Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: neutropenia

7 Epidemiology and Jeopardy Aspect of Febrile Neutropenia Patients by Means of Infectious Maladies

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

Conclusions of the sort and setting of observational treatment for immunocompromised patients with fever are confused by the qualities of the hidden disease and the impacts of medications previously got, just as by changing microbiological examples and patterns in sedate obstruction at national and institutional levels. A few frameworks have been proposed to recognize patients who could profit by outpatient anti-infection treatment from patients who require hospitalization. Useful contemplations may choose whether the fundamental checking during the time of neutropenia can be accomplished.

Keywords: microbiology, infectious, neutropenia, epidemiology

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6 Tyrosine Rich Fraction as an Immunomodulatory Agent from Ficus Religiosa Bark

Authors: S. A. Nirmal, G. S. Asane, S. C. Pal, S. C. Mandal

Abstract:

Objective: Ficus religiosa Linn (Moraceae) is being used in traditional medicine to improve immunity hence present work was undertaken to validate this use scientifically. Material and Methods: Dried, powdered bark of F. religiosa was extracted successively using petroleum ether and 70% ethanol in soxhlet extractor. The extracts obtained were screened for immunomodulatory activity by delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test and cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia in Swiss albino mice at the dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. 70% ethanol extract showed significant immunostimulant activity hence subjected to column chromatography to produce tyrosine rich fraction (TRF). TRF obtained was screened for immunomodulatory activity by above methods at the dose of 10 mg/kg, i.p. Results: TRF showed potentiation of DTH response in terms of significant increase in the mean difference in foot-pad thickness and it significantly increased neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers by 48.20%. Percentage reduction in total leukocyte count and neutrophil by TRF was found to be 43.85% and 18.72%, respectively. Conclusion: Immunostimulant activity of TRF was more pronounced and thus it has great potential as a source for natural health products.

Keywords: Ficus religiosa, immunomodulatory, cyclophosphamide, neutropenia

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5 Preventing the Septic Shock in an Oncological Patient with Febrile Neutropenia Submitted to Chemotherapy: The Nurse's Responsibility

Authors: Hugo Reis, Isabel Rabiais

Abstract:

The main purpose of the present study is to understand the nurse’s responsibility in preventing the septic shock in an oncological patient with febrile neutropenia submitted to chemotherapy. In order to do it, an integrative review of literature has been conducted. In the research done in many databases, it was concluded that only 7 out of 5202 articles compiled the entire inclusion standard present in the strict protocol of research, being this made up by all different methodologies. On the research done in the 7 articles it has resulted 8 text macro-units associated to different nursing interventions: ‘Health Education’; ‘Prophylactic Therapy Administration’; ‘Scales Utilization’; ‘Patient Evaluation’; ‘Environment Control’; ‘Performance of Diagnostic Auxiliary Exams’; ‘Protocol Enforcement/Procedure Guidelines’; ‘Antibiotic Therapy Administration’. Concerning the prevalence/result’s division there can be identified many conclusions: the macro-units ‘Patient Evaluation’, ‘Performance of Diagnostic Auxiliary Exams’, and ‘Antibiotic Therapy Administration’ present themselves to be the most prevalent in the research – 6 in 7 occurrences (approximately 85.7%). Next, the macro-unit ‘Protocol Enforcement/Procedure Guidelines’ presents itself as an important expression unit – being part of 5 out of the 7 analyzed studies (approximately 71.4%). The macro-unit ‘Health Education’, seems to be in the same way, an important expression unit – 4 out of the 7 (or approximately 57%). The macro-unit ‘Scales Utilization’, represents a minor part in the research done – it’s in only 2 out of the 7 cases (approximately 28.6%). On the other hand, the macro-units ‘Prophylactic Therapy Administration’ and ‘Environment Control’ are the two categories with fewer results in the research - 1 out of the 7 cases, the same as approximately 14.3% of the research results. Every research done to the macro-unit ‘Antibiotic Therapy Administration’ agreed to refer that the intervention should be strictly done, in a period of time less than one hour after diagnosing the fever, with the purpose of controlling the quick spread of infection – minimizing its seriousness. Identifying these interventions contributes, concluding that, to adopt strategies in order to prevent the phenomenon that represents a daily scenario responsible for the cost´s increase in health institutions, being at the same time responsible for the high morbidity rates and mortality increase associated with this specific group of patients.

