Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Isil Seyis Bilkay

18 Investigation of Biofilm Formation in Clinical Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Nermin Hande Avcioglu, Isil Seyis Bilkay

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Klebsiella species which are natural colonizers of human upper respiratory and human gastrointestinal tracts are also responsible for every reoccurring nosocomial infections by means of having ability to form slimy layers known as biofilm on many surfaces. Therefore, in this study, investigation of biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis and examination of each Klebsiella strains’ clinical information in the light of their biofilm formation results were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Klebsiella strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm formation levels of K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis strains were different from each other. Additionally, in comparison to K. rhinoscleromatis strains, K. pneumoniae was observed to include higher amounts of strong biofilm forming strains. Besides, it was also seen that clinical information of patients from which strong biofilm forming Klebsiella strains were isolated were similar to each other. Our results indicate that there should be more precautions against K. pneumoniae which includes higher amount of strong biofilm forming strains.

Keywords: biofilm formation, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, biosystems engineering

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17 Effect of Lemongrass Oil Containing Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on Biofilm Formation of Proteus mirabilis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Behzad Nasseri, Ali Akbar Ebrahimi, Isil Seyis Bilkay

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Proteus mirabilis strains which are natural colonizers of healthy individuals’ gastrointestinal tract are also known as common causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Nowadays, as a result of an increased resistance to various antimicrobial drugs, there has been a growing interest in natural products. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains on lemongrass oil containing polycaprolactone nanofibers. Polycaprolactone nanofibers with different lemongrass oil concentrations were successfully prepared by electrospinning and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis on these nanofibers were determined by ‘Crystal Violet Staining Assay’. According to our results, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some lemongrass oil concentrations, decreased biofilm formation of P. mirabilis and this effect increased in parallel with the increase in lemongrass oil concentration. Our results indicate that, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some concentrations of lemongrass oil may provide a treatment against catheter-associated urinary tract infections by means of causing an inhibition on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, essential oils, nanofibers, proteus mirabilis

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16 Determination of Biofilm Formation in Different Clinical Candida Species and Investigation of Effects of Some Plant Substances on These Biofilms

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Isil Seyis Bilkay

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Candida species which often exist as commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals are major causes of important infections, especially in AIDS and immunocompromised patients, by means of their biofilm formation abilities. Therefore, in this study, determination of biofilm formation in different clinical strains of Candida species, investigation of strong biofilm forming Candida strains, examination of clinical information of each strong and weak biofilm forming Candida strains and investigation of some plant substances’ effects on biofilm formation of strong biofilm forming strains were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Candida strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm levels of strains belong to different Candida species were different from each other. Additionally, it is also found that some plant substances effect biofilm formation. All these results indicate that, as well as C. albicans strains, other non-albicans Candida species also emerge as causative agents of infections and have biofilm formation abilities. In addition, usage of some plant substances in different concentrations may provide a new treatment against biofilm related Candida infections.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, Candida species, biosystems engineering

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15 Greed and Grievance Revisisted: The Case of ISIL

Authors: Amjed Rasheed

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Rebellions are driven by several incentives. They do not often occur because of historical grievances or political exclusion. They can be driven by the desire to control over natural resources, or by both. In the case of the Islamic State (ISIL), greed and grievance are both drive this radical group to operate in Iraq and Syria. This article aims to show that grievance was the trigger to the emergence of ISIL. It also aims to demonstrate that ISIL is using oil as a tool, to implements its political ends, than a purpose per se. In other words, the emergence of ISIL is based on socio-political conditions, which are domestically driven, and oil is not ISIL’s aim but a source of revenue to finance its activities. This paper applies conflict analysis methodology to analyse the conflict in Iraq and Syria, with a specific highlight to ISIL. By doing so, it gives ahistorical background on emergence of ISIL. It also provides an insightful explanation on the main dynamics and the tactics this organisation applies. It also delivers a sufficient explanation on how it recruits its members, both local and international. It concludes that tackling ISIL needs a more sophisticated approach than the one Obama administration has adopted. It is more a political issue to be tackled by political means, than a military one to be tackled by military means. The current war is an Intra-Sunni war, and therefore, Sunni states have to be on board to crackdown ISIL. Besides, the article finishes with the argument that democratisation is not necessarily the key answer to bring stability to the region, but a sort of governance that provides security and material needs to individuals.

