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Search results for: gram negative rods

3706 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Production Rates of Gram Negative Rods in a University Research and Practice Hospital, 2012-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz, Hayriye Tokay


Objective: Gram-negative rods are a large group of bacteria, and include many families, genera, and species. Most clinical isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a difficulty in the handling of Enterobacteriaceae infections, but other mechanisms of resistance are also emerging, leading to multidrug resistance and threatening to create panresistant species. We aimed in this study to evaluate resistance rates of Gram-negative rods bacteria isolated from clinical specimens in Microbiology Laboratory, Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, between October 2012 and September 2015. Methods: The Gram-negative rods strains were identified by conventional methods and VITEK 2 automated identification system (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance tests were performed by both the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion and automated Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST, bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France) methods. Disk diffusion results were evaluated according to the standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Of the totally isolated 1.701 Enterobacteriaceae strains 1434 (84,3%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 171 (10%) were Enterobacter spp., 96 (5.6%) were Proteus spp., and 639 Nonfermenting gram negatives, 477 (74.6%) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 135 (21.1%) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 27 (4.3%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The ESBL positivity rate of the totally studied Enterobacteriaceae group were 30.4%. Antibiotic resistance rates for Klebsiella pneumoniae were as follows: amikacin 30.4%, gentamicin 40.1%, ampicillin-sulbactam 64.5%, cefepime 56.7%, cefoxitin 35.3%, ceftazidime 66.8%, ciprofloxacin 65.2%, ertapenem 22.8%, imipenem 20.5%, meropenem 20.5 %, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 50.1%, and for 114 Enterobacter spp were detected as; amikacin 26.3%, gentamicin 31.5%, cefepime 26.3%, ceftazidime 61.4%, ciprofloxacin 8.7%, ertapenem 8.7%, imipenem 12.2%, meropenem 12.2%, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 19.2 %. Resistance rates for Proteus spp. were: 24,3% meropenem, 26.2% imipenem, 20.2% amikacin 10.5% cefepim, 33.3% ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine, 31.6% ceftazidime, 20% ceftriaxone, 15.2% gentamicin, 26.6% amoxicillin-clavulanate, and 26.2% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale. Resistance rates of P. aeruginosa was found as follows: Amikacin 32%, gentamicin 42 %, imipenem 43%, merpenem 43%, ciprofloxacin 50%, levofloxacin 52%, cefepim 38%, ceftazidim 63%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85%, for Acinetobacter baumannii; Amikacin 53.3%, gentamicin 56.6 %, imipenem 83%, merpenem 86%, ciprofloxacin 100%, ceftazidim 100%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85 %, colisitn 0 %, and for S. malthophilia; levofloxacin 66.6 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxozole 0 %. Conclusions: This study showed that resistance in Gram-negative rods was a serious clinical problem in our hospital and suggested the need to perform typification of the isolated bacteria with susceptibility testing regularly in the routine laboratory procedures. This application guided to empirical antibiotic treatment choices truly, as a consequence of the reality that each hospital shows different resistance profiles.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, gram negative rods, ESBL, VITEK 2

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3705 Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

Authors: Travis J. Meyer, Jasodra Ramlall, Phyo Thu, Nidhi Gadura


For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty acids is responsible for increased killing inEscherichia coli. In this study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the non-spore forming gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference inloss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.

Keywords: antimicrobial, copper, gram positive, gram negative

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3704 Myroides Bacteremia: A Case Report

Authors: Jamie Lynn Co, Mary Shiela Ariola-Ramos


Myroides are aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, non-fermenting gram-negative rods. They are commonly found in the environment such as water and soil. Although found in the environment, Myroides are rare pathogens of humans. Myroides spp. primarily infect immunocompromised patients, often with diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or prolonged corticosteroid therapy. We present a case of a 70-year-old immunocompromised patient with diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, diagnosed with sepsis caused by Myroides spp. The primary portal and source of infection were the pustules and boils found on the lower extremities of the patient. Susceptibility testing showed that our isolate was only susceptible to ciprofloxacin and meropenem; and following the treatment, the patient recovered. Myroides continues to be a rare pathogen of humans that is prevalent in our environment. It primarily affects immunocompromised patients such as those with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, etc. Despite their low virulence, physicians should consider this opportunistic pathogen as possible etiologic agent especially in cases wherein there is lack of response to commonly used antibiotics.

Keywords: bacteremia, immunocompromised, gram negative rods, Myroides

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3703 The Impact of Efflux Pump Inhibitor on the Activity of Benzosiloxaboroles and Benzoxadiboroles against Gram-Negative Rods

Authors: Agnieszka E. Laudy, Karolina Stępien, Sergiusz Lulinski, Krzysztof Durka, Stefan Tyski


