Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 165

Search results for: infant

165 Learning Participation and Baby Care Ability in Mothers of Preterm Infant

Authors: Yi-Chuan Cheng, Li-Chi Huang, Yu-Shan Chang

Abstract:

Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the learning number, care knowledge, care skills and maternal confidence in preterm infant care in Taiwan. Background: Preterm infants care has been stressful for mother caring at home. Many programs have been applied for improving the infant care maternal confident. But less to know the learning behavior in mothers of preterm infant. Methods: The sample consisted of 55 mothers with preterm infants were recruited in a neonatal intermediate unit at a medical center in central Taiwan. The self-reported questionnaires including knowledge and skills of preterm infant care scales and maternal confidence scale were used to evaluation, which were conducted during hospitalization, before hospital discharge, and one month after discharge. We performed by using Pearson correlation of the collected data using SPSS 18. Results: The study showed that the learning number and knowledge in preterm infant care was a significant positive correlation (r = .40), and the skills and confidence preterm infant care was positively correlated (r = .89). Conclusions: Study results showed the mother had more learning number in preterm infant care will be stronger knowledge, and the skills and confidence in preterm infant care were also positively correlated. Thus, we found the learning behavior change significant care knowledge. And the maternal confidence change significant with skill on preterm infant’s care. But bondage still needs further study and develop the participation in hospital-based instructional programs, which could lead to greater long-term retention of learning.

Keywords: learning behavior, care knowledge, care skills, maternal confidence

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164 Infant and Child Mortality among the Low Socio-Economic Households in India

Authors: Narendra Kumar

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This study uses data from the ‘National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) 2005-06’ to investigate the predictors of infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. The cross tabulation, life table survival estimates and Cox proportional hazard model techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of infant and child mortality. The life table survival estimates for infant and child mortality shows that infant mortality in female child is lower in comparison to male child but with child mortality, the rates are higher for female in comparison to male child and the Cox proportional hazard model also give highly significant in female in comparison to male child. The infant and child mortality rates among poor households highest in the Central region followed by North and Northeast region and the lowest in South region in comparison to all regions of India. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics in both analyzes, further birth interval, respondent occupation, caste/tribe and place of delivery has substantial impact on infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. Finally these findings specified that an increase in parents’ education, improve health care services and improve socioeconomic conditions of low economic households which should in turn raise infant and child survival and should decrease child mortality among low economic households in India.

Keywords: infant, child, mortality, socio-economic, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
163 Mike Hat: Coloured-Tape-in-Hat as a Head Circumference Measuring Instrument for Early Detection of Hydrocephalus in an Infant

Authors: Nyimas Annissa Mutiara Andini

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Every year, children develop hydrocephalus during the first year of life. If it is not treated, hydrocephalus can lead to brain damage, a loss in mental and physical abilities, and even death. To be treated, first, we have to do a proper diagnosis using some examinations especially to detect hydrocephalus earlier. One of the examination that could be done is using a head circumference measurement. Increased head circumference is a first and main sign of hydrocephalus, especially in infant (0-1 year age). Head circumference is a measurement of a child's head largest area. In this measurement, we want to get the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head using a measurement tape. If the head circumference of an infant is larger than normal, this infant might potentially suffer hydrocephalus. If early diagnosis and timely treatment of hydrocephalus could be done most children can recover successfully. There are some problems with early detection of hydrocephalus using regular tape for head circumference measurement. One of the problem is the infant’s comfort. We need to make the infant feel comfort along the head circumference measurement to get a proper result of the examination. For that, we can use a helpful stuff, like a hat. This paper is aimed to describe the possibility of using a head circumference measuring instrument for early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant with a mike hat, coloured-tape-in-hat. In the first life, infants’ head size is about 35 centimeters. First three months after that infants will gain 2 centimeters each month. The second three months, infant’s head circumference will increase 1 cm each month. And for the six months later, the rate is 0.5 cm per month, and end up with an average of 47 centimeters. This formula is compared to the WHO’s head circumference growth chart. The shape of this tape-in-hat is alike an upper arm measurement. This tape-in-hat diameter is about 47 centimeters. It contains twelve different colours range by age. If it is out of the normal colour, the infant potentially suffers hydrocephalus. This examination should be done monthly. If in two times of measurement there still in the same range abnormal of head circumference, or a rapid growth of the head circumference size, the infant should be referred to a pediatrician. There are the pink hat for girls and blue hat for boys. Based on this paper, we know that this measurement can be used to help early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant.

