Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: osteomyelitis

14 Successful Treatment of Multifocal XDR Tuberculosis Osteomyelitis

Authors: Abeer N. Alshukairi, Abdulrahman A. Alrajhi, Abdulfattah W. Alamri, Adel F. Alothman

Abstract:

We described the nosocomial transmission of a pre-XDR or an MDR case of pulmonary tuberculosis in a HIV negative health care worker in an area endemic for MDR & XDR tuberculosis. With inadequate therapy and non-compliance, his strain developed acquired resistance and he presented with extra-pulmonary XDR tuberculosis in the form of multi-focal osteomyelitis and encysted pleural effusion. He was cured after 2 years of therapy with various anti-tuberculous drugs in addition to interferon gamma.

Keywords: osteomyelitis, treatment, XDR tuberculosis, successful treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
13 Impact of Mucormycosis Infection In Limb Salvage for Trauma Patients

Authors: Katie-Beth Webster

Abstract:

Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that, if left untreated, can cause large scale tissue necrosis and death. There are a number of cases of this in the literature, most commonly in the head and neck region arising from sinuses. It is also usually found in immunocompromised patient subgroups. This study reviewed a number of cases of mucormycosis in previously fit and healthy young trauma patients to assess predisposing factors for infection and adequacy of current treatment paradigms. These trauma patients likely contracted the fungal infection from the soil at the site of the incident. Despite early washout and debridement of the wounds at the scene of the injury and on arrival in hospital, both these patients contracted mucormycosis. It was suspected that inadequate early debridement of soil contaminated limbs was one of the major factors that can lead to catastrophic tissue necrosis. In both cases, this resulted in the patients having a higher level of amputation than would have initially been required based on the level of their injury. This was secondary to cutaneous and soft tissue necrosis secondary to the fungal infiltration leading to osteomyelitis and systemic sepsis. In the literature, it appears diagnosis is often protracted in this condition secondary to inadequate early treatment and long processing times for fungal cultures. If fungal cultures were sent at the time of first assessment and adequate debridements are performed aggressively early, it could lead to these critically unwell trauma patients receiving appropriate antifungal and surgical treatment earlier in their episode of care. This is likely to improve long term outcomes for these patients.

Keywords: mucormycosis, plastic surgery, osteomyelitis, trauma

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
12 Unidentified Remains with Extensive Bone Disease without a Clear Diagnosis

Authors: Patricia Shirley Almeida Prado, Selma Paixão Argollo, Maria De Fátima Teixeira Guimarães, Leticia Matos Sobrinho

Abstract:

Skeletal differential diagnosis is essential in forensic anthropology in order to differentiate skeletal trauma from normal osseous variation and pathological processes. Thus, part of forensic anthropological field is differentiate skeletal criminal injuries from the normal skeletal variation (bone fusion or nonunion, transitional vertebrae and other non-metric traits), non-traumatic skeletal pathology (myositis ossificans, arthritis, bone metastasis, osteomyelitis) from traumatic skeletal pathology (myositis ossificans traumatic) avoiding misdiagnosis. This case shows the importance of effective pathological diagnosis in order to accelerate the identification process of skeletonized human remains. THE CASE: An unidentified skeletal remains at the medico legal institute Nina Rodrigues-Salvador, of a male young adult (29 to 40 years estimated) showing a massive heterotopic ossification on its right tibia at upper epiphysis and adjacent articular femur surface; an extensive ossification on the right clavicle (at the sternal extremity) also presenting an heterotopic ossification at right scapulae (upper third of scapulae lateral margin and infraglenoid tubercule) and at the head of right humerus at the shoulder joint area. Curiously, this case also shows an unusual porosity in certain vertebrae´s body and in some tarsal and carpal bones. Likewise, his left fifth metacarpal bones (right and left) showed a healed fracture which led both bones distorted. Based on identification, of pathological conditions in human skeletal remains literature and protocols these alterations can be misdiagnosed and this skeleton may present more than one pathological process. The anthropological forensic lab at Medico-legal Institute Nina Rodrigues in Salvador (Brazil) adopts international protocols to ancestry, sex, age and stature estimations, also implemented well-established conventions to identify pathological disease and skeletal alterations. The most compatible diagnosis for this case is hematogenous osteomyelitis due to following findings: 1: the healed fracture pattern at the clavicle showing a cloaca which is a pathognomonic for osteomyelitis; 2: the metacarpals healed fracture does not present cloaca although they developed a periosteal formation. 3: the superior articular surface of the right tibia shows an extensive inflammatory healing process that extends to adjacent femur articular surface showing some cloaca at tibia bone disease. 4: the uncommon porosities may result from hematogenous infectious process. The fractures probably have occurred in a different moments based on the healing process; the tibia injury is more extensive and has not been reorganized, while metacarpals and clavicle fracture is properly healed. We suggest that the clavicle and tibia´s fractures were infected by an existing infectious disease (syphilis, tuberculosis, brucellosis) or an existing syndrome (Gorham’s disease), which led to the development of osteomyelitis. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that different bones are affected in diverse levels. Like the metacarpals that do not show the cloaca, but then a periosteal new bone formation; then the unusual porosities do not show a classical osteoarthritic processes findings as the marginal osteophyte, pitting and new bone formation, they just show an erosive process without bone formation or osteophyte. To confirm and prove our hypothesis we are working on different clinical approaches like DNA, histopathology and other image exams to find the correct diagnostic.