1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborole and its derivatives are a particularly interesting group of synthetic agents and were successfully employed in supramolecular chemistry medicine. The first important compounds, 5-fluoro-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborole and 5-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborole were identified as potent antifungal agents. In contrast, (S)-3-(aminomethyl)-7-(3-hydroxypropoxy)-1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborole hydrochloride is in the second phase of clinical trials as a drug for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections of the Enterobacteriaceae family and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Equally important and difficult task is to search for compounds active against Gram-negative bacilli, which have multi-drug-resistance efflux pumps actively removing many of the antibiotics from bacterial cells. We have examined whether halogen-substituted benzoxaborole-based derivatives and their analogues possess antibacterial activity and are substrates for multi-drug-resistance efflux pumps. The antibacterial activity of 1,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-1,1-dimethyl-1,2,3-benzosiloxaborole and 10 halogen-substituted its derivatives, as well as 1,2-phenylenediboronic acid and 3 synthesised fluoro-substituted its analogs, were evaluated. The activity against the reference strains of Gram-positive (n=5) and Gram-negative bacteria (n=10) was screened by the disc-diffusion test (0.4 mg of tested compounds was applied onto paper disc). The minimal inhibitory concentration values and the minimal bactericidal concentration values were estimated according to The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing recommendations. During the minimal inhibitory concentration values determination with or without phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide (50 mg/L) efflux pump inhibitor, the concentrations of tested compounds ranged 0.39-400 mg/L in the broth medium supplemented with 1 mM magnesium sulfate. Generally, the studied benzosiloxaboroles and benzoxadiboroles showed a higher activity against Gram-positive cocci than against Gram-negative rods. Moreover, benzosiloxaboroles have the higher activity than benzoxadiboroles compounds. In this study, we demonstrated that substitution (mono-, di- or tetra-) of 1,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-1,1-dimethyl-1,2,3-benzosiloxaborole with halogen groups resulted in an increase in antimicrobial activity as compared to the parent substance. Interestingly, the 6,7-dichloro-substituted parent substance was found to be the most potent against Gram-positive cocci: Staphylococcus sp. (minimal inhibitory concentration 6.25 mg/L) and Enterococcus sp. (minimal inhibitory concentration 25 mg/L). On the other hand, mono- and dichloro-substituted compounds were the most actively removed by efflux pumps present in Gram-negative bacteria mainly from Enterobacteriaceae family. In the presence of efflux pump inhibitor the minimal inhibitory concentration values of chloro-substituted benzosiloxaboroles decreased from 400 mg/L to 3.12 mg/L. Of note, the highest increase in bacterial susceptibility to tested compounds in the presence of phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide was observed for 6-chloro-, 6,7-dichloro- and 6,7-difluoro-substituted benzosiloxaboroles. In the case of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and P. aeruginosa strains at least a 32-fold decrease in the minimal inhibitory concentration values of these agents were observed. These data demonstrate structure-activity relationships of the tested derivatives and highlight the need for further search for benzoxaboroles and related compounds with significant antimicrobial properties. Moreover, the influence of phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide on the susceptibility of Gram-negative rods to studied benzosiloxaboroles indicate that some tested agents are substrates for efflux pumps in Gram-negative rods.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, benzosiloxaboroles, efflux pumps, phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide

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3702 Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydro-1H-Quinoxalin-2-Ones and 1H‑Quinolin-2-Ones and Evaluation of Their Anti-Bacterial Activity

Authors: Ali Amiri, Arash Esfandiari, Elham Zarenezhad


We report here an efficient and rapid method for the preparation of 3,4-dihydro-1H-quinoxalin-2-ones and 1H‑quinolin-2-ones that involves grinding of o-, m-, or p‑phenylenediamine and three dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates using a pestle and mortar. This solvent-free approach requires only a few minutes of reaction time. This type of reaction is expected to be the most economical method since neither catalyst nor solvent is used. Finally, all synthesised compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1077, Escherichia coli PTCC1330) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1133, Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015) and their activity. Compared with gentamycin and ampicillin as reference drugs for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the synthesised compounds and reference drugs were determined by the microdilution method. Good antibacterial activity was observed for 3,4-dihydro-1H-quinoxalin-2-ones against all species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and1H‑quinolin-2-ones showed good antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria.

Keywords: quinolin, quinoxalin, anti-bacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)

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3701 Multidrug Resistance Mechanisms among Gram Negative Clinical Isolates from Egypt

Authors: Mona T. Kashef, Omneya M. Helmy


Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a significant public health threat. The prevalence rates, of Gram negative MDR bacteria, are in continuous increase. However, few data are available about these resistant strains. Since, third generation cephalosporins are one of the most commonly used antimicrobials, we set out to investigate the prevalence, different mechanisms and clonal relatedness of multidrug resistance among third generation resistant Gram negative clinical isolates. A total of 114 Gram negative clinical isolates, previously characterized as being resistant to at least one of 3rd generation cephalosporins, were included in this study. Each isolate was tested, using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method, against its assigned categories of antimicrobials. The role of efflux pump in resistance development was tested by the efflux pump inhibitor-based microplate assay using chloropromazine as an inhibitor. Detecting different aminoglycosides, β-lactams and quinolones resistance genes was done using polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of MDR isolates was investigated using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA technique. MDR phenotype was detected in 101 isolates (89%). Efflux pump mediated resistance was detected in 49/101 isolates. Aminoglycosides resistance genes; armA and aac(6)-Ib were detected in one and 53 isolates, respectively. The aac(6)-Ib-cr allele, that also confers resistance to floroquinolones, was detected in 28/53 isolates. β-lactam resistance genes; blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M group 1 and group 9 were detected in 52, 29, 61 and 35 isolates, respectively. Quinolone resistance genes; qnrA, qnrB and qnrS were detectable in 2, 14, 8 isolates respectively, while qepA was not detectable at all. High diversity was observed among tested MDR isolates. MDR is common among 3rd generation cephalosporins resistant Gram negative bacteria, in Egypt. In most cases, resistance was caused by different mechanisms. Therefore, new treatment strategies should be implemented.

