Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 129

Search results for: lactobacillus

129 Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Libyan Traditional Fermented Milk "Laban"

Authors: M. H. Nahaisi, N. M. Almaroum

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Laban is a Libyan traditional fermented milk product. This lactic fermentation has been known in many cities of Libya long time ago as stable, nutritious, refreshing drink especially during the summer. 16 naturally fermented milk samples were collected from different cities located in North West of Libya. The average pH, titratable acidity, fat and total solids were 4.16, 0.73%, 1.54% and 8.12 % respectively. Coliform, yeast and mold counts were 21×10⁴, 39×10⁴ and 41 ×10³ cfu/ ml. respectively. The average Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Mesophilic Lactobacillus / Leuconostoc and Thermophilic Lactobacillus counts were 99 ×10⁷, 96 ×10⁷, 93 ×10⁷ and 15 ×10⁷ cfu / ml. respectively. A total of one hundred forty two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were identified to the genus level as Lactobacillus (48.59%), Lactococcus (43.66%), Streptococcus (4.93%) and Leuconostoc (2.82%). Sugar fermentation tests have revealed that the most frequently Lactobacillus species was found to be Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis (62.32%) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (31.88%). Furthermore, other selected LAB isolates were identified by API 50 CH test as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactics, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris.

Keywords: traditional fermented milk, laban, lactococcus, streptococcus, mesophilic lactobacillus, thermophilic lactobacillus counts

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128 Some Probiotic Traits of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Pollen

Authors: Hani Belhadj, Daoud Harzallah, Seddik Khennouf, Saliha Dahamna, Mouloud Ghadbane

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In this study, Lactobacillus strains isolated from pollen were identified by means of phenotypic and genotypic methods, At pH 2, most strains proved to be acid resistants, with losses in cell viability ranging from 0.77 to 4.04 Log orders. In addition, at pH 3 all strains could grew and resist the acidic conditions, with losses in cell viability ranging from 0.40 to 3.61 Log orders. It seems that, 0.3% and 0.5% of bile salts does not affect greatly the survival of most strains, excluding Lactobacillus sp. BH1398. Survival ranged from 81.0±3.5 to 93.5±3.9%. In contrast, in the presence of 1.0% bile salts, survival of five strains was decreased by more than 50%. Lactobacillus fermentum BH1509 was considered the most tolerant strain (77.5% for 1% bile) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum BH1541 (59.9% for 1% bile). Furthermore, all strains were resistant to colistine, clindamycine, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacine, but most of the strains were susceptible to Peniciline, Oxacillin, Oxytetracyclin, and Amoxicillin. Functionally interesting Lactobacillus isolates may be used in the future as probiotic cultures for manufacturing fermented foods and as bioactive delivery systems.

Keywords: probiotics, lactobacillus, pollen, bile, acid tolerance

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
127 Probiotics’ Antibacterial Activity on Beef and Camel Minced Meat at Altered Ranges of Temperature

Authors: Rania Samir Zaki

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Because of their inhibitory effects, selected probiotic Lactobacilli may be used as antimicrobial against some hazardous microorganisms responsible for spoilage of fresh minced beef (cattle) minced meat and camel minced meat. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from camel meat. These included 10 isolates; 1 Lactobacillus fermenti, 4 Lactobacillus plantarum, 4 Lactobacillus pulgaricus, 3 Lactobacillus acidophilus and 1 Lactobacillus brevis. The most efficient inhibitory organism was Lactobacillus plantarum which can be used as a propiotic with antibacterial activity. All microbiological analyses were made at the time 0, first day and the second day at altered ranges of temperature [4±2 ⁰C (chilling temperature), 25±2 ⁰C, and 38±2 ⁰C]. Results showed a significant decrease of pH 6.2 to 5.1 within variant types of meat, in addition to reduction of Total Bacterial Count, Enterococci, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli together with the stability of Coliforms and absence of Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: antibacterial, camel meat, inhibition, probiotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
126 Survival of Four Probiotic Strains in Acid, Bile Salt and After Spray Drying

Authors: Rawichar Chaipojjana, Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

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The objective of the study was to select the survival of probiotic strains when exposed to acidic and bile salts condition. Four probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047, Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500, Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1338 and Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 1465) were cultured in MRS broth and incubated at 35ºC for 15 hours before being inoculated into acidic condition (5 M HCl, pH 2) for 2 hours and bile salt (0.3%, pH 5.8) for 8 hour. The survived probiotics were counted in MRS agar. Among four stains, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 was the highest tolerance specie. Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 reduced 6.74±0.07 log CFU/ml after growing in acid and 5.52±0.05 log CFU/ml after growing in bile salt. Then, double emulsion of microorganisms was chosen to encapsulate before spray drying. Spray drying was done with the inlet temperature 170ºC and outlet temperature 80ºC. The results showed that the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 after spray drying decreased from 9.63 ± 0.32 to 8.31 ± 0.11 log CFU/ml comparing with non-encapsulated, 9.63 ± 0.32 to 4.06 ± 0.08 log CFU/ml. Therefore, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 would be able to survive in gastrointestinal and spray drying condition.