Keywords: bone disease, forensic anthropology, hematogenous osteomyelitis, human identification, human remains

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
11 Lateral Retroperitoneal Transpsoas Approach: A Practical Minimal Invasive Surgery Option for Treating Pyogenic Spondylitis of the Lumbar Vertebra

Authors: Sundaresan Soundararajan, Chor Ngee Tan

Abstract:

Introduction: Pyogenic spondylitis, otherwise treated conservatively with long term antibiotics, would require surgical debridement and reconstruction in about 10% to 20% of cases. The classical approach adopted many surgeons have always been anterior approach in ensuring thorough and complete debridement. This, however, comes with high rates of morbidity due to the nature of its access. Direct lateral retroperitoneal approach, which has been growing in usage in degenerative lumbar diseases, has the potential in treating pyogenic spondylitis with its ease of approach and relatively low risk of complications. Aims/Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and clinical outcome of using lateral approach surgery in the surgical management of pyogenic spondylitis of the lumbar spine. Methods: Retrospective chart analysis was done on all patients who presented with pyogenic spondylitis (lumbar discitis/vertebral osteomyelitis) and had undergone direct lateral retroperitoneal lumbar vertebral debridement and posterior instrumentation between 2014 and 2016. Data on blood loss, surgical operating time, surgical complications, clinical outcomes and fusion rates were recorded. Results: A total of 6 patients (3 male and 3 female) underwent this procedure at a single institution by a single surgeon during the defined period. One patient presented with infected implant (PLIF) and vertebral osteomyelitis while the other five presented with single level spondylodiscitis. All patients underwent lumbar debridement, iliac strut grafting and posterior instrumentation (revision of screws for infected PLIF case). The mean operating time was 308.3 mins for all 6 cases. Mean blood loss was reported at 341cc (range from 200cc to 600cc). Presenting symptom of back pain resolved in all 6 cases while 2 cases that presented with lower limb weakness had improvement of neurological deficits. One patient had dislodged strut graft while performing posterior instrumentation and needed graft revision intraoperatively. Infective markers normalized for all patients subsequently. All subjects also showed radiological evidence of fusion on 6 months follow up. Conclusions: Lateral approach in treating pyogenic spondylitis is a viable option as it allows debridement and reconstruction without the risk that comes with other anterior approaches. It allows efficient debridement, short surgical time, moderate blood loss and low risk of vascular injuries. Clinical outcomes and fusion rates by this approach also support its use as practical MIS option surgery for such infection cases.

Keywords: lateral approach, minimally invasive, pyogenic spondylitis, XLIF

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
10 Paralysis from an Ear Infection: A Severe Case of Otitis Externa Leading to Acute Complete Cervical Cord Syndrome

Authors: Rachael Collins, George Lafford

Abstract:

We report a case of a generally fit and a well 54-year-old gentleman who presented with a two-day history of worsening left-sided otorrhea, headache, neck stiffness, vomiting and pyrexia on the background of a seven-week history of OE. His condition progressed dramatically as he developed symptoms consistent with acute complete cervical cord syndrome with radiological evidence of skull base osteomyelitis, parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal and paravertebral abscesses and sigmoid sinus thrombus. Ultimately he made a significant, although not complete, recovery. This case is unique in demonstrating how OE can develop into a potentially life-threatening condition. It emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of OE, the recognition of ‘red flag’ symptoms and highlights the importance of a multi-disciplinary team (MDT) approach when managing complex complications of OE.