Keywords: gram negative, multidrug resistance, RAPD typing, resistance genes

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3700 Activity of Commonly Used Intravenous Nutrient and Bisolvon in Neonatal Intensive Care Units against Biofilm Cells and Their Synergetic Effect with Antibiotics

Authors: Marwa Fady Abozed, Hemat Abd El Latif, Fathy Serry, Lotfi El Sayed


The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intravenous nutrient(soluvit, vitalipid, aminoven infant, lipovenos) and bisolvon commonly used in neonatal intensive care units against biofilm cells of staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aerguinosa and klebseilla pneumonia as they are the most commonly isolated organisms and are biofilm producers. Also, the synergetic acticity of soluvit, heparin, bisolvon with antibiotics and its effect on minimum biofilm eradication concentration(MBEC) was tested. Intravenous nutrient and bromohexine are widely used in newborns. Numbers of viable cell count released from biofilm after treatment with intravenous nutrient and bromohexine were counted to compare the efficacy. The percentage of reduction in biofilm regrowth in case of using soluvit was 43-51% and 36-42 % for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively, on adding the vitalipid the percentage was 45-50 %and 37-41% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, in case of using bisolvon the percentage was 46-52% and 47-48% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding lipovenos had a reduction percentage of 48-52% and 48-49% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. While, adding aminoven infant the percentage was 10-15% and 9-11% for Gram positive and Gram negative respectively. Adding soluvit, heparin and bisolvon to antibiotics had synergic effect. soluvit with ciprofloxacin has 8-16 times decrease than minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for ciprofloxacin alone. While, by adding soluvit to vancomycin the MBEC reduced by 16 times than MBEC of vancomycin alone. In case of combination soluvit with cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamycin the reduction in MBEC was 16, 8 and 6-32 times respectively. The synergetic effect of adding heparin to ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin was 2 times reduction with all except in case of gram negative the range of reduction was 0-2 with both gentamycin and ciprofloxacin. Bisolvon exihited synergetic effect with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, amikacin and gentamicin by 16, 32, 32, 8, 32-64 and 32 times decrease in MBEC respectively.

Keywords: biofilm, neonatal intensive care units, antibiofilm agents, intravenous nutrient

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3699 Trends in the Incidence of Bloodstream Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies in the Period 1991–2012

Authors: V. N. Chebotkevich, E. E. Schetinkina, V. V. Burylev, E. I. Kaytandzhan, N. P. Stizhak


Objective: Blood stream infections (BSI) are severe, life-threatening illness for immuno compromised patients with hematological malignancies. We report the trend in blood-stream infections in this group of patients in the period 1991-2013. Methods: A total of 4742 blood samples investigated. All blood cultures were incubated in a continuous monitoring system for 7 days before discarding negative. On signaled positive, organism was identified by conventional methods. The Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the indication of human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Results: Between 1991 and 2001 the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus) being the most common germs isolated (70,9%) were as Gram-negative rods (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp.) – 29,1%. In next decade 2002-2012 the number of Gram-negative bacteria was increased up to 40.2%. It is shown that the incidence of bacteremia was significantly more frequent at the background of detectable Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus-specific DNA in blood. Over recent years, an increased frequency of micro mycetes was registered in blood of the patients with hematological malignancies (Candida spp. was predominant). Conclusion: Accurate and timely detection of BSI is important in determining appropriate treatment of infectious complications in patients with hematological malignancies. The isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis from blood cultures remains a clinical dilemma for physicians and microbiologists. But in many cases this agent is of the clinical significance in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies. The role of CMV and EBV in development of bacteremia was demonstrated.

Keywords: infectious complications, blood stream infections, bacteremia, hemoblastosis

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3698 Comparison between Two Groups of Pathogenic Bacteria under Different Essential Oil Extract of Ocimum basilicum L.

Authors: A. M. Daneshian Moghaddam, J. Shayegh, J. Dolghari Sharaf


This study was conducted to assessment the antibacterial activities of different part of basil essential oil on the standard gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and gram-positive ones including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogen. The basil essential oil was provided from two part of plant (leaf and herb) at the two different developmental stage. The antibacterial properties of basil essential oil was studied Also agar disk diffusion, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were detected. The results of agar disk diffusion tests showed the inhibition zones as follow: Listeria monocytogen 17.11-17.42 mm, St. aureus 29.20-30.56 mm, B. cereus 14.73-16.06 mm, E. coli 21.60-23.58 mm, Salmonella typhi 21.63-24.80 mm and for P. aeruginosa the maximum inhibition zones were seen on leaf essential oil. From the herb part of basil almost similar results were obtained: Listeria monocytogen 17.02-17.67 mm, St. aureus 29.60-30.41 mm, B. cereus 10.66-16.11 mm, E. coli 17.48-23.54 mm, Salmonella typhi 21.58-21.64 mm and for P. aeruginosa the maximum inhibition zones were seen. The MICs for gram-positive bacteria were as: B. cereus ranging 36-18 μg/mL, S. aureus 18 μg/mL, Listeria monocytogen 18-36 μg/mL and for gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, Salmonella typhi and P. aeruginosa were 18-9 μg/mL.

Keywords: basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil, gram-positive and gram negative bacteria, antibacterial activity, MIC, MBC

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3697 Synthesis and in-Vitro Biological Activity of Novel Gallic Acid Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Mostafavi


A diversity of biological activities and pharmaceutical uses have been attributed to gallic acid derivatives such as antibacterial, anticancer, anti inflammatory. A series of gallic acid derivatives were synthesized, and their structure was confirmed by FT-IR, HNMR, CNMR, elemental analysis. In vitro biological activity of compounds was determined against Proteus vulgaris ATCC 7829, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, as (Gram-negative) bacteria and bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococus aureus ATCC 6538 as (Gram-positive) bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were done by use of the paper disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar (Merck). Chloramiphenicol, Penicilline, Streptomycin and Tetracycline were standard reference antibiotics. The zone of inhibition against bacteria was measured after 24 hours at 37 °C. Compounds 3, 4, 5 were the main antibacterial compounds against Gram-negative bacteria but not Gram-positive.

