Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 133

Search results for: pneumonia

133 Primary Cryptococcal Pneumonia in an HIV Positive Filipino Patient

Authors: Mark Andrew Tu, Raymond Olazo, Cybele Abad

Abstract:

Cryptococcosis is an invasive infection most commonly found in patients who are immuno compromised. However, patients with this infection usually present with meningitis and rarely pulmonary infection in isolation. We present a case of a Filipino HIV patient who developed cryptococcal pneumonia without meningitis.

Keywords: Cryptococcal Pneumonia, HIV, Filipino, immune system

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
132 Design of a Pneumonia Ontology for Diagnosis Decision Support System

Authors: Sabrina Azzi, Michal Iglewski, Véronique Nabelsi

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Diagnosis error problem is frequent and one of the most important safety problems today. One of the main objectives of our work is to propose an ontological representation that takes into account the diagnostic criteria in order to improve the diagnostic. We choose pneumonia disease since it is one of the frequent diseases affected by diagnosis errors and have harmful effects on patients. To achieve our aim, we use a semi-automated method to integrate diverse knowledge sources that include publically available pneumonia disease guidelines from international repositories, biomedical ontologies and electronic health records. We follow the principles of the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry. The resulting ontology covers symptoms and signs, all the types of pneumonia, antecedents, pathogens, and diagnostic testing. The first evaluation results show that most of the terms are covered by the ontology. This work is still in progress and represents a first and major step toward a development of a diagnosis decision support system for pneumonia.

Keywords: Clinical decision support system, Diagnostic errors, Ontology, Pneumonia

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
131 Effects of Clinical Practice Guideline on Knowledge and Preventive Practices of Nursing Personnel and Incidences of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Thailand

Authors: Phawida Wattanasoonthorn

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Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a serious infection found to be among the top three infections in the hospital. To investigate the effects of clinical practice guideline on knowledge and preventive practices of nursing personnel, and incidences of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A pre-post quasi-experimental study on 17 professional nurses, and 123 ventilator-associated pneumonia patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit, and the accident and surgical ward of Songkhla Hospital from October 2013 to January 2014. The study found that after using the clinical practice guideline, the subjects’ median score increased from 16.00 to 19.00. The increase in practicing correctly was from 66.01 percent to 79.03 percent with the statistical significance level of .05, and the incidences of ventilator-associated pneumonia decreased by 5.00 percent. The results of this study revealed that the use of the clinical practice guideline helped increase knowledge and practice skill of nursing personnel, and decrease incidences of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Thus, nursing personnel should be encouraged, reminded and promoted to continue using the practice guideline through various means including training, providing knowledge, giving feedback, and putting up posters to remind them of practicing correctly and sustainably.

Keywords: Clinical Practice Guideline, knowledge, Preventive Ventilator, Pneumonia

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
130 The Risk of Post-stroke Pneumonia and Its One-Year Disability in Taiwan

Authors: Hui-Chi Huang, Su-Ju Yang, Jui-Yao Tsai, Liang-Yiang, Ching-Wei Lin

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Background: Evidence exists that pneumonia is a frequently encountered complication after stroke which is associated with a higher rate of mortality and increased long-term disability Purpose: To determine the predictors associated with the risk of one-year disability in acute stroke. Methods: Data for this longitudinal follow-up study were extracted from a tertiary referral medical center’s stroke registry database in Northern Taipei. Eligible patients with acute stroke admitted to the hospital and completed a one-year follow up were recruited for analysis. Favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2. SAS version 9.2 was used for the multivariable regression analyses to examine the factors correlated with the one-year disability in stroke patients. Results: From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1373 (mean age: 70.49±15.4 years, 913(66.5%) males) consecutively administered acute stroke patients were recruited. Overall, the rate of one-year disability was 37.20%(404/1086) in those without post-stroke pneumonia. It increased to 82.93 %(238/287) in patients developed post-stroke pneumonia. Factors associated with increased risk of disability were age ≧ 75(OR= 4.845, p<.0001), female /gender (OR=1.568, p =.0062), previous stroke (OR= 1.868, p = <. 0001) ,dementia (OR= 2.872, p =.0047), ventilator use (OR= 4.653, p <. 0001),age ≧ 75 /pneumonia (OR=1.236, p <. 0001) , ICU admission (OR=3.314, p <.0001) , nasogastric tube insertion (OR= 4.28, p <.0001), speech therapy (OR= 1.79, p =.0142), urinary tract infection (OR= 1.865, p =.0018), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR > 60 )(OR= 0.525, p= .0029), Admission NIHSS >11 (OR= 2.101, p = .0099), Length of hospitalization > 30(d) (OR= 5.182, p <.0001). Conclusion: Older age, severe neurological deficit, complications, rehabilitation intervention, length of hospitalization >30(d), and cognitive impairment were significantly associated with Post-stroke functional impairment, especially those with post-stroke pneumonia. These findings could open new avenues in the management of stroke patients.

Keywords: stroke, risk, pneumonia, disability

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
129 Modeling and Optimal Control of Pneumonia Disease with Cost Effective Strategies

Authors: Getachew Tilahun, Oluwole Makinde, David Malonza

Abstract:

We propose and analyze a non-linear mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of pneumonia disease in a population of varying size. The deterministic compartmental model is studied using stability theory of differential equations. The effective reproduction number is obtained and also the local and global asymptotically stability conditions for the disease free and as well as for the endemic equilibria are established. The model exhibit a backward bifurcation and the sensitivity indices of the basic reproduction number to the key parameters are determined. Using Pontryagin’s maximum principle, the optimal control problem is formulated with three control strategies; namely disease prevention through education, treatment and screening. The cost effectiveness analysis of the adopted control strategies revealed that the combination of prevention and treatment is the most cost effective intervention strategies to combat the pneumonia pandemic. Numerical simulation is performed and pertinent results are displayed graphically.

