Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2244

Search results for: immunocompromised patient

2244 Myroides Bacteremia: A Case Report

Authors: Jamie Lynn Co, Mary Shiela Ariola-Ramos

Abstract:

Myroides are aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, non-fermenting gram-negative rods. They are commonly found in the environment such as water and soil. Although found in the environment, Myroides are rare pathogens of humans. Myroides spp. primarily infect immunocompromised patients, often with diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or prolonged corticosteroid therapy. We present a case of a 70-year-old immunocompromised patient with diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, diagnosed with sepsis caused by Myroides spp. The primary portal and source of infection were the pustules and boils found on the lower extremities of the patient. Susceptibility testing showed that our isolate was only susceptible to ciprofloxacin and meropenem; and following the treatment, the patient recovered. Myroides continues to be a rare pathogen of humans that is prevalent in our environment. It primarily affects immunocompromised patients such as those with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, etc. Despite their low virulence, physicians should consider this opportunistic pathogen as possible etiologic agent especially in cases wherein there is lack of response to commonly used antibiotics.

Keywords: bacteremia, immunocompromised, gram negative rods, Myroides

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2243 Bacteremia Caused by Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in an Immunocompromised Patient in Istanbul, Turkey

Authors: Fatma Koksal Çakirlar, Si̇nem Ozdemir, Selcan Akyol, Revazi̇ye Gulesen, Murat Gunaydin, Nevri̇ye Gonullu, Belkis Levent, Nuri̇ Kiraz

Abstract:

Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 are the causative agent of epidemic or pandemic cholera. V. cholerae O1 is generally accepted as a non-invasive enterotoxigenic organism causing gastroenteritis of various severities. Non-O1 V. cholerae can cause small outbreaks of diarrhea due to consumption of contaminated food and water. Particularly, the patients with achlorydria have a risk for vibrio infections. There are numerous case reports of bacteremia caused by vibrio in patients with predisposing conditions like cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes, hematologic malignancy, gastrectomy, and AIDS. We described in this study the first case of nontoxigenic, non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae isolated from the blood culture of a 77-year-old female patient with hipertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, gout and about 9 years ago migrated breast cancer history. The patient with complaints of shortness of breath, fever and malaise admitted to our emergency clinic were evaluated. There was no diarrhea or abdominal symptoms in the patient. No growth in her urine culture, but blood culture (BACTEC 9120 system, Becton Dickinson, USA) was positive for non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that was identified by conventional methods and Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD). It does not secrete the cholera toxin. The agglutination test was negative with polyvalent O1 antisera and O139 antiserum. Empirically ceftriaxone was administered to the patient and she was discharged with improvement in general condition. In this study we report bacteremia by non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that is rare in the worldwide and first in Turkey.

Keywords: bacteremia, blood culture, immunocompromised patient, Non-O1 vibrio cholerae

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2242 Antepartum and Postpartum Pulmonary Cryptococcosis: A Case Report and Systematic Review

Authors: Ghadeer M Alkusayer, Adelicia Yu, Pamela Orr

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Study objective: To report a case of postpartum pulmonary cryptococcal infection (CCI) in an otherwise healthy 35-year-old woman. Additionally, the cases of pulmonary cryptococcal infections either in the antepartum or the postpartum period with pregnancy outcomes, were systematically reviwed. Methods: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE was conducted for peer-reviewed studies without date restrictions, published in English and relating to CCI during pregnancy or postpartum period. Conference press, editorials, opinion pieces and letters were excluded. Two authors independently screened citations and full-text articles, extracted data and assessed study quality. Given the heterogeneity of study designs, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The search identified 128 references, of which 22 case reports and series met the inclusion criteria. This is a total of 29 women (including the current case) . The mean age of the women was 28.3 ± 12.3 years. Nine (31.03%) presented and were diagnosed in the postpartum period. Two (6.90%) of the patients were reported as immunocompromised with HIV. Four maternal deaths (13.79%) were found in this case series with one (4.3%) patient with severe neurological deficits. Four (17.4%) infant deaths were reported. Women primary presentation varied with chest pain 13 (44.82%), headache 10 (35.70%), dyspnea 19 (65.51%), or fever 12 (41.38%). Three studies reported placental pathology positive for C. neoformans. Conclusion: This case of pulmonary cryptococcal infection in the postpartum period is an important addition to the literature of this rare infection in pregnancy. The patient is not immunocompromised. The patient was successfully treated with 4 months of Fluconazole 400 mg and continued to breastfeed the healthy baby.

Keywords: pulmonary cryptococcus, pregnancy, cryptococci , postpartum

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2241 Blindness and Deafness, the Outcomes of Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis in HIV Positive Patient

Authors: Hadiseh Hosamirudsari, Farhad Afsarikordehmahin, Pooria Sekhavatfar

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Concomitant cortical blindness and deafness that follow varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is rare. We describe a case of ophthalmic zoster that caused cortical blindness and deafness after central nervous system (CNS) involvement. A 42-year old, HIV infected woman has developed progressive blurry vision and deafness, 4 weeks after ophthalmic zoster. A physical examination and positive VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggested VZV encephalitis. Complication of VZV encephalitis is considered as the cause of blindness and deafness. In neurological deficit patient especially with a history of herpes zoster, VZV infection should be regarded as the responsible agent in inflammatory disorders of nervous system. The immunocompromised state of patient (including HIV) is as important an agent as VZV infection in developing the disease.