Keywords: gallic acid derivatives, antibacterial, antibiotics, inhibition

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3696 Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis Pathogens in Malaysian Hospitals: Determining Empiric Antibiotic

Authors: Nazedah Ain Ibrahim, Mohamed Mansor Manan


Treatment of suspected early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is essential. However, information regarding EONS pathogens may vary between regions. Global perspectives showed Group B Streptococcal (GBS) as the most common causative pathogens, but the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotics has changed the pathogens pattern towards gram negative microorganisms, especially E. coli. Objective of this study is to describe the pathogens isolated, to assess current treatment and risk of EONS. Records of 899 neonates born in three General Hospitals between 2009 until 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were neonates with blood culture taken prior to empiric antibiotics administration and within 72 hours of life. Of the study group, a total of 734 (82%) cases had documented blood culture that met the inclusion criteria. Proven EONS (as confirmed by positive blood culture) was found in 22 (3%) neonates. The majority was isolated with gram positive organisms, 17 (2.3%). In addition, other common gram positive organism isolated were Coagulase negative staphylococci (7) followed by Bacillus sp. (5) and Streptococcus pneumonia (2), and only one case isolated with GBS, Streptococcus spp. and Enterococcus sp. Meanwhile, only five cases of gram negative organisms [Stenotropomonas (xantho) maltophi (1), Haemophilus influenza (1), Spingomonas paucimobilis (1), Enterobacter gergoviae (1) and E. coli (1)] were isolated. A total of 286 (39%) cases were exposed to intrapartum antibiotics and of those, 157 (21.4%) were administered prior to delivery. All grams positive and most gram negative organisms showed sensitivity to the tested antibiotics. Only two rare gram negative organisms showed total resistant. Male, surfactant, caesarean delivery and prolonged rapture of membrane >18hours were a possible risk of proven EONS. Although proven EONS remains uncommon in Malaysia, nonetheless, the effect of intrapartum antibiotics still required continuous surveillance. However, by analyzing isolated pathogens it can be used as treatment guidance in managing suspected EONS.

Keywords: early onset neonatal sepsis, neonates, pathogens, gram positive, gram negative

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3695 Thrombocytopenia and Prolonged Prothrombin Time in Neonatal Septicemia

Authors: Shittu Bashirat, Shittu Mujeeb, Oluremi Adeolu, Orisadare Olayiwola, Jikeme Osameke, Bello Lateef


Septicemia in neonates refers to generalized bacterial infection documented by positive blood culture in the first 28 days of life and is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality in sub-Sahara Africa. Thrombocytopenia in newborns is a result of increased platelet consumption; sepsis was found to be the most common risk factor. The objective of the study was to determine if there are organism-specific platelet responses among the 2 groups of bacterial agents: Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also to examine the association of platelet count and prothrombin time with neonatal septicemia. 232 blood samples were collected for this study. The blood culture was performed using Bactec 9050, an instrumented blood culture system. The platelet count and prothrombin time were performed using Abacus Junior 5 hematology analyzer and i-STAT 1 analyzer respectively. Of the 231 neonates hospitalized with clinical sepsis, blood culture reports were positive in 51 cases (21.4%). Klebsiella spp. (35.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (27.5%) were the most common Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates respectively. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 30 (58.8%) of the neonates with septicemia. Of the 9 (17.6%) patients with severe thrombocytopenia, seven (77.8%) had Klebsiella spp. septicemia. Out of the 21(63.6%) of thrombocytopenia produced by Gram-negative isolate, 17 (80.9) had increased prothrombin time. In conclusion, Gram-negative organisms showed the highest cases of severe thrombocytopenia and prolonged PT. This study has helped to establish a disturbance in hemostatic systems in neonates with septicemia. Further studies, however, may be required to assess other hemostasis parameters in order to understand their interaction with the infectious organisms in neonates.

Keywords: neonates, septicemia, thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, platelet count

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3694 Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Natural Bioactive 3,4-DihydroisocoumarinAnalogues

Authors: Hummera Rafique, Aamer Saeed


Synthesis of structural analogues of various well known bioactive natural 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins viz. Scorzocreticin, Annulatomarin, Montroumarin, and Thunberginol B, have been carried out starting from 3,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl acetic acid. 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl acetic acid was then condensed with various aryl acid chlorides (a-e) to afford the corresponding 6,8-dimethoxy-7-methyl-3-aryl isocoumarins (5a-e). The alkaline hydrolysis of isocoumarins yields keto-acids (3a-e), which were then reduced to hydroxyacids, followed by cyclodehydration with acetic anhydride furnish corresponding 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins (7a-e). Finally, demethylation of 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins was carried out to afford 6,8-dihydroxy-7-methyl-3-aryl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins (7a-e). Antibacterial evaluation of all the synthesized compounds were carried out against ten bacterial strains, it was concluded that isocoumarins (5a-e) and 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins (7a-e) are more active against gram positive bacteria then gram negative. However, the 6,8-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivatives (8a-e) are more active against gram negative then gram positive.

Keywords: 3, 5-Dimethoxy-4-methylhomophthalic acid, natural 3, 4-Dihydroisocoumarin analogues, antibacterial activity, isocoumarins, demethylation