Keywords: ENT, neurology, otology, MDT

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
9 The Osteocutaneous Distal Tibia Turn-over Fillet Flap: A Novel Spare-parts Orthoplastic Surgery Option for Functional Below-knee Amputation

Authors: Harry Burton, Alexios Dimitrios Iliadis, Neil Jones, Aaron Saini, Nicola Bystrzonowski, Alexandros Vris, Georgios Pafitanis

Abstract:

This article portrays the authors’ experience with a complex lower limb bone and soft tissue defect, following chronic osteomyelitis and pathological fracture, which was managed by the multidisciplinary orthoplastic team. The decision for functional amputation versus limb salvage was deemed necessary, enhanced by the principles of “spares parts” in reconstructive microsurgery. This case describes a successful use of the osteocutaneous distal tibia turn-over fillet flap that allowed ‘lowering the level of the amputation’ from a through knee to the conventional level of a below-knee amputation to preserve the knee joint function. This case demonstrates the value of ‘spare-parts’ surgery principles and how these concepts refine complex orthoplastic approaches when limb salvage is not possible to enhance function. The osteocutaneous distal tibia turn-over fillet flap is a robust technique for modified BKA reconstructions that provides sufficient bone length to achieve a tough, sensate stump and functional knee joint.

Keywords: osteocutaneous flap, fillet flap, spare-parts surgery, Below knee amputation

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
8 Preclinical Studying of Stable Fe-Citrate Effect on 68Ga-Citrate Tissue Distribution

Authors: A. S. Lunev, A. A. Larenkov, O. E. Klementyeva, G. E. Kodina

Abstract:

Background and aims: 68Ga-citrate is one of prospective radiopharmaceutical for PET-imaging of inflammation and infection. 68Ga-citrate is 67Ga-citrate analogue using since 1970s for SPECT-imaging. There's known rebinding reaction occurs past Ga-citrate injection and gallium (similar iron Fe3+) binds with blood transferrin. Then radiolabeled protein complex is delivered to pathological foci (inflammation/infection sites). But excessive gallium bindings with transferrin are cause of slow blood clearance, long accumulation time in foci (24-72 h) and exception of application possibility of the short-lived gallium-68 (T½ = 68 min). Injection of additional chemical agents (e.g. Fe3+ compounds) competing with radioactive gallium to the blood transferrin joining (blocking of its metal binding capacity) is one of the ways to solve formulated problem. This phenomenon can be used for correction of 68Ga-citrate pharmacokinetics for increasing of the blood clearance and accumulation in foci. The aim of real studying is research of effect of stable Fe-citrate on 68Ga-citrate tissue distribution. Materials and methods: 68Ga-citrate without/with extra injection of stable Fe-citrate (III) was injected nonlinear mice with inflammation models (aseptic soft tissue inflammation, lung infection, osteomyelitis). PET/X-RAY Genisys4 (Sofie Bioscience, USA) was used for non-invasive PET imaging (for 30, 60, 120 min past injection 68Ga-citrate) with subsequent reconstruction of imaging and their analysis (value of clearance, distribution volume). Scanning time is 10 min. Results and conclusions: I. v. injection of stable Fe-citrate blocks the metal-binding capability of transferrin serum and allows decreasing gallium-68 radioactivity in blood significantly and increasing accumulation in inflammation (3-5 time). It allows receiving more informative PET-images of inflammation early (for 30-60 min after injection). Pharmacokinetic parameters prove it. Noted there is no statistically significant difference between 68Ga-citrate accumulation for different inflammation model because PET imaging is indication of pathological processes and is not their identification.