Keywords: blindness, deafness, hiv, VZV encephalitis

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2240 Covid Encephalopathy and New-Onset Seizures in the Context of a Prior Brain Abnormality: A Case Report

Authors: Omar Sorour, Michael Leahy, Thomas Irvine, Vladimir Koren

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Introduction: Covid encephalitis is a rare yet dangerous complication, particularly affecting the older and immunocompromised. Symptoms range from confusion to delirium, coma, and seizures. Although neurological manifestations have become more well-characterized in COVID patients, little is known about whether priorneurological abnormalities may predispose patients to COVID encephalopathy. Case Description: A 73 y.o. male with a CT and MRI-confirmed stable, prior 9 mm cavernoma in the right frontal lobe and no past history of seizures was hospitalized with generalized weakness, abdominal pain, nausea, and shortness of breath with subsequent COVID pneumonia. Three days after the initial presentation, the patient developed a spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizure consistent with presumed COVID encephalitis, along with somnolence and confusion. A day later, the patient had two other seizure episodes. Follow-up EEG suggested an inter-ictal epileptic focus with sharp waves corresponding to roughly the same location as the patient’s pre-existing cavernoma. The patient’s seizures stopped shortly thereafter, while his encephalopathy continued for days. Conclusion: We illustrate that a pre-existing anatomic cortical abnormality may act as a potential nidus for new-onset seizure activity in the context of suggested COVID encephalopathy. Future studies may further demonstrate that manifestations of COVIDencephalopathy in certain patients may be more predictable than initially assumed.

Keywords: cavernoma, covid, encephalopathy, seizures

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2239 Patient-Specific Modeling Algorithm for Medical Data Based on AUC

Authors: Guilherme Ribeiro, Alexandre Oliveira, Antonio Ferreira, Shyam Visweswaran, Gregory Cooper

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Patient-specific models are instance-based learning algorithms that take advantage of the particular features of the patient case at hand to predict an outcome. We introduce two patient-specific algorithms based on decision tree paradigm that use AUC as a metric to select an attribute. We apply the patient specific algorithms to predict outcomes in several datasets, including medical datasets. Compared to the patient-specific decision path (PSDP) entropy-based and CART methods, the AUC-based patient-specific decision path models performed equivalently on area under the ROC curve (AUC). Our results provide support for patient-specific methods being a promising approach for making clinical predictions.

Keywords: approach instance-based, area under the ROC curve, patient-specific decision path, clinical predictions

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2238 Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among Hemato-Oncology Patients in Tertiary Hospital of East Cost Malaysia

Authors: Aisha Khodijah Kholib Jati, Suharni Mohamad, Azlan Husin, Wan Suriana Wan Ab Rahman

Abstract:

Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). It is commonly asymptomatic in normal individual, but it can be fatal to immunocompromised patients as it can lead to severe complications such as encephalitis, chorioetinitis and myocarditis. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and its association with socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics among hemato-oncology patients in Hospital USM. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 56 hemato-oncology patients were screened for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and IgG avidity of T. gondii by using ELISA Kit (BioRad, USA). For anti-T. gondii IgG antibody, titer ≥ 9 IU/ml was considered as recent infection, while for IgM, ratio ≥ 1.00 was considered as reactive for the anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Low avidity index is considered as recent infection within 20 weeks while high avidity considered as past infection. T. gondii exposure, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was assessed by a questionnaire and interview. Results: A total of 28 (50.0%) hemato-oncology patients were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Out of that total, 27 (48.21%) patients were IgG+/IgM- and one patient (1.79%) was IgG+/IgM+ with high avidity index. Univariate analysis showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, employment status, stem cell transplant, blood transfusion, close contact with cats, water supply, and consumption of undercooked meat were not significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity rate. Discussion: The seropositivity rate of IgG anti-T. gondii was high among hemato-oncology patients in Hospital USM. With impaired immune system, these patients might have a severe consequence if the infection reactivated. Therefore, screening for anti-T. gondii may be considered in the future. Moreover, health programme towards healthy food and good hygiene practice need to be implemented.

Keywords: immunocompromised, seroprevalence, socio-demographic, toxoplasmosis

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2237 Being a Doctor and Being Ethical: An Existentialist's Approach to a Meaningful Doctor-Patient Relationship

Authors: Gamith Mendis

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Even though the doctors are knowledgeable, there's a gap between knowing and being ethical. This is a barrier to establish an ethical doctor-patient relationship. Current health system has oriented in a way that gives a meaning to both the doctor and the patient through intermediate entities. For the doctor, the meaning of the doctor-patient relationship is given through the financial benefits, promotions, and social status. For the patient, the meaning is given through curing of the disease. It is obvious that both are independent entities between the doctor and the patient. As the philosophers like Husserl and Heidegger have pointed out, our subjective world will give the immediate meaningfulness to us. We should seek this immediate meaningfulness of the doctor-patient relationship. The present research has used the existential methodology as guided self-reflections on the lived experiences of a doctor and his students. In this approach, two important aspects have been understood. The first is, establishing the fact that being ethical is itself giving meaningfulness to the doctor’s being without any mediate entities. Simply, it is enjoying being an honest being. The second is by being-with-the-patient while treating the disease; both the doctor and the patient can enjoy the meaningfulness of their human relationship. The medical students and the doctors should focus on this meaningfulness. For that, this discussion should be actively incorporated into the medical curriculum with programs of practical guidance to medical students and should be discussed in patient-care reviews in the health setting within a satisfactory framework.