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3693 Observation on Microbiological Profile of Type2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Its Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is commonly encountered metabolic disorder in clinical practice. An estimated 25 percent of DM patients develop foot problems. Foot ulceration and infection are one of the major causes of morbidity, hospitalization or even amputation. Objective: To isolate and identify bacterial pathogens in Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) and to observe its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Methodology: A prospective study was conducted for a period of 9 months at the Department of Microbiology, GD Hospital & Diabetes Institute, Kolkata. 75 DFU patients were recruited in the study. Specimens for microbiological studies obtained from ulcer base were examined as gram stained smear and was cultured aerobically on Nutrient agar, Blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed by disc diffusion techniques according to CLSI guidelines. Result: In this study out of 75cases, 73% (55/75) were male and 27% (20/75) were females with mean (SD) age of 51.11(±10) years. Out of 75 pus cultures, 63(84%) showed growth of microorganism making total of 81 bacterial isolates with 71.42% of monomicrobial infection and 28.57% of polymicrobial infection. Out of 81 isolates 53(65.43%) were gram negative and 21(25.92%) were gram positive. E.coli was relatively common isolate 21(26%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus 15(18.5%), Klebsiella pneumonia 14(17.28%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12 (14.81%), Proteus spp. 3 (3.70%), and Enterococcus faecalis 6 (7.40%). 75% of Gram-negative microorganism were extended Beta-lactamase enzyme (ESBL) producer and around 20 % of Klebsiella and Proteus spp. were carbapenemase enzyme producer. Among Gram positive, around 50% of S.aureus was MRSA, sensitive only to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin & Linezolid. Conclusion: More prevalence of monomicrobial gram-negative bacteria than gram-positive bacteria in DFU was observed. This study emphasizes that Beta-Lactam group of antibiotics should not be the empirical treatment of choice for Gram-negative isolates; instead alternatives like Carbapenems, Amikacin could be a better option. On the other hand, Vancomycin and Linezolid are preferred for most of the infection with gram-positive aerobes. Continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria is required for empiric therapy.

Keywords: antibiotic resistant, antimicrobial susceptibility, diabetic foot ulcer, surveillance

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3692 Eradication of Gram-Positive Bacteria by Photosensitizers Immobilized in Polymers

Authors: Marina Nisnevitch, Anton Valkov, Faina Nakonechny, Kate Adar Raik, Yamit Mualem


Photosensitizers are dye compounds belonging to various chemical groups that in all the cases have a developed structure of conjugated double bonds. Under illumination with visible light, the photosensitizers are excited and transfer the absorbed energy to the oxygen dissolved in an aqueous phase, leading to production of a reactive oxygen species which cause irreversible damage to bacterial cells. When immobilized onto a solid phase, photosensitizers preserve their antibacterial properties. In the present study, photosensitizers were immobilized in polyethylene or propylene and tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus sp. For this purpose, water-soluble photosensitizers, Rose Bengal sodium salt, and methylene blue as well as water-insoluble hematoporphyrin and Rose Bengal lactone, were immobilized by dissolution in melted polymers to yield 3 mm diameter rods and 3-5 mm beads. All four photosensitizers were found to be effective in the eradication of Gram-positive bacteria under illumination by a white luminescent lamp or sunlight. The immobilized photosensitizers can be applied for continuous water disinfection; they can be easily removed at the end of the treatment and reused.

Keywords: antimicrobial polymers, gram-positive bacteria, immobilization of photosensitizers, photodynamic antibacterial activity

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3691 Out-of-Plane Free Vibrations of Circular Rods

Authors: Faruk Firat Çalim, Nurullah Karaca, Hakan Tacettin Türker


In this study, out-of-plane free vibrations of a circular rods is investigated theoretically. The governing equations for naturally twisted and curved spatial rods are obtained using Timoshenko beam theory and rewritten for circular rods. Effects of the axial and shear deformations are considered in the formulations. Ordinary differential equations in scalar form are solved analytically by using transfer matrix method. The circular rods of the mass matrix are obtained by using straight rod of consistent mass matrix. Free vibrations frequencies obtained by solving eigenvalue problem. A computer program coded in MATHEMATICA language is prepared. Circular beams are analyzed through various examples for free vibrations analysis. Results are compared with ANSYS results based on finite element method and available in the literature.

Keywords: circular rod, out-of-plane free vibration analysis, transfer matrix method

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3690 Typification and Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles with E Test Methods of Anaerobic Gram Negative Bacilli Isolated from Various Clinical Specimen

Authors: Cengiz Demir, Recep Keşli, Gülşah Aşık


Objective: This study was carried out with the purpose of defining by using the E test method and determining the antibiotic resistance profiles of Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and referred to Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Application and Research Hospital. Methods: Two hundred and seventy eight clinical specimens were examined for isolation of the anaerobic bacteria in Medical Microbiology Laboratory between the 1st November 2014 and 30th October 2015. Specimens were cultivated by using Scheadler agar that 5% defibrinated sheep blood added, and Scheadler broth. The isolated anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were identified conventional methods and Vitek 2 (ANC ID Card, bioMerieux, France) cards. Antibiotic resistance rates against to penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem were determined with E-test method for each isolate. Results: Of the isolated twenty-eight anaerobic gram negative bacilli fourteen were identified as the B. fragilis group, 9 were Prevotella group, and 5 were Fusobacterium group. The highest resistance rate was found against penicillin (78.5%) and resistance rates against clindamycin and cefoxitin were found as 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. Against to the; metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem, no resistance was found. Conclusion: Since high rate resistance has been detected against to penicillin in the study penicillin should not be preferred in empirical treatment. Cefoxitin can be preferred in empirical treatment; however, carrying out the antibiotic sensitivity testing will be more proper and beneficial. No resistance was observed against carbapenem group antibiotics and metronidazole; so that reason, these antibiotics should be reserved for treatment of infectious caused by resistant strains in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, anaerobe, antibiotics and resistance profiles, e-test method

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3689 Antimicrobial Activity of Ilex paraguariensis Sub-Fractions after Liquid-Liquid Partitioning

Authors: Sabah El-Sawalhi, Elie Fayad, Roula M. Abdel-Massih


Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate) is a medium to large tree commonly consumed by South Americans. Its leaves and stems are associated with different biological activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Yerba Mate against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and its action against some resistant bacteria with different resistance profiles. Yerba Mate aqueous extracts were prepared at 70°C for 2 hrs, and the microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Gram-positive bacteria exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity (MIC ranged between 0.468 mg/mL and 15 mg/mL) than Gram-negative bacteria. Yerba Mate was also extracted with acetone: water (1:1) and then further sub-fractionated with hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 0.78 to 2.5 mg/ml for the chloroform fraction, from 1.56 to 3.75 mg/ml for the ethyl acetate fraction, and 0.78 to 1.87 mg/ml for the water fraction. The water fraction also exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella species (MIC ranged from 1.56 mg/ml to 3.12 mg/ml). The water fraction exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among all the fractions obtained. More studies are needed to determine the molecule or molecules responsible for this activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, bacterial resistance, minimum inhibitory concentration, yerba mate