Keywords: ISIL, Iraq, domestic politics, Islamic radicalisation

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14 Applying Napoleoni's 'Shell-State' Concept to Jihadist Organisations's Rise in Mali, Nigeria and Syria/Iraq, 2011-2015

Authors: Francesco Saverio Angiò

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The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant / Syria (ISIL/S), Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad, also known as ‘Boko Haram’ (BH), have fought successfully against Syria and Iraq, Mali, Nigeria’s government, respectively. According to Napoleoni, the ‘shell-state’ concept can explain the economic dimension and the financing model of the ISIL insurgency. However, she argues that AQIM and BH did not properly plan their financial model. Consequently, her idea would not be suitable to these groups. Nevertheless, AQIM and BH’s economic performances and their (short) territorialisation suggest that their financing models respond to a well-defined strategy, which they were able to adapt to new circumstances. Therefore, Napoleoni’s idea of ‘shell-state’ can be applied to the three jihadist armed groups. In the last five years, together with other similar entities, ISIL/S, AQIM and BH have been fighting against governments with insurgent tactics and terrorism acts, conquering and ruling a quasi-state; a physical space they presented as legitimate territorial entity, thanks to a puritan version of the Islamic law. In these territories, they have exploited the traditional local economic networks. In addition, they have contributed to the development of legal and illegal transnational business activities. They have also established a justice system and created an administrative structure to supply services. Napoleoni’s ‘shell-state’ can describe the evolution of ISIL/S, AQIM and BH, which has switched from an insurgency to a proto or a quasi-state entity, enjoying a significant share of power over territories and populations. Napoleoni first developed and applied the ‘Shell-state’ concept to describe the nature of groups such as the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), before using it to explain the expansion of ISIL. However, her original conceptualisation emphasises on the economic dimension of the rise of the insurgency, focusing on the ‘business’ model and the insurgents’ financing management skills, which permits them to turn into an organisation. However, the idea of groups which use, coordinate and grab some territorial economic activities (at the same time, encouraging new criminal ones), can also be applied to administrative, social, infrastructural, legal and military levels of their insurgency, since they contribute to transform the insurgency to the same extent the economic dimension does. In addition, according to Napoleoni’s view, the ‘shell-state’ prism is valid to understand the ISIL/S phenomenon, because the group has carefully planned their financial steps. Napoleoni affirmed that ISIL/S carries out activities in order to promote their conversion from a group relying on external sponsors to an entity that can penetrate and condition local economies. On the contrary, ‘shell-state’ could not be applied to AQIM or BH, which are acting more like smugglers. Nevertheless, despite its failure to control territories, as ISIL has been able to do, AQIM and BH have responded strategically to their economic circumstances and have defined specific dynamics to ensure a flow of stable funds. Therefore, Napoleoni’s theory is applicable.

Keywords: shell-state, jihadist insurgency, proto or quasi-state entity economic planning, strategic financing

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13 Should the U.S. Rely on Drone Strikes to Combat the Islamic State? Why Deploying a Drone Campaign against ISIS Will Do Nothing to Address the Causes of the Insurgency or Prevent Its Resurgence?

Authors: Danielle Jablanski

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This article addresses the use of drone strikes under international law and the intersection between Islamic law and current terrorist trends worldwide. It breaks down the legality of drone strikes under international law and dissects certain aspects of their usage in modern warfare; i.e. concepts of directly participating in hostilities and the role of CIA operators. The article then looks at international paradigms of law enforcement versus the use of military force in relation to terrorism. Lastly, it describes traditional aspects of Islamic law and several interpretations of the law today as applied to widespread campaigns of terrorism, namely that of the recent group ISIS or ISIL operating between the battlegrounds of Iraq and Syria. The piece concludes with appraisals for moving forward on the basis of honing in on reasons for terrorism and negative opinions of solely military campaigns to dismantle or disrupt terror organizations and breeding grounds.