Keywords: probiotic, acid, bile salt, spray drying

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125 Analysis of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Acidophilus from Commercial Yoghurt

Authors: Anwar Ali Abdulla, Thekra Abdulaali Abed Al-Chaabawi, Anwar Kadhim Al-Saffar, Hussein Kadhim Al-Saffar

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Lactic acid bacteria are very significant to human health due to the production of some antimicrobial substances and ability to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, the bacteria are also used as starter culture in the production of various foods. The present study was focused on isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus acidophilus from yogurt and to demonstrate some of probiotic properties of these isolates. All isolates were phenotypically characterized including studying, biochemical, effect of sodium chloride and pH during growth, carbohydrates test and characterizing the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus against pathogens. The present study demonstrates that Lactobacillus acidophilus produced a bacteriocin- like inhibitory substance with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity directed against pathogenic indicator organism suggesting its protective value against enteric pathogens.

Keywords: lactobacillus acidophilus, bacteriocin, antimicrobial activity, probiotic

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124 Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco

Authors: Maha Alaoui Ismaili, Bouchta Saidi, Mohamed Zahar, Abed Hamama

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112 lactic isolates were obtained from 15 samples of camel raw milk produced in Laayoune Boujdour Sakia-El Hamra region (South of Morocco). The main objective was the identification of species of lactic flora belonging to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc. Data obtained showed predominance of cocci among lactic isolates (86.6%) while lactic rods represented only 13.4%. With regard to genera identified, Enterococcus was the mostly found out (53.57%), followed by Lactococcus (28.57%), Lactobacillus (13.4%) and Leuconostoc (4.4 %). Identification of the lactic isolates according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics led to differentiating 11 species with Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis biovar diacetylactis being the mostly encountered (24.1%) followed by Lactobacillus brevis (3.57%), Lactobacillus plantarum (3.57%), Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp lactis (3.57%) and Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris (2.67%).

Keywords: raw camel milk, south of morocco, lactic acid bacteria, identification

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123 Antimicrobial Effect of Toothpastes Containing Fluoride, Xylitol or Xylitol-Probiotic on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in Children

Authors: Eda Arat Maden, Ceyhan Altun, Bilal Ozmen, Feridun Basak

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing fluoride, xylitol or xylitol-probiotic in vivo, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in 13-15 years old children. Method: The study consisted of 60 pediatric patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group 1 received fluoride toothpaste (Colgate Max Fresh), group 2 used xylitol toothpaste (Xyliwhite) and group 3 used xylitol-probiotic toothpaste (PerioBiotic). Subjects were asked to use the allocated dentifrice two times a day, for 6 weeks. We performed tests on the samples of saliva in the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks’ duration following the use of toothpaste. Result and Conclusion: All of the participants of the study stated that they brushed their teeth well twice a day by using the toothpastes given to them for 6 weeks. Majority of the subjects had high counts of salivary mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus at baseline. When the number of cariogenic bacteria (S. mutans and Lactobacillus) at the start of the PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste usage are compared with the results measured after 6 weeks, an important decrease is observed in the S. mutans and Lactobacillus bacteria according to the CRT Tests. After the 6-week use of Probiotic toothpaste, the S. mutans (≥105) decreased to 20% from 75% in the group with S. mutans and Lactobacillus (≥105) decreased to 30% from 60% in the group with Lactobacillus. In addition, an important decrease was recorded in the participants with the S. mutans percentage (80% - 45%) and Lactobacillus (70% - 55%) after using the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste for six weeks. On the other hand, it was determined with the Chi-square that there were not important changes between the Xyliwhite toothpaste group and the other groups with S. mutans (80% - 75%) and Lactobacillus (75% -65%). It was also determined after the comparison of the groups that the decrease in the S. mutans was higher than the group using PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste at a significant level, when compared with the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste and Xyliwhite toothpaste. S. mutans were more sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of the PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste and to the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste when compared with the Lactobacillus. In the light of the data obtained in this in vivo study, the use of probiotics ensure the balance between the bacterial flora in the oral cavity.

Keywords: lactobacillus, probiotic, Streptococcus mutans, toothpaste

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
122 Growth Inhibition of Candida Albicans Strains Co-Cultured with Lactobacillus Strains in a Cereal Medium

Authors: Richard Nyanzi, Maupi E. Letsoalo, Jacobus N. Eloff, Piet J. Jooste

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Candida albicans naturally occurs in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of more than 50% of humans. Overgrowth of the fungus causes several forms of candidiasis including oral thrush. Overgrowth tends to occur in immunocompromised humans such as diabetic, cancer and HIV patients. Antifungal treatment is available, but not without shortcomings. In this study, inhibitory activity of five probiotic Lactobacillus strains was demonstrated against the growth of seven clinical strains of Candida albicans by co-culturing of the organisms in a maize gruel (MG) medium. Phenotypic tests, molecular techniques and phylogenetic analysis have enabled precise identification of the organisms used in the study. The quantitative pour plate technique was used to enumerate colonies of the yeasts and the lactobacilli and the Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA tests were employed to compare the distributions of the colonies of the organisms. The cereal medium, containing added carbon sources, was inoculated with a Candida and a Lactobacillus strain in combination and incubated at 37 °C for 168 h. Aliquots were regularly taken and subjected to pH determination and colony enumeration. Certain Lactobacillus strains proved to be inhibitory and also lethal to some Candida albicans strains. A low pH due to Lactobacillus acid production resulted in significant low Candida colony counts. Higher Lactobacillus colony counts did not necessarily result in lower Candida counts suggesting that inhibitory factors besides low pH and competitive growth by lactobacilli contributed to the reduction in Candida counts. Such anti-Candida efficacy however needs to be confirmed by in vivo studies.