Keywords: 68Ga-citrate, Fe-citrate, PET imaging, mice, inflammation, infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
7 Peculiarities of Microflora of Odontogenic Inflammatory Processes in the Central Kazakhstan Region

Authors: Aliya Tokbergenova, Maida Tusupbekova, Daulet Dzhangaliyev, Alena Lavrinenko

Abstract:

Background: Odontogenic phlegmons are ranked the first among pyoinflammatory processes in the frequency of hospitalization in maxillofacial surgery in the post-Soviet countries. The main role in etiology is played by obligate anaerobes and aerobes. According to numerous data, the structure of aerobic pathogens is dominated by staphylococci and gram-negative bacteria. Aim: The research aim is to study the microflora of the purulent discharge odontogenic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: A total of 220 patients have been examined, of which 120 patients aged 25-59 years have been included in the research who did not have comorbidity hospitalized in the maxillofacial hospital in Karaganda (Kazakhstan) from January 2016 to July 2017. The bacteriological research has been carried out on the basis of the multiaccess laboratory of the KSMU, through the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) apparatus. The material sample was pus from the inflammation focus, taken during the operating period. Results: According to the research among 120 patients (100%), 15 patients (12.5%) have had microorganisms not grown. From 105 (87.5%) bacteriological results, it has been revealed the following 1) Streptococcus: 51 (42.5%): Streptococcus beta-haemolytic: 17 (14.2%), Streptococcus pneumoniae: 12 (10%), Streptococcus anginosus: 8 (6.6%), Streptococcus oralis: 8 (6.6%), Streptococcus constellatus: 6 (5.0%); 2) Staphylococci: 27 (22.5%): Staphylococci aureus: 14 (11.7%) and Staphylococci epidermidis: 13 (10.8%); 3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 12 (10%); 4) Neisseria: 11 (9.1%): Neisseria mucosa: 5 (4.1%) and Neisseria macacae: 6 (5.0%); 5) Klebsiella pneumoniae: 2 (1.7%); 6) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: 2 (1.7%). 15 patients (12.5%) experienced complications in the form of 1) The dissemination of the process in 10 patients (8.4%). 2) Osteomyelitis in 3 (2.5%). 3) Mediastinitis in 1 (0.8%). 4) Sinusitis in 1 (0.8%). 15 patients (100%) were carried out repeated bacteriological examination, the following was revealed: 1) Streptococcus: 10 (66.7%): Streptococcus beta-haemolytic: 4 (26.7%), Streptococcus pneumoniae: 2 (13.3%), Streptococcus аnginosus: 2 (13.3%), Streptococcus oralis: 1 (6.7%), Streptococcus constellatus: 1 (6.7%); 2) Staphylococci: 4 (26.7%): Staphylococci aureus: 3 (20%) and Staphylococci epidermidis: 1 (6.7%); 3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 1 (6.7%). Conclusions: Thus, according to our research data, streptococci predominate in the odontogenic processes microflora in aerobic flora in the central Kazakhstan region, which refutes the leading role of staphylococci in the development of odontogenic inflammatory processes, thus creating prerequisites for studying new treatment approaches.

Keywords: maxillofacial surgery, microflora, odontogenic phlegmons, pyo-inflammatory

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
6 Epidemiological Analysis of the Patients Supplied with Foot Orthoses in Ortho-Prosthetic Center of Kosovo

Authors: Ardiana Murtezani, Ilirijana Dallku, Teuta Osmani Vllasolli, Sabit Sllamniku

Abstract:

Background: The use of foot orthoses are always indicated when there are alterations of the optimal biomechanics' position of the foot. Orthotics are very effective and very suitable for the majority of patients with pain due to overload which can be related to biomechanical disorders. Aim: To assess the frequency of patients requiring foot orthoses, type of orthoses and analysis of their disease leading to the use of foot orthoses. Material and Methods: Our study included 128 patients with various foot pathologies, treated at the outpatient department of the Ortho-Prosthetic Center of Kosovo (OPCK) in Prishtina. Prospective-descriptive clinical method was used during this study. Functional status of patients was examined, and the following parameters are noted: range of motion measurements for the affected joints/lower extremities, manual test for muscular strength below the knee and foot of the affected extremity, perimeter measurements of the lower extremities, measurements of lower extremities, foot length measurement, foot width measurements and size. In order to complete the measurements the following instruments are used: plantogram, pedogram, meter and cork shoe lift appliances. Results: The majority of subjects in this study are male (60.2% vs. 39.8%), and the dominant age group was 0-9 (47.7%), 61 subjects respectively. Most frequent foot disorders were: congenital disease 60.1%, trauma cases 13.3%, consequences from rheumatologic disease 12.5%, neurologic dysfunctions 11.7%, and the less frequented are the infectious cases 1.6%. Congenital anomalies were the most frequent cases, and from this group majority of cases suffered from pes planovalgus (37.5%), eqinovarus (15.6%) and discrepancies between extremities (6.3%). Furthermore, traumatic amputations (2.3%) and arthritis (0.8%). As far as neurologic disease, subjects with cerebral palsy are represented with (3.1%), peroneal nerve palsy (2.3%) and hemiparesis (1.6%). Infectious disease osteomyelitis sequels are represented with (1.6%). Conclusion: Based on our study results, we have concluded that the use of foot orthoses for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and nonspecific arthropaty was effective treatment choice, leading to decrease of pain, less deformities and improves the quality of life.