Keywords: doctor-patient relationship, medical education, medical ethics, medical humanities, qualitative health research

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2236 The Doctor-Patient Interaction Experience Hierarchy Using Rasch Measurement Model Analysis

Authors: Wan Nur'ashiqin Wan Mohamad, Zarina Othman, Mohd Azman Abas, Azizah Ya'acob, Rozmel Abdul Latiff

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Effective doctor-patient interaction is vital to both doctor and patient relationship. It is the cornerstone of good practice and an integral quality of a healthcare institution. This paper presented the hierarchy of the communication elements in doctor-patient interaction during medical consultations in a medical centre in Malaysia. This study adapted The Picker Patient Experience Questionnaire (2002) to obtain the information from patients. The questionnaire survey was responded by 100 patients between the ages of 20 and 50. Data collected were analysed using Rasch Measurement Model to yield the hierarchy of the communication elements in doctor-patient interaction. The findings showed that the three highest ranking on the doctor-patient interaction were doctor’s treatment, important information delivery and patient satisfaction of doctor’s responses. The results are valuable in developing the framework for communication ethics of doctors.

Keywords: communication elements, doctor-patient interaction, hierarchy, Rasch measurement model

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2235 Fastidious Enteric Pathogens in HIV

Authors: S. Pathak, R. Lazarus

Abstract:

A 25-year-old male HIV patient (CD4 cells 20/µL and HIV viral load 14200000 copies/ml) with a past medical history of duodenal ulcer, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, oesophageal candidiasis presented with fever and a seizure to hospital. The only recent travel had been a religious pilgrimage from Singapore to Malaysia 5 days prior; during the trip he sustained skin abrasions. The patient had recently started highly active antiretroviral therapy 2 months prior. Clinical examination was unremarkable other than a temperature of 38.8°C and perianal warts. Laboratory tests showed a leukocyte count 12.5x109 cells/L, haemoglobin 9.4 g/dL, normal biochemistry and a C-reactive protein 121 mg/L. CT head and MRI head were unremarkable and cerebrospinal fluid analysis performed after a delay (due to technical difficulties) of 11 days was unremarkable. Blood cultures (three sets) taken on admission showed Gram-negative rods in the anaerobic bottles only at the end of incubation with culture result confirmed by molecular sequencing showing Helicobacter cinaedi. The patient was treated empirically with ceftriaxone for seven days and this was converted to oral co-amoxiclav for a further seven days after the blood cultures became positive. A Transthoracic echocardiogram was unremarkable. The patient made a full recovery. Helicobacter cinaedi is a gram-negative anaerobic fastidious organism affecting patients with comorbidity. Infection may manifest as cellulitius, colitis or as in this case as bloodstream infection – the latter is often attributed to faeco-oral infection. Laboratory identification requires prolonged culture. Therapeutic options may be limited by resistance to macrolides and fluoroquinolones. The likely pathogen inoculation routes in the case described include gastrointestinal translocation due to proctitis at the site of perianal warts, or breach of the skin via abrasions occurring during the pilgrimage. Such organisms are increasing in prevalence as our patient population ages and patients have multiple comorbidities including HIV. It may be necessary in patients with unexplained fever to prolong incubation of sterile sites including blood in order to identify this unusual fastidious organism.

Keywords: fastidious, Helicobacter cinaedi, HIV, immunocompromised

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2234 [Keynote Talk]: The Emotional Life of Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Framework for Health Promotion Strategies

Authors: Leslie Beale

Abstract:

Being a patient with a chronic disease is both a physical and emotional experience. The ability to recognize a patient’s emotional health is an important part of a health care provider’s skills. For the purposes of this paper, emotional health is viewed as the way that we feel, and the way that our feelings affect us. Understanding the patient’s emotional health leads to improved provider-patient relationships and health outcomes. For example, when a patient first hears his or her diagnosis from a provider, they might find it difficult to cope with their emotions. Struggling to cope with emotions interferes with the patient’s ability to read, understand, and act on health information and services. As a result, the patient becomes more frustrated and confused, creating barriers to accessing healthcare services. These barriers are challenging for both the patient and their healthcare providers. There are five basic emotions that are part of who we are and are always with us: fear, anger, sadness, joy, and compassion. Living with a chronic disease however can cause a patient to experience and express these emotions in new and unique ways. Within the provider-patient relationship, there needs to be an understanding that each patient experiences these five emotions and, experiences them at different times. In response to this need, the paper highlights a health promotion framework for patients with chronic disease. This framework emphasizes the emotional health of patients.

Keywords: health promotion, emotional health, patients with chronic disease, patient-centered care

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2233 Routine pus Swabs for Uncomplicated Abscesses – Do They Alter Our Management Plan?