Keywords: candida albicans, oral thrush, candidiasis, lactobacillus, probiotics

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121 Stability of Ochratoxin a During Bread Making Process

Authors: Sara Heidari, Jafar Mohammadzadeh Milani, Elmira Pouladi Borj

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In this research, stability of Ochratoxin A (OTA) during bread making process including fermentation with yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Sourdough (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C were examined. Bread was prepared on a pilot-plant scale by using wheat flour spiked with standard solution of OTA. During this process, mycotoxin levels were determined after fermentation of the dough with sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast after further baking 200°C by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. According to the results, the highest stability of was observed in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest stability was observed in the baking stage in comparison to contaminated flour. In addition, compressed yeast showed the maximum impact on stability of OTA during bread making process.

Keywords: Ochratoxin A, bread, dough, yeast, sourdough

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120 The Influence of Lactic Acid Bacteria Combinations on Wheat Bread Quality

Authors: Vita Lele, Vadims Bartkevics, Iveta Pugajeva, Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Daiva Zadeike, Grazina Juodeikiene, Elena Bartkiene

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Different combinations of appropriate technological properties showing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Enterococcus pseudoavium VLGL 234, Lactobacillus plantarum VLGL135 and Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Lactobacillus brevis VLGL173, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides VLGL242, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Lactobacillus curvatus VLGL51, Lactobacillus plantarum VLGL135 and Lactobacillus curvatus VLGL51) for wheat sourdough production were used, and the influence of different sourdoughs on wheat bread quality parameters was evaluated. The highest overall acceptability (135.8 mm in 140 mm hedonic scale) of the bread produced with L. plantarum VLGL135 and P. pentosaceus VLGL183 sourdough was established. Also, bread produced with above mention sourdough, has the highest specific volume, shape coefficient, moisture content, and porosity, 3.40 ml /g; 2.59, 33.7 %, and 76.6 %, respectively. It was found, that the used sourdoughs reduce acrylamide content in bread (from 29.5 to 67.2%), just, the isolated lactic acid bacteria strains could be recommended for higher quality and safer bread production.

Keywords: acrylamide, lactic acid bacteria, quality, sourdough, wheat bread

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119 Survival of Micro-Encapsulated Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mutton Nuggets and Their Assessments in Simulated Gastro-Intestinal Conditions

Authors: Rehana Akhter, Sajad A. Rather, F. A. Masoodi, Adil Gani, S. M. Wani

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During recent years probiotic food products receive market interest as health-promoting, functional foods, which are believed to contribute health benefits. In order to deliver the health benefits by probiotic bacteria, it has been recommended that they must be present at a minimum level of 106 CFU/g to 107 CFU/g at point of delivery or be eaten in sufficient amounts to yield a daily intake of 108 CFU. However a major challenge in relation to the application of probiotic cultures in food matrix is the maintenance of viability during processing which might lead to important losses in viability as probiotic cultures are very often thermally labile and sensitive to acidity, oxygen or other food constituents for example, salts. In this study Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads with the objective of enhancing their survivability and preventing exposure to the adverse conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and where then inoculated in mutton nuggets. Micro encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were resistant to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2, 2h) and bile solution (3%, 2 h) resulting in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survivability when compared with free cell counterparts. A high encapsulation yield was found due to the encapsulation procedure. After incubation at low pH-values, micro encapsulation yielded higher survival rates compared to non-encapsulated probiotic cells. The viable cell numbers of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were 107-108 CFU/g higher compared to free cells after 90 min incubation at pH 2.5. The viable encapsulated cells were inoculated into mutton nuggets at the rate of 108 to 1010 CFU/g. The micro encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei achieved higher survival counts (105-107 CFU/g) than the free cell counterparts (102-104 CFU/g). Thus micro encapsulation offers an effective means of delivery of viable probiotic bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during simulated gastric, intestinal juice and processing conditions during nugget preparation.

Keywords: survival, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, micro-encapsulation, nugget

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
118 Antifungal Lactobacilli Affect Mycelium Morphology and Protect Apricot Juice against Mold Spoilage

Authors: Nora Laref, Bettache Guessas

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Preservation of foods mainly depends on delaying or inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms, and antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria is one of the technological properties researched. The antifungal activity was screened with overlay method of six strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LB54, LB52, LB51, LB20, LB24 Lactobacillus farciminis LB53) isolated from silage, camel milk and carrot against Aspergillus sp. Lactobacillus plantarum and farciminis inhibit spore germination and mycelia growth of Aspergillus sp., the production of antifungal compounds by these strains was detectable after 4h of incubation at 30°C and show total inhibition after 24h in liquid media, but in solid media showed a good inhibition after 96h of incubation, these compounds cause malformations in the thalle, conidiophore and conidia. These strains could be used as agents of biopreservation since have the ability to retard Aspergillus sp., growth in apricot juice with and without sugar conserved in refrigerator but not in bread.

Keywords: lactobacillus, antifungal substances, aspergillus, biopreservation

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117 Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from Northeastern Thai Fermented Vegetable Brassica juncea (L.)