Keywords: orthoses, epidemiological analysis, rheumatoid arthritis, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
5 Identification and Management of Septic Arthritis of the Untouched Glenohumeral Joint

Authors: Sumit Kanwar, Manisha Chand, Gregory Gilot

Abstract:

Background: Septic arthritis of the shoulder has infrequently been discussed. Focus on infection of the untouched shoulder has not heretofore been described. We present four patients with glenohumeral septic arthritis. Methods: Case 1: A 59 year old male with left shoulder pain in the anterior, posterior and superior aspects. Case 2: A 60 year old male with fever, chills, and generalized muscle aches. Case 3: A 70 year old male with right shoulder pain about the anterior and posterior aspects. Case 4: A 55 year old male with global right shoulder pain, swelling, and limited ROM. Results: In case 1, the left shoulder was affected. Physical examination, swelling was notable, there was global tenderness with a painful range of motion (ROM). The lab values indicated an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 96, and a C-reactive protein (CRP) of 304.30. Imaging studies were performed and MRI indicated a high suspicion for an abscess with osteomyelitis of the humeral head. Our second case’s left arm was affected. He had swelling, global tenderness and painful ROM. His ESR was 38, CRP was 14.9. X-ray showed severe arthritis. Case 3 differed with the right arm being affected. Again, global tenderness and painful ROM was observed. His ESR was 94, and CRP was 10.6. X-ray displayed an eroded glenoid space. Our fourth case’s right shoulder was affected. He had global tenderness and painful, limited ROM. ESR was 108 and CRP was 2.4. X-ray was non-significant. Discussion: Monoarticular septic arthritis of the virgin glenohumeral joint is seldom diagnosed in clinical practice. Common denominators include elevated ESR, painful, limited ROM, and involvement of the dominant arm. The male population is more frequently affected with an average age of 57. Septic arthritis is managed with incision and drainage or needle aspiration of synovial fluid supplemented with 3-6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Due to better irrigation and joint visualization, arthroscopy is preferred. Open surgical drainage may be indicated if the above methods fail. Conclusion: If a middle-aged male presents with vague anterior or posterior shoulder pain, elevated inflammatory markers and a low grade fever, an x-ray should be performed. If this displays degenerative joint disease, the complete further workup with advanced imaging, such as an MRI, CT scan, or an ultrasound. If these imaging modalities display anterior space joint effusion with soft tissue involvement, we can suspect septic arthritis of the untouched glenohumeral joint and surgery is indicated.

Keywords: glenohumeral joint, identification, infection, septic arthritis, shoulder

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
4 Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Spontaneous Nanosilver Resistant Bacterium Proteus mirabilis Strain scdr1

Authors: Amr Saeb, Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa Tayeb

Abstract:

Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. Methodology: P. mirabilis SCDR1 was isolated from a diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, the commercial nano-silver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics. We utilized next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), bioinformatics, phylogenetic analysis and pathogenomics in the identification and characterization of the infectious pathogen. Results: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is a multi-drug resistant isolate that also showed high levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, nano-silver chitosan composite and the commercially available nano-silver and silver bandages. The P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome size is 3,815,621 bp with G+C content of 38.44%. P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome contains a total of 3,533 genes, 3,414 coding DNA sequence genes, 11, 10, 18 rRNAs (5S, 16S, and 23S), and 76 tRNAs. Our isolate contains all the required pathogenicity and virulence factors to establish a successful infection. P. mirabilis SCDR1 isolate is a potential virulent pathogen that despite its original isolation site, wound, it can establish kidney infection and its associated complications. P. mirabilis SCDR1 contains several mechanisms for antibiotics and metals resistance including, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, efflux systems, and enzymatic detoxification. Conclusion: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is the spontaneous nano-silver resistant bacterial strain. P. mirabilis SCDR1 strain contains all reported pathogenic and virulence factors characteristic for the species. In addition, it possesses several mechanisms that may lead to the observed nano-silver resistance.