Authors: Abdelrahman Abdelrahman, Lawrence Nip, Seun Ikotun, Iman Satar, Anur Miah

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Introduction: Incision and drainage of an abscess is a common procedure performed by the general surgeon. Pus swabs are often obtained routinely for MC&S.Our study aimed to investigate whether swabs taken at our local institution had any impact on the overall management plan for uncomplicated abscesses. Methods: We retrospectively assessed all patients presenting to University Hospital Lewisham with an abscess between October 2020 – April 2021. Exclusion criteria were recurrent abscesses, patients admitted with sepsis, known inflammatory bowel disease, immunocompromised, and those managed non-operatively. Results: We identified 131 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Two thirds were performed in theatre under general anaesthetic and the other one third under local. 63% of patients had a pus swab collected. Of these, 96% were not followed up by the requesting doctor, and there was no further patient contact. In the other 4%, the organisms cultured were flagged as atypical such as MRSA. In these cases, microbiology advice was that if the patient was clinically well and adequate drainage was achieved, then no furtherantibiotics were required. All patients were discharged before any microbiology results had come back with no subsequent change in the management plan. Average cost of pus swab = £10.10 – potentially cost saving of £1656.4 annually. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the majority of pus swabs taken from uncomplicated abscessesare not followed up by requesting doctor with no impact on the overall management plan. We, therefore, do not recommend the routine use of pus swabs for uncomplicated abscesses.

Keywords: pus swabs, uncomplated abscess, Pus MCS, follow up of uncomplicated abscess

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2232 Prevalence of Seropositivity for Cytomegalovirus in Patients with Hereditary Bleeding Diseases in West Azerbaijan of Iran

Authors: Zakieh Rostamzadeh, Zahra Shirmohammadi

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Human cytomegalovirus is a species of the cytomegalovirus family of viruses, which in turn is a member of the viral family known as herpesviridae or herpesviruses. Although they may be found throughout the body, HCMV infections are frequently associated with the salivary glands. HCMV infection is typically unnoticed in healthy people, but can be life-threatening for the immunocompromised such as HIV-infected persons, organ transplant recipients, or newborn infants. After infection, HCMV has an ability to remain latent within the body over long periods. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes infection in immunocompromised, hemophilia patients and those who received blood transfusion frequently. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies in hemophilia patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out in Urmia, North West of Iran. The study population comprised a sample of 50 hemophilic patients born after 1985 and have received blood factors in West Azerbaijan. The exclusion criteria include: drug abusing, high risk sexual contacts, vertical transmission of mother to fetus and suspicious needling. All samples were evaluated with the method of ELISA, with a certain kind of kit and by a certain laboratory. Results: Fifty hemophiliacs from 250 patients registered with Urmia Hemophilia Society were enrolled in the study including 43 (86%) male, and 7 (14%) female. The mean age of patients was 10.3 years, range 3 to 25 years. None of patients had risk factors mentioned above. Among our studied population, 34(68%) had hemophilia A, 1 (2%) hemophilia B, 8 (16%) VWF, 3(6%) factor VII deficiency, 1 (2%) factor V deficiency, 1 (2%) factor X deficiency, 1 (2%). Sera of 50 Hemodialysis patients were investigated for CMV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. % 91.89 patients were anti-CMV IgG positive and %40.54 was seropositive for anti-CMV IgM. 37.8% patient had serological evidence of reactivation and 2.7% of patients had the primary infection. Discussion: There was no relationship between the antibody titer and: drug abusing, high risk sexual contacts, vertical transmission of mother to fetus and suspicious needling.

Keywords: bioinformatics, biomedicine, cytomegalovirus, immunocompromise

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2231 Psychiatric Nurses' Perception of Patient Safety Culture: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Amira A. Alshowkan, Aleya M. Gamal

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Background: Patient safety is a vital element in providing high quality health care. In psychiatric wards, numerous of physical and emotional factors have been found to affect patient safety. In addition, organization, healthcare provider and patients were identified to be significant factors in patient safety. Aim: This study aims to discover nurses' perception of patient safety in psychiatric wards in Saudi Arabian. Method: Date will be collected through semi-structure face to face interview with nurses who are working at psychiatric wards. Data will be analysed thought the used of thematic analysis. Results: The results of this study will help in understanding the psychiatric nurses' perception of patient safety in Saudi Arabia. Several suggestions will be recommended for formulation of policies and strategies for psychiatric wards. In addition, recommendation to nursing education and training will be tailored in order to improve patient safety culture.

Keywords: patient safety culture, psychiatric, qualitative, Saudi Arabia

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2230 Design and Manufacture Detection System for Patient's Unwanted Movements during Radiology and CT Scan

Authors: Anita Yaghobi, Homayoun Ebrahimian

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One of the important tools that can help orthopedic doctors for diagnose diseases is imaging scan. Imaging techniques can help physicians in see different parts of the body, including the bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and cartilage. During CT scan, a patient must be in the same position from the start to the end of radiation treatment. Patient movements are usually monitored by the technologists through the closed circuit television (CCTV) during scan. If the patient makes a small movement, it is difficult to be noticed by them. In the present work, a simple patient movement monitoring device is fabricated to monitor the patient movement. It uses an electronic sensing device. It continuously monitors the patient’s position while the CT scan is in process. The device has been retrospectively tested on 51 patients whose movement and distance were measured. The results show that 25 patients moved 1 cm to 2.5 cm from their initial position during the CT scan. Hence, the device can potentially be used to control and monitor patient movement during CT scan and Radiography. In addition, an audible alarm situated at the control panel of the control room is provided with this device to alert the technologists. It is an inexpensive, compact device which can be used in any CT scan machine.