Keywords: head circumference, hydrocephalus, infant, mike hat

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162 Heavy Metals in Selected Infant Milk Formula

Authors: Suad M. Abuzariba, M. Gazette

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To test for the presence of toxic heavy metals, specifically Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in formula milk available in Misrata city north of Libya for infants aged 6-12 months through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer,30 samples of imported milk formula in Libyan markets subjected to test to accurate their pollution with heavy metals, We get concentration of Hg, Ar, Pb in milk formula samples was between 0.002-1.37, 1.62-0.04–2.16, 0.15–0.65 respectively, when compared the results with Libyan &WHO standards ,they were within standards of toxic heavy metals. The presence or absence of toxic heavy metals (Lead, Arsenic, and Mercury) in selected infant formula milk and their levels within or beyond standards set by the WHO. The three infant formulas tested, all were negative for Arsenic and Lead, while two out of the three infant formulas tested positive for Mercury with levels of 0.6333ppm and 0.8333ppm. The levels of Mercury obtained, expressed in parts per million (ppm), from the two infant formulas tested were above the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of total Mercury, which is 0.005ppm, as set by the FAO, WHO, and JECFA.

Keywords: heavy metals, milk formula, Libya, toxic

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161 Association between Maternal Personality and Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Bonding

Authors: Tessa Sellis, Marike A. Wierda, Elke Tichelman, Mirjam T. Van Lohuizen, Marjolein Berger, François Schellevis, Claudi Bockting, Lilian Peters, Huib Burger

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Introduction: Most women develop a healthy bond with their children, however, adequate mother-to-infant bonding cannot be taken for granted. Mother-to-infant bonding refers to the feelings and emotions experienced by the mother towards her child. It is an ongoing process that starts during pregnancy and develops during the first year postpartum and likely throughout early childhood. The prevalence of inadequate bonding ranges from 7 to 11% in the first weeks postpartum. An impaired mother-to-infant bond can cause long-term complications for both mother and child. Very little research has been conducted on the direct relationship between the personality of the mother and mother-to-infant bonding. This study explores the associations between maternal personality and postnatal mother-to-infant bonding. The main hypothesis is that there is a relationship between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding. Methods: Data for this study were used from the Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression Study (2010-2014), which examined symptoms of and risk factors for anxiety or depression during pregnancy and the first year postpartum of 6220 pregnant women who received primary, secondary or tertiary care in the Netherlands. The study was expanded in 2015 to investigate postnatal mother-to-infant bonding. For the current research 3836 participants were included. During the first trimester of gestation, baseline characteristics, as well as personality, were measured through online questionnaires. Personality was measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which covers the big five of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, altruism and conscientiousness). Mother-to-infant bonding was measured postpartum by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). Univariate linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations. Results: 5% of the PBQ-respondents reported impaired bonding. A statistically significant association was found between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding (p < .001): mothers scoring higher on neuroticism, reported a lower score on mother-to-infant bonding. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the personality traits extraversion (b: -.081), openness (b: -.014), altruism (b: -.067), conscientiousness (b: -.060) and mother-to-infant bonding. Discussion: This study is one of the first to demonstrate a direct association between the personality of the mother and mother-to-infant bonding. A statistically significant relationship has been found between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding, however, the percentage of variance predictable by a personality dimension is very small. This study has examined one part of the multi-factorial topic of mother-to-infant bonding and offers more insight into the rarely investigated and complex matter of mother-to-infant bonding. For midwives, it is important recognize the risks for impaired bonding and subsequently improve policy for women at risk.

Keywords: mother-to-infant bonding, personality, postpartum, pregnancy

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160 Gender of the Infant and Interpersonal Relationship Correlates of Postpartum Depression among Women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Authors: Humaira Mujeeb, Farah Qadir

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The present study aimed to explore the association between interpersonal relationship and postpartum depression with a special focus on gender of the infant among women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The research was quantitative in nature. It was a correlation study with a cross-sectional study design. The target population was women between six weeks to six months after the delivery of a baby. The sample size of 158 women has been computed by using G*Power (3.0.10 version). The sample was taken through quota sampling technique which was used to gather data according to the specifically predefined groups (79 women with female infants and 79 women with male infants). The sample was selected non-randomly according to the fixed quota. A protocol which had demographic and interpersonal relationship variables alongside with the Urdu version Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to collect the relevant data. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 software package. A statistically significant association between the attachment with husband in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression has been found. The association between the husband’s emotional and physical support in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression had also been found significant. In case of women with a male infant, the association between support of in-laws and postpartum depression is statistically significant. An association between the violence/discrimination based on the basis of infant's gender in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression is also found. These findings points out that when studying the correlates of postpartum depression, it is imperative to carry out an analysis in the context of gender by considering gender of the infant especially in societies where strict gender preferences exists.