Keywords: febrile neutropenia, oncology nursing, patient, septic shock

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4 Neo-Adjuvant B-CAT Chemotherapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Muneeb Nasir, Misbah Masood, Farrukh Rashid, Abubabakar Shahid

Abstract:

Introduction: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is a potent option for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) as these tumours lack a clearly defined therapeutic target. Several recent studies lend support that pathological complete remission (pCR) is associated with improved disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and could be used as surrogate marker for DFS and OS in breast cancer patients. Methods: We have used a four-drug protocol in T3 and T4 TNBC patients either N+ or N- in the neo-adjuvant setting. The 15 patients enrolled in this study had a median age of 45 years. 12 patients went on to complete four planned cycles of B-CAT protocol. The chemotherapy regimen included inj. Bevacizumab 5mg/kg D1, inj. Adriamycin 50mg/m2 D1 and Docetaxel 65mg/m2 on D1. Inj. Cisplatin 60mg/m2 on D2. All patients received GCF support from D4 to D9 of each cycle. Results: Radiological assessment using ultrasound and PET-CT revealed a high percentage of responses. Radiological CR was documented in half of the patients (6/12) after four cycles. Remaining patients went on to receive 2 more cycles before undergoing radical surgery. pCR was documented in 7/12 patients and 3 more had a good partial response. The regimen was toxic and grade ¾ neutropenia was seen in 58% of patients. Four episodes of febrile neutropenia were reported and managed. Non-hematatological toxicities were common with mucositis, diarrhea, asthenia and neuropathy topping the list. Conclusion: B-CAT is a very active combination with very high pCR rates in TNBC. Toxicities though frequent, were manageable on outpatient basis. This protocol warrants further investigation.

Keywords: B-CAT:bevacizumab, cisplatin, adriamycin, taxotere, CR: complete response, pCR: pathological complete response, TNBC: triple negative breast cancer

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3 Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions with Platinum Compounds in Cancer Chemotherapy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

Authors: Meena Kumari, Ajitha Sharma, Mohan Babu Amberkar, Hasitha Manohar, Joseph Thomas, K. L. Bairy

Abstract:

Aim: To evaluate the pattern of occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with platinum compounds in cancer chemotherapy at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It was a retrospective, descriptive case record study done on patients admitted to the medical oncology ward of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal from July to November 2012. Inclusion criteria comprised of patients of both sexes and all ages diagnosed with cancer and were on platinum compounds, who developed at least one adverse drug reaction during or after the treatment period. CDSCO proforma was used for reporting ADRs. Causality was assessed using Naranjo Algorithm. Results: A total of 65 patients was included in the study. Females comprised of 67.69% and rest males. Around 49.23% of the ADRs were seen in the age group of 41-60 years, followed by 20 % in 21-40 years, 18.46% in patients over 60 years and 12.31% in 1-20 years age group. The anticancer agents which caused adverse drug reactions in our study were carboplatin (41.54%), cisplatin (36.92%) and oxaliplatin (21.54%). Most common adverse drug reactions observed were oral candidiasis (21.53%), vomiting (16.92%), anaemia (12.3%), diarrhoea (12.3%) and febrile neutropenia (0.08%). The results of the causality assessment of most of the cases were probable. Conclusion: The adverse effect of chemotherapeutic agents is a matter of concern in the pharmacological management of cancer as it affects the quality of life of patients. This information would be useful in identifying and minimizing preventable adverse drug reactions while generally enhancing the knowledge of the prescribers to deal with these adverse drug reactions more efficiently.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, platinum compounds, cancer, chemotherapy

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2 Medical Complications in Diabetic Recipients after Kidney Transplantation