Keywords: CT scan, radiology, X Ray, unwanted movement

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2229 National Health Insurance: An Exploratory Study of Patient Satisfaction

Authors: Nihayatul Munaa, Nyoman A. Damayanti

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This study seeks to understand what factors might influence a patient’s perception of health care under national health insurance in early implementation. In Indonesia, National Health Insurance was first implemented in 2014 and planned to achieve universal health coverage by 2019. However, the little understanding of this new policy lead to increase of complaint in hospital as a health care provider. This is a observational descriptive study with cross sectional design method. Data was collected through in-depth interview with 96 patient from Jemursari Islamic Hospital of Surabaya (Rumah Sakit Islam Jemursari Surabaya) who participate in National Health Insurance. Subject was selected by simple random sampling. The findings demonstrated that from five categories, 82,3% patient was satisfied in reliability aspect and 85,4% in assurance aspect, while in tangible, responsiveness and empathy aspect > 90% patient was satisfied. Meanwhile, in Indonesia, the minimum service standard of healthcare of patient satisfaction is 90%.

Keywords: patient’s satisfaction, national health insurance, hospital, complaint

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2228 Using Multi-Specialist Team to Care for a Breast Cancer Patient Who Received Total Mastectomy during Pregnancy

Authors: Yun-Tsuen Chen, Shih-Ting Huang, Pi-Fen Cheng, Heng-Hua Wang, Hui-Zhu Chen

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This paper discusses the experience of caring for a patient diagnosed with breast cancer and later received total mastectomy during a 2nd trimester pregnancy. She was hospitalized from January 31 to February 4, 2018. Using 'Gordon’s 11 Functional Health Patterns' through physical exams and interviews, the researcher assessed the patient’s physical and mental health and determined the patient to have anxiety, acute pain, and body image disturbance. After establishing a strong relationship with the patient, the researcher helped the patient express her anxiety and personal feelings. A multi-specialist team was formed to evaluate both the patient and her unborn child, before, during, and after surgery. This individualized care allowed the patient and her child to optimize the post-operative results. Aside from medication, the patient also received non-medicinal treatment, including improvement of sleep quality with body positioning, diaphragmatic breathing exercises for pain and stress relief after surgery. Throughout hospitalization, the patient’s physical and emotional needs were addressed daily with listening sessions and empathy. The patient’s husband was also incorporated in the patient’s recovery by teaching both he and the patient how to change the sterile wound dressing, which may have the added benefit of improving marital relationships through shared activities of nurturing. The patient was also given advice about how to improve self-confidence through clothing. Lastly, the patient was encouraged to join a support group for breast cancer patients. Through the sharing of experience in groups and within the family, the patient was helped to adapt to the change of her appearance and re-establish her self-confidence. This level of care expedited the patient’s return to her family life and role of being a mother.

Keywords: anxiety, body image disturbance, breast cancer during pregnancy, multi-specialist team

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2227 Nurse-Patient Assignment: Case of Pediatrics Department

Authors: Jihene Jlassi, Ahmed Frikha, Wazna Kortli

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The objectives of Nurse-Patient Assignment are the minimization of the overall hospital cost and the maximization of nurses ‘preferences. This paper aims to assess nurses' satisfaction related to the implementation of patient acuity tool-based assignments. So, we used an integer linear program that assigns patients to nurses while balancing nurse workloads. Then, the proposed model is applied to the Paediatrics Department at Kasserine Hospital Tunisia. Where patients need special acuities and high-level nursing skills and care. Hence, numerical results suggested that proposed nurse-patient assignment models can achieve a balanced assignment

Keywords: nurse-patient assignment, mathematical model, logistics, pediatrics department, balanced assignment

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2226 Handling Patient's Supply during Inpatient Stay: Using Lean Six Sigma Techniques to Implement a Comprehensive Medication Handling Program

Authors: Erika Duggan

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A Major Hospital had identified that there was no standard process for handling a patient’s medication that they brought with them to the hospital. It was also identified that each floor was handling the patient’s medication differently and storing it in multiple locations. Based on this disconnect many patients were leaving the hospital without their medication. The project team was tasked with creating a cohesive process to send a patient’s unneeded medication home on admission, storing any of the patient’s medication that could not be sent home, storing any of the patient’s medication for inpatient administration, and sending all of the patient’s medication home on discharge. The project team consisted of pharmacists, RNs, LPNs, members from nursing informatics and a project engineer and followed a DMAIC framework. Working together observations were performed to identify what was working and not working on the different floors which resulted in process maps. Using the multidisciplinary team, brainstorming, including affinity diagramming and other lean six sigma techniques, the best process for receiving, storing, and returning the medication was created. It was highlighted that being able to track the medication throughout the patient’s stay would be beneficial and would help make sure the medication left with the patient on discharge. Using an automated medications dispensing system would help store, and track patient’s medications. Also, the use of a specific order that would show up on the discharge instructions would assist the front line staff in retrieving the medication from a set location and sending it home with the patient. This new process will effectively streamline the admission and discharge process for patients who brought their medication with them as well as effectively tracking the medication during the patient’s stay. As well as increasing patient safety as it relates to medication administration.