Authors: T. Warinpramote, J. Sanguanjeen, P. Pholphakwaen, S. Kittisorayut, J. Kerdtubtim, S. Palachote, M. Taweechotipatr

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Cholesterol is a type of lipid molecule which is the significant risk factor for coronary heart disease. Currently, there are many cholesterol-lowering alternative treatments especially bile salt hydrolase positive lactobacilli. BSH can cleave the peptide linkage of bile salt, which results in removal of the amino acid group from the steroid core and increases production of the new bile acid by using more cholesterol. The purpose of this study was to isolate, and screen probiotic characteristics of lactobacilli from fermented Thai foods and further investigated for their comparative BSH activity. The result showed that 2 of 81 Lactobacillus strains, JPK2-2 and JPK3-2, isolated from Brassica juncea (L.) had significantly exhibited high BSH activity. In addition, these Lactobacillus strains showed their results that the ability to tolerate acid and bile salt. Furthermore, the using of 16S rDNA sequencing for definitive microbial identifications showed that these 2 strains belong to Lactobacillus plantarum. In the future, the L. plantarum with BSH activity strains JPK2-2 and JPK3-2 may be the candidate probiotics for application in functional foods and dairy products to improve in the patient with cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum, probiotics, bile salt hydrolase, cholesterol-lowering, fermented Thai food

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116 Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 Enhanced Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Puree

Authors: So Yae Koh, YeonWoo Song, Ji-Yeon Ryu, Jeong Yong Moon, Somi Kim Cho

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Blueberry, a perennial shrub, is one of the most popular fruits due to its flavor and strong free radical scavenging properties. In this study, the blueberry puree was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 and the antioxidant activities of fermentation products were examined. Various conditions with different supplements (5% sucrose or 10% skim milk) were evaluated for fermentation efficiency and the effects on antioxidant properties. The viable cell count of lactic acid bacteria, pH, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents were measured after 7 days of fermentation. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] radical scavenging activities were highly enhanced compared to non-fermented blueberry puree after fermentation. Interestingly, the antioxidant activities were greatly increased in the fermentation of blueberry puree alone without supplements. The present results indicate that the blueberry puree fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants and these findings will facilitate the utilization of blueberry as a resource for food additive.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, blueberry, lactobacillus plantarum CK10, fermentation

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115 Use of Lactic Strains Isolated from Algerian Ewe's Milk in the Manufacture of a Natural Yogurt

Authors: Chougrani Fadela, Cheriguene Abderrahim

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Fifty three strains of thermophilic and mesophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the ewe’s milk. Identification reveals the presence of nineteen strains (36%) of Lactobacillus sp., seventeen strains (32%) of Lactococcus sp., nine strains (17%) of Streptococcus thermophilus and eight strains (15%) of Leuconostoc sp. The strains were characterized for their technological properties. A high diversity of properties among the studied strains was demonstrated. On the basis of technological characteristics, two strains (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were screened with respect to their acid and flavour production for the preparation of a natural yogurt and compared to a commercial starter cultures. Sensorial analyses revealed that the product manufactured on the basis of the isolated strains have a cohesiveness and adhesiveness corresponding to standard products. The pH and the acidity recorded are also within accepted levels during all the period of conservation.

Keywords: Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, yoghurt, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, Algerian ewe’s milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
114 Biological Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms from Drinking Water Distribution System in Lebanon

Authors: A. Hamieh, Z. Olama, H. Holail

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Drinking Water Distribution Systems provide opportunities for microorganisms that enter the drinking water to develop into biofilms. Antimicrobial agents, mainly chlorine, are used to disinfect drinking water, however, there are not yet standardized disinfection strategies with reliable efficacy and development of novel anti-biofilm strategies is still of major concern. In the present study the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptomyces sp. cell free supernatants to inhibit the bacterial biofilm formation in Drinking Water Distribution System in Lebanon was investigated. Treatment with cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptomyces sp. at 20% concentration resulted in average biofilm inhibition (52.89 and 39.66% respectively). A preliminary investigation about the mode of action of biofilm inhibition revealed that cell free supernatants showed no bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against all the tested isolates. Pre-coating wells with supernatants revealed that Lactobacillus acidophilus cell free supernatant inhibited average biofilm formation (62.53%) by altering the adhesion of bacterial isolates to the surface, preventing the initial attachment step, which is important for biofilm production.

Keywords: biofilm, cell free supernatant, distribution system, drinking water, lactobacillus acidophilus, streptomyces sp, adhesion

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113 Survey of the Effect of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans on Casp3, AKT/PTEN, and MAPK Signaling Pathways at Co-Culture with KB Oral Cancer Cell Line and HUVEC Cells

Authors: Negar Zaheddoust, Negin Zaheddoust, Abbas Asoudeh-Fard

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Probiotic bacteria have been employed as a novel and less side-effect strategy for anticancer therapy. Since the oral cavity is a host for probiotic and pathogen bacteria to colonize, more investigation is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this novel adjunctive treatment for oral cancer. We considered Lactobacillus plantarum as a probiotic and Streptococcus mutans as a pathogen bacterium in our study. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans on Casp3, AKT / PTEN, and MAPK signaling pathway, which is involved in apoptosis or survival of oral cancer KB cells. On the other hand, to study the effects of these bacteria on normal cells, we used HUVEC cells. The KB and HUVEC cell lines were co-cultured with Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans isolated from traditional Iranian dairy and dental plaque, respectively. The growth-inhibitory effects of these two bacteria on KB and HUVEC cells were determined by (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay. MTT results demonstrated that the proliferation of KB cells was affected in a time, dose, and strain-dependent manner. In the following, the examination of induced apoptosis or necrosis in co-cultured KB cells with the best IC50 concentration of the Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans will be analyzed by FACS flow cytometry, and the changes in gene expression of Casp3, AKT / PTEN, MAPK genes will be evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Keywords: cancer therapy, induced apoptosis, oral cancer, probiotics