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3688 Anti-Microbial Activity of Senna garrettiana Extract

Authors: Pun Jankrajangjaeng


Senna garrettiana is a climatic tropical plant in Southeast Asia. Senna garrettiana (Craib) is used as a medicinal plant in Thailand, in which the experiment reported that the plant contains triterpenoids, ligans, phenolics, and fungal metabolites. Thus, it is also reported that the plant possesses interesting biological activity such as antioxidant activity. Therefore, Senna garrettiana is selected to examine the antimicrobial activity. The purpose of this study is to examine the antimicrobial activity of Senna garrettiana (crab) extract against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Salmonella typhi, and the fungus Candida albicans. This study performed the agar disk-diffusion method and broth microdilution by using five concentrations of plant extract to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. garrettiana extract. The result showed that S. garrettiana extract gave the maximum zone inhibition of 11.7 mm, 13.7 mm, and 14.0 mm against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. The MIC value of S. garrettiana against S. aureus was 125 µg/mL while the MIC in S. typhi and C. albicans greater than 2000 µg/mL. To conclude, S. garrettiana extract showed higher sensitivity of antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the plant extracts also possessed antifungal activity. Therefore, further investigation to confirm the mechanism of action of antimicrobial activity in S. garrettiana extract should be performed to identify the target of the antimicrobial action.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, Salmonella typhi, Senna garrettiana, Staphylococcus aureus

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3687 Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Food

Authors: Wilailak Siripornadulsil, Siriyanapat Tasaku, Jutamas Buahorm, Surasak Siripornadulsil


The objectives of this study were to isolate LAB from various sources, dietary supplement, Thai traditional fermented food, and freshwater fish and to characterize their potential as probiotic cultures. Out of 1,558 isolates, 730 were identified as LAB based on isolation on MRS agar supplemented with a bromocresol purple indicator and CaCO3 and gram-positive, catalase and oxidase negative characteristics. Eight isolates showed the potential probiotic properties including tolerance to acid, bile salt and heat, proteolytic, amylolytic and lipolytic activities and oxalate-degrading capability. They all showed the antimicrobial activity against some Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, they were identified as Enterococcus faecalis BT2 and MG30, Leconostoc mesenteroides SW64 and Pediococcus pentosaceous BD33, CF32, NP6, PS34 and SW5. The health beneficial effects and food safety will be further investigated and developed as a probiotic or protective culture used in Nile tilapia belly flap meat fermentation.

Keywords: probiotic, lactic acid bacteria, pathogen, protective culture

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3686 Identification of the Antimicrobial Effect of Liquorice Extracts on Gram-Positive Bacteria: Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Mechanism of Action Using a luxABCDE Reporter Strain

Authors: Madiha El Awamie, Catherine Rees


Natural preservatives have been used as alternatives to traditional chemical preservatives; however, a limited number have been commercially developed and many remain to be investigated as sources of safer and effective antimicrobials. In this study, we have been investigating the antimicrobial activity of an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) that was provided as a waste material from the production of liquorice flavourings for the food industry, and to investigate if this retained the expected antimicrobial activity so it could be used as a natural preservative. Antibacterial activity of liquorice extract was screened for evidence of growth inhibition against eight species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. The Gram-negative bacteria tested include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium but none of these were affected by the extract. In contrast, for all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, growth was inhibited as monitored using optical density. However parallel studies using viable count indicated that the cells were not killed meaning that the extract was bacteriostatic rather than bacteriocidal. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration [MIC] and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration [MBC] of the extract was also determined and a concentration of 50 µg ml-1 was found to have a strong bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria. Microscopic analysis indicated that there were changes in cell shape suggesting the cell wall was affected. In addition, the use of a reporter strain of Listeria transformed with the bioluminescence genes luxABCDE indicated that cell energy levels were reduced when treated with either 12.5 or 50 µg ml-1 of the extract, with the reduction in light output being proportional to the concentration of the extract used. Together these results suggest that the extract is inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria only by damaging the cell wall and/or membrane.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, bioluminescence, Glycyrrhiza glabra, natural preservative

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3685 Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of Bacteriocin Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Batter of Green Gram And Bengal Gram Against Food-Borne Pathogens

Authors: Bandi Aruna


The increase of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the restriction on the use of antibiotics due to its side effects have drawn attention to the search for possible alternatives. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria represent an important application of these peptides as clinical drugs or as food biopreservatives. The present study describes the isolation of bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fermented batter of green gram and bengal gram using Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) media. The bacteriocin produced by these organisms inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, The isolates G1, G2 were isolated from green gram; B1 and B2 were isolated from fermented bengal gram batter. G1 and G2 were identified as Lactobacillus casie and B1 and B2 were identified as Streptococcus species. Antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin produced by these strains was studied by agar well diffusion method. Bacteriocins produced by the Lactobacillus casie and Streptococcus secies retained their antagonistic property at pH of 5 and pH of 7. Exposure of bacteriocin to UV light for 4 min showed antibacterial activity. The antagonistic property was observed even at 100°C demonstrating stability at higher temperatures of the bacteriocin. The bacteriocins were stable for a period of 15 days at 27°C. The bacteriocins of G1, G2, and B2 exhibited highest antagonistic activity at pH of 5 and B1 at pH of 7. Therefore, the bacteriocins of the isolates may find important application in controlling the food-borne pathogens.