Keywords: international law, terrorism, ISIS, islamic law

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12 Investigation on the Properties of Particulate Reinforced AA2014 Metal Matrix Composite Materials Produced by Vacuum Infiltration Method

Authors: Isil Kerti, Onur Okur, Sibel Daglilar, Recep Calin

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Particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites have gained more importance in automotive, aeronautical and defense industries due to their specific properties like as low density, high strength and stiffness, good fatigue strength, dimensional stability at high temperature and acceptable tribological properties. In this study, 2014 Aluminium alloy used as a matrix material and B₄C and SiC were selected as reinforcements components. For production of composites materials, vacuum infiltration method was used. In the experimental studies, the reinforcement volume ratios were defined by mixing as totally 10% B₄C and SiC. Aging treatment (T6) was applied to the specimens. The effect of T6 treatment on hardness was determined by using Brinell hardness test method. The effects of the aging treatment on microstructure and chemical structure were analysed by making XRD, SEM and EDS analysis on the specimens.

Keywords: metal matrix composite, vacumm infiltration method, aluminum metal matrix, mechanical feature

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11 Effects of Li2O Doping on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Bovine Hydroxyapatite Composites (BHA)

Authors: Sibel Daglilar, Isil Kerti, Murat Karagoz, Fatih Dumludag, Oguzhan Gunduz, Faik Nuzhet Oktar

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Hydroxyapatite (HA) materials have common use in bone repairing due to its ability to accelerate the bone growth around the implant. In spite of being a biocompatible and bioactive material, HA has a limited usage as an implant material because of its weak mechanical properties. HA based composites are required to improve the strength and toughness properties of the implant materials without compromising of biocompatibility. The excellent mechanical properties and higher biocompatibilities are expected from each of biomedical composites. In this study, HA composites were synthesized by using bovine bone reinforced doped with different amount of (wt.%) Li2O. The pressed pellets were sintered at various sintering temperatures between 1000ºC and 1300°C, and mechanical, electrical properties of the obtained products were characterized. In addition to that, in vitro stimulated body fluid (SBF) tests for these samples were conducted. The most suitable composite composition for biomedical applications was discussed among the composites studied.

Keywords: biocomposites, sintering temperature, biocompatibility, electrical property, conductivity, mechanical property

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10 Manipulation of the Public Sphere to Win Cultural Hegemony: The Process by Which Islamic State Uses the Principles of the Overton Window to Engineer Extremism

Authors: A. Brigitte Coles

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In order to be successful in a campaign against terror and maintain a favorable world order, we must recognize the effects of priming, framing, and agenda setting on the public sphere, and address how terrorist organizations are able to manipulate language and symbols to shift public opinion and increase recruitment success. Because of their unprecedented activity in the region and foreign recruitment success, this study specifically addresses how the Islamic State (IS/ISIS/ISIL) manipulates the public sphere to amplify support and increase western recruitment. By following a grounded theory methodology and coding triangulated data from IS propaganda, a model for the process of terrorist recruitment has emerged, concerning both environments and personalities susceptible to recruitment, and the steps by which an extremist can be created. This has resulted in the ability to reverse engineer a method by which counter recruitment operations can be facilitated in an effort to lessen the vulnerability of areas and individuals, as well as create dissent among current extremists.

Keywords: countering violent extremism, counter-terrorism, recruitment, overton window

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9 Determining the Electrospinning Parameters of Poly(ε-Caprolactone)

Authors: M. Kagan Keler, Sibel Daglilar, Isil Kerti, Oguzhan Gunduz

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Electrospinning is a versatile way to occur fibers at nano-scale and polycaprolactone is a biomedical material which has a wide usage in cartilage defects and tissue regeneration. PCL is biocompatible and durable material which can be used in bio-implants. Therefore, electrospinning process was chosen as a fabrication method to get PCL fibers in an effective way because of its significant adjustments. In this research study, electrospinning parameters was evaluated during the producing of polymer tissue scaffolds. Polycaprolactone’s molecular weight was 80.000 Da and was employed as a tissue material in the electrospinning process. PCL was decomposed in dimethylformamid(DMF) and chloroform(CF) with the weight ratio of 1:1. Different compositions (1%, 3%, 5%, 10% and 20 %) of PCL was prepared in the laboratory conditions. All solvents with different percentages of PCL have been taken into the syringe and loaded into the electrospinning system. In electrospinning dozens of trial were applied to get homogeneously uniform scaffold samples. Taylor cone which is crucial point for electrospinning characteristic was occurred and changed in different voltages up to the material compositions’ conductivity. While the PCL percentages were increasing in the electrospinning, structure started to arise with droplets, which was an expressive problem for tissue scaffold. The vertical and horizontal layouts were applied to produce non-woven structures at all.

Keywords: tissue engineering, artificial scaffold, electrospinning, biocomposites

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8 Determination of Aflatoxins in Edible-Medicinal Plant Samples by HPLC with Fluorescence Detector and KOBRA-Cell

Authors: Isil Gazioglu, Abdulselam Ertas

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Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. AFs can be absorbed through the skin. Potent carcinogens like AFs should be completely absent from cosmetics, this can be achieved by careful quality control of the raw plant materials. Regulatory limits for aflatoxins have been established in many countries, and reliable testing methodology is needed to implement and enforce the regulatory limits. In this study, ten medicinal plant samples (Bundelia tournefortti, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Carduus tenuiflorus, Cardaria draba, Malva neglecta, Malvella sharardiana, Melissa officinalis, Sideritis libanotica, Stakys thirkei, Thymus nummularius) were investigated for aflatoxin (AF) contaminations by employing an HPLC assay for the determination of AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. The samples were extracted with 70% (v/v) methanol in water before further cleaned up with an immunoaffinity column and followed by the detection of AFs by using an electrochemically post-column derivatization with Kobra-Cell and fluorescence detector. The extraction procedure was optimized in order to obtain the best recovery. The method was successfully carried out with all medicinal plant samples. The results revealed that five (50%) of samples were contaminated with AFs. The association between particular samples and the AF contaminated could not be determined due to the low frequency of positive samples.

Keywords: aflatoxin B1, HPLC-FLD, KOBRA-Cell, mycotoxin

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7 Cardiotrophin-1 and Leptin in Male Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Authors: Isil Cakir, Mustafa Uluhan

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Elevated serum Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) and leptin levels are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been reported to increase the risk of CVDs, too. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of serum CT-1 and leptin in these patients and whether their possible association with the disease severity. Fifty newly diagnosed patients with OSAS and thirty nonapneic snoring subjects were participated in this study. The mean ages of patients and control groups were 47.40±13.30 and 43.23±10.50 years, respectively (P=0.128). Fasting serum triglyseride, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, also CT-1 and leptin levels were evaluated. A significant difference was found in the serum CT-1 and leptin levels between the patients and the controls:serum median CT-1 levels in patients and control groups, respectively, were 19.47 and 8.23 pg/mL (P < 0.001) and leptin levels were 2.07 and 1.29 ng/mL (P < 0.001). In severe patients group (n=39), serum median CT-1 level was found statistically significantly higher than the median level in mild/moderate patients (n=11) group. Patients CT-1 concentrations were not associated with lipoprotein levels and there was no correlation between patients’ leptin and lipid profile parameters. Two risk factors for CVDs, CT-1 and leptin, have significantly elevated and they were associated with OSAS. Furthermore, CT-1 was associated with the severity of disease. We recommend the use of increased serum CT-1 and leptin concentrations as markers of the presence and severity of OSAS.They can be used as early markers in male OSAS patients without known CVDs.

Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, cardiotrophin-1, leptin, cardiovascular disease

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6 The Moderating Effect of Pathological Narcissism in the Relationship between Victim Justice Sensitivity and Anger Rumination

Authors: Isil Coklar-Okutkan, Miray Akyunus

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Victim sensitivity is a form of justice sensitivity that reflects the tendency to perceive injustice to one’s disadvantage. Victim sensitivity is considered as a dysfunctional trait that predicts anger, aggression, uncooperative behavior, depression and anxiety. Indeed, exploring the mechanism of association between victim sensitivity and anger is clinically important since it can lead to externalizing and internalizing problems. This study aims to investigate the moderating role of pathological narcissism in the relationship between victim sensitivity and anger rumination. Through testing different models where subtypes of narcissism and anger rumination components are included independently, the specific mechanism of different ruminative processes in anger is investigated. The sample consisted of 311 undergraduate students from Turkey, 107 of whom were males, and 204 were females. Participants completed Justice Sensitivity Inventory-Victim Subscale, Pathological Narcissism Inventory and Anger Rumination Scale. In the proposed double moderation model, vulnerable and grandiose narcissism was the moderators in the relationship between victim justice sensitivity and anger rumination. Four separate models were tested where one of the four components of anger rumination (angry afterthoughts, thoughts of revenge, angry memories, understanding of causes) were the dependent variable in each model. Results revealed that two of the moderation models are significant. Firstly, grandiose narcissism is the only moderator in the relationship between victim sensitivity and thoughts of revenge. Secondly, vulnerable narcissism is the only moderator in the relationship between victim sensitivity and understanding causes. Accordingly, grandiose narcissism is positively associated with the thoughts of revenge, and vulnerable narcissism is positively associated with understanding causes, only when the level of victim sensitivity is high. To summarize, increased victim sensitivity leads to ruminative thoughts of revenge in individuals with grandiose narcissism, whereas it leads to rumination on causes of the incident in individuals with vulnerable narcissism. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords: anger rumination, victim sensitivity, grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism

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5 Investigation of the Effect of Eye Exercises and Convergence Exercise on Visual Acuity in School-Age Children with Hypermetropia

Authors: Gulay Aras, Isil Kutluturk Karagoz, Z. Candan Algun

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Background: Hypermetropia in school-age is a pathology that responds to treatment. In the literature, there has been no study of exercise practice in hypermetropia treatment. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of eye exercises and convergence exercise on visual acuity in school-age children with hypermetropia. Methods: Forty volunteer school-age children with hypermetropia (30 girls, 30 boys, between 7-17 years of age) were included in the study. Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics were evaluated. 40 participants were randomly divided into two groups: eye exercises and convergence exercises. Home exercise protocols were given to all groups for six weeks, and regular phone calls were made once a week. Individuals performed eye exercises 10 times, convergence exercises 5 min. for two sessions per day for six weeks. The right and left eyes of all the subjects participating in the study were assessed separately by the eye doctor with a Snellen chart. The participants' quality of life was assessed using Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0. Physical health total score (PHTS) and scale total score (STS), which were obtained by evaluating Psychosocial health total score (PSHTS) school, emotional and social functioning, were calculated separately in the scores. At the end of the exercise program, the assessment tests applied at the beginning of the study were reapplied to all individuals. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-Snellen chart measurements and quality of life in the eye exercises group (p > 0,05). There was a statistically significant difference in visual acuity of right and left eyes (p=0,004, p=0,014) and quality of life in PHTS, PSHTS and STS in the convergence exercise group (p=0,001, p=0,017, p=0,001). Conclusions: In school-age children, convergence exercises were found to be effective on visual acuity and health-related quality of life. Convergence exercises are recommended for the treatment of school-aged children with hypermetropia.

Keywords: convergence exercise, eye exercises, hypermetropia, school-age children

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4 Al-Azhar’s Ideological Capacity to Counter Extremism