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112 Isolation and Identification of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria with Cholesterol Lowering Potential and Their Use in Fermented Milk Product

Authors: Preeyarach Whisetkhan, Malai Taweechotipatr, Ulisa Pachekrepapol

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Elevated level of blood cholesterol or hypercholesterolemia may lead to atherosclerosis and poses a major risk for cardiovascular diseases. Probiotics play a crucial role in human health, and probiotic bacteria that possesses bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity can be used to lower cholesterol level of the host. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Thai fermented foods were able to exhibit bile salt hydrolase activity and their use in fermented milk. A total of 28 isolates were tested for BSH activity by plate method on MRS agar supplemented with 0.5% sodium salt of taurodeoxycholic acid and incubated at 37°C for 48 h under anaerobic condition. The results showed that FN1-1 and FN23-3 isolates possessed strong BSH activity. FN1-1 and FN23-3 isolates were then identified for phenotype, biochemical characteristics, and genotype (16S rRNA sequencing). FN1-1 isolate showed 99.92% similarity to Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 20314(T), while FN23-3 isolate showed 99.94% similarity to Enterococcus faecium CGMCC1.2136 (T). Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 and Enterococcus faecium FN23-3 were tolerant of pH 3-4 and 0.3 and 0.8% bile. Bacterial count and pH of milk fermented with Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 at 37°C and 43°C were investigated. The results revealed that Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 was able to grow in milk, which led to decrease in pH level. Fermentation at 37°C resulted in faster growth rate than at 43 °C. Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 was a candidate probiotic to be used in fermented milk products to reduce the risk of high-cholesterol diseases.

Keywords: probiotics, lactic acid bacteria, bile salt hydrolase, cholesterol

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111 Effect of Capsule Storage on Viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Yogurt Powder

Authors: Kanchana Sitlaothaworn

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Yogurt capsule was made by mixing 14% w/v of reconstitution of skim milk with 2% FOS. The mixture was fermented by commercial yogurt starter comprising Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. These yogurts were made as yogurt powder by freeze-dried. Yogurt powder was put into capsule then stored for 28 days at 4oc. 8ml of commercial yogurt was found to be the most suitable inoculum size in yogurt production. After freeze-dried, the viability of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus reduced from 109 to 107 cfu/g. The precence of sucrose cannot help to protect cell from ice crystal formation in freeze-dried process, high (20%) sucrose reduced L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth during fermentation of yogurt. The addition of FOS had reduced slowly the viability of both L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus similar to control (without FOS) during 28 days of capsule storage. The viable cell exhibited satisfactory viability level in capsule storage (6.7x106cfu/g) during 21 days at 4oC.

Keywords: yogurt capsule, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, freeze-drying, sucrose

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110 Technological Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Algerian's Goat's Milk

Authors: A. Cheriguene, F. Chougrani

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A total of 153 wild lactic acid bacteria were isolated from goat’s milk collected from different areas in Western Algeria. The strains were identified using phenotypical, biochemical and physiological properties. API system and SDS-PAGE technique was also used in identification of the strains. Six genera were found Enterococcus (41.83%), Lactobacillus (29.40%), Lactococcus (19.60%), Leuconostoc (4.57%), Streptococcus thermophilus (3.26%) and Pediococcus (1.30%). The most abundant species were Enterococcus faecium (24 isolates), Enterococcus durans (22 isolates), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (25 isolates), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (09 isolates) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (07 isolates). The strains were screened for production and technological properties such as acid production, aminopeptidase activity, autolytic properties, antimicrobial activity and exopolysaccharide production. In general most tested isolates showed a good biomass separation when collected by centrifugation; as for the production of the lactic acid, results revealed that our strains are weakly acidifying; nevertheless, lactococci showed a best acidifying activity compared to lactobacilli. Aminopeptidase activity was also weak in most strains; but, it was generally higher for lactobacilli compared to lactococci, where we recorded 30 units for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus M14. Autolytic activity was generally higher for most strains, more particularly lactobacilli where we recorded values of 71.13% and 70% of autolysis rate respectively in Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains 9S10 and 9S7. Antimicrobial activity was detected in 50% of the isolates, particularly in lactobacilli where 80% of strains tested were able to inhibit the growth of other strains. Two strains could produce exopolysaccharides, E. faecium 8M6 and E. durans 7S8. Some strains were able to maintain two or three technological characteristics together.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, technological properties, acidification, aminopeptidase acivity (AP), autolysis

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109 Extracellular Phytase from Lactobacillus fermentum spp KA1: Optimization of Enzyme Production and Its Application for Improving the Nutritional Quality of Rice Bran