Keywords: lean six sigma, medication dispensing, process improvement, process mapping

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2225 Robotic Arm Allowing a Diabetic Quadriplegic Patient to Self-Administer Insulin

Authors: L. Parisi

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A method which allows a diabetic quadriplegic patient that has had four limb amputations (above the knee and elbow) to self-administer injections of insulin has been designed. The aim of this research project is to improve a quadriplegic patient’s self-management, affected by diabetes, by designing a suitable device for self-administering insulin.The quadriplegic patient affected by diabetes has to be able to self-administer insulin safely and independently to guarantee stable healthy conditions. The device also should be designed to adapt to a number of different varying personal characteristics such as height and body weight.

Keywords: robotic arm, self-administration, insulin, diabetes, quadriplegia

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2224 Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System

Authors: Sagar R. Patil, Dinesh R. Gawade, Sudhir N. Divekar

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One of the medical devices we found when we visit a hospital care unit such device is ‘patient monitoring system’. This device (patient monitoring system) informs doctors and nurses about the patient’s physiological signals. However, this device (patient monitoring system) does not have a remote monitoring capability, which is necessitates constant onsite attendance by support personnel (doctors and nurses). Thus, we have developed a Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System using some biomedical sensors and Android OS, which is a portable patient monitoring. This device(Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System) monitors the biomedical signals of patients in real time and sends them to remote stations (doctors and nurse’s android Smartphone and web) for display and with alerts when necessary. Wireless Patient Monitoring System different from conventional device (Patient Monitoring system) in two aspects: First its wireless communication capability allows physiological signals to be monitored remotely and second, it is portable so patients can move while there biomedical signals are being monitor. Wireless Patient Monitoring is also notable because of its implementation. We are integrated four sensors such as pulse oximeter (SPO2), thermometer, respiration, blood pressure (BP), heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) in this device (Wireless Patient Monitoring System) and Monitoring and communication applications are implemented on the Android OS using threads, which facilitate the stable and timely manipulation of signals and the appropriate sharing of resources. The biomedical data will be display on android smart phone as well as on web Using web server and database system we can share these physiological signals with remote place medical personnel’s or with any where in the world medical personnel’s. We verified that the multitasking implementation used in the system was suitable for patient monitoring and for other Healthcare applications.

Keywords: patient monitoring, wireless patient monitoring, bio-medical signals, physiological signals, embedded system, Android OS, healthcare, pulse oximeter (SPO2), thermometer, respiration, blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG)

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2223 Evaluation of the Patient Identification Process in Healthcare Facilities in a Brazilian City Area

Authors: Carmen Silvia Gabriel, Maria de Fátima Paiva Brito, Mariane de Paula Candido, Vanessa Barato Oliveira

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Patient identification is a necessary practice to ensure patient safety in any healthcare environment, including emergency care units, test laboratories, home care and clinics. The present study aimed to provide evidence that can effectively contribute to practices concerning patient identification. Its objective was to investigate patient identification in basic healthcare units through patient safety standards. To do so, a descriptive and non-experimental research outline study was carried out to inquire how patient identification takes place in a particular situation. All technical manager nurses from the chosen healthcare facilities were included in the sample for the study. Data was collected in September of 2014 after approval from the Committee of Ethics. All researched institutions fit the same profile: they’re public facilities for general care with observation beds. None of them has a wristband identification protocol or policy. Only one institution mentioned using some kind of visual identification; namely, body tags separated by colors according to the type of care, but it still does not apply the recommended tags by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. This study allowed the authors to acknowledge how important the commitment from the whole healthcare team in the patient identification process is and also acknowledge how necessary it is to implement institutional policies that may aid the healthcare units in this area to promote a quality and safe patient care.

Keywords: patient safety, identification, nursing, emergency care units

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2222 Comparative Study on the Evaluation of Patient Safety in Malaysian Retail Pharmacy Setup

Authors: Palanisamy Sivanandy, Tan Tyng Wei, Tan Wee Loon, Lim Chong Yee

Abstract:

Background: Patient safety has become a major concern over recent years with elevated medication errors; particularly prescribing and dispensing errors. Meticulous prescription screening and diligent drug dispensing is therefore important to prevent drug-related adverse events from inflicting harm to patients. Hence, pharmacists play a significant role in this scenario. The evaluation of patient safety in a pharmacy setup is crucial to contemplate current practices, attitude and perception of pharmacists towards patient safety. Method: The questionnaire for Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture developed by the Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality (AHRQ) was used to assess patient safety. Main objectives of the study was to evaluate the attitude and perception of pharmacists towards patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. Results: 417 questionnaire were distributed via convenience sampling in three different states of Malaysia, where 390 participants were responded and the response rate was 93.52%. The overall positive response rate (PRR) was ranged from 31.20% to 87.43% and the average PRR was found to be 67%. The overall patient safety grade for our pharmacies was appreciable and it ranges from good to very good. The study found a significant difference in the perception of senior and junior pharmacists towards patient safety. The internal consistency of the questionnaire contents /dimensions was satisfactory (Cronbach’s alpha - 0.92). Conclusion: Our results reflect that there was positive attitude and perception of retail pharmacists towards patient safety. Despite this, various efforts can be implemented in the future to amplify patient safety in retail pharmacies setup.

Keywords: patient safety, attitude, perception, positive response rate, medication errors

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2221 Impacts of Artificial Intelligence on the Doctor-Patient Relationship: Ethical Principles, Informed Consent and Medical Obligation

Authors: Rafaella Nogaroli

Abstract:

It is presented hypothetical cases in the context of AI algorithms to support clinical decisions, in order to discuss the importance of doctors to respect AI ethical principles. Regarding the principle of transparency and explanation, there is an impact on the new model of patient consent and on the understanding of qualified information. Besides, the human control of technology (AI as a tool) should guide the physician's activity; otherwise, he breaks the patient's legitimate expectation in a specific result, with the consequent transformation of the medical obligation nature.