Authors: Dina Tawfic, Robert Hassan

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The current chapter addresses Al-Azhar's strategy to counter extremism in tandem with reflecting on the ideology of the Islamic establishment itself. The topic is motivated by the fact that some of the Western governments have been relying on Al-Azhar to counter the ideology of Islamist radicalism and violent extremism, in particular during the rise of the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq (known as ISIS/ ISIL/ Daesh) in 2014/2015. In his visit to Egypt in June 2016, Brett McGurk, the then U.S. envoy for the global coalition to counter ISIS, commended Al-Azhar’s “intellectual and reforming role” in refuting the ideology of extremism. On the other hand, Egyptian liberal intellectuals, such as Farag Fouda (1945- 1992) and Nasr Hamed Abu Zeid (1943-2010), had always questioned the ideological capability of Al-Azhar to counter extremism, citing the rigidity and resistance of the Islamic establishment to carry out genuine reformation. This chapter aims to discuss the following research questions: what is the strategy of Al-Azhar to counter extremism? Does Al-Azhar have a solid strategy to combat online propaganda produced by violent extremist groups? Is it applicable to identify Al-Azhar ideological identity? and is it capable of countering extremism? To answer these questions, I conducted intensive interviews with seven senior scholars and officials at Al-Azhar and the Endowments ministry from September to December 2020. Using a qualitative approach as a backdrop, this project uses semi-structured interviews to collect data. Participants were briefed on the purpose of the study and consented to be interviewed and to record their interviews. Some of the participants chose to conceal their names. All the interviews were conducted in Arabic via Zoom. The researcher then transcribed and translated the interviews into English. A purposive sample is used to select the seven interviewees, based on their prominence and experience in the field of counter-extremism and Al-Azhar affairs. The researcher uses a snowball sample to select the sample, in which a personal contact recommends other officials within the establishment.

Keywords: Al-Azhar, Egypt, Counter-Extremism, Political Islam, Ideology

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3 Conservative and Surgical Treatment of Antiresorptive Drug-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw with Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Bone Surgery under Polyvinylpyrrolidone Iodine Irrigation: A Case Series of 13 Treated Sites

Authors: Esra Yuce, Isil D. S. Yamaner, Murude Yazan

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Aims and objective: Antiresorptive agents including bisphosphonates and denosumab as strong suppressors of osteoclasts are the most commonly used antiresorptive medications for the treatment of osteoporosis which counteract the negative quantitative alteration of trabecular and cortical bone by inhibition of bone turnover. Oral bisphosphonate therapy for the treatment of osteopenia, osteoporosis or Paget's disease is associated with the low-grade risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw, while higher-grade risk is associated with receiving intravenous bisphosphonates therapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases. On the other hand, there has been a remarkable increase in incidences of antiresorptive related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) in oral bisphosphonate users. This clinical presentation will evaluate the healing outcomes via piezoelectric bone surgery under the irrigation of PVP-I solution irrigation in patients received bisphosphonate therapy. Material-Method: The study involved 8 female and 5 male patients that have been treated for ARONJ. Among 13 necrotic sites, 9 were in the mandible and 4 were in the maxilla. All of these 13 patients treated with surgical debridement via piezoelectric bone surgery under irrigation by solution with 3% PVP-I concentration in combination with long-term antibiotic therapy and 5 also underwent removal of mobile segments of bony sequestrum. All removable prosthesis in 8 patients were relined with soft liners during the healing periods in order to eliminate chronic minor traumas. Results: All patients were on oral bisphosphonate therapy for at least 2 years and 5 of which had received intravenous bisphosphonates up to 1 year before therapy with oral bisphosphonates was started. According to the AAOMS staging system, four cases were stage II, eight cases were stage I, and one case was stage III. The majority of lesions were identified at sites of dental prostheses (38%) and dental extractions (62%). All patients diagnosed with ARONJ stage I had used unadjusted removable prostheses. No recurrence of the symptoms was observed during the present follow-up (9–37 months). Conclusion: Despite their confirmed effectiveness, the prevention and treatment of osteonecrosis of the jaw secondary to oral bisphosphonate therapy remain major medical challenges. Treatment with piezoelectric bone surgery with irrigation of povidone-iodine solution was effective for management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Taking precautions for patients treated with oral bisphosphonates, especially also denture users, may allow for a reduction in the rate of developing osteonecrosis of the maxillofacial region.