Authors: Hakan Duger, Alparslan Ersoy, Canan Ersoy

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is the most common etiology of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Also, diabetic nephropathy is the etiology of ESRD in approximately 23% of kidney transplant recipients. A successful kidney transplant improves the quality of life and reduces the mortality risk for most patients. However, patients require close follow-up after transplantation due to medical complications. Diabetes mellitus can affect patient morbidity and mortality due to possible effects of immunosuppressive therapy on glucose metabolism. We compared the frequency of medical complications and the outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study conducted in 498 patients who underwent kidney transplant surgery at our center in 10-year periods. The patients were divided into two groups: diabetics (46 ± 10 year, 26 males, 16 females) and non-diabetics (39 ± 12 year, 259 males, 197 females). The medical complications, graft functions, causes of graft loss and death were obtained from medical records. Results: There was no significant difference between recipient age, duration of dialysis, body mass index, gender, donor type, donor age, dialysis type, histories of HBV, HCV and coronary artery disease between two groups. The history of hypertension in diabetics was higher (69% vs. 36%, p < 0.001). The ratios of hypertension (50.1% vs. 57.1%), pneumonia (21.9% vs. 20%), urinary infection (16.9% vs. 20%), transaminase elevation (11.5% vs. 20%), hyperpotasemia (14.7% vs. 17.1%), hyponatremia (9.7% vs. 20%), hypotension (7.1% vs. 7.9%), hypocalcemia (1.4% vs. 0%), thrombocytopenia (8.6% vs. 8.6%), hypoglycemia (0.7% vs. 0%) and neutropenia (1.8% vs. 0%) were comparable in non-diabetic and diabetic groups, respectively. The frequency of hyperglycaemia in diabetics was higher (8.6% vs. 54.3%, p < 0.001). After transplantation, primary non-function (3.4% vs. 2.6%), delayed graft function (25.1% vs. 34.2%) and acute rejection (7.3% vs. 10.5%) ratios of in non-diabetic and diabetic groups were similar, respectively. Hospitalization durations in non-diabetics and diabetics were 22.5 ± 17.5 and 18.7 ± 13 day (p=0.094). Mean serum creatinine levels in non-diabetics and diabetics were 1.54 ± 0.74 and 1.52 ± 0.62 mg/dL at 6th month. Forty patients had graft loss. The ratios of graft loss and death in non-diabetic and diabetic groups were 8.2% vs. 7.1% and 7.1% vs. 2.6% (p > 0.05). There was no significant relationship between graft and patient survivals with the development of medical complication. Conclusion: As a result, medical complications are common in the early period. Hyperglycaemia was frequently seen following transplantation due to the effects of immunosuppressant regimens. However, the frequency of other medical complications in diabetic patients did not differ from non-diabetic one. The most important cause of death is still infections. The development of medical complications during the first 6 months did not significantly affect transplant outcomes.

Keywords: kidney transplantation, diabetes mellitus, complication, graft function

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1 Epidemiology of Healthcare-Associated Infections among Hematology/Oncology Patients: Results of a Prospective Incidence Survey in a Tunisian University Hospital

Authors: Ezzi Olfa, Bouafia Nabiha, Ammar Asma, Ben Cheikh Asma, Mahjoub Mohamed, Bannour Wadiaa, Achour Bechir, Khelif Abderrahim, Njah Mansour

Abstract:

Background: In hematology/oncology, health care improvement has allowed increasingly aggressive management in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Nevertheless, these intensified procedures have been associated with higher risk of healthcare associated infections (HAIs). We undertook this study to estimate the burden of HAIs in the cancer patients in an onco -hematology unit in a Tunisian university hospital. Materials/Methods: A prospective, observational study, based on active surveillance for a period of 06 months from Mars through September 2016, was undertaken in the department of onco-hematology in a university hospital in Tunisia. Patients, who stayed in the unit for ≥ 48 h, were followed until hospital discharge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria (CDC) for site-specific infections were used as standard definitions for HAIs. Results: One hundred fifty patients were included in the study. The gender distribution was 33.3% for girls and 66.6% boys. They have a mean age of 23.12 years (SD = 18.36 years). The main patient’s diagnosis is: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): 48.7 %( n=73). The mean length of stay was 21 days +/- 18 days. Almost 8% of patients had an implantable port (n= 12), 34.9 % (n=52) had a lumber puncture and 42.7 % (n= 64) had a medullary puncture. Chemotherapy was instituted in 88% of patients (n=132). Eighty (53.3%) patients had neutropenia at admission. The incidence rate of HAIs was 32.66 % per patient; the incidence density was 15.73 per 1000 patient-days in the unit. Mortality rate was 9.3% (n= 14), and 50% of cases of death were caused by HAIs. The most frequent episodes of infection were: infection of skin and superficial mucosa (5.3%), pulmonary aspergillosis (4.6%), Healthcare associated pneumonia (HAP) (4%), Central venous catheter associated infection (4%), digestive infection (5%), and primary bloodstream infection (2.6%). Finally, fever of unknown origin (FUO) incidence rate was 14%. In case of skin and superficial infection (n= 8), 4 episodes were documented, and organisms implicated were Escherichia.coli, Geotricum capitatum and Proteus mirabilis. For pulmonary aspergillosis, 6 cases were diagnosed clinically and radiologically, and one was proved by positive aspergillus antigen in bronchial aspiration. Only one patient died due this infection. In HAP (6 cases), four episodes were diagnosed clinically and radiologically. No bacterial etiology was established in these cases. Two patients died due to HAP. For primary bloodstream infection (4 cases), implicated germs were Enterobacter cloacae, Geotricum capitatum, klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusion: This type of prospective study is an indispensable tool for internal quality control. It is necessary to evaluate preventive measures and design control guides and strategies aimed to reduce the HAI’s rate and the morbidity and mortality associated with infection in a hematology/oncology unit.

Keywords: cohort prospective studies, healthcare associated infections, hematology oncology department, incidence

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