Keywords: medical law, artificial intelligence, ethical principles, patient´s informed consent, medical obligations

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2220 Improving the Patient Guidance Satisfaction and Integrity of Patients Hospitalized in Iodine-131 Isolation Rooms

Authors: Yu Sin Syu

Abstract:

Objective: The study aimed to improve the patient guidance satisfaction of patients hospitalized in iodine-131 isolation rooms, as well as the patient guidance completion rate for such patients. Method: A patient care guidance checklist and patient care guidance satisfaction questionnaire were administered to 29 patients who had previously been hospitalized in iodine-131 isolation rooms. The evaluation was conducted on a one-on-one basis, and its results showed that the patients’ satisfaction with patient guidance was only 3.7 points and that the completion rate for the patient guidance performed by nurses was only 67%. Therefore, various solutions were implemented to create a more complete patient guidance framework for nurses, including the incorporation of regular care-related training in in-service education courses; the establishment of patient care guidance standards for patients in iodine-131 isolation rooms; the establishment of inpatient care standards and auditing processes for iodine-131 isolation rooms; the creation of an introductory handbook on ward environment; Invite other the care team the revision of iodine-131 health education brochures; the creation of visual cards and videos covering equipment operation procedures; and introduction of QR codes. Results: Following the implementation of the above measures, the overall satisfaction of patients hospitalized in iodine-131 isolation rooms increased from 3.7 points to 4.6 points, and the completion rate for patient guidance rose from 67% to 100%. Conclusion: Given the excellent results achieved in this study, it is hoped that this nursing project can serve as a benchmark for other relevant departments.

Keywords: admission care guidance, guidance satisfaction, integrity, Iodine131 isolation

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2219 Integrating Nursing Informatics to Improve Patient-Centered Care: A Project to Reduce Patient Waiting Time at the Blood Pressure Counter

Authors: Pi-Chi Wu, Tsui-Ping Chu, Hsiu-Hung Wang

Abstract:

Background: The ability to provide immediate medical service in outpatient departments is one of the keys to patient satisfaction. Objectives: This project used electronic equipment to integrate nursing care information to patient care at a blood pressure diagnostic counter. Through process reengineering, the average patient waiting time decreased from 35 minutes to 5 minutes, while service satisfaction increased from a score of 2.7 to 4.6. Methods: Data was collected from a local hospital in Southern Taiwan from a daily average of 2,200 patients in the outpatient department. Previous waiting times were affected by (1) space limitations, (2) the need to help guide patient mobility, (3) the need for nurses to appease irate patients and give instructions, (4), the need for patients to replace lost counter tickets, (5) the need to re-enter information, (6) the replacement of missing patient information. An ad hoc group was established to enhance patient satisfaction and shorten waiting times for patients to see a doctor. A four step strategy consisting of (1) counter relocation, (2) queue reorganization, (3) electronic information integration, (4) process reengineering was implemented. Results: Implementation of the developed strategy decreased patient waiting time from 35 minutes to an average of 5 minutes, and increased patient satisfaction scores from 2.7 to 6.4. Conclusion: Through the integration of information technology and process transformation, waiting times were drastically reduced, patient satisfaction increased, and nurses were allowed more time to engage in more cost-effective services. This strategy was simultaneously enacted in separate hospitals throughout Taiwan.

Keywords: process reengineering, electronic information integration, patient satisfaction, patient waiting time

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2218 Impact of Flexibility on Patient Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention: A Critical Reassessment and Model Development

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Shibashish Chakraborty, Sasadhar Bera

Abstract:

In the anticipation of demand fluctuations, services cannot be inventoried and hence it creates a difficult problem in marketing of services. The inability to meet customers (patients) requirements in healthcare context has more serious consequences than other service sectors. In order to meet patient requirements in the current uncertain environment, healthcare organizations are seeking ways for improved service delivery. Flexibility provides a mechanism for reducing variability in service encounters and improved performance. Flexibility is defined as the ability of the organization to cope with changing circumstances or instability caused by the environment. Patient satisfaction is an important performance outcome of healthcare organizations. However, the paucity of information exists in healthcare delivery context to examine the impact of flexibility on patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. The present study is an attempt to develop a conceptual foundation for investigating overall impact of flexibility on patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. Several dimensions of flexibility in healthcare context are examined and proposed to have a significant impact on patient satisfaction and intention. Furthermore, the study involves a critical examination of determinants of patient satisfaction and development of a comprehensive view the relationship between flexibility, patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. Finally, theoretical contributions and implications for healthcare professionals are suggested from flexibility perspective.