Authors: Neha Sharma, Kanthi K. Kondepudi, Naveen Gupta

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Phytases are phytate specific phosphatases catalyzing the step-wise dephosphorylation of phytate, which acts as an anti-nutritional factor in food due to its strong binding capacity to minerals. In recent years microbial phytases have been explored for improving nutritional quality of food. But the major limitation is acceptability of phytases from these microorganisms. Therefore, efforts are being made to isolate organisms which are generally regarded as safe for human consumption such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). Phytases from these organisms will have an edge over other phytase sources due to its probiotic attributes. Only few LAB have been reported to give phytase activity that too is generally seen as intracellular. LAB producing extracellular phytase will be more useful as it can degrade phytate more effectively. Moreover, enzyme from such isolate will have application in food processing also. Only few species of Lactobacillus producing extracellular phytase have been reported so far. This study reports the isolation of a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus fermentum spp KA1 which produces extracellular phytase. Conditions for the optimal production of phytase have been optimized and the enzyme production resulted in an approximately 13-fold increase in yield. The phytate degradation potential of extracellular phytase in rice bran has been explored and conditions for optimal degradation were optimized. Under optimal conditions, there was 43.26% release of inorganic phosphate and 6.45% decrease of phytate content.

Keywords: Lactobacillus, phytase, phytate reduction, rice bran

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108 Isolation, Identification and Characterization of the Bacteria and Yeast from the Fermented Stevia Extract

Authors: Asato Takaishi, Masashi Nasuhara, Ayuko Itsuki, Kenichi Suga

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Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a composite plant native to Paraguay. Stevia sweetener is derived from a hot water extract of Stevia (Stevia extract), which has some effects such as histamine decomposition, antioxidative effect, and blood sugar level-lowering function. The steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract are considered to contribute to these effects. In addition, these effects increase by the fermentation. However, it takes a long time for fermentation of Stevia extract and the fermentation liquid sometimes decays during the fermentation process because natural fermentation method is used. The aim of this study is to perform the fermentation of Stevia extract in a shorter period, and to produce the fermentation liquid in stable quality. From the natural fermentation liquid of Stevia extract, the four strains of useful (good taste) microorganisms were isolated using dilution plate count method and some properties were determined. The base sequences of 16S rDNA and 28S rDNA revealed three bacteria (two Lactobacillus sp. and Microbacterium sp.) and one yeast (Issatchenkia sp.). This result has corresponded that several kinds of lactic bacterium such as Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus buchneri were isolated from Stevia leaves. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometory (LC/MS/MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine the contents of steviol glycosides and neutral sugars. When these strains were cultured in the sterile Stevia extract, the steviol and stevioside were increased in the fermented Stevia extract. So, it was suggested that the rebaudioside A and the mixture of steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract were decomposed into stevioside and steviol by microbial metabolism.

Keywords: fermentation, lactobacillus, Stevia, steviol glycosides, yeast

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107 Effects of Medium Composition on the Production of Biomass and a Carbohydrate Isomerase by a Novel Strain of Lactobacillus

Authors: M. Miriam Hernández-Arroyo, Ivonne Caro-Gonzales, Miguel Ángel Plascencia-Espinosa, Sergio R. Trejo-Estrada

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A large biodiversity of Lactobacillus strains has been detected in traditional foods and beverages from Mexico. A selected strain of Lactobacillus sp - PODI-20, used for the obtained from an artisanal fermented beverage was cultivated in different carbon sources in a complex medium, in order to define which carbon sourced induced more effectively the isomerization of arabinose by cell fractions obtained by fermentation. Four different carbon sources were tested in a medium containing peptone and yeast extract and mineral salts. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and lactose were tested individually at three different concentrations: 3.5, 6, and 10% w/v. The biomass yield ranged from 1.72 to 17.6 g/L. The cell pellet was processed by mechanical homogenization. Both fractions, the cellular debris, and the lysis supernatant were tested for their ability to isomerize arabinose into ribulose. The highest yield of isomer was 12 % of isomerization in the supernatant fractions; whereas up to 9.3% was obtained by the use of cell debris. The isomerization of arabinose has great significance in the production of lactic acid by fermentation of complex carbohydrate hydrolysates.

Keywords: isomerase, tagatose, aguamiel, isomerization

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106 Lactobacillus sp. Isolates Slaughterhouse Waste as Probiotics for Broilers

Authors: Nourmalita Safitri Ningsih, Ridwan, Iqri Puspa Yunanda

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The aim of this study was to utilize the waste from slaughterhouses for chicken feed ingredients is probiotic. Livestock waste produced by livestock activities such as feces, urine, food remains, as well as water from livestock and cage cleaning. The process starts with the isolation of bacteria. Rumen fluid is taken at Slaughterhouse Giwangan, Yogyakarta. Isolation of Lactobacillus ruminus is done by using de Mann Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium. In the sample showed a rod-shaped bacteria are streaked onto an agar plates. After it was incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours, after which it is observed. The observation of these lactic acid bacteria it will show a clear zone at about the colony. These bacterial colonies are white, round, small, shiny on the agar plate mikroenkapsul In the manufacturing process carried out by the method of freeze dried using skim milk in addition capsulated material. Then the results of these capsulated bacteria are mixed with feed for livestock. The results from the mixing of capsulated bacteria in feed are to increase the quality of animal feed so as to provide a good effect on livestock. Scanning electron microscope testing we have done show the results of bacteria have been shrouded in skim milk. It can protect the bacteria so it is more durable in use. The observation of the bacteria showed a sheath on Lactobacillus sp. Preservation of bacteria in this way makes the bacteria more durable for use. As well as skim milk can protect bacteria that are resistant to the outside environment. Results of probiotics in chicken feed showed significant weight gain in chickens. Calculation Anova (P <0.005) shows the average chicken given probiotics her weight increased.