Keywords: Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Lactic acid bacteria, Bacteriocin

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3684 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Urinary Tract Infections in Massoud Medical Laboratory: 2018-2021

Authors: Ali Ghorbanipour


The aim of this study is to investigate the drug resistance pattern and the value of the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration)method to reduce the impact of infectious diseases and the slow development of resistance. Method: The study was conducted on clinical specimens collected between 2018 to 2021. identification of isolates and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed using conventional biochemical tests. Antibiotic resistance was determined using kibry-Bauer disk diffusion and MIC by E-test methods comparative with microdilution plate elisa method. Results were interpreted according to CLSI. Results: Out of 249600 different clinical specimens, 18720 different pathogenic bacteria by overall detection ratio 7.7% were detected. Among pathogen bacterial were Gram negative bacteria (70%,n=13000) and Gram positive bacteria(30%,n=5720).Medically relevant gram-negative bacteria include a multitude of species such as E.coli , Klebsiella .spp , Pseudomonas .aeroginosa , Acinetobacter .spp , Enterobacterspp ,and gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus.spp , Enterococcus .spp , Streptococcus .spp was isolated . Conclusion: Our results highlighted that the resistance ratio among Gram Negative bacteria and Gram positive bacteria with different infection is high it suggest constant screening and follow-up programs for the detection of antibiotic resistance and the value of MIC drug susceptibility reporting that provide a new way to the usage of resistant antibiotic in combination with other antibiotics or accurate weight of antibiotics that inhibit or kill bacteria. Evaluation of wrong medication in the expansion of resistance and side effects of over usage antibiotics are goals. Ali ghorbanipour presently working as a supervision at the microbiology department of Massoud medical laboratory. Iran. Earlier, he worked as head department of pulmonary infection in firoozgarhospital, Iran. He received master degree in 2012 from Fergusson College. His research prime objective is a biologic wound dressing .to his credit, he has Published10 articles in various international congresses by presenting posters.

Keywords: antimicrobial profile, MIC & MBC Method, microplate antimicrobial assay, E-test

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3683 Antibacterial Activity of Calendula officinalis Extract Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Swati Jaiswal, Prashant Mishra


Nanoparticle based formulations of drug delivery systems have shown their potential in improving the performance of existing drugs and have opened avenues for new therapies. Calendula extract is a low cost, wide spectrum bioactive material that has been used for a long term therapy of various infections. Aim: The aim of this study was to develop Calendula officinalis extract based nanoformulations and to study the antibacterial activity of either Calendula extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles or Calendula extract coated silver nanoparticles for increased bioavailability and their long term effect. Methods: Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the process of ionotropic gelation, based on interaction between the negative groups of tri polyphosphate (TPP) and positively charged amino groups of chitosan. The size of the Calendula extract-loaded chitosan particles was determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Antibacterial activities of these formulations were determined based on minimum inhibitory concentration and time kill studies. In addition, silver nanoparticles were also synthesized in the presence of Calendula extract and characterized by UV visible spectrum, DLS and XRD. Experiments were conducted on 96-plates against two Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis two Gram-negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Results demonstrated time dependent antibacterial activity against different microbes studied. Both Calendula extract and Calendula extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles have shown good antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Conclusion: Calendula extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles and calendula extract coated silver nanoparticles are potential antibacterial for their long term antibacterial effects.

Keywords: antibacterial, Calendula extract, chitosan nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles

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3682 Correlation between Copper Uptake and Decrease of Copper (Hypocupremia) in Burn Patients-Infected Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Khaled M. Khleifat


Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from infected burn patients and characterized by standard biochemical tests. The in vitro copper uptake was compared between this isolated pathogenic strain and two non-pathogenic control strains of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillusthuringiensis strain Israelisas well as Gram-negative bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. Maximum copper uptake of 470 ppm/g biomass was obtained by P. aeruginosa strain, while the control strains B. thuringiensis and Enterobacter aerogenes had copper uptake of 350 and 383 ppm/g biomass, respectively. However, the lowest copper uptake (60 ppm/g biomass) was observed with another control the saprophytic strain Pseudomonas (Shewanella) putrefaciens. A further investigation regarding the effect of copper toxicity on bacterial growth, gave an MIC score of 600 ppm for P. aeruginosa strain compared to 460 and 300 ppm for the two Gram positive and Gram negative control strains, respectively. In tandem with these in vitro findings, blood analysis on burn patients infected with P. aeruginosa has indicated a selective decrease of copper (hypocupremia) and ceruloplasmin plasma levels. The iron metabolism was also affected by this copper deprivation leading to a similar decrease in plasma levels of PCV, iron, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin. All these hematological changes were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the matched group of non-infected burn patients. The observed hypocupremia in infected burn patients was attributed to demanding scavenger ability by P. aeruginosa strain for the copper of plasma.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, hypocupremia, correlation, PCV

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3681 Synthesis of Ethoxylated Amide as Bactericide to Enhance the Storage Period of Diesel Fuel Nanoemulsions

Authors: S. M. Abd-Altwab, M. R. Noor El-Din


This paper aims to the synthesis of new ethoxylated amide as bactericides to prevent the growth of Gram +ve and –ve bacteria of water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions over a long period of time as three months. To realize it, eight kinetically stable water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions differing in surfactant concentrations and water contents ranging from 4 to 8 and 5 to 8 wt.,wt.,% of total weight of the nanoemulsions, respectively were formed at a temperature of 20 °C. The performance of this ethoxylated amide as bactericides agents against two strains of Gram-negative bacteria, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and two strains of Gram-positive bacteria namely, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, were evaluated as antimicrobial agents. The maximum and minimum antimicrobial activities were 85 and 71 % against S. aureus and E. coli, respectively, at a concentration of 5 mg/l, pH 7, and 37 °C.