Keywords: healthcare, flexibility, patient satisfaction, behavioral intention

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2217 Strategies for Patient Families Integration in Caregiving: A Consensus Opinion

Authors: Ibrahim A. Alkali

Abstract:

There is no reservation on the outstanding contribution of patient families in restoration of hospitalised patients, hence their consideration as essential component of hospital ward regimen. The psychological and emotional support a patient requires has been found to be solely provided by the patient’s family. However, consideration of their presence as one of the major functional requirements of an inpatient setting design have always been a source of disquiet, especially in developing countries where policies, norms and protocols of healthcare administration have no consideration for the patients’ family. This have been a major challenge to the hospital ward facilities, a concern for the hospital administration and patient management. The study therefore is aimed at obtaining a consensus opinion on the best approach for family integration in the design of an inpatient setting.  A one day visioning charrette involving Architects, Nurses, Medical Doctors, Healthcare assistants and representatives from the Patient families was conducted with the aim of arriving at a consensus opinion on practical design approach for sustainable family integration. Patient’s family are found to be decisive character of hospital ward regimen that cannot be undermined. However, several challenges that impede family integration were identified and subsequently a recommendation for an ideal approach. This will serve as a guide to both architects and hospital management in implementing much desired Patient and Family Centred Care.

Keywords: patient's family, inpatient setting, care giving, integration

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2216 Patient Engagement in Healthcare and Health Literacy in China: A Survey in China

Authors: Qing Wu, Xuchun Ye, Qiuchen Wang, Kirsten Corazzini

Abstract:

Objective: It’s increasing acknowledged that patient engagement in healthcare and health literacy both have positive impact on patient outcome. Health literacy emphasizes the ability of individuals to understand and apply health information and manage health. Patients' health literacy affected their willingness to participate in decision-making, but its impact on the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare is not clear, especially in China. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the correlation between the behavior and willingness of patient engagement and health literacy. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed using the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare questionnaire, Chinese version All Aspects of Health Literacy Scale (AAHLS). A convenient sample of 443 patients was recruited from 8 general hospitals in Shanghai, Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province, from September 2016 to January 2017. Results: The mean score for the willingness was (4.41±0.45), and the mean score for the patient engagement behavior was (4.17±0.49); the mean score for the patient's health literacy was (2.36±0.29),the average score of its three dimensions- the functional literacy, the Communicative/interactive literacy and the Critical literacy, was (2.26±0.38), (2.28±0.42), and (2.61±0.43), respectively. Patients' health literacy was positively correlated with their willingness of engagement (r = 0.367, P < 0.01), and positively correlated with patient engagement behavior (r = 0.357, P < 0.01). All dimensions of health literacy were positively correlated with the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare; the dimension of Communicative/interactive literacy (r = 0.312, P < 0.01; r = 0.357, P < 0.01) and the Critical literacy (r = 0.357, P < 0.01; r = 0.357, P < 0.01) are more relevant to the behavior and willingness than the dimension of basic/functional literacy (r=0.150, P < 0.01; r = 0.150, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare are positively correlated with health literacy and its dimensions. In clinical work, medical staff should pay attention to patients’ health literacy, especially the situation that low literacy leads to low participation and provide health information to patients through health education or communication to improve their health literacy as well as guide them to actively and rationally participate in their own health care.

Keywords: patient engagement, health literacy, healthcare, correlation

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2215 Intensive Care Unit Patient Self-Determination When Facing Cardiovascular Surgery for the First Time

Authors: Hsiao-Lin Fang

Abstract:

The Patient Self-Determination Act is based on the belief that each life is unique. The act regards each patient as an autonomous entity and explicitly protects the patient’s rights to know and make decisions and choices while ensuring that the patient’s wish for a peaceful end is granted. Even when the patient is unconscious and unable to express himself/herself, the patient’s self-determination and its exercise are still protected under the law. The act also ensures that healthcare professionals (HCPs) have a specific set of rules to follow and complete legal protection when their patients are unable to express themselves clearly. This report is about a 55-year-old female patient who weighed 110 kg and was diagnosed with acute type A aortic dissection. The case was that the patient suddenly felt backache and nausea during sleep before daybreak and was therefore transferred to this hospital from the original one. After the doctor explained the patient’s conditions, it was concluded that surgery was necessary. However, the patient’s family was immediately against the surgery after having heard its possible complications. Nevertheless, the patient was still willing to receive the surgery. Being at odds with her family, the patient decided to sign the surgery agreement herself and agreed to receive the two surgical procedures: (1) ascending aorta replacement and (2) innominate artery debranching. After the surgery, the patient did not regain consciousness and therefore received computed tomography scanning of the brain, which revealed false lumen involving proximal left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery and innominate artery, and severe compression of the true lumen with total/subtotal occlusion in the left common carotid artery. On the following day, the doctor discussed two further surgical procedures: (1) endografting for descending aorta and (2) endografting for left common carotid artery and subclavian artery with the family. However, as the patient’s postoperative recovery of consciousness only reached the level of stupor and her family had no intention of subsequent healthcare for the patient, the family made the joint decision three days later to have the endotracheal tube removed from the patient and let her die a natural death. Suggestion: An advance directive (AD) can be created beforehand. Once the patient is in a special clinical state (e.g., terminal illness, permanent vegetative state, etc.), the AD can determine whether to sustain the patient’s life through ‘medical intervention’ or to respect the patient’s rights to choose a peaceful end and receive palliative care. Through the expression of self-determination, it is possible to respect the patient’s medical practice autonomy and protect the patient’s dignity and right to a peaceful end, thereby respecting and supporting the patient’s decision. This also allows the three sides: the patient, the family and the medical team to understand the patient’s true wish in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and thereby promote harmony in the HCP-patient relationship.

Keywords: intensive care unit patient, cardiovascular surgery, self-determination, advance directive

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