Keywords: chicken, probiotics, waste, Lactobacillus sp, bacteria

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105 Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Salvia Officinalis and, Mentha Pulegium on Three Strains of Streptococcus Mutants, Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and, Actinomyces Viscosus Dental Caries in-vitro

Authors: H. Nabahat, E. Amiri, F. AzaditalabDavoudabadi, N. Zaeri

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Tooth decay is one of the most common forms of oral and dental illness in the world, which causes huge costs of treatment, especially in high-risk groups such as people with oral dry mouth, prevention and control of it are very important. The use of traditional treatments such as extraction of drugs from medicinal plants is of paramount importance to Iran and the international community as well. The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the antibacterial effect of the extract of Salvia officinalis and Mentha pulegium, which are the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of oral and teeth bacterial (Streptococcus mutant, Lactobacillus rhamnosis, and Actinomyces viscosis) in vitro method. In this experimental study, two herbs of Salvia and Mentha were prepared by maceration of hydroalcoholic extract, and the antibacterial effect was evaluated by broth macro dilution on streptococcal mutagen bacteria, lactobacillus rhamnosis, and viscose actinomycosis. The results were analyzed by the Whitney Mann test (P > 0.05). The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the salmonella extract for Streptococcus mutan were 6.25 and 12.5 μg/ml, respectively, for lactobacillus of 1.56 and 3.12 μg/ml, respectively, and for actinomycosis viscose, The order of 12.5 and 100 μg/ml was obtained. As a result, broth macro dilution showed that both extracts of Salvia and Mentha had an inhibitory effect on all three species of bacteria. This effect for Salvia was significantly (P < 0.05) more than Mentha and was within the concentration range of both the extracts and had a bactericidal effect on all three bacteria.

Keywords: antibacterial effect, dental bacteria, herbal extracts , salvia officinalis, mentha pulegium

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104 Assessment of Lactic Acid Bacteria of Probiotic Potentials in Dairy Produce in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rashad R. Al-Hindi

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The aim of this study was to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria and evaluate their therapeutic and food preservation importance. Ninety-three suspected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from thirteen different raw and fermented milk of indigenous sources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The identification of forty-six selected LAB strains and genetic relatedness were performed based on 16S rDNA gene sequence comparison. The LAB counts in certain samples were higher under microaerobic than anaerobic conditions. The identified LAB belonged to genera Enterococcus (16 strains), Lactobacillus (9 strains), Weissella (10 strains), Streptococcus (8 strains) and Lactococcus (3 strains). Phylogenetic tree generated from the full-length (~1.6 kb) sequences confirmed previous findings. Utilization of shorter 16S rDNA sequences (~1.0 kb) also discriminated among strains of which V2 region was the most effective. None of the strains exhibited resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics or undesirable hemolytic activity, while they differed in other probiotic characteristics, e.g., tolerance to acidic pH, resistance to bile salt, and antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the isolates Lactobacillus casei MSJ1, Lactobacillus casei Dwan5, Lactobacillus plantarum EyLan2 and Enterococcus faecium Gail-BawZir8 are likely the best probiotic LAB and we speculate that studying the synergistic effects of bacterial combinations might result in the occurrence of more effective probiotic potential. We argue that the raw and fermented milk of animals hosted in Saudi Arabia, especially stirred yogurt (Laban) made from camel milk, are rich in LAB with promising probiotics potential.

Keywords: fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, Saudi Arabia

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103 The Use of Nano-Crystalline Starch in Probiotic Yogurt and Its Effects on the Physicochemical and Biological Properties

Authors: Ali Seirafi

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and application of starch nanocrystals on physicochemical and microbial properties in the industrial production of probiotic yogurt. In this study, probiotic yoghurt was manufactured by industrial method with the optimization and control of the technological factors affecting the probabilistic biomass, using probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum with commonly used yogurt primers. Afterwards, the effects of different levels of fat (1.3%, 2.5 and 4%), as well as the effects of various perbiotic compounds include starch nanocrystals (0.5%, 1 and 1.5%), galactolegalosaccharide (0.5% 1 and 1.5%) and fructooligosaccharide (0.5%, 1 and 1.5%) were evaluated. In addition, the effect of packaging (polyethylene and glass) was studied, while the effect of pH changes and final acidity were studied at each stage. In this research, all experiments were performed in 3 replications and the results were analyzed in a completely randomized design with SAS version 9.1 software. The results of this study showed that the addition of starch nanocrystal compounds as well as the use of glass packaging had the most positive effects on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria and the addition of nano-crystals and the increase in the cooling rate of the product, had the most positive effects on the survival of bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum.