Keywords: nanoemulsion, bacteriocide, diesel fuel, emulsifier

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3680 Association between Copper Uptake and Decrease of Copper (hypocupremia) in Burn Patients-Infected Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Khaled Khleifat, Muayyad Abboud, Amjad Khleifat, Humodi Saeed


In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from infected burn patients and characterized by standard biochemical tests. The in vitro copper uptake was compared between this isolated pathogenic strain and two non-pathogenic control strains of Gram positive bacteria Bacillusthuringiensis strain Israelisas well as Gram negative bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. Maximum copper uptake of 470 ppm/g biomass was obtained by P. aeruginosa strain, while the control strains B. thuringiensis andEnterobacter aerogenes had copper uptake of 350 and 383 ppm/g biomass, respectively. However, the lowest copper uptake (60 ppm/g biomass) was observed with another control the saprophytic strain Pseudomonas (Shewanella) putrefaciens. A further investigation regarding the effect of copper toxicity on bacterial growth, gave an MIC score of 600 ppm for P. aeruginosa strain compared to 460 and 300 ppm for the two Gram positive and Gram negative control strains, respectively. In tandem with these in vitro findings, blood analysis on burn patients infected with P. aeruginosa has indicated a selective decrease of copper (hypocupremia) and ceruloplasmin plasma levels. The iron metabolism was also affected by this copper deprivation leading to a similar decrease in plasma levels of PCV, iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin. All these hematological changes were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the matched group of non-infected burn patients. The observed hypocupremia in infected burn patients was attributed to demanding scavenger ability by P. aeruginosa strain for the copper of plasma.

Keywords: pseudomonas, Cu uptake, burn patients, biosorption

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3679 Biodegradable Polymer Film Incorporated with Polyphenols for Active Packaging

Authors: Shubham Sharma, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Amit Jaiswal


The key features of any active packaging film are its biodegradability and antimicrobial properties. Biological macromolecules such as polyphenols (ferulic acid (FA) and tannic acids (TA)) are naturally found in plants such as grapes, berries, and tea. In this study, antimicrobial activity screening of several polyphenols was carried out by using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against two strains of gram-negative bacteria - Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and two-gram positive strains - Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. FA and TA had shown strong antibacterial activity at the low concentration against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The selected polyphenols FA and TA were incorporated at various concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10% w/w) in the poly(lactide) – poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) composite film by using the solvent casting method. The effect of TA and FA incorporation in the packaging was characterized based on morphological, optical, color, mechanical, thermal, and antimicrobial properties. The thickness of the FA composite film was increased by 1.5 – 7.2%, while for TA composite film, it increased by 0.018 – 1.6%. FA and TA (10 wt%) composite film had shown approximately 65% - 66% increase in the UV barrier property. As the FA and TA concentration increases from 1% - 10% (w/w), the TS value increases by 1.98 and 1.80 times, respectively. The water contact angle of the film was observed to decrease significantly with the increase in the FA and TA content in the composite film. FA has shown more significant increase in antimicrobial activity than TA in the composite film against Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli. The FA and TA composite film has the potential for its application as an active food packaging.

Keywords: active packaging, biodegradable film, polyphenols, UV barrier, tensile strength

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3678 Antibacterial Activity of Methanol Extract of Punica Granatum Linn. (Punnicaceae) Fruit Peel Against Selected Bacterial Species

Authors: Afzan Mahmad, Santibuana Abd Rahman, Gouri Kumar Dash, Mohd. Syafiq Bin Abdullah


Antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of fruit peel of Punica granatum Linn (Family: Punicaceae) was evaluated against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria. The Gram positive bacteria included Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Gram negative organisms included Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The culture media used for antibacterial assay was Mueller Hinton agar for the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The media used for the growth of S. pneumoniae was Mueller Hinton blood agar. The antibacterial assay was performed through Disc diffusion technique. The methanol extract was tested at three different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/ml). Standard antibiotic discs containing vancomycin (30 μg) for S. pneumoniae, penicillin (10 units) for S. aureus, ceftriaxone (30 μg) for E. coli and ciprofloxacin (5 μg) for P. aeruginosa were used for the activity comparison. The results of the study revealed that the extract possesses antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa at all tested concentrations. The maximum zone of inhibition of 19 mm of the extract at 200 mg/ml was observed against S. pneumoniae. However, no zone of inhibition was observed against E. coli at the tested concentrations of the extract. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be concluded that the fruit peel of P. granatum possess broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against a number bacteria.

Keywords: Punica granatum Linn., methanol extract, antibacterial, zone of inhibition

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3677 Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from the Leaves of Thymus vulgaris L.

Authors: Tsige Reda


Essential oil of Thymus vulgaris was extracted by means of hydro-distillation. This study was done to investigate the chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Using disc diffusion assay the antibacterial activity was assessed on one Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria. The percentage oil yield of the essential oil was found to be 0.97 ± 0.08% (w/w) with yellow color. The physicochemical constants of the oil were also noted. The phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenol, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and alkaloids. A total of 18 chemical constituents were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis representing 100% of the total essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, with thymol (31.977%), o-cymene (29.992%), and carvacrol (14.541%). Previous studies have revealed that the thymol, o-cymen and carvacrol components of Thymus vulgaris are responsible for their biological activities. Thymus vulgaris have been used traditionally to treat a wide variety of infections. Based on the extensive use and lack of scientific evidence, a study was embarked upon to determine its bioactivity. The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris leaves exhibited higher activity towards the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aurous) than the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and also has good antioxidant activity, and can be used medicinal and therapeutic applications. This activity may be due to the high amount of thymol, o-cymen and carvacrol.

Keywords: hydro-distillation, Thymus vulgaris, essential oil composition, phytochemical screening, physicochemical constants, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity

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