Keywords: antiresorptive drug related osteonecrosis, bisphosphonate therapy, piezoelectric bone surgery, povidone iodine

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2 The Re-Emergence of Russia Foreign Policy (Case Study: Middle East)

Authors: Maryam Azish

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Russia, as an emerging global player in recent years, has projected a special place in the Middle East. Despite all the challenges it has faced over the years, it has always considered its presence in various fields with a strategy that has defined its maneuvering power as a level of competition and even confrontation with the United States. Therefore, its current approach is considered important as an influential actor in the Middle East. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, when the Russians withdrew completely from the Middle East, the American scene remained almost unrivaled by the Americans. With the start of the US-led war in Iraq and Afghanistan and the subsequent developments that led to the US military and political defeat, a new chapter in regional security was created in which ISIL and Taliban terrorism went along with the Arab Spring to destabilize the Middle East. Because of this, the Americans took every opportunity to strengthen their military presence. Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan have always been the three areas where terrorism was shaped, and the countries of the region have each reacted to this evil phenomenon accordingly. The West dealt with this phenomenon on a case-by-case basis in the general circumstances that created the fluid situation in the Arab countries and the region. Russian President Vladimir Putin accused the US of falling asleep in the face of ISIS and terrorism in Syria. In fact, this was an opportunity for the Russians to revive their presence in Syria. This article suggests that utilizing the recognition policy along with the constructivism theory will offer a better knowledge of Russia’s endeavors to endorse its international position. Accordingly, Russia’s distinctiveness and its ambitions for a situation of great power have played a vital role in shaping national interests and, subsequently, in foreign policy, in Putin's era in particular. The focal claim of the paper is that scrutinize Russia’s foreign policy with realistic methods cannot be attained. Consequently, with an aim to fill the prevailing vacuum, this study exploits the politics of acknowledgment in the context of constructivism to examine Russia’s foreign policy in the Middle East. The results of this paper show that the key aim of Russian foreign policy discourse, accompanied by increasing power and wealth, is to recognize and reinstate the position of great power in the universal system. The Syrian crisis has created an opportunity for Russia to unite its position in the developing global and regional order after ages of dynamic and prevalent existence in the Middle East as well as contradicting US unilateralism. In the meantime, the writer thinks that the question of identifying Russia’s position in the global system by the West has played a foremost role in serving its national interests.

Keywords: constructivism, foreign Policy, middle East, Russia, regionalism

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1 Islam in Nation Building: Case Studies of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

Authors: Etibar Guliyev, Durdana Jafarli

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The breakdown of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s and the 9/11 attacks resulted in the global changes created a totally new geopolitical situation for the Muslim populated republics of the former Soviet Union. Located between great powers such as China and Russia, as well as theocratic states like Iran and Afghanistan, the newly independent Central Asian states were facing a dilemma to choose a new politico-ideological course for development. Policies dubbed Perestroyka and Glasnost leading to the collapse of the world’s once superpower brought about a considerable rise in the national and religious self-consciousness of the Muslim population of the USSR where the religion was prohibited under the strict communist rule. Moreover, the religious movements prohibited during the Soviet era acted as a part of national straggle to gain their freedom from Moscow. The policies adopted by the Central Asian countries to manage the religious revival and extremism in their countries vary dramatically from each other. As Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are located between Russia and China and hosting a considerable number of the Russian population, these countries treated Islamic revival more tolerantly trying benefit from it in the nation-building process. The importance of the topic could be explained with the fact that it investigates an alternative way of management of religious activities and movements. The recent developments in the Middle East, Syria and Iraq in particular, and the fact that hundreds of fighters from the Central Asian republics joined the ISIL terrorist organization once again highlights the implications of the proper regulation of religious activities not only for domestic, but also for regional and global politics. The paper is based on multiple research methods. The process trace method was exploited to better understand the Russification and anti-religious policies to which the Central Asian countries were subject during the Soviet era. The comparative analyse method was also used to better understand the common and distinct features of the politics of religion of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan and the rest of the Central Asian countries. Various legislation acts, as well as secondary sources were investigated to this end. Mostly constructivist approach and a theory suggesting that religion supports national identity when there is a third cohesion that threatens both and when elements of national identity are weak. Preliminary findings suggest that in line with policies aimed at gradual reduction of Russian influence, as well as in the face of ever-increasing migration from China, the mentioned countries incorporated some Islamic elements into domestic policies as a part and parcel of national culture. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan did not suppress religious activities, which was case in neighboring states, but allowed in a controlled way Islamic movements to have a relatively freedom of action which in turn led to the less violent religious extremism further boosting national identity.

Keywords: identity, Islam, nationalism, terrorism

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