Keywords: infant, gender, attachment, husband, in-laws, support, violence, discrimination, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Gilgit, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
159 An Alternative Stratified Cox Model for Correlated Variables in Infant Mortality

Authors: K. A. Adeleke

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Often in epidemiological research, introducing stratified Cox model can account for the existence of interactions of some inherent factors with some major/noticeable factors. This research work aimed at modelling correlated variables in infant mortality with the existence of some inherent factors affecting the infant survival function. An alternative semiparametric Stratified Cox model is proposed with a view to take care of multilevel factors that have interactions with others. This, however, was used as a tool to model infant mortality data from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) with some multilevel factors (Tetanus, Polio, and Breastfeeding) having correlation with main factors (Sex, Size, and Mode of Delivery). Asymptotic properties of the estimators are also studied via simulation. The tested model via data showed good fit and performed differently depending on the levels of the interaction of the strata variable Z*. An evidence that the baseline hazard functions and regression coefficients are not the same from stratum to stratum provides a gain in information as against the usage of Cox model. Simulation result showed that the present method produced better estimates in terms of bias, lower standard errors, and or mean square errors.

Keywords: stratified Cox, semiparametric model, infant mortality, multilevel factors, cofounding variables

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158 Infant Care Practice in Hadiya Culture: Case Study of Harche Auyaya

Authors: Dawit Thomas

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Feeding and weaning practices vary from culture to culture and depend on different child-rearing values. The socio-cultural dimensions that influence the acceptable infant feeding practices are varied and complex. Understanding cultural differences in beliefs and practices relating to infant feeding is important to enhance designing programs for delivering successful psychological, social, physiological and economic well-being of mothers and infants. The main purpose of this study was exploring mothers infant feeding practices in the context of Hadiyya culture. After purposively selecting Harche Huyaya Uyaya Kebele eight infant feeding mothers were selected using snowball sampling technique. The study employed interviews and focus group discussion. The study found out early initiation and prolonged breastfeeding and early complementary feeding in some instances immediately after birth. In addition, infants were not forced to wean unless the mothers encounter pressing issues like pregnancy and health related problems. Furthermore, the main weaning techniques were putting unpleasant materials on the tip of nipples and sending infants to grandparents home. The study also found out gender difference in weaning, i.e., early initiation of weaning for girls. This can be indicative of gender-based bias on weaning practice. Finally, health extension workers, office of women and children affairs and Hadiyya Zone Tourism office should organize awareness raising programs to preserve vital infant feeding practices like prolonged breastfeeding and length of weaning. In addition, the offices should raise awareness among communities on negative side effects of sending infant to grandparents home that may weaken infant-mothers attachment and create favorable ground for the development of phobia.

Keywords: feeding, infant, practices, weaning

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157 Interactions on Silent Mode: Parental Smartphone Distractions on Infant Mental Health

Authors: Terry Gomez

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This interpretive phenomenological qualitative study explored potential risks related to infant mental health with parental smartphone use while caring for infants. Data were collected through nine online interviews of first-time parents with infants under one-year-old. All parents reported using their smartphone during child-bonding activities such as playtime, feeding, and sleep-time. Results indicated that smartphone distractions appear to influence the synchrony of parent-child interactions. Infants displayed physical, verbal, or emotional reactions to parents’ smartphone distractions, indicating that smartphone use influences infants’ behaviors. Parents shared information on how smartphones helped them with their transition into parenthood. The findings of this study provide insights helpful to inform infant mental health professionals and parents about potential developmental consequences associated with parental technoference and absent presence.

Keywords: absent presence, infant mental health, parental distractions, smartphones, technoference

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156 A Case Comparative Study of Infant Mortality Rate in North-West Nigeria

Authors: G. I. Onwuka, A. Danbaba, S. U. Gulumbe

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This study investigated of Infant Mortality Rate as observed at a general hospital in Kaduna-South, Kaduna State, North West Nigeria. The causes of infant Mortality were examined. The data used for this analysis were collected at the statistics unit of the Hospital. The analysis was carried out on the data using Multiple Linear regression Technique and this showed that there is linear relationship between the dependent variable (death) and the independent variables (malaria, measles, anaemia, and coronary heart disease). The resultant model also revealed that a unit increment in each of these diseases would result to a unit increment in death recorded, 98.7% of the total variation in mortality is explained by the given model. The highest number of mortality was recorded in July, 2005 and the lowest mortality recorded in October, 2009.Recommendations were however made based on the results of the study.

Keywords: infant mortality rate, multiple linear regression, diseases, serial correlation

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155 The Recorded Interaction Task: A Validation Study of a New Observational Tool to Assess Mother-Infant Bonding

Authors: Hannah Edwards, Femke T. A. Buisman-Pijlman, Adrian Esterman, Craig Phillips, Sandra Orgeig, Andrea Gordon

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Mother-infant bonding is a term which refers to the early emotional connectedness between a mother and her infant. Strong mother-infant bonding promotes higher quality mother and infant interactions including prolonged breastfeeding, secure attachment and increased sensitive parenting and maternal responsiveness. Strengthening of all such interactions leads to improved social behavