been synthesized by RTP reaction. There have been further developments in this study: Synthesizing structure of [Tb(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ which is isomorphous with those of the previously reported [Dy(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ and [Lu(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ analogous that has two µ-1(N):2(Nʹ)-Me2pz ligands (the most common pyrazolate ligation for non-rare-earth complexes). Previously most of the reported compounds using t-Bu2pzH were monomeric compounds however the lanthanum derivative [La(Me₂pz)₃thf₂] ,which has been reported previously without crystal structure, has now been structurally characterized, along with cerium and lutetium analogue. Also a polymeric structure with samarium has now been synthesized which the neodymium analogue has been reported previously and comparing these polymeric structures can support the idea that the geometry of Sm(tBu₂pz)₃ affect the coordination of the solvent. Also, by using 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) instead of tetrahydrofuran (THF) new [Er(tBu₂pz)₃ (dme)₂] has now been reported.

Keywords: lanthanoid complexes, pyrazolate, redox transmetalation/protolysis, x-ray crystal structures

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598 Conventional Synthesis and Characterization of Zirconium Molybdate, Nd2Zr3(MoO4)9

Authors: G. Çelik Gül, F. Kurtuluş

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Rare earths containing complex metal oxides have drawn much attention due to physical, chemical and optical properties which make them feasible in so many areas such as non-linear optical materials and ion exchanger. We have researched a systematic study to obtain rare earth containing zirconium molybdate compound, characterization, investigation of crystal system and calculation of unit cell parameters.  After a successful synthesis of Nd2Zr3(MoO4)9 which is a member of rare earth metal containing complex oxides family, X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Score Plus/Rietveld refinement analysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were completed to determine the crystal structure. Morphological properties and elemental composition were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Thermal properties were observed via Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: Nd₂Zr₃(MoO₄)₉, powder x-ray diffraction, solid state synthesis, zirconium molybdates

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597 Novel Spoke-Type BLDC Motor Design for Cost Effective and High Power Density

Authors: Suyong Kim

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Recently because of the rise in the price of rare earth magnet, interest of non-rare earth or less-rare earth motor is growing. Especially to achieve the high power density, Spoke-Type BLDC (Brushless Permanent Magnet) Motor with ferrite permanent magnet are spotlighted. But Spoke-Type Ferrite BLDC Motor has much of magnetic flux leakage in the direction of rotor shaft. In order to solve this problem, there are two conventional ways. But conventional ways bring the increases of product cost or the decreases of the power density. Therefore, this paper proposes new Spoke-Type BLDC Rotor shape that has the advantages of both conventional methods. The new shape is consists of a one-piece core. The inside and the outside of the rotor are open alternately. So it can take reduced production cost and high power density.

Keywords: motor, BLDC, spoke, ferrite

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596 Rare Case of Pyoderma Gangrenosum of the Upper Limb

Authors: Karissa A. Graham

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Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a prototypic autoinflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis that is a rare disorder. It presents a diagnostic challenge owing to its variable presentation, clinical overlap with other conditions, it is often associated with other systemic conditions, and there is no definitive histological or laboratory characteristic. The Delphai consensus for PG includes the presence of at least one ulcer on the anterior lower limb. Systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies are the mainstay treatment for PG. We describe a case report of delayed diagnosis of ulcerative pyoderma gangrenosum in a 44-year-old male on his forearm. The patient presented with an infected ulcer on his right forearm that had been present for over three years. The patient was a Type 2 Diabetic with no personal or family history of inflammatory bowel disease or other autoimmune diseases. The patient was initially investigated for malignancy, but biopsies returned as chronic inflammatory tissue with neutrophilic infiltrate and no malignancy. The patient was commenced on systemic prednisone for the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum. The diagnosis of ulcerative PG poses a challenge given the vast differential diagnosis for a cutaneous ulcer (i.e., malignant, vascular, autoimmune, trauma, infective, etc.). Diagnostic accuracy is important given that the treatment for PG with steroids does not go without risks and indeed may be contraindicated in other potential causes of the ulcer. Indeed, more common and more sinister causes of ulcers should be investigated first, as death from PG is quite rare.

Keywords: dermatological diagnosis, dermatosis, pyoderma gangrenosum, rare presentation

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595 Recovery of Rare Earths and Scandium from in situ Leaching Solutions

Authors: Maxim S. Botalov, Svetlana М. Titova, Denis V. Smyshlyaev, Grigory M. Bunkov, Evgeny V. Kirillov, Sergey V. Kirillov, Maxim A. Mashkovtsev, Vladimir N. Rychkov

Abstract:

In uranium production, in-situ leaching (ISL) with its relatively low cost has become an important technology. As the orebody containing uranium most often contains a considerable value of other metals, particularly rare earth metals it has rendered feasible to recover the REM from the barren ISL solutions, from which the major uranium content has been removed. Ural Federal University (UrFU, Ekaterinburg, Russia) have performed joint research on the development of industrial technologies for the extraction of REM and Scandium compounds from Uranium ISL solutions. Leaching experiments at UrFU have been supported with multicomponent solution model. The experimental work combines solvent extraction with advanced ion exchange methodology in a pilot facility capable of treating 500 kg/hr of solids. The pilot allows for the recovery of a 99% concentrate of scandium oxide and collective concentrate with over 50 % REM content, with further recovery of heavy and light REM concentrates (99%).

Keywords: extraction, ion exchange, rare earth elements, scandium

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594 Photoluminescence Properties of Lu1.98Er0.02Ti2O7 Pyrochlore (A2B2O7) Phosphor

Authors: Esra Öztürk, Erkul Karacaoglu

Abstract:

Pyrochlores, having compounds of the general formula, A2B2O7 (A and B are metals/rare earths) are important class of materials thanks to having technological applications like in luminescence, ionic conductivity, nuclear waste immobilization etc. The rare earths included pyrochlore compounds have also potential photoluminescence characteristics. In this context, Er3+-activated Lu2Ti2O7 pyrochlore was chosen and synthesized through a high-temperature solid-state reaction route that was sintered under the open atmosphere in this study. The optimal reaction conditions to obtain expected single phase system, the thermal analysis (DTA/TG) were carried out. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to determine phase properties of the sample. The photoluminescence (PL) results were done to obtain excitation, emission and decay time properties by a PL spectrometer under room temperature. According to the PL, there are excitation bands at 352 nm, 388 nm, 423 nm and 453 nm that are due to 4I15/2 → 2G7/2, 4I15/2 → 4G11/2 and 4I15/2 → 4F5/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively. The emission bands are placed at 582 nm, 677 nm and 762 nm that are associated with 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2, 4F9/2 → 4I15/2, 4I9/2 → 4I15/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively.

Keywords: Er3+, Lu2Ti2O7, photoluminescence, pyrochlore, rare-earths

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593 Atomic Hydrogen Storage in Hexagonal GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu Rare Earth Compounds: A Comparative Density Functional Theory Study

Authors: A. Kellou, L. Rouaiguia, L. Rabahi

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In the present work, the atomic hydrogen absorption trend in the GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu rare earth compounds within the hexagonal CaCu5 type of crystal structure (space group P6/mmm) is investigated. The density functional theory (DFT) combined with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is used to study the site preference of atomic hydrogen at 0K. The octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites are considered. The formation energies and structural properties are determined in order to evaluate hydrogen effects on the stability of the studied compounds. The energetic diagram of hydrogen storage is established and compared in GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu. The magnetic properties of the selected compounds are determined using spin polarized calculations. The obtained results are discussed with and without hydrogen addition taking into account available theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: density functional theory, hydrogen storage, rare earth compounds, structural and magnetic properties

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592 Whole Exome Sequencing in Characterizing Mysterious Crippling Disorder in India

Authors: Swarkar Sharma, Ekta Rai, Ankit Mahajan, Parvinder Kumar, Manoj K Dhar, Sushil Razdan, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Carol Wise, Shiro Ikegawa M.D., K.K. Pandita M.D.

Abstract:

Rare disorders are poorly understood hence, remain uncharacterized or patients are misdiagnosed and get poor medical attention. A rare mysterious skeletal disorder that remained unidentified for decades and rendered many people physically challenged and disabled for life has been reported in an isolated remote village ‘Arai’ of Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir. This village is located deep in mountains and the population residing in the region is highly consanguineous. In our survey of the region, 70 affected people were reported, showing similar phenotype, in the village with a population of approximately 5000 individuals. We were able to collect samples from two multi generational extended families from the village. Through Whole Exome sequencing (WES), we identified a rare variation NM_003880.3:c.156C>A NP_003871.1:p.Cys52Ter, which results in introduction of premature stop codon in WISP3 gene. We found this variation perfectly segregating with the disease in one of the family. However, this variation was absent in other family. Interestingly, a novel splice site mutation at position c.643+1G>A of WISP3 gene, perfectly segregating with the disease was observed in the second family. Thus, exploiting WES and putting different evidences together (familial histories and genetic data, clinical features, radiological and biochemical tests and findings), the disease has finally been diagnosed as a very rare recessive hereditary skeletal disease “Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Arthropathy of Childhood” (PPAC) also known as “Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Tarda with Progressive Arthropathy” (SEDT-PA). This genetic characterization and identification of the disease causing mutations will aid in genetic counseling, critically required to curb this rare disorder and to prevent its appearance in future generations in the population. Further, understanding of the role of WISP3 gene the biological pathways should help in developing treatment for the disorder.

Keywords: whole exome sequencing, Next Generation Sequencing, rare disorders

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591 Whole Exome Sequencing Data Analysis of Rare Diseases: Non-Coding Variants and Copy Number Variations

Authors: S. Fahiminiya, J. Nadaf, F. Rauch, L. Jerome-Majewska, J. Majewski

Abstract:

Background: Sequencing of protein coding regions of human genome (Whole Exome Sequencing; WES), has demonstrated a great success in the identification of causal mutations for several rare genetic disorders in human. Generally, most of WES studies have focused on rare variants in coding exons and splicing-sites where missense substitutions lead to the alternation of protein product. Although focusing on this category of variants has revealed the mystery behind many inherited genetic diseases in recent years, a subset of them remained still inconclusive. Here, we present the result of our WES studies where analyzing only rare variants in coding regions was not conclusive but further investigation revealed the involvement of non-coding variants and copy number variations (CNV) in etiology of the diseases. Methods: Whole exome sequencing was performed using our standard protocols at Genome Quebec Innovation Center, Montreal, Canada. All bioinformatics analyses were done using in-house WES pipeline. Results: To date, we successfully identified several disease causing mutations within gene coding regions (e.g. SCARF2: Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome and SNAP29: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) by using WES. In addition, we showed that variants in non-coding regions and CNV have also important value and should not be ignored and/or filtered out along the way of bioinformatics analysis on WES data. For instance, in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type V and in patients with glucocorticoid deficiency, we identified variants in 5'UTR, resulting in the production of longer or truncating non-functional proteins. Furthermore, CNVs were identified as the main cause of the diseases in patients with metaphyseal dysplasia with maxillary hypoplasia and brachydactyly and in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type VII. Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of considering non-coding variants and CNVs during interpretation of WES data, as they can be the only cause of disease under investigation.

Keywords: whole exome sequencing data, non-coding variants, copy number variations, rare diseases

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590 Air Conditioner Refrigerant and Burn: A Case Report

Authors: Okan Cakir, Ibrahim Arziman, Derya Can, Mete Erkencigil, Murat Durusu, S. Mehmet Yasar

Abstract:

Introduction: Burn injuries from different types and ways commonly seen in emergency departments, approach and treatment varies from outpatient treatment to critical care unit. We wanted to mention a rare burn injury cause of air conditioner refrigerant. Case report: A 22-year-old case admitted to emergency department with a complaint of left hand burn injury and pain. In his history, he said that an accident was occurred before 30 minutes from admission while he had been trying to repair the air conditioner. Air conditioner refrigerant suddenly had erupted from its tank and burned his hand. In physical examination of extremities, second-degree burn bullae on the left hand on second and third proximal phalanx, between first and second phalanx palmar side and on hypothenar region and on third and fourth proximal phalanx and also hyperemia from hand to wrist were seen. There was no motor and sensorial deficiency. As a treatment, local silver sulfadiazine applied to the burn area and analgesic prescribed. The case called for the clinical follow-up to the plastic surgery department. Conclusion: The clinician should take a comprehensive and careful anamnesis for suitable and right management and treatment as in this case in which as well as rare and occurs different way.

Keywords: air conditioner refrigerant, burn, emergency department, rare

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589 Thermodynamic Approach of Lanthanide-Iron Double Oxides Formation

Authors: Vera Varazashvili, Murman Tsarakhov, Tamar Mirianashvili, Teimuraz Pavlenishvili, Tengiz Machaladze, Mzia Khundadze

Abstract:

Standard Gibbs energy of formation ΔGfor(298.15) of lanthanide-iron double oxides of garnet-type crystal structure R3Fe5O12 - RIG (R – are rare earth ions) from initial oxides are evaluated. The calculation is based on the data of standard entropies S298.15 and standard enthalpies ΔH298.15 of formation of compounds which are involved in the process of garnets synthesis. Gibbs energy of formation is presented as temperature function ΔGfor(T) for the range 300-1600K. The necessary starting thermodynamic data were obtained from calorimetric study of heat capacity – temperature functions and by using the semi-empirical method for calculation of ΔH298.15 of formation. Thermodynamic functions for standard temperature – enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs energy - are recommended as reference data for technological evaluations. Through the isostructural series of rare earth-iron garnets the correlation between thermodynamic properties and characteristics of lanthanide ions are elucidated.

Keywords: calorimetry, entropy, enthalpy, heat capacity, gibbs energy of formation, rare earth iron garnets

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588 Standard Gibbs Energy of Formation and Entropy of Lanthanide-Iron Oxides of Garnet Crystal Structure

Authors: Vera Varazashvili, Murman Tsarakhov, Tamar Mirianashvili, Teimuraz Pavlenishvili, Tengiz Machaladze, Mzia Khundadze

Abstract:

Standard Gibbs energy of formation ΔGfor(298.15) of lanthanide-iron double oxides of garnet-type crystal structure R3Fe5O12 - RIG (R – are rare earth ions) from initial oxides are evaluated. The calculation is based on the data of standard entropies S298.15 and standard enthalpies ΔH298.15 of formation of compounds which are involved in the process of garnets synthesis. Gibbs energy of formation is presented as temperature function ΔGfor(T) for the range 300-1600K. The necessary starting thermodynamic data were obtained from calorimetric study of heat capacity and by using the semi-empirical method for calculation of ΔH298.15 (formation). Thermodynamic functions for standard temperature – enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs energy - are recommended as reference data for technological evaluations. Through the isostructural series of rare earth-iron garnets the correlation between thermodynamic properties and characteristics of lanthanide ions are elucidated.

Keywords: calorimetry, entropy, heat capacity, Gibbs energy of formation, rare earth iron garnets

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587 Isolated Hydatidosis of Spleen: A Rare Entity

Authors: Anshul Raja

Abstract:

Cystic lesions of the spleen are rare and splenic hydatid cysts account for only 0.5% to 8% of all hydatidosis. Authors hereby report a case where a 50-year-old female presented to our hospital with the complains of heaviness and pain over left upper abdomen over the past 8-10 years. On radiological examination, ultrasonography revealed findings consistent with isolated splenic hydatid cyst and was later on confirmed on Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). No other organ or system involvement was seen. The patient underwent splenectomy and hydatid cyst was confirmed on histopathology. Owing to its rarity, it offers a diagnostic challenge to physicians but can reliably be diagnosed with great confidence employing various imaging modalities like CT and MRI.

Keywords: gastrointestinal radiology, abdominal imaging, hydatid cyst, medical and health sciences

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586 An Approach for Estimation in Hierarchical Clustered Data Applicable to Rare Diseases

Authors: Daniel C. Bonzo

Abstract:

Practical considerations lead to the use of unit of analysis within subjects, e.g., bleeding episodes or treatment-related adverse events, in rare disease settings. This is coupled with data augmentation techniques such as extrapolation to enlarge the subject base. In general, one can think about extrapolation of data as extending information and conclusions from one estimand to another estimand. This approach induces hierarchichal clustered data with varying cluster sizes. Extrapolation of clinical trial data is being accepted increasingly by regulatory agencies as a means of generating data in diverse situations during drug development process. Under certain circumstances, data can be extrapolated to a different population, a different but related indication, and different but similar product. We consider here the problem of estimation (point and interval) using a mixed-models approach under an extrapolation. It is proposed that estimators (point and interval) be constructed using weighting schemes for the clusters, e.g., equally weighted and with weights proportional to cluster size. Simulated data generated under varying scenarios are then used to evaluate the performance of this approach. In conclusion, the evaluation result showed that the approach is a useful means for improving statistical inference in rare disease settings and thus aids not only signal detection but risk-benefit evaluation as well.

Keywords: clustered data, estimand, extrapolation, mixed model

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585 Leveraging Remote Assessments and Central Raters to Optimize Data Quality in Rare Neurodevelopmental Disorders Clinical Trials

Authors: Pamela Ventola, Laurel Bales, Sara Florczyk

Abstract:

Background: Fully remote or hybrid administration of clinical outcome measures in rare neurodevelopmental disorders trials is increasing due to the ongoing pandemic and recognition that remote assessments reduce the burden on families. Many assessments in rare neurodevelopmental disorders trials are complex; however, remote/hybrid trials readily allow for the use of centralized raters to administer and score the scales. The use of centralized raters has many benefits, including reducing site burden; however, a specific impact on data quality has not yet been determined. Purpose: The current study has two aims: a) evaluate differences in data quality between administration of a standardized clinical interview completed by centralized raters compared to those completed by site raters and b) evaluate improvement in accuracy of scoring standardized developmental assessments when scored centrally compared to when scored by site raters. Methods: For aim 1, the Vineland-3, a widely used measure of adaptive functioning, was administered by site raters (n= 52) participating in one of four rare disease trials. The measure was also administered as part of two additional trials that utilized central raters (n=7). Each rater completed a comprehensive training program on the assessment. Following completion of the training, each clinician completed a Vineland-3 with a mock caregiver. Administrations were recorded and reviewed by a neuropsychologist for administration and scoring accuracy. Raters were able to certify for the trials after demonstrating an accurate administration of the scale. For site raters, 25% of each rater’s in-study administrations were reviewed by a neuropsychologist for accuracy of administration and scoring. For central raters, the first two administrations and every 10th administration were reviewed. Aim 2 evaluated the added benefit of centralized scoring on the accuracy of scoring of the Bayley-3, a comprehensive developmental assessment widely used in rare neurodevelopmental disorders trials. Bayley-3 administrations across four rare disease trials were centrally scored. For all administrations, the site rater who administered the Bayley-3 scored the scale, and a centralized rater reviewed the video recordings of the administrations and also scored the scales to confirm accuracy. Results: For aim 1, site raters completed 138 Vineland-3 administrations. Of the138 administrations, 53 administrations were reviewed by a neuropsychologist. Four of the administrations had errors that compromised the validity of the assessment. The central raters completed 180 Vineland-3 administrations, 38 administrations were reviewed, and none had significant errors. For aim 2, 68 administrations of the Bayley-3 were reviewed and scored by both a site rater and a centralized rater. Of these administrations, 25 had errors in scoring that were corrected by the central rater. Conclusion: In rare neurodevelopmental disorders trials, sample sizes are often small, so data quality is critical. The use of central raters inherently decreases site burden, but it also decreases rater variance, as illustrated by the small team of central raters (n=7) needed to conduct all of the assessments (n=180) in these trials compared to the number of site raters (n=53) required for even fewer assessments (n=138). In addition, the use of central raters dramatically improves the quality of scoring the assessments.

Keywords: neurodevelopmental disorders, clinical trials, rare disease, central raters, remote trials, decentralized trials

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