Keywords: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, prebiotics, probiotic yogurt

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102 Control of Spoilage Fungi by Lactobacilli

Authors: Laref Nora, Guessas Bettache

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a major potential to be used in biopreservation methods because they are safe to consume (GRAS: generally regarded as safe) and they naturally occurring microflora of many foods. The preservative action of LAB is due to several antimicrobial metabolites, including lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocins, carbon dioxide, diacetyl, and reuterin. Several studies have focused on the antifungal activity compounds from natural sources for biopreservation in alternatives to chemical use. LAB has an antifungal activity which may inhibit food spoilage fungi. Lactobacillus strains isolated from silage prepared in our laboratory by fermentation of grass in anaerobic condition were screened for antifungal activity with overlay assay against Aspergillus spp. The antifungal compounds were originated from organic acids; inhibitory activity did not change after treatment with proteolytic enzymes. Lactobacillus strains were able also to inhibit Trichoderma spp, Penicillium spp, Fusarium roseum, and Stemphylim spp by confrontation assay. The inhibitory activity could be detected against the mould Aspergillus spp in the apricot juice but not in a bakery product. These antifungal compounds have the potential to be used as food biopreservation to inhibit conidia germination, and mycelia growth of spoilage fungi depending on food type, pH of food especially in heat, and cold processed foods.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, antifungal activity

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101 In vitro Antioxidant, Anticancer Properties and Probiotic Characteristics of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains

Authors: M. G. Shehata, S. A. El Sohaimy, Marwa M. Abu-Serie, Nourhan M. Abd El-Aziz

Abstract:

Probiotic strains can potentially be used as bio-preservatives and functional food supplement. Eight lactic acid bacteria strains (LAB) Lactobacillus brevis NRRL B-4527; Streptococcus thermophilus BLM 58; Pediococcusacidilactici ATCC 8042; Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCUG 1452; Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436; Lactococcuslactis sub sp. lactisDSM 20481; Lactobacillus plantarum DMSZ 20079 and Lactobacillus plantarumTF103 were selected to screen the antioxidant, anticancer potential and probiotic properties. LAB strains exhibited good probiotic, antioxidant properties and showed antagonistic activity against food-borne pathogenic (Bacillus subtilis DB 100 host; Candida albicans ATCCMYA-2876; Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3584; Escherichia coli BA 12296; Klebsiellapneumoniae ATCC12296; Salmonella senftenberg ATCC 8400 and Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 10788). Further, in vitro probiotic properties of eight strains displayed excellent acid tolerance, bile tolerance, simulated gastrointestinal juice tolerance, in vitro adhesion ability for HT-29 cell line. The antioxidant effect of intracellular and cell-free extract of lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, namely, resistance to hydrogen peroxide, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS). The results showed that intracellular and cell-free supernatant of S. Thermophilus BLM 58, L. lactissubsp.lactis DSM 20481, P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, L. brevis NRRL B-4527 strains possess excellent antioxidant capacity. The intracellular of S. Thermophilus BLM 58 and P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 also showed excellent anticancer activity against Caco-2, MCF-7, HepG-2, and PC-3. Antioxidative property of selected lactic acid bacteria strains would be useful in the functional food manufacturing industry. They could beneficially affect the consumer by providing dietary source of antioxidants.

Keywords: anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, functional food, lactic acid bacteria, probiotic

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100 Post-Harvest Biopreservation of Fruit and Vegetables with Application of Lactobacillus Strains

Authors: Judit Perjessy, Zsolt Zalan, Ferenc Hegyi, Eniko Horvath-Szanics, Krisztina Takacs, Andras Nagy, Adel Klupacs, Erika Koppany-Szabo, Zhirong Wang, Kaituo Wang, Muying Du, Jianquan Kan

Abstract:

The post-harvest diseases cause great economic losses in the fruit and vegetables; the prevention of these deterioration has great importance. Against the fungi, which cause most of the diseases, are extensively used the fungicides. However, there are increasing consumer concerns over the presence of pesticide residues in food. An alternative and in recent years, increasingly studied method for the prevention of the diseases is biocontrol, where antagonistic microorganisms are used for the control of fungi. The genera of Lactobacillus is well known and extensively studied, but its applicability as biocontrol agents in post-harvest preservation of fruit and vegetables is poorly investigated. However these bacteria can be found on the surface of the plants and have great antimicrobial activity. In our study we have investigated the chitinase activity, the antifungal effect and the applicability of several Lactobacillus strains to select potential biocontrol agents. We investigated the determination of the environmental parameters of a gene (encoding chitinase) expression and we also investigated the relationship between actual antifungal activity and potential chitinase activity. Mixed cultures were also developed to enhance the antifungal activity and determined the optimal mold spore and bacteria concentration ratio for the appropriate efficacy. Five Lactobacillus strains (L. acidophilus N2, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus B397, L. sp. 2231, L. sake subsp. sake 2471, L. buchneri 1145) possess chitinase-coding gene from the 43 investigated Lactobacillus strains. Proteins with similar molecular weight and separation properties like bacterial chitinases were detected from these strains, which also possess chitin-binding property. Nevertheless, they were inactive, lacks the chitinolytic activity. In point of the cumulative activity of inhibition, our results showed that certain strains were statistically significant in a positive direction compared to other strains, e.g., L. rhamnosus VT1 and L. Casey 154 have shown great general antifungal effect against 11 molds from the genera Penicillium and Botrytis and isolated from spoiled fruit and vegetables. Also, some mixed cultures (L. rhamnosus VT1 - L. Plantarum 299v) showed significant antifungal effects against the indigenous molds on the surface of apple fruit during the industrial storage experiment. Thus, they could be promising for post-harvest biopreservation.

Keywords: biocontrol, chitinase, Lactobacillus, post-harvest

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