Keywords: Proteus mirabilis, multi-drug resistance, silver nanoparticles, resistance, next generation sequencing techniques, genome analysis, bioinformatics, phylogeny, pathogenomics, diabetic foot ulcer, xenobiotics, multidrug resistance efflux, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, resistome, glutathione S-transferase, copper/silver efflux system, altruism

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
3 Mechanical Properties and Antibiotic Release Characteristics of Poly(methyl methacrylate)-based Bone Cement Formulated with Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: Kumaran Letchmanan, Shou-Cang Shen, Wai Kiong Ng

Abstract:

Postoperative implant-associated infections in soft tissues and bones remain a serious complication in orthopaedic surgery, which leads to impaired healing, re-implantation, prolong hospital stay and increase cost. Drug-loaded implants with sustained release of antibiotics at the local site are current research interest to reduce the risk of post-operative infections and osteomyelitis, thus, minimize the need for follow-up care and increase patient comfort. However, the improved drug release of the drug-loaded bone cements is usually accompanied by a loss in mechanical strength, which is critical for weight-bearing bone cement. Recently, more attempts have been undertaken to develop techniques to enhance the antibiotic elution as well as preserve the mechanical properties of the bone cements. The present study investigates the potential influence of addition of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) on the in vitro drug release kinetics of gentamicin (GTMC), along with the mechanical properties of bone cements. Simplex P was formulated with MSN and loaded with GTMC by direct impregnation. Meanwhile, Simplex P with water soluble poragen (xylitol) and high loading of GTMC as well as commercial bone cement CMW Smartset GHV were used as controls. MSN-formulated bone cements are able to increase the drug release of GTMC by 3-fold with a cumulative release of more than 46% as compared with other control groups. Furthermore, a sustained release could be achieved for two months. The loaded nano-sized MSN with uniform pore channels significantly build up an effective nano-network path in the bone cement facilitates the diffusion and extended release of GTMC. Compared with formulations using xylitol and high GTMC loading, incorporation of MSN shows no detrimental effect on biomechanical properties of the bone cements as no significant changes in the mechanical properties as compared with original bone cement. After drug release for two months, the bending modulus of MSN-formulated bone cements is 4.49 ± 0.75 GPa and the compression strength is 92.7 ± 2.1 MPa (similar to the compression strength of Simplex-P: 93.0 ± 1.2 MPa). The unaffected mechanical properties of MSN-formulated bone cements was due to the unchanged microstructures of bone cement, whereby more than 98% of MSN remains in the matrix and supports the bone cement structures. In contrast, the large portions of extra voids can be observed for the formulations using xylitol and high drug loading after the drug release study, thus caused compressive strength below the ASTM F541 and ISO 5833 minimum of 70 MPa. These results demonstrate the potential applicability of MSN-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate)-based bone cement as a highly efficient, sustained and local drug delivery system with good mechanical properties.

Keywords: antibiotics, biomechanical properties, bone cement, sustained release

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
2 A Clinico-Bacteriological Study and Their Risk Factors for Diabetic Foot Ulcer with Multidrug-Resistant Microorganisms in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