Keywords: cost effectiveness analysis, optimal control, pneumonia dynamics, stability analysis, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
128 The Effect of Inhalation of Ylang-ylang Aroma on the Levels of Anxiety of Parents with Hospitalized Toddlers Diagnosed with Pneumonia

Authors: Crisostomo Hart A., Cruz Anna Cecilia R., Cruz Bianca Isabelle A., Cruz John Edward Ligzurc M., Cruz Mikaela Denise P.

Abstract:

Aim/purpose: The researchers aimed to determine the effect of Ylang-ylang aroma in decreasing the anxiety levels of parents with hospitalized toddlers diagnosed with pneumonia. Method: Quantitative Quasi-experimental one-group pre-test post-test design was utilized in the study. The study includes a pretest, an intervention, and a posttest on the same experimental group. Participants are parents aged 20 – 35 years old with a hospitalized toddler who is diagnosed with pneumonia. Anxiety levels were measured before the intervention using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger. Those who scored 41-120 proceeded to receive the intervention. The intervention was a 3-day course of aromatherapy where the participants inhaled the Ylang-ylang flower at a distance of 10 – 15 cm away from the face for 10 minutes. The post-test using the same instrument measured the levels of anxiety after the 3-day aromatherapy. Paired T-test of SPSS 21.0 was used to analyze the pre-test and post-test scores. Results: Study yielded a p value of 0.047 which shows significant difference between the levels of anxiety before and after the intervention. Conclusions: Based on the data analysis, the researchers concluded that inhalation of Ylang-ylang aroma is effective in reducing the anxiety level of the parents of hospitalized toddlers diagnosed with Pneumonia.

Keywords: Ylang-ylang, Pneumonia, Toddlers, Aromatherapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
127 Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation towards Length of Stay and IL-6 Level on Community-Acquired Pneumonia Patients

Authors: Santony Santony, Teguh Rahayu Sartono, Iin Noor Chozin

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Introduction: Pneumonia is acute inflammation on lung parenchyma which is caused by bacteria, virus, fungi, or parasite. In Indonesia, Pneumonia is among the ten inpatient cases. Length of stay is related to the increased morbidity rate, nosocomial infection, and costs. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on the difference in length of stay and the level of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) as an inflammation biomarker for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients in non-intensive rooms. Therefore, pulmonary rehabilitation as adjunctive therapy can be routinely exercised in order to shorten the length of stay, along with the decrease in IL-6 level. Methods: This study was conducted from May to October 2019 at Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Malang. 40 community-acquired pneumonia patients in non-intensive rooms were divided into two groups. 20 patients in the treatment group and 20 patients in the control group, all of them were selected through both inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study used simple consecutive random sampling. In the treatment group, pulmonary rehabilitation performed was composed of breathing exercise, effective coughing technique, clapping (percussion), postural drainage, as well as respiratory muscle training using incentive spirometry device. Pulmonary rehabilitation was conducted twice over five days with a minimum duration of 15 minutes. Blood samples were taken both on the first and the fifth day of the treatment to measure IL-6 level as an inflammation biomarker. Result: For the treatment group, the length of stay was 5.35 days whereas the control group 7.6 days. It can be seen that the treatment group had a shorter length of stay by 2.25 days (P<0,001). The IL-6 level on the first day for the treatment group was 36.27 pg/ml, whereas on the fifth day was 34.36 pg/ml. There was a decrease in IL-6 level on the fifth day of treatment even though it was not statistically significant (P=0.628). IL-6 level on the control group for the first day was 67.76 pg/ml, and after the fifth day, the level decreased to 54.43 pg/ml. There seemed to be a decrease in the IL-6, but it was not statistically significant (P=0.502). On the fifth day, the treatment group showed an average IL-6 level of 34.36 pg/ml. This value was lower than that of the control group which did not receive pulmonary rehabilitation having an IL-6 level of 54.43 pg/ml, even though it was not statistically significant (p=0.221). Conclusion: This study concluded that pulmonary rehabilitation as an adjunctive therapy shortened length of stay by 2.25 days for community-acquired pneumonia patients in a non-intensive room. Both groups experienced a decrease in IL-6 level on the fifth day in comparison with the first day even though it was not statistically significant P>0,05. IL-6 level as an inflammation biomarker decreased on the fifth day of treatment which was in accordance with improvement on pneumonia patients.

Keywords: community-acquired pneumonia, interleukin-6, length of stay, pulmonary rehabilitation

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126 Hyponatremia in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Authors: Emna Ketata, Wafa Farhat

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Introduction: Hyponatremia is defined by a blood sodium level of ≤ 136 mmol/L; it is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the emergency room. This was explained by transit disorders, including diarrhea and inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion). Pneumonia can cause dyspnea, stress-causing SIADH and digestive symptoms (diarrhea and vomiting). Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the link between pneumonia and hyponatremia as a predictor of patient’s prognosis and intra-hospital mortality. Methodology: This is a prospective observational study over a period of 3 years in the emergency department. Inclusion :patients (age > 14 years), with clinical signs in favor of pneumonia. Natremia was measured. Natremia was classified as mild to moderate with a blood sodium level between 121 and 135 mmol/L and as severe with a blood sodium level ≤ 120 mmol/L. Results: This study showed an average serum sodium value of 135 mmol/L (range 114–159 mmol/L) in these patients. Hyponatremia was observed in 123 patients (43.6%), 115 patients (97,8%) had mild to moderate hyponatremia and 2,8% had severe hyponatremia. The mean age was 65±17 years with a sex ratio of 1.05. The main reason for consultation in patients with hyponatremia was cough in 58 patients (47.2%), and digestive symptoms were present in 25 patients (20.3. An altered state of consciousness was observed in 11 patients (3%). Patients with hyponatremia had greater heart rate (p=0.02),white blood cell count (p=0.009) , plasmatic lactate (p=0.002) and higher rate of pneumonia recurrence (p=0.001) .In addition, 80% of them have a positive CURB65 score (>=2). hyponatremia had higher rates of use of oxygen therapy compared to patients with normo-natremia (54% vs. 45%). The analytical study showed that hyponatremia is significantly associated with intra-hospital mortality with( p=0.01), severe hyponatremia p=0.04. Conclusion: Hyponatremia is a predictor of mortality and worse prognosis. Recognition of the pathophysiological mechanisms of hyponatremia in pneumonia will probably allow better management of it.

Keywords: oxygenotherapy, mortality, recurrence, positif curb65

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125 Absolute Lymphocyte Count as Predictor of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Patients With Unknown HIV Status at a Private Tertiary Hospital

Authors: Marja A. Bernardo, Coreena A. Bueser, Cybele Lara R. Abad, Raul V. Destura

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Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is the most common opportunistic infection among people with HIV. Early consideration of PCP should be made even in patients whose HIV status is unknown as delay in treatment may be fatal. The use of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) has been suggested as an alternative predictor of PCP especially in resource limited settings where PCR testing is costly or delayed. Objective: To determine whether the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) can be used as a screening tool to predict Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with unknown HIV status admitted at a private tertiary hospital. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a private tertiary medical center. Inpatient medical records of patients aged 18 years old and above from January 2012 to May 2014, in whom a clinical diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was made were reviewed for inclusion. Demographic data, clinical features, hospital course, PCP PCR and HIV results were recorded. Independent t-test and chi-square analysis was used to determine any statistical difference between PCP-positive and PCP-negative groups. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparison of hospital stay. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between PCP positive and negative groups. While both the percent lymphocyte count (0.14 ± 0.13 vs 0.21 ± 0.16) and ALC (1160 ± 528.67 vs 1493.70 ± 988.61) were lower for the PCP-positive group, only the percent lymphocyte count reached a statistically significant difference (p= 0.067 vs p= 0.042). Conclusion: A quick determination of the ALC may be useful as an additional parameter to help screen for and diagnose pneumocystis pneumonia. In our study, the ALC of patients with PCP appear to be lower than in patients without PCP. A low ALC (e.g. below 1200) may help with the decision regarding empiric treatment. However, it should be used in conjunction with the patient’s clinical presentation, as well as other diagnostic tests. Larger, prospective studies incorporating the ALC with other clinical predictors are necessary to optimally predict those who would benefit from empiric or expedited management for potential PCP.

Keywords: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Absolute Lymphocyte Count, infection, PCP

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124 Histopathological Examination of Lung Surgery Camel in Iran

Authors: Ali Chitgar

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Respiratory infections including diseases in camels are important not only because of the threat of animal health but also to reduce their production. Since that deal with respiratory problems and their treatment requires adequate knowledge of the existing respiratory problems, unfortunately, there is limited information about the species of camels. This study aimed to identify lung lesions camels slaughtered in a slaughterhouse more important was performed using histopathology. Respiratory camels (n = 477) was examined after the killing fully and tissue samples were placed in 10% formalin. The samples and histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining and color were evaluated. In this study 79.6 % (236 of 477 samples) of the samples was at least a lung lesion. Rate acute interstitial pneumonia, chronic interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, bronchiolitis, an inflammation of the pleura and 52.8 % respectively atelectasis (236 of 477 samples), 5.4 % (24 of 477 samples), 7.8 % (35 of 477 samples), 6.7 % (30 of 477 samples), 3.4 % (15 of 477 samples) and 15.2% (68 of 477 samples). The lung lesions, acute interstitial pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in autumn winter rather than spring and summer (p <0/05) and as a result, this study showed that high rates of lung lesions in the camel population. Waste higher results in cold seasons (fall and winter) shows.

Keywords: camel, surgery, histopathology, breathing organ

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
123 An Exploration Survival Risk Factors of Stroke Patients at a General Hospital in Northern Taiwan

Authors: Hui-Chi Huang, Su-Ju Yang, Ching-Wei Lin, Jui-Yao Tsai, Liang-Yiang

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Background: The most common serious complication following acute stroke is pneumonia. It has been associated with the increased morbidity, mortality, and medical cost after acute stroke in elderly patients. Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between stroke patients, risk factors of pneumonia, and one-year survival rates in a group of patients, in a tertiary referal center in Northern Taiwan. Methods: From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1730 consecutively administered stroke patients were recruited. The Survival analysis and multivariate regression analyses were used to examine the predictors for the one-year survival in stroke patients of a stroke registry database from northern Taiwan. Results: The risk of stroke mortality increased with age≧ 75 (OR=2.305, p < .0001), cancer (OR=3.221, p=<.0001), stayed in intensive care unit (ICU) (OR=2.28, p <.0006), dysphagia (OR=5.026, p<.0001), without speech therapy(OR=0.192, p < .0001),serum albumin < 2.5(OR=0.322, p=.0053) , eGFR > 60(OR=0.438, p <. 0001), admission NIHSS >11(OR=1.631, p=.0196), length of hospitalization (d) > 30(OR=0.608, p=.0227), and stroke subtype (OR=0.506, p=.0032). After adjustment of confounders, pneumonia was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality. However, it is most likely to develop in patients who are age ≧ 75, dyslipidemia , coronary artery disease , albumin < 2.5 , eGFR <60 , ventilator use , stay in ICU , dysphagia, without speech therapy , urinary tract infection , Atrial fibrillation , Admission NIHSS > 11, length of hospitalization > 30(d) , stroke severity (mRS=3-5) ,stroke Conclusion: In this study, different from previous research findings, we found that elderly age, severe neurological deficit and rehabilitation therapy were significantly associated with Post-stroke Pneumonia. However, specific preventive strategies are needed to target the high risk groups to improve their long-term outcomes after acute stroke. These findings could open new avenues in the management of stroke patients.

Keywords: stroke, risk, pneumonia, survival

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122 High-Resolution Computed Tomography Imaging Features during Pandemic 'COVID-19'

Authors: Sahar Heidary, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

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By the development of new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been one of the main investigative implements. To realize timely and truthful diagnostics, defining the radiological features of the infection is of excessive value. The purpose of this impression was to consider the imaging demonstrations of early-stage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to run an imaging base for a primary finding of supposed cases and stratified interference. The right prophetic rate of HRCT was 85%, sensitivity was 73% for all patients. Total accuracy was 68%. There was no important change in these values for symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. These consequences were besides free of the period of X-ray from the beginning of signs or interaction. Therefore, we suggest that HRCT is a brilliant attachment for early identification of COVID-19 pneumonia in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in adding to the role of predictive gauge for COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients experienced non-contrast HRCT chest checkups and images were restored in a thin 1.25 mm lung window. Images were estimated for the existence of lung scratches & a CT severity notch was allocated separately for each patient based on the number of lung lobes convoluted.

Keywords: COVID-19, radiology, respiratory diseases, HRCT

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121 Antımıcrobıal Actıvıty of Gırardınıa Heterophılla

Authors: P. S. BEDI* , Neavty Thakur, Balvınder Sıngh

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In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare the crude extracts of leaves and stem of ‘Girardinia heterophylla’ by using various solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and double distilled water. The samples were given the code NGLS 1, NGLS 2, NGLS 3, NGSS 1, NGSS 2 and NGSS 3 respectively. All the extracts were used to study their antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria eg. Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacteria eg. E. coli, K. pneumonia and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed that all the crude extracts of the plant posseses antibacterial activity. Maximum antibacterial activity was shown by NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 3 against K. pneumonia. The growth of fungus A. niger was also inhibited by all the crude extracts. Maximum inhibition was shown by NGSS 2 followed by NGSS 1.

Keywords: Girardinia heterophylla, leaves and stem extracts, Antibacterial activity, antifungal activity.

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120 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Plant Extracts against Clinical Pathogen and Candida Species

Authors: Marwan Khalil Qader, Arshad Mohammad Abdullah

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Antimicrobial resistance is a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality globally. Seven plant extracts (Plantago mediastepposa, Quercusc infectoria, Punic granatum, Thymus lcotschyana, Ginger officeinals, Rhus angustifolia and Cinnamon) were collected from different regions of Kurdistan region of Iraq. These plants’ extracts were dissolved in absolute ethanol and distillate water, after which they were assayed in vitro as an antimicrobial activity against Candida tropicalis, Candida albicanus, Candida dublinensis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata also against 2 Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and 3 Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsilla pneumonia). The antimicrobial activity was determined in ethanol extracts and distilled water extracts of these plants. The ethanolic extracts of Q. infectoria showed the maximum activity against all species of Candida fungus. The minimum inhibition zone of the Punic granatum ethanol extracts was 0.2 mg/ml for all microorganisms tested. Klebsilla pneumonia was the most sensitive bacterial strain to Quercusc infectoria and Rhus angustifolia ethanol extracts. Among both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested with MIC of 0.2 mg/ml, the minimum inhibition zone of Ginger officeinals D. W. extracts was 0.2 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsilla pneumonia. The most sensitive bacterial strain to Thymus lcotschyana and Plantago mediastepposa D.W. extracts was S. aureus and E. coli.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, pathogenic bacteria, plant extracts, chemical systems engineering

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119 The Use of Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC) for Predicting Clinical Outcomes for 3 Months-59 Months Old Patients Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Visayas Community Medical Center, Cebu City from January 2013 - June 2

Authors: Karl Owen L. Suan, Juliet Marie S. Lambayan, Floramay P. Salo-Curato

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Objective: To predict the outcome among patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (ages 3 months to 59 months old) admitted in Visayas Community Medical Center using the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC). Design: A cross-sectional study design was used. Setting: The study was done in Visayas Community Medical Center, which is a private tertiary level in Cebu City from January-June 2013. Patients/Participants: A total of 72 patients were initially enrolled in the study. However, 1 patient transferred to another institution, thus 71 patients were included in this study. Within 24 hours from admission, patients were assigned a RISC score. Statistical Analysis: Cohen’s kappa coefficient was used for inter-rater agreement for categorical data. This study used frequency and percentage distribution for qualitative data. Mean, standard deviation and range were used for quantitative data. To determine the relationship of each RISC score parameter and the total RISC score with the outcome, a Mann Whitney U Test and 2x2 Fischer Exact test for testing associations were used. A p value less of than 0.05 alpha was considered significant. Results: There was a statistical significance between RISC score and clinical outcome. RISC score of greater than 4 was correlated with intubation and/or mortality. Conclusion: The RISC scoring system is a simple combination of clinical parameters and a reliable tool that will help stratify patients aged 3 months to 59 months in predicting clinical outcome.

Keywords: RISC, clinical outcome, community-acquired pneumonia, patients

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118 Preparation, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Schiff Bases with Different Benzaldehyde Derivatives

Authors: Nadia A. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa, Ahmed H. H. El-Ghandour, Marwa M. Abdel-Aziz, Omayma F. Abdel-Gawad

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Eighteen carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) schiff bases and their reduced derivatives have been synthesized. They were characterized by spectral analyses (FT-IR and H1-NMR) and scanning electron microscopy observation. Their antibacterial activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae (RCMB 010010), Bacillis subtilis (RCMB 010067), as Gram positive bacteria and Escherichia coli (RCMB 010052) as Gram negative bacteria and the antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (RCMB 02568), Geotricum candidum (RCMB 05097), and Candida albicans (RCMB 05031) were examined using agar disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate how the antibacterial and the antifungal activity are clearly affected by both the nature and position of the substituent groups in the aryl ring of the prepared derivatives. CMCh-4-nitroBenz Schiff base and its reduced form show higher antimicrobial activity comparing with other para substituted derivatives. CMCh-4-nitroBenz Schiff base: 18.3, 17, and 15.6 mm against Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 16.2, 17.3, and 16.4 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively. CMCh-4-nitroBenz reduced form: 19.5, 18.7, and 16.2 mm against Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 17.5, 19.5, and 17.4 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively. Also CMCh-3-bromoBenz show good results; CMCh-3-bromoBenz schiff base: 19.2, 16.9, and 14.6 mm Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 18.4, 17.6, and 15.9 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively.

Keywords: chitosan, schiff base, minimum inhibition concentration, antimicrobial activity

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117 Clinical and Microbiologic Efficacy and Safety of Imipenem Cilastatin Relebactam in Complicated Infections: A Meta-analysis

Authors: Syeda Sahra, Abdullah Jahangir, Rachelle Hamadi, Ahmad Jahangir, Allison Glaser

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Background: Antimicrobial resistance is on the rise. The use of redundant and inappropriate antibiotics is contributing to recurrent infections and resistance. Newer antibiotics with more robust coverage for gram-negative bacteria are in great demand for complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (H.A.B.P.), and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (V.A.B.P.). Objective: We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of a new antibiotic, Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam, compared to other broad-spectrum antibiotics for complicated infections. Search Strategy: We conducted a systemic review search on PubMed, Embase, and Central Cochrane Registry. Selection Criteria: We included randomized clinical trials (R.C.T.s) with the standard of care as comparator arm with Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam as intervention arm. Analysis: For continuous variables, the mean difference was used. For discrete variables, we used the odds ratio. For effect sizes, we used a confidence interval of 95%. A p-value of less than 0.05 was used for statistical significance. Analysis was done using a random-effects model irrespective of heterogeneity. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 statistic. Results: The authors observed similar efficacy at clinical and microbiologic response levels on early follow-up and late follow-up compared to the established standard of care. The incidence of drug-related adverse events, serious adverse events, and drug discontinuation due to adverse events were comparable across both groups. Conclusion: Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam has a non-inferior safety and efficacy profile compared to peer antibiotics to treat severe bacterial infections (cUTIs, cIAIs, H.A.B.P., V.A.B.P.).

Keywords: bacterial pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated urinary tract infection, Imipenem, cilastatin, relebactam

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116 Descriptive Epidemiology of Mortality in Certain Species of Captive Deer in Pakistan

Authors: Musadiq Idris, Sajjad Ali, Syed A. Khaliq, Umer Farooq

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Postmortem record of 217 captive ungulates including Black-buck (n=31), Chinkara (n=20), Hog deer (n=116), Spotted deer (n=35), Red Deer n=(04), and Rusa deer (n=11) submitted to the Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan was analyzed to determine the primary cause of mortality in these animals. The submissions included temporal distribution from Government wildlife captive farms, zoo, and private ownerships, over a three year period (2007-2009). The most common cause of death was found to be trauma (20.27%), followed by parasitic diseases (15.67%), bacterial diseases (11.98%), stillbirths (9.21%), snakebites (2.76%), gut affections (2.30%), neoplasia (1.38%) and starvation (0.92%). The exact cause of death could not be determined in 77 of 217 animals. Pneumonia (8.29%) and tuberculosis (3.69%) were the most common bacterial diseases. Analyses for parasitic infestation revealed tapeworms to be highest (11.05%), followed by roundworms (8.29%) and hemoparasitism (5.07%) (babesiosis and theileriosis). The mortality rate in young ungulates was lower as compared to adults (32.26% and 67.74%). Gender wise data presented higher mortality in females (55.30%) compared to males (44.70%). In conclusion, highest mortality factor in captive ungulates was trauma, followed by parasitic and bacterial infestations/infections of tapeworms and pneumonia, respectively. Furthermore, necropsies provided substantial information on etiology of death and other related epidemiological aspects.

Keywords: age, epidemiology, gender, mortality, ungulates

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115 Extra-Pulmonary Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection in a Healthy 25-Year-Old Female: A Case Report

Authors: Minna Chang

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Introduction: M. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen, which commonly causes upper and lower respiratory infections. It primarily affects children and young adults. Respiratory symptoms are well recognized, but extrapulmonary involvement is also common. Other systems that have been implicated in the disease include: skin, mucus membranes, central, peripheral nervous systems, cardiovascular, haematological, renal, and musculoskeletal systems. Here, we report a case of an otherwise healthy, young female with M. pneumonia, who presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Case presentation: a healthy 25-year-old female was referred to A&E by her general practitioner, after presenting with fever, malaise, and right upper quadrant pain. M. pneumoniae was confirmed retrospectively by serology. The patient made a full recovery after a six-day course of doxycycline 100mg. Conclusion: M. pneumonia is a well-established cause of respiratory infections in children and young adults. Febrile illness with multisystem involvement, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms, should raise suspicion of M. pneumoniae infection in healthy, young adults. Our case illustrates the multi-system involvement of M. pneumoniae, which was initially missed, due to paucity of respiratory symptoms at presentation.

Keywords: infectious diseases, mycoplasma pneumoniae, respiratory infections, extra-pulmonary manifestations

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114 Study on the Presence of Protozoal Co-Infections Among Patients With Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Bulgaria

Authors: Nina Tsvetkova, Aleksandra Ivanova, Rumen Harizanov, Iskra Rainova, Nina Yancheva-Petrova, Dimitar Strashimirov, Raina Enikova, Mihaela Videnova, Eleonora Kaneva, Iskren Kaftandjiev, Viktoria Levterova, Ivan Simeonovski, Nikolay Yanev, Georgi Hinkov

Abstract:

The Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) and protozoan of the genera Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma gondii are opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the study was to evaluate the co-infection rate with opportunistic protozoal agents among the Bulgarian patients diagnosed with P. jirovecii pneumonia. Thirty eight pulmonary samples were collected from 38 patients (28 HIV-infected) with P. jirovecii infection. P. jirovecii DNA was detected by real-time PCR targeting the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Acanthamoeba was determined by genus-specific conventional PCR assay. Real-time PCR for detection of a Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium DNA fragment was used. Pneumocystis DNA was detected in all 38 specimens, 28 (73,7%) were from HIV-infected patients. Three (10,7%) of them were co-infected with T. gondii and 1 (3,6%) with Cryptosporidium. In the group of non-HIV-infected (n=10), Cryptosporidium DNA was detected in an infant (10%). Acanthamoeba DNA was not found in the tested samples. The current study showed a relatively low rate of co-infections of Cryptosporidium spp. / T. gondii and P. jirovecii in the Bulgarian patients studied.

Keywords: co-infection, opportunistic protozoal agents, Pneumocystis jirovecii, pulmonary infections

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113 Childhood Respiratory Diseases Related to Indoor and Outdoor Air Temperature in Shanghai, China

Authors: Chanjuan Sun, Shijie Hong, Jialing Zhang, Yuchao Guo, Zhijun Zou, Chen Huang

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Background: Studies on associations between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases are lack in China. Objectives: We aim to analyze the relationship between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases. Methods: We conducted the on-site inspection into 454 residences and questionnaires survey. Indoor air temperature were from field inspection and outdoor air temperature were from website. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. Results: Indoor extreme hot air temperature was positively correlated with duration of a common cold (>=2 weeks), and outdoor extreme hot air temperature was also positively related with pneumonia among children. Indoor and outdoor extreme cold air temperature was a risk factor for rhinitis among children. The biggest indoor air temperature difference (indoor maximum air temperature minus indoor minimum air temperature) (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) and outdoor air temperature difference (outdoor maximum air temperature minus outdoor minimum air temperature) (Omax minus Omin) (the 4th quartile, >8oC) were positively related to pneumonia among children. Meanwhile, indoor air temperature difference (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) was positively correlated with diagnosed asthma among children. Air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor was negatively related with the most childhood respiratory diseases. This may be partly related to the avoidance behavior. Conclusions: Improper air temperature may affect the respiratory diseases among children.

Keywords: air temperature, extreme air temperature, air temperature difference, respiratory diseases, children

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112 Developing a Staff Education Program on Subglottic Suction Endotracheal Tubes

Authors: Emily Toon

Abstract:

Nurses play a critical role in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia through the maintenance of endotracheal tubes and use of subglottic secretion drainage via subglottic suctioning endotracheal tubes. The purpose of this evidence based practice project is to develop a staff education program on subglottic suctioning endotracheal tubes for critical care nurses at Middlesex Health with the aim of determining and documenting increased knowledge and/or practice change. The setting included registered nurses within Middlesex Health’s critical care unit who were recruited to complete a pre-test (n=14), view a presentation, and complete a post-test (n=10). Average pre-test scores were compared to average post-test scores to determine an increase in knowledge and/or practice change. The overall mean pre-test score was 59.7 percent, compared with the mean post-test score of 88.1 percent. Pre- and post-test scores were unmatched, so statistical significance could not be determined. The hypothesis that a staff education program on subglottic suctioning endotracheal tubes would demonstrate an increase in knowledge was supported, but not statistically. By integrating a pre-test/post-test design into educational presentations to evaluate increased knowledge, data generated may be used to improve methods and practices of delivering education and enhance staff learning.

Keywords: endotracheal tubes, staff education, subglottic secretion drainage, ventilator-associated pneumonia

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111 Studies on Some Aspects of Sub Clinical Mastitis in Cattle

Authors: Kavita Jaidiya, Anju Chahar, Chitra Jaidiya

Abstract:

The present study was conducted on 200 quarters from 50 apparently healthy cows. Samples are subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT), cultural examination, and mPCR. Milk samples were also subjected to changes in composition Viz. fat, protein, and lactose. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis based on culture examination was 30(60/200), 36 (72/200), and 40 percent (93/200) based on CMT, culture examination, and mPCR on a quarterly basis. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis on animal basis was 40 (20/50), 46 (23/50), and 52 percent (26/50) based on CMT, Culture examination, and mPCR. The highest prevalence was observed in IVth parity on a quarterly basis and in Vth parity on cow basis. On culture examination, Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent organism (50.56%), followed by Streptococcus dysaglactiae (11.33%), E. coli (7.8 %), Staphylococcus agalactiae (13.48 %), Staphylococcus epidermidis (2.2 %), Streptococcus hyicus (6.94%), Streptococcus uberis (5.16%), Klebsiella pneumonia (6.74%). On isolation by bacterial mPCR, Staphylococcus spp. (42%) was the major pathogen. Organisms isolated in mixed infections are Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumonia, E.coli and Pseudomonas aeruginous. The average mean value of fat, protein, and lactose content in subclinically affected milk samples were 3.40 ± 0.101, 3.009 ± 0.033, and 4.48 ± 0.03, and the mean value of fat, protein, and lactose content in normal milk were 4.13 ± 0.035, 3.39 ± 0.021, and 5.10 ± 0.016. The mean blood level of reduced glutathione in subclinical mastitis (30.44 ± 1.87 ng/ml) was lower than healthy cows (47.98 ± 4.04ng/ml). The concentration of malondialdehyde (10.026 ± 0.21mmol/L) in subclinical mastitis was significantly higher as compared to healthy group cows (2.19 ± 0.23mmol/L).

Keywords: cow, subclinical mastitis, mPCR, California Mastitis test

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110 Evaluation of the Safety Status of Beef Meat During Processing at Slaughterhouse in Bouira, Algeria

Authors: A. Ameur Ameur, H. Boukherrouba

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In red meat slaughterhouses a significant number of organs and carcasses were seized because of the presence of lesions of various origins. The objective of this study is to characterize and evaluate the frequency of these lesions in the slaughterhouse of the Wilaya of BOUIRA. On cattle slaughtered in 2646 and inspected 72% of these carcasses have been no seizures against 28% who have undergone at least one entry. 325 lung (44%), 164 livers (22%), 149 hearts (21%) are the main saisis.38 kidneys members (5%), 33 breasts (4%) and 16 whole carcasses (2%) are less seizures parties. The main reasons are the input hydatid cyst for most seized organs such as the lungs (64.5%), livers (51.8%), hearts (23.2%), hydronephrosis for the kidneys (39.4%), and chronic mastitis (54%) for the breasts. Then we recorded second-degree pneumonia (16%) to the lungs, chronic fascioliasis (25%) for livers. A significant difference was observed (p < 0.0001) by sex, race, origin and age of all cattle having been saisie.une a specific input patterns and So pathology was recorded based on race. The local breed presented (75.2%) of hydatid cyst, (95%) and chronic fascioliasis (60%) pyelonephritis, for against the improved breed presented the entire respiratory lesions include pneumonia (64%) the chronic tuberculosis (64%) and mastitis (76%). These results are an important step in the implementation of the concept of risk assessment as the scientific basis of food legislation, by the identification and characterization of macroscopic damage leading withdrawals in meat and to establish the level of inclusion of these injuries within the recommended risk assessment systems (HACCP).

Keywords: slaughterhouses, meat safety, seizure patterns, HACCP

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109 Fungal Diversity and Bioprospecting of Termite-Associated Fungi from Nothern-Western Ghats of India

Authors: Gajanan V. Mane, Rashmi More, Mahesh S. Sonawane, Tushar Lodha, Rohit Sharma

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The diversity of fungi isolated from two different termite species viz., Odontoterms assmuthi and O. abesus was investigated by dilution- plate method, combined with morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region. In total, ninety-six fungi were isolated and purified, out of which 69 isolates were obtained from O. assmuthi belonging to 18 genera and 31 species, whereas 27 isolates were obtained from O. abesus belonging to 15 genera and 17 species. The fungal strains were screened for laccase, amylase, cellulase and pectinase enzymes production. Twenty-seven strains were positive for laccase, 59 strains were positive for amylase, 71 strains were positive for cellulase and 72 strains were positive for pectinase enzymes. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated fungi were tested by the dual plate culture method against standard pathogens. Bioactive secondary metabolites were identified by HPLC and LCMS. Four isolates viz., Penicillium goetzii MG 57, Epicoccum sp. MG 39, Penicillium tanzanicum MG 30, Aspergillus polyporicola MG 54, showed positive antimicrobial activity against standard pathogens, Streptococcus pneumonia MCC 2425, Staphylococcus aureus MCC 2408, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC 2080, Escherichia coli MCC 2412, Enterococcus faecalis MCC 2409, Klebsiella pneumonia MCC 2451, Micrococcus luteus MCC 2155 and Candida albicans MCC 1151. In conclusion, the study showed that the insect gut harbor fungal diversity, which is futuristic with biotechnological potential and could be a good source of enzymes and antibiotics.

Keywords: termites, fungi, its, enzyme, antimicrobial activity

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108 Acute Respiratory Infections in a Rural Area of the Southwestern Region of Bangladesh: Perceptions, Practices and the Role of First-Time Mothers

Authors: Sonia Mannan

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A qualitative study was conducted in a rural area of the southwestern region of Bangladesh to identify perceptions, practices, and the role of first-time mothers surrounding acute respiratory infections (ARI) in infants and children aged under four years. The study reveals that all mothers had knowledge of ARI and were able to identify a number of signs and symptoms. They also recognized pneumonia and thought it to be caused by exposure to cold or weather change, supernatural causes, evil influences, mothers’ negligence, and failure to observe ‘purdah’. They were able to identify chest retractions, difficult breathing, and inability to feed as signs of severe disease needing treatment outside the home. In these cases, spiritual healers were sought, and allopathic treatment was delayed or avoided. Home care practices involved massaging the child with oil and avoiding 'cooling' foods, including water. With the presence of fever and breathing difficulty, mothers tended to increase the number and diversity of medicines, although more concern was expressed about fever than about breathing difficulty. Effective medical care was more likely to be delayed for infants than for older children (they often waited 2-5 days after signs of illness appeared); infants were also more likely to be taken to a spiritual healer as the first-choice provider. The reasons for these perceptions and practices and their implications on the ARI of infants and young children are discussed. Community intervention is identified as viable, effective, and practical to address the body of local socio-cultural knowledge about family practices and the role of the mother regarding the mitigation of ARI in infants and young children.

Keywords: acute respiratory infections , public health, pneumonia, Bangladesh

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107 Metastatic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Presenting with COVID-19 Infection and Cardiac Tamponade

Authors: Sutinon Yuchomsuk, Satchachon Changthom, Pruet Areesawangvong, Monsiri Jinapen

Abstract:

Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma can be presented with many symptoms, such as dysphagia or weight loss. However, in some circumstances, rare presentations can be found, e.g., dyspnea, which is more common in pulmonary malignancy. And dyspnea is also one of the most common presentations of COVID-19 infection. So, in this case, we can learn from many points in patient symptoms and findings leading to the diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Method: This research is a case-report study including one patient from Mahasarakham Hospital, Thailand. Data were collected during December 2021. Result: A 55-year-old Thai male patient with an unknown past medical history presented with dyspnea and shortness of breath for the duration of three days prior to admission. His symptom also included cough, fever, and sore throat. Laboratory results indicated that the patient had COVID-19 pneumonia. Further investigation showed that he had cardiac tamponade and suspected pulmonary/esophageal cancer. Lung biopsy and pericardiocentesis were done, which were positive for carcinoma from pericardial effusion but negative for malignancy from the lung biopsy. Later esophagogastroduodenoscopy was done with endoscopic tissue biopsy; the result was positive for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Conclusion: Most commonly, esophageal cancer is presented with dysphagia or weight loss. However, in some rare cases, patients can also be presented with dyspnea due to cardiac tamponade. And in recent years, COVID-19 has become a pandemic all over the world, sometimes masking symptoms of other diseases. Such as in this case, the patient didn’t improve after the pneumonia was resolved, which led to the final diagnosis of metastatic esophageal cancer.

Keywords: esophageal cancer, cardiac tamponade, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma, COVID-19 infection

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106 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Specific Bacteriophage Isolation from Sewage Treatment Plant and in vivo Analysis of Phage Efficiency in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Pratibha Goyal, Nupur Mathur, Anuradha Singh

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Antibiotic resistance is the worldwide threat to human health in this century. Excessive use of antibiotic after their discovery in 1940 makes certain bacteria to become resistant against antibiotics. Most common antibiotic-resistant bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Among all Staphylococcus resistant strain called Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for several lives threatening infection in human commonly found in the hospital environment. Our study aimed to isolate bacteriophage against MRSA from the hospital sewage treatment plant and to analyze its efficiency In Vivo in Swiss albino mice model. Sewage sample for the isolation of bacteriophages was collected from SDMH hospital sewage treatment plant in Jaipur. Bacteriophages isolated by the use of enrichment technique and after characterization, isolated phages used to determine phage treatment efficiency in mice. Mice model used to check the safety and suitability of phage application in human need which in turn directly support the use of natural bacteriophage rather than synthetic chemical to kill pathogens. Results show the plaque formation in-vitro and recovery of MRSA infected mice during the experiment. Favorable lytic efficiency determination of MRSA and Salmonella presents a natural way to treat lethal infections caused by Multidrug-resistant bacteria by using their natural host-pathogen relationship.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, bacteriophages, methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus, pathogens, phage therapy, Salmonella typhi

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105 Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Medical Intensive Care Unit, Incidence and Risk Factors: A Case Control Study

Authors: Ammar Asma, Bouafia Nabiha, Ben Cheikh Asma, Ezzi Olfa, Mahjoub Mohamed, Sma Nesrine, Chouchène Imed, Boussarsar Hamadi, Njah Mansour

Abstract:

Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is currently recognized as one of the most relevant causes of morbidity and mortality among intensive care unit (ICU) patients worldwide. Identifying modifiable risk factors for VAP could be helpful for future controlled interventional studies aiming at improving prevention of VAP. The purposes of this study were to determine the incidence and risk factors for VAP in in a Tunisian medical ICU. Materials / Methods: A retrospective case-control study design based on the prospective database collected over a 14-month period from September 15th, 2015 through November 15th, 2016 in an 8-bed medical ICU. Patients under ventilation for over 48 h were included. The number of cases was estimated by Epi-info Software with the power of statistical test equal to 90 %. Each case patient was successfully matched to two controls according to the length of mechanical ventilation (MV) before VAP for cases and the total length of MV in controls. VAP in the ICU was defined according to American Thoracic Society; Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. Early onset or late-onset VAP were defined whether the infectious process occurred within or after 96 h of ICU admission. Patients’ risk factors, causes of admission, comorbidities and respiratory specimens collected were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables associated with VAP with a p-value < 0.05. Results: During the period study, a total of 169 patients under mechanical ventilation were considered, 34 patients (20.11%) developed at least one episode of VAP in the ICU. The incidence rate for VAP was 14.88/1000 ventilation days. Among these cases, 9 (26.5 %) were early-onset VAP and 25 (73.5 %) were late-onset VAP. It was a certain diagnosis in 66.7% of cases. Tracheal aspiration was positive in 80% of cases. Multi-drug resistant Acinerobacter baumanii was the most common species detected in cases; 67.64% (n=23). The rate of mortality out of cases was 88.23% (n= 30). In univariate analysis, the patients with VAP were statistically more likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases (p=0.035) and prolonged duration of sedation (p=0.009) and tracheostomy (p=0.001), they also had a higher number of re-intubation (p=0.017) and a longer total time of intubation (p=0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that cardiovascular diseases (OR= 4.44; 95% IC= [1.3 - 14]; p=0.016), tracheostomy (OR= 4.2; 95% IC= [1.16 -15.12]; p= 0.028) and prolonged duration of sedation (OR=1.21; 95% IC= [1.07, 1.36]; p=0.002) were independent risk factors for the development of VAP. Conclusion: VAP constitutes a therapeutic challenge in an ICU setting, therefore; strategies that effectively prevent VAP are needed. An infection control-training program intended to all professional heath care in this unit insisting on bundles and elaboration of procedures are planned to reduce effectively incidence rate of VAP.

Keywords: case control study, intensive care unit, risk factors, ventilator associated pneumonia

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104 Histological and Microbiological Study about the Pneumonic Lungs of Calves Slaughtered in the Slaughterhouse of Batna

Authors: Hamza Hadj Abdallah, Brahim Belabdi

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Respiratory disease is a dominant pathology in cattle. It causes mortality and especially morbidity and irreversible damage. Although the dairy herd is affected, it is essentially the lactating herd and especially young cattle either nursing or fattening that undergo the greatest economic impact. The objective of this study is to establish a microbiological diagnosis of bovine respiratory inffections from lung presented with gross lesions at the slaughter of Batna. A total of 124 samples (pharyngeal and nasal swabs and lung fragments) from 31 seven months old calves, with lung lesions was collected to determine possible correlations between etiologic agents and lesion types. The hépatisation injury (or consolidation) was the major lesion (45.17%) preferentially localized in the right apical lobe. A diverse microbial flora (15 genera and 291 strains was isolated. The bacteria most frequently isolated are the Enterobacteriaceae (49.45%), Staphylococci (25.1%) followed by non Enterobacteriaceae bacilli represented by Pseudomonas (5.83%) and finally, Streptococcus (13.38 %). The pneumotropic bacteria (Pasteurellaaerogenes and Pasteurellapneumotropica) were isolated at a rate of 0.68%. The study of the sensitivity of some germs to antibiotics showed a sensitivity of 100% for ceftazidime. A very high sensitivity was also observed for kanamycin, Ciprofloxacin, Imepinem, Cefepime, Tobramycin and Gentamycin (between 90% and 97%). Strains of E. coli showed a sensitivity of 100% for Imepinem, while only 55.9% of the strains were sensitive to Ampicillin. The isolated Pasteurella exhibited excellent sensitivity (100%) for the antimicrobials used with the exception of Colistin and Ticarcillin-Clavulanic acid association which showed a sensitivity of 50%.This survey has demonstrated the strong spread of atypical pneumonia in cattle population (bulls) at the slaughterhouse of Batna justifying stunting and losses in cattle farms in the region.Thus, it was considered urgent to establish a profile of sensitivity of different germs to antibiotics isolated to limit this increasingly dreadful infection.

Keywords: Pasteurella, enterobacteria, bacteriology, pneumonia

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