Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: microbiology

80 Use of Predictive Food Microbiology to Determine the Shelf-Life of Foods

Authors: Fatih Tarlak

Abstract:

Predictive microbiology can be considered as an important field in food microbiology in which it uses predictive models to describe the microbial growth in different food products. Predictive models estimate the growth of microorganisms quickly, efficiently, and in a cost-effective way as compared to traditional methods of enumeration, which are long-lasting, expensive, and time-consuming. The mathematical models used in predictive microbiology are mainly categorised as primary and secondary models. The primary models are the mathematical equations that define the growth data as a function of time under a constant environmental condition. The secondary models describe the effects of environmental factors, such as temperature, pH, and water activity (aw) on the parameters of the primary models, including the maximum specific growth rate and lag phase duration, which are the most critical growth kinetic parameters. The combination of primary and secondary models provides valuable information to set limits for the quantitative detection of the microbial spoilage and assess product shelf-life.

Keywords: shelf-life, growth model, predictive microbiology, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
79 Design and Construction of Temperature and Humidity Control Channel for a Bacteriological Incubator

Authors: Carlos R. Duharte Rodríguez, Ibrain Ceballo Acosta, Carmen B. Busoch Morlán, Angel Regueiro Gómez, Annet Martinez Hernández

Abstract:

This work shows the designing and characterization of a prototype of laboratory incubator as support of research in Microbiology, in particular during studies of bacterial growth in biological samples, with the help of optic methods (Turbidimetry) and electrometric measurements of bioimpedance. It shows the results of simulation and experimentation of the design proposed for the canals of measurement of the variables: temperature and humidity, with a high linearity from the adequate selection of sensors and analogue components of every channel, controlled with help of a microcontroller AT89C51 (ATMEL) with adequate benefits for this type of application.

Keywords: microbiology, bacterial growth, incubation station, microorganisms

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78 Implementation of Real-World Learning Experiences in Teaching Courses of Medical Microbiology and Dietetics for Health Science Students

Authors: Miriam I. Jimenez-Perez, Mariana C. Orellana-Haro, Carolina Guzman-Brambila

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As part of microbiology and dietetics courses, students of medicine and nutrition analyze the main pathogenic microorganisms and perform dietary analyzes. The course of microbiology describes in a general way the main pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, as well as their interaction with the human species. We hypothesize that lack of practical application of the course causes the students not to find the value and the clinical application of it when in reality it is a matter of great importance for healthcare in our country. The courses of the medical microbiology and dietetics are mostly theoretical and only a few hours of laboratory practices. Therefore, it is necessary the incorporation of new innovative techniques that involve more practices and community fieldwork, real cases analysis and real-life situations. The purpose of this intervention was to incorporate real-world learning experiences in the instruction of medical microbiology and dietetics courses, in order to improve the learning process, understanding and the application in the field. During a period of 6 months, medicine and nutrition students worked in a community of urban poverty. We worked with 90 children between 4 and 6 years of age from low-income families with no access to medical services, to give an infectious diagnosis related to nutritional status in these children. We expect that this intervention would give a different kind of context to medical microbiology and dietetics students improving their learning process, applying their knowledge and laboratory practices to help a needed community. First, students learned basic skills in microbiology diagnosis test during laboratory sessions. Once, students acquired abilities to make biochemical probes and handle biological samples, they went to the community and took stool samples from children (with the corresponding informed consent). Students processed the samples in the laboratory, searching for enteropathogenic microorganism with RapID™ ONE system (Thermo Scientific™) and parasites using Willis and Malloy modified technique. Finally, they compared the results with the nutritional status of the children, previously measured by anthropometric indicators. The anthropometric results were interpreted by the OMS Anthro software (WHO, 2011). The microbiological result was interpreted by ERIC® Electronic RapID™ Code Compendium software and validated by a physician. The results were analyses of infectious outcomes and nutritional status. Related to fieldwork community learning experiences, our students improved their knowledge in microbiology and were capable of applying this knowledge in a real-life situation. They found this kind of learning useful when they translate theory to a real-life situation. For most of our students, this is their first contact as health caregivers with real population, and this contact is very important to help them understand the reality of many people in Mexico. In conclusion, real-world or fieldwork learning experiences empower our students to have a real and better understanding of how they can apply their knowledge in microbiology and dietetics and help a much- needed population, this is the kind of reality that many people live in our country.

Keywords: real-world learning experiences, medical microbiology, dietetics, nutritional status, infectious status.

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77 Biorisk Management Education for Undergraduates Studying Clinical Microbiology at University in Japan

Authors: Shuji Fujimoto, Fumiko Kojima, Mika Shigematsu

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Biorisk management (Biosafety/Biosecurity) is required for anyone working in a clinical laboratory (including medical/clinical research laboratories) where infectious agents and potentially hazardous biological materials are examined/stored. Proper education and training based on international standards of biorisk management should be provided not only as a part of laboratory safety program in work place but also as a part of introductory training at educational institutions for continuity and to elevate overall baseline of the biorisk management. We reported results of the pilot study of biorisk management education for graduate students majored in laboratory diagnostics previously. However, postgraduate education is still late in their profession and the participants’ interview also revealed importance and demands of earlier biorisk management education for undergraduates. The aim of this study is to identify the need for biosafety/biosecurity education and training program which is designed for undergraduate students who are entering the profession in clinical microbiology. We modified the previous program to include more basic topics and explanations (risk management, principles of safe clinical lab practices, personal protective equipment, disinfection, disposal of biological substances) and provided incorporating in the routine educational system for faculty of medical sciences in Kyushu University. The results of the pre and post examinations showed that the knowledge of the students on biorisk control had developed effectively as a proof of effectiveness of the program even in the undergraduate students. Our study indicates that administrating the basic biorisk management program in the earlier stage of learning will add positive impact to the understanding of biosafety to the health professional education.

Keywords: biorisk management, biosafety, biosecurity, clinical microbiology, education for undergraduates

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76 High-Throughput Mechanized Microfluidic Test Groundwork for Precise Microbial Genomics

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Gasemi Shayan, Parsa Sheykhzade

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Ease shotgun DNA sequencing is changing the microbial sciences. Sequencing instruments are compelling to the point that example planning is currently the key constraining element. Here, we present a microfluidic test readiness stage that incorporates the key strides in cells to grouping library test groundwork for up to 96 examples and decreases DNA input prerequisites 100-overlay while keeping up or improving information quality. The universally useful microarchitecture we show bolsters work processes with subjective quantities of response and tidy up or catch steps. By decreasing the example amount necessities, we empowered low-input (∼10,000 cells) entire genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and soil miniaturized scale settlements with prevalent outcomes. We additionally utilized the upgraded throughput to succession ∼400 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa libraries and exhibit magnificent single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery execution that clarified phenotypically watched anti-toxin opposition. Completely coordinated lab-on-chip test arrangement beats specialized boundaries to empower more extensive organization of genomics across numerous fundamental research and translational applications.

Keywords: clinical microbiology, DNA, microbiology, microbial genomics

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75 A Comparison of the Microbiology Profile for Periprosthetic Joint Infection (PJI) of Knee Arthroplasty and Lower Limb Endoprostheses in Tumour Surgery

Authors: Amirul Adlan, Robert A McCulloch, Neil Jenkins, MIchael Parry, Jonathan Stevenson, Lee Jeys

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Background and Objectives: The current antibiotic prophylaxis for oncological patients is based upon evidence from primary arthroplasty despite significant differences in both patient group and procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the microbiology organisms responsible for PJI in patients who underwent two-stage revision for infected primary knee replacement with those of infected oncological endoprostheses of the lower limb in a single institution. This will subsequently guide decision making regarding antibiotic prophylaxis at primary implantation for oncological procedures and empirical antibiotics for infected revision procedures (where the infecting organism(s) are unknown). Patient and Methods: 118 patients were treated with two-stage revision surgery for infected knee arthroplasty and lower limb endoprostheses between 1999 and 2019. 74 patients had two-stage revision for PJI of knee arthroplasty, and 44 had two-stage revision of lower limb endoprostheses. There were 68 males and 50 females. The mean age for the knee arthroplasty cohort and lower limb endoprostheses cohort were 70.2 years (50-89) and 36.1 years (12-78), respectively (p<0.01). Patient host and extremity criteria were categorised according to the MSIS Host and Extremity Staging System. Patient microbiological culture, the incidence of polymicrobial infection and multi-drug resistance (MDR) were analysed and recorded. Results: Polymicrobial infection was reported in 16% (12 patients) from knee arthroplasty PJI and 14.5% (8 patients) in endoprostheses PJI (p=0.783). There was a significantly higher incidence of MDR in endoprostheses PJI, isolated in 36.4% of cultures, compared to knee arthroplasty PJI (17.2%) (p=0.01). Gram-positive organisms were isolated in more than 80% of cultures from both cohorts. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) was the commonest gram-positive organism, and Escherichia coli was the commonest Gram-negative organism in both groups. According to the MSIS staging system, the host and extremity grade of knee arthroplasty PJI cohort were significantly better than endoprostheses PJI(p<0.05). Conclusion: Empirical antibiotic management of PJI in orthopaedic oncology is based upon PJI in arthroplasty despite differences in both host and microbiology. Our results show a significant increase in MDR pathogens within the oncological group despite CoNS being the most common infective organism in both groups. Endoprosthetic patients presented with poorer host and extremity criteria. These factors should be considered when managing this complex patient group, emphasising the importance of broad-spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis and preoperative sampling to ensure appropriate perioperative antibiotic cover.

Keywords: microbiology, periprosthetic Joint infection, knee arthroplasty, endoprostheses

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74 Findings in Vascular Catheter Cultures at the Laboratory of Microbiology of General Hospital during One Year

Authors: P. Christodoulou, M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

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Abstract— Purpose: The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environment is conducive to the growth of microorganisms. A variety of microorganisms gain access to the intravascular area and are transported throughout the circulatory system. Therefore, examination of the catheters used in ICU patients is of paramount importance. Material and Method: The culture medium is a catheter tip, which is enriched with Tryptic soy broth (TSB). After one day of incubation, the broth is passaged in the following selective media: Blood, Mac conkey No. 2, chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman, and Saboureaud agar. The above selective media is incubated for 2 days. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies is detected, gram staining is performed and then the microorganisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan (Siemens) system followed by a sensitivity test in the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer test. Results: In 2017, the Microbiology Laboratory received 84 catheters from the ICU. 42 were found positive. Of these, S. epidermidis was identified at 8, A. baumannii in 10, K. pneumoniae in 6, P. aeruginosa in 6, P. mirabilis in 3, S. simulans in 1, S. haemolyticus in 4, S. aureus in 3 and S. hominis in 1. Conclusions: The results show that the placement and maintenance of the catheters in ICU patients are relatively successful, despite the unfavorable environment of the unit.

Keywords: culture, intensive care unit, microorganisms, vascular catheters

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73 Routine pus Swabs for Uncomplicated Abscesses – Do They Alter Our Management Plan?

Authors: Abdelrahman Abdelrahman, Lawrence Nip, Seun Ikotun, Iman Satar, Anur Miah

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Introduction: Incision and drainage of an abscess is a common procedure performed by the general surgeon. Pus swabs are often obtained routinely for MC&S.Our study aimed to investigate whether swabs taken at our local institution had any impact on the overall management plan for uncomplicated abscesses. Methods: We retrospectively assessed all patients presenting to University Hospital Lewisham with an abscess between October 2020 – April 2021. Exclusion criteria were recurrent abscesses, patients admitted with sepsis, known inflammatory bowel disease, immunocompromised, and those managed non-operatively. Results: We identified 131 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Two thirds were performed in theatre under general anaesthetic and the other one third under local. 63% of patients had a pus swab collected. Of these, 96% were not followed up by the requesting doctor, and there was no further patient contact. In the other 4%, the organisms cultured were flagged as atypical such as MRSA. In these cases, microbiology advice was that if the patient was clinically well and adequate drainage was achieved, then no furtherantibiotics were required. All patients were discharged before any microbiology results had come back with no subsequent change in the management plan. Average cost of pus swab = £10.10 – potentially cost saving of £1656.4 annually. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the majority of pus swabs taken from uncomplicated abscessesare not followed up by requesting doctor with no impact on the overall management plan. We, therefore, do not recommend the routine use of pus swabs for uncomplicated abscesses.

Keywords: pus swabs, uncomplated abscess, Pus MCS, follow up of uncomplicated abscess

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72 Retrospective Study of Bronchial Secretions Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: S. Mantzoukis, M. Gerasimou, P. Christodoulou, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

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Purpose: Patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU) are exposed to a different spectrum of microorganisms relative to the hospital. Due to the fact that the majority of these patients are intubated, bronchial secretions should be examined. Material and Method: Bronchial secretions should be taken with care so as not to be mixed with sputum or saliva. The bronchial secretions are placed in a sterile container and then inoculated into blood, Mac Conkey No2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Saboureaud agar. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies are detected, gram staining is performed and then the isolated organisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan system (Siemens) followed by a sensitivity test in the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 365 samples of bronchial secretions from the Intensive Care Unit. 237 were found positive. S. epidermidis was identified in 1 specimen, A. baumannii in 60, K. pneumoniae in 42, P. aeruginosa in 50, C. albicans in 40, P. mirabilis in 4, E. coli in 4, S. maltophilia in 6, S. marcescens in 6, S. aureus in 12, S. pneumoniae in 1, S. haemolyticus in 4, P. fluorescens in 1, E. aerogenes in 1, E. cloacae in 5. Conclusions: The majority of ICU patients appear to be a fertile ground for the development of infections. The nature of the findings suggests that a significant part of the bacteria found comes from the unit (nosocomial infection).

Keywords: bronchial secretions, cultures, infections, intensive care units

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71 Two Years Retrospective Study of Body Fluid Cultures Obtained from Patients in the Intensive Care Unit of General Hospital of Ioannina

Authors: N. Varsamis, M. Gerasimou, P. Christodoulou, S. Mantzoukis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

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Purpose: Body fluids (pleural, peritoneal, synovial, pericardial, cerebrospinal) are an important element in the detection of microorganisms. For this reason, it is important to examine them in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Material and Method: Body fluids are transported through sterile containers and enriched as soon as possible with Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB). After one day of incubation, the broth is poured into selective media: Blood, Mac Conkey No. 2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Saboureaud agar. The above selective media are incubated directly for 2 days. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies are detected, gram staining is performed. After that, the isolated organisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan system (Siemens) and followed by a sensitivity test on the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by Kirby Bauer-based plate test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 60 samples of body fluids from the ICU. More specifically the Microbiology Department received 6 peritoneal fluid specimens, 18 pleural fluid specimens and 36 cerebrospinal fluid specimens. 36 positive cultures were tested. S. epidermidis was identified in 18 specimens, S. haemolyticus in 6, and E. faecium in 12. Conclusions: The results show low detection of microorganisms in body fluid cultures.

Keywords: body fluids, culture, intensive care unit, microorganisms

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70 Retrospective Study of Positive Blood Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, P. Christodoulou, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

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Purpose: Microbial infection of the blood is a serious condition where bacteria invade the bloodstream and cause systemic disease. In such cases, blood cultures are performed. Blood cultures are a key diagnostic test for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Material and method: The BacT/Alert system, which measures the production of carbon dioxide with metabolic organisms, is used. The positive result in the BacT/Alert system is followed by culture in the following selective media: Blood, Mac Conkey No 2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Sabaureaud agar. Gram staining method was used to differentiate bacterial species. The microorganisms were identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan (Siemens) system and followed by a sensitivity test on the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer-based test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 3347 blood cultures. Of these, 170 came from the ICU. 116 found positive. Of these S. epidermidis was identified in 42, A. baumannii in 27, K. pneumoniae in 12 (4 of these KPC ‘Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase’), S. hominis in 8, E. faecium in 7, E. faecalis in 5, P. aeruginosa in 3, C. albicans in 3, S. capitis in 2, K. oxytoca in 2, P. mirabilis in 2, E. coli in 1, S. intermidius in 1 and S. lugdunensis in 1. Conclusions: The study of epidemiological data and microbial resistance phenotypes is essential for the choice of therapeutic regimen for the early treatment and limitation of multivalent strains, while it is a crucial factor to solve diagnostic problems.

Keywords: blood culture, bloodstream, infection, intensive care unit

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69 Epidemiology and Jeopardy Aspect of Febrile Neutropenia Patients by Means of Infectious Maladies

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

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Conclusions of the sort and setting of observational treatment for immunocompromised patients with fever are confused by the qualities of the hidden disease and the impacts of medications previously got, just as by changing microbiological examples and patterns in sedate obstruction at national and institutional levels. A few frameworks have been proposed to recognize patients who could profit by outpatient anti-infection treatment from patients who require hospitalization. Useful contemplations may choose whether the fundamental checking during the time of neutropenia can be accomplished.

Keywords: microbiology, infectious, neutropenia, epidemiology

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68 The Microflora Assessment of the Urethra Area of Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes

Authors: Ewa Rusak, Sebastian Seget, Aleksandra Mroskowiak, Mirosław Partyka, Ewa Samulska, Julia Strózik, Anna Wilk, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot

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Introduction: Children suffering from Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) are more prone to various infections. Results: There were 42 microbial species isolated in the collected materials. 2 patients were cultured negatively (3.2%). There were statistical correlations between the type of colonisation and patients’ sex and HbA1C value. Conclusions: It is extremely important to examine the urethral area at the time of diagnosis of T1D in order to detect inflammation and to undertake appropriate and effective intervention.

Keywords: diabetology, skin disorders, microbiology, microflora

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
67 Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Source and Stored Domestic Water from Three Local Governments in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Authors: Mary A. Bisi-Johnson, Kehinde A. Adediran, Saheed A. Akinola, Hamzat A. Oyelade

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Some of the main problems man contends with are the quantity (source and amount) and quality of water in Nigeria. Scarcity leads to water being obtained from various sources and microbiological contaminations of the water may thus occur between the collection point and the point of usage. Thus, this study aims to assess the general and microbiological quality of domestic water sources and household stored water used within selected areas in Ile-Ife, South-Western part of Nigeria for microbial contaminants. Physicochemical and microbiological examination were carried out on 45 source and stored water samples collected from well and spring in three different local government areas i.e. Ife east, Ife-south, and Ife-north. Physicochemical analysis included pH value, temperature, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen, and biochemical oxygen demand. Microbiology involved most probable number analysis, total coliform, heterotrophic plate, faecal coliform, and streptococcus count. The result of the physicochemical analysis of samples showed anomalies compared to acceptable standards with the pH value of 7.20-8.60 for stored and 6.50-7.80 for source samples as the total dissolved solids (TDS of stored 20-70mg/L, source 352-691mg/L), dissolved oxygen (DO of stored 1.60-9.60mg/L, source 1.60-4.80mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD stored 0.80-3.60mg/L, source 0.60-5.40mg/L). General microbiological quality indicated that both stored and source samples with the exception of a sample were not within acceptable range as indicated by analysis of the MPN/100ml which ranges (stored 290-1100mg/L, source 9-1100mg/L). Apart from high counts, most samples did not meet the World Health Organization standard for drinking water with the presence of some pathogenic bacteria and fungi such as Salmonella and Aspergillus spp. To annul these constraints, standard treatment methods should be adopted to make water free from contaminants. This will help identify common and likely water related infection origin within the communities and thus help guide in terms of interventions required to prevent the general populace from such infections.

Keywords: domestic, microbiology, physicochemical, quality, water

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66 Typification and Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles with E Test Methods of Anaerobic Gram Negative Bacilli Isolated from Various Clinical Specimen

Authors: Cengiz Demir, Recep Keşli, Gülşah Aşık

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Objective: This study was carried out with the purpose of defining by using the E test method and determining the antibiotic resistance profiles of Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and referred to Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Application and Research Hospital. Methods: Two hundred and seventy eight clinical specimens were examined for isolation of the anaerobic bacteria in Medical Microbiology Laboratory between the 1st November 2014 and 30th October 2015. Specimens were cultivated by using Scheadler agar that 5% defibrinated sheep blood added, and Scheadler broth. The isolated anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were identified conventional methods and Vitek 2 (ANC ID Card, bioMerieux, France) cards. Antibiotic resistance rates against to penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem were determined with E-test method for each isolate. Results: Of the isolated twenty-eight anaerobic gram negative bacilli fourteen were identified as the B. fragilis group, 9 were Prevotella group, and 5 were Fusobacterium group. The highest resistance rate was found against penicillin (78.5%) and resistance rates against clindamycin and cefoxitin were found as 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. Against to the; metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem, no resistance was found. Conclusion: Since high rate resistance has been detected against to penicillin in the study penicillin should not be preferred in empirical treatment. Cefoxitin can be preferred in empirical treatment; however, carrying out the antibiotic sensitivity testing will be more proper and beneficial. No resistance was observed against carbapenem group antibiotics and metronidazole; so that reason, these antibiotics should be reserved for treatment of infectious caused by resistant strains in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, anaerobe, antibiotics and resistance profiles, e-test method

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65 A Program of Data Analysis on the Possible State of the Antibiotic Resistance in Bangladesh Environment in 2019

Authors: S. D. Kadir

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Background: Antibiotics have always been at the centrum of the revolution of modern microbiology. Micro-organisms and its pathogenicity, resistant organisms, inappropriate or over usage of various types of antibiotic agents are fuelled multidrug-resistant pathogenic organisms. Our present time review report mainly focuses on the therapeutic condition of antibiotic resistance and the possible roots behind the development of antibiotic resistance in Bangladesh in 2019. Methodology: The systemic review has progressed through a series of research analyses on various manuscripts published on Google Scholar, PubMed, Research Gate, and collected relevant information from established popular healthcare and diagnostic center and its subdivisions all over Bangladesh. Our research analysis on the possible assurance of antibiotic resistance been ensured by the selective medical reports and on random assay on the extent of individual antibiotic in 2019. Results: 5 research articles, 50 medical report summary, and around 5 patients have been interviewed while going through the estimation process. We have prioritized research articles where the research analysis been performed by the appropriate use of the Kirby-Bauer method. Kirby-Bauer technique is preferred as it provides greater efficiency, ensures lower performance expenditure, and supplies greater convenience and simplification in the application. In most of the reviews, clinical and laboratory standards institute guidelines were strictly followed. Most of our reports indicate significant resistance shown by the Beta-lactam drugs. Specifically by the derivatives of Penicillin's, Cephalosporin's (rare use of the first generation Cephalosporin and overuse of the second and third generation of Cephalosporin and misuse of the fourth generation of Cephalosporin), which are responsible for almost 67 percent of the bacterial resistance. Moreover, approximately 20 percent of the resistance was due to the fact of drug pumping from the bacterial cell by tetracycline and sulphonamides and their derivatives. Conclusion: 90 percent of the approximate antibiotic resistance is due to the usage of relative and true broad-spectrum antibiotics. The environment has been created by the following circumstances where; the excessive usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics had led to a condition where the disruption of native bacteria and a series of anti-microbial resistance causing a disturbance of the surrounding environments in medium, leading to a state of super-infection.

Keywords: antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, Kirby Bauer method, microbiology

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64 Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure: A Large-Scale Research Infrastructure for Microbiological Services

Authors: R. Hurtado-Ortiz, D. Clermont, M. Schüngel, C. Bizet, D. Smith, E. Stackebrandt

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Microbiological resources and their derivatives are the essential raw material for the advancement of human health, agro-food, food security, biotechnology, research and development in all life sciences. Microbial resources, and their genetic and metabolic products, are utilised in many areas such as production of healthy and functional food, identification of new antimicrobials against emerging and resistant pathogens, fighting agricultural disease, identifying novel energy sources on the basis of microbial biomass and screening for new active molecules for the bio-industries. The complexity of public collections, distribution and use of living biological material (not only living but also DNA, services, training, consultation, etc.) and service offer, demands the coordination and sharing of policies, processes and procedures. The Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure (MIRRI) is an initiative within the European Strategy Forum Infrastructures (ESFRI), bring together 16 partners including 13 European public microbial culture collections and biological resource centres (BRCs), supported by several European and non-European associated partners. The objective of MIRRI is to support innovation in microbiology by provision of a one-stop shop for well-characterized microbial resources and high quality services on a not-for-profit basis for biotechnology in support of microbiological research. In addition, MIRRI contributes to the structuring of microbial resources capacity both at the national and European levels. This will facilitate access to microorganisms for biotechnology for the enhancement of the bio-economy in Europe. MIRRI will overcome the fragmentation of access to current resources and services, develop harmonised strategies for delivery of associated information, ensure bio-security and other regulatory conditions to bring access and promote the uptake of these resources into European research. Data mining of the landscape of current information is needed to discover potential and drive innovation, to ensure the uptake of high quality microbial resources into research. MIRRI is in its Preparatory Phase focusing on governance and structure including technical, legal governance and financial issues. MIRRI will help the Biological Resources Centres to work more closely with policy makers, stakeholders, funders and researchers, to deliver resources and services needed for innovation.

Keywords: culture collections, microbiology, infrastructure, microbial resources, biotechnology

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63 Evaluation of Major and Minor Components in Dakahlia Water Resources for Drinking Purposes

Authors: R. A. Mandour

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The physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses of fifty Quaternary water samples representing the different types of drinking water (surface and wells) in the governorate were carried-out. This paper aims to evaluate the drinking water in Dakahlia governorate in comparison with the national and international standards as a step to handle water pollutants affecting human health in this governorate. All investigated water samples were chemically considered suitable for drinking except two samples for iron, two samples for lead and one water sample for manganese having values higher than the permissible limit of EMH and WHO. Also microbiologically there were five water samples having a high total count of bacteria and three samples having high coli form than the permissible limit of EMH. Obviously, groundwater samples from Mit-Ghamr, El-Sinbillawin and Aga districts of Dakahlia governorate should have special attention for treatment.

Keywords: major ions, minor elements, microbiology, EMH, WHO

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62 Influence of Some Parameters on Embryonic Mortality of Barbary Partridge Alectoris barbara in a Semi-Captive Breeding

Authors: H. Idouhar-Saadi, A. Smaï, S. Zenia, F. Haddadj, M. Aissi, S. Doumandji

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During the period of reproduction, the collection of eggs of the Barbary gambra partridge is made only once a week in the morning, considering the sensibility in the stress of this native species. The number of considered samples is 33 eggs. The duration of the incubation is of 18 days. Unhatched eggs and eggs eliminated previously at the time of the mirage are collected and forwarded to the laboratories of microbiology and parasitology. The average weight of the eggs of the Barbary Partridge vary much [20.08 ± 1.81 g. (2006) < Pm < 20.82 ± 2,11g. (2008)]. The percentage of unhatched eggs varies between 9.3% in 2005 and 15.55% in 2007. It appears that the rate of embryonic mortality is slightly higher compared to that of infertile eggs. Microbiological analysis of unhatched eggs showed the presence of pathogenic germs such as lute Chryseomonas luteola. Chryseomonas ola and Escherichia coli. As against the parasites research is negative.

Keywords: barbary partridge, unhatched eggs, embryo mortality, pathogenic germs

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61 Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on the Quality Parameters of Yogurt during Storage

Authors: Hafiz Arbab Sakandar, Sabahat Yaqub, Ayesha Sameen, Muhammad Imran, Sarfraz Ahmad

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Yoghurt is one of the famous nutritious fermented milk products which have myriad of positive health effects on human beings and curable against different intestinal diseases. This research was conducted to observe effects of different artificial sweeteners on the quality parameters of yoghurt with relation to storage. Some people are allergic to natural sweeteners so artificial sweetener will be helpful for them. Physical-chemical, Microbiology and various sensory evaluation tests were carried out with the interval of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. It was outcome from this study that addition of artificial sweeteners in yoghurt has shown much harmful effects on the yoghurt microorganisms and other physicochemical parameters from quality point of view. Best results for acceptance were obtained when aspartame was added in yoghurt at level of 0.022 percent. In addition, growth of beneficial microorganisms in yoghurt was also improved as well as other sensory attributes were enhanced by the addition of aspartame.

Keywords: yoghurt, artificial sweetener, storage, quality parameters

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60 Isolation and Identification of Candida Species from Poultry Feed in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Authors: Lina F. Hussein, Asia A. M. Saadullah

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This study aimed to isolate and identify Candida species that contaminate poultry feeds in Duhok province. Using differential media and CHROMO agar as selective media, a total of sixty samples of poultry feeds were collected and analyzed to isolate and classify Candida species. In this analysis, a total of 189 Candida isolates were found from sixty samples. Germ tube tests, inoculation on commercially available CHROMagar, and chlamydospore formation were performed on these isolates. The most common Candida identified was Candida krusei (44.95%), followed by Candida tropicalis (21.72%), Candida glabrata. (17.68%), and Candida albicans (15.66%). Particularly useful for quickly identifying common yeast species is CHROM agar. Its ability, together with the capacity to track mixed Candida spp. cultures lead to enhanced and in the mycology and clinical microbiology laboratories, streamline the workflow, also in low-resource conditions.

Keywords: CHROMO agar, poultry feed, Duhok, Candida species, identification

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59 The Involvement of Viruses and Fungi in the Pathogenesis of Dental Infections

Authors: Wael Khalil, Elias Rahal, Ghassan Matar

Abstract:

Tooth related infections or commonly named dental infections have been described as the most common causes of tooth loss in adults. These pathologies were mostly periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. The involvement of various bacteria in the pathogenesis of these pathologies has been thoroughly mentioned and approved in the literature. However, the variability in the severity and prognosis of these lesions among patients suggests the association of other pathogens, like viruses and fungi, in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Several studies in the literature investigated the association of multiple viruses and fungi with the above-mentioned lesions, yet, a vast controversy was reached concerning this subject.Aim: Our study aims to fill the gap in the literature concerning the contribution of adenovirus, HPV-16, EBV, fungi, and candida in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. For this purpose, we utilized the quantitative PCR for pathogen detection in saliva, gingival, and lesions samples of involved subjects. Results: Some of these pathogens appeared to have an association with the investigated dental pathologies, while others showed no contribution to the pathogenesis of these lesions. Further investigation is required in order to identify the subtype of the involved pathogens in these tooth related oral pathology.

Keywords: periodontitis, pericoronitis, dental abscess, PCR, microbiology

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58 Specialization in Biomimicry: A Rationale for a Proposed Curriculum for Structural Engineering Students

Authors: Austin Dada, Frederick Rutz, Wil Srubar

Abstract:

This proposed curriculum details the general concept of biomimicry in structural engineering. The interdisciplinary study of biology and structural engineering is also discussed, along with methods for effective research and study of biomimicry-related topics. Also known as synthetic biology, biomimetics, and the study of bioinspired structures, biomimicry in structural engineering is an emerging field with a wide berth of possibilities. The purpose of this proposed curriculum is to determine a suitable curriculum of study in the pursuit of a research topic regarding biomimicry within the field of structural engineering. Four main manifestations of bioinspired structures are covered in this curriculum; the creation of new biomaterials for use in construction, the use or mimicking of biological processes to determine the properties of construction materials, the use or mimicking of biological processes or biomaterials to augment the properties of construction material, and the imitation of biology through the use of conventional construction materials. Microbiology, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, and ecology are among the biology topics that are compared and integrated into the proposed structural engineering curriculum to produce a suitable specialization.

Keywords: bioinspired structures, biomimetics, biomimicry, materials science, structural engineering

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57 Phenotypical and Genotypical Assessment Techniques for Identification of Some Contagious Mastitis Pathogens

Authors: Ayman El Behiry, Rasha Nabil Zahran, Reda Tarabees, Eman Marzouk, Musaad Al-Dubaib

Abstract:

Mastitis is one of the most economic disease affecting dairy cows worldwide. Its classic diagnosis using bacterial culture and biochemical findings is a difficult and prolonged method. In this research, using of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) permitted identification of different microorganisms with high accuracy and rapidity (only 24 hours for microbial growth and analysis). During the application of MALDI-TOF MS, one hundred twenty strains of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species isolated from milk of cows affected by clinical and subclinical mastitis were identified, and the results were compared with those obtained by traditional methods as API and VITEK 2 Systems. 37 of totality 39 strains (~95%) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were exactly detected by MALDI TOF MS and then confirmed by a nuc-based PCR technique, whereas accurate identification was observed in 100% (50 isolates) of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (31 isolates). In brief, our results demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is a fast and truthful technique which has the capability to replace conventional identification of several bacterial strains usually isolated in clinical laboratories of microbiology.

Keywords: identification, mastitis pathogens, mass spectral, phenotypical

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56 Use of Soil Microorganisms for the Production of Electricity through Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: Abhipsa Mohanty, Harit Jha

Abstract:

The world's energy demands are continuing to rise, resulting in a worldwide energy crisis and environmental pollution. Because of finite, declining supply and environmental damage, reliance on fossil fuels is unsustainable. As a result, experts are concentrating on alternative, renewable, and carbon-free energy sources. Energy sources that are both environmentally and economically sustainable are required. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently received a lot of attention due to their low operating temperatures and ability to use a variety of biodegradable substrates as fuel. There are single-chamber MFCs as well as traditional MFCs with anode and cathode compartments. Bioelectricity is produced when microorganisms actively catabolize substrate. MFCs can be used as a power source in small devices like biosensors. Understanding of its components, microbiological processes, limiting variables, and construction designs in MFC systems must be simplified, and large-scale systems must be developed for them to be cost-effective as well as increase electricity production. The purpose of this research was to review current microbiology knowledge in the field of electricity. The manufacturing process, the materials, and procedures utilized to construct the technology, as well as the applications of MFC technology, are all covered.

Keywords: bio-electricity, exoelectrogenic bacteria, microbial fuel cells, soil microorganisms

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55 Comparison of the Effectiveness of Neisseria gonorrhea Crude Protein Injections with Intravenous, Intracutaneous, and Subcutaneous

Authors: Annisa Amalina, Lintang Sekar Sari, Khairunnisa Salsabila, Astya Gema Ramadhan, M. Fatkhi, Andani Eka Putra

Abstract:

Gonorrhea is one of the sexually transmitted diseases by genito-genital, oro-genital and anogenital. Gonorrhea disease will cause complications if not treated properly. The diagnostic tool that has been used nowadays is microscopic. Thus a rapid diagnostic tool for gonorrhea is required, using polyclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of injections of intravenous, subcutaneous and intracutaneous crude protein gonorrhea. The research method used in this research is experimental explorative. This research was conducted in Molecular Microbiology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University for 3 months from April to June 2017. This study used 3 groups of rabbit with intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous injections. Each group was treated on days 1, 7, 21, and 28 with crude protein injection. After that, the examination of antibody levels held by using ELISA, followed by the antibody comparative tests contained in all three groups. The results examined by One Way ANOVA test on SPSS 21 and showed that there is no significant difference between intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous use p=0.69 (p < 0.05). However, there is an increased level (0.047 to 1.171) in antibodies from day 1 to day 14. In addition, subcutaneous use is preferred because it has minimal side effects compared to intravenous and intracutaneous use.

Keywords: crude protein, Neisseria gonorrhea, polyclonal antibodies, subcutaneous

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54 Impedance Based Biosensor for Agricultural Pathogen Detection

Authors: Rhea Patel, Madhuri Vinchurkar, Rajul Patkar, Gopal Pranjale, Maryam Shojaei Baghini

Abstract:

One of the major limitations on food resources worldwide is the deterioration of plant products due to pathogenic infections. Early screening of plants for pathogenic infections can serve as a boon in the Agricultural sector. The standard microbiology techniques has not kept pace with the rapid enumeration and automated methods for bacteria detection. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) serves as a label free bio sensing technique to monitor pathogens in real time. The changes in the electrical impedance of a growing bacterial culture can be monitored to detect activity of microorganisms. In this study, we demonstrate development of a gold interdigitated electrode (gold IDE) based impedance biosensor to detect bacterial cells in real on-field crop samples. To calibrate our impedance measurement system, nutrient broth suspended Escherichia coli cells were used. We extended this calibrated protocol to identify the agricultural pathogens in real potato tuber samples. Distinct difference was seen in the impedance recorded for the healthy and infected potato samples. Our results support the potential application of this Impedance based biosensor in Agricultural pathogen detection.

Keywords: agriculture, biosensor, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, microelectrode, pathogen detection

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53 Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) CS6 promoter

Authors: Indranil Mondal, Debjyoti Bhakat, Asish Kumar mukhophadhyay, Nabendu Sekhar Chatterjee

Abstract:

CS6 is the prevalent CF in our region and deciphering its molecular regulators would play a pivotal role in reducing the burden of ETEC pathogenesis. In prokaryotes, most of the genes are under the control of one operon and the promoter present upstream of the gene regulates the transcription of that gene. Here the promoter of CS6 had been characterized by computational method and further analyzed by β-galactosidase assay and sequencing. Promoter constructs and deletions were prepared as required to analyze promoter activity. The effect of different additives on CS6 promoters was analyzed by the β-galactosidase assay. Bioinformatic analysis done by Softberry/BPROM predicted fur, lrp, and crp boxes, -10 and -35 region upstream of CS6 gene. The promoter construction in no promoter plasmid pTL61T showed that region -573 to +1 is actually the promoter region as predicted. Sequential deletion of the region upstream of CS6 revealed that promoter activity remains the same when -573bp to -350bp deleted. But after the deletion of upstream region -350 bp to -255bp, promoter expression decreases drastically to 26%. Further deletion also decreases promoter activity up to a little range. So the region -355bp to -255bp holds the promoter sequence for the CS6 gene. Additives like iron, NaCl, etc., modulates promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. From the promoter analysis, it can be said that the minimum region lies between -254 and +1. Important region(s) lies between -350 bp to -255 bp upstream in the promoter, which might have important elements needed to control CS6 gene expression.

Keywords: microbiology, promoter, colonization factor, ETEC

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52 The Droplet Generation and Flow in the T-Shape Microchannel with the Side Wall Fluctuation

Authors: Yan Pang, Xiang Wang, Zhaomiao Liu

Abstract:

Droplet microfluidics, in which nanoliter to picoliter droplets acted as individual compartments, are common to a diverse array of applications such as analytical chemistry, tissue engineering, microbiology and drug discovery. The droplet generation in a simplified two dimension T-shape microchannel with the main channel width of 50 μm and the side channel width of 25 μm, is simulated to investigate effects of the forced fluctuation of the side wall on the droplet generation and flow. The periodic fluctuations are applied on a length of the side wall in the main channel of the T-junction with the deformation shape of the double-clamped beam acted by the uniform force, which varies with the flow time and fluctuation periods, forms and positions. The fluctuations under most of the conditions expand the distribution range of the droplet size but have a little effect on the average size, while the shape of the fixed side wall changes the average droplet size chiefly. Droplet sizes show a periodic pattern along the relative time when the fluctuation is forced on the side wall near the T-junction. The droplet emerging frequency is not varied by the fluctuation of the side wall under the same flow rate and geometry conditions. When the fluctuation period is similar with the droplet emerging period, the droplet size shows a nice stability as the no fluctuation case.

Keywords: droplet generation, droplet size, flow flied, forced fluctuation

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51 Characterization of Shiga Toxin Escherichia coli Recovered from a Beef Processing Facility within Southern Ontario and Comparative Performance of Molecular Diagnostic Platforms

Authors: Jessica C. Bannon, Cleso M. Jordao Jr., Mohammad Melebari, Carlos Leon-Velarde, Roger Johnson, Keith Warriner

Abstract:

There has been an increased incidence of non-O157 Shiga Toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) with six serotypes (Top 6) being implicated in causing haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Beef has been suggested to be a significant vehicle for non-O157 STEC although conclusive evidence has yet to be obtained. The following aimed to determine the prevalence of the Top 6 non-O157 STEC in beef processing using three different diagnostic platforms then characterize the recovered isolates. Hide, carcass and environmental swab samples (n = 60) were collected from a beef processing facility over a 12 month period. Enriched samples were screened using Biocontrol GDS, BAX or PALLgene molecular diagnostic tests. Presumptive non-O157 STEC positive samples were confirmed using conventional PCR and serology. STEC was detected by GDS (55% positive), BAX (85% positive), and PALLgene (93%). However, during confirmation testing only 8 of the 60 samples (13%) were found to harbour STEC. Interestingly, the presence of virulence factors in the recovered isolates was unstable and readily lost during subsequent sub-culturing. There is a low prevalence of Top 6 non-O157 STEC associated with beef although other serotypes are encountered. Yet, the instability of the virulence factors in recovered strains would question their clinical relevance.

Keywords: beef, food microbiology, shiga toxin, STEC

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