This study was done to determine the bacteriological profile and antibiotic resistance of the isolates and to find out the potential risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant organisms. Diabetic foot ulcer is a major medical, social, economic problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing countries like India. 25 percent of all diabetic patients develop a foot ulcer at some point in their lives which is highly susceptible to infections and that spreads rapidly, leading to overwhelming tissue destruction and subsequent amputation. Infection with multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) may increase the cost of management and may cause additional morbidity and mortality. Proper management of these infections requires appropriate antibiotic selection based on culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Early diagnosis of microbial infections is aimed to institute the appropriate antibacterial therapy initiative to avoid further complications. A total of 200 Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus patients with infection were admitted at GD Hospital and Diabetes Institute, Kolkata. 60 of them who developed ulcer during the year 2013 were included in this study. A detailed clinical history and physical examination were carried out for every subject. Specimens for microbiological studies were obtained from ulcer region. Gram-negative bacilli were tested for extended spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) production by double disc diffusion method. Staphylococcal isolates were tested for susceptibility to oxacillin by screen agar method and disc diffusion. Potential risk factors for MDRO-positive samples were explored. Gram-negative aerobes were most frequently isolated, followed by gram-positive aerobes. Males were predominant in the study and majority of the patients were in the age group of 41-60 years. The presence of neuropathy was observed in 80% cases followed by peripheral vascular disease (73%). Proteus spp. (22) was the most common pathogen isolated, followed by E.coli (17). Staphylococcus aureus was predominant amongst the gram-positive isolates. S.aureus showed a high rate of resistance to antibiotic tested (63.6%). Other gram-positive isolates were found to be highly resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, 40% each. All isolates were found to be sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. ESBL production was noted in Proteus spp and E.coli. Approximately 70 % of the patients were positive for MDRO. MDRO-infected patients had poor glycemic control (HbA1c 11± 2). Infection with MDROs is common in diabetic foot ulcers and is associated with risk factors like inadequate glycemic control, the presence of neuropathy, osteomyelitis, ulcer size and increased the requirement for surgical treatment. There is a need for continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria to provide the basis for empirical therapy and reduce the risk of complications.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, bacterial infection, multidrug-resistant organism, extended spectrum beta-lactamase

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1 Settings of Conditions Leading to Reproducible and Robust Biofilm Formation in vitro in Evaluation of Drug Activity against Staphylococcal Biofilms

Authors: Adela Diepoltova, Klara Konecna, Ondrej Jandourek, Petr Nachtigal

Abstract:

A loss of control over antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a global issue due to severe and often untreatable infections. This state is reflected in complicated treatment, health costs, and higher mortality. All these factors emphasize the urgent need for the discovery and development of new anti-infectives. One of the most common pathogens mentioned in the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance are bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. These bacterial agents have developed several mechanisms against the effect of antibiotics. One of them is biofilm formation. In staphylococci, biofilms are associated with infections such as endocarditis, osteomyelitis, catheter-related bloodstream infections, etc. To author's best knowledge, no validated and standardized methodology evaluating candidate compound activity against staphylococcal biofilms exists. However, a variety of protocols for in vitro drug activity testing has been suggested, yet there are often fundamental differences. Based on our experience, a key methodological step that leads to credible results is to form a robust biofilm with appropriate attributes such as firm adherence to the substrate, a complex arrangement in layers, and the presence of extracellular polysaccharide matrix. At first, for the purpose of drug antibiofilm activity evaluation, the focus was put on various conditions (supplementation of cultivation media by human plasma/fetal bovine serum, shaking mode, the density of initial inoculum) that should lead to reproducible and robust in vitro staphylococcal biofilm formation in microtiter plate model. Three model staphylococcal reference strains were included in the study: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35983). The total biofilm biomass was quantified using the Christensen method with crystal violet, and results obtained from at least three independent experiments were statistically processed. Attention was also paid to the viability of the biofilm-forming staphylococcal cells and the presence of extracellular polysaccharide matrix. The conditions that led to robust biofilm biomass formation with attributes for biofilms mentioned above were then applied by introducing an alternative method analogous to the commercially available test system, the Calgary Biofilm Device. In this test system, biofilms are formed on pegs that are incorporated into the lid of the microtiter plate. This system provides several advantages (in situ detection and quantification of biofilm microbial cells that have retained their viability after drug exposure). Based on our preliminary studies, it was found that the attention to the peg surface and substrate on which the bacterial biofilms are formed should also be paid to. Therefore, further steps leading to the optimization were introduced. The surface of pegs was coated by human plasma, fetal bovine serum, and L-polylysine. Subsequently, the willingness of bacteria to adhere and form biofilm was monitored. In conclusion, suitable conditions were revealed, leading to the formation of reproducible, robust staphylococcal biofilms in vitro for the microtiter model and the system analogous to the Calgary biofilm device, as well. The robustness and typical slime texture could be detected visually. Likewise, an analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a complex three-dimensional arrangement of biofilm forming organisms surrounded by an extracellular polysaccharide matrix.

Keywords: anti-biofilm drug activity screening, in vitro biofilm formation, microtiter plate model, the Calgary biofilm device, staphylococcal infections, substrate modification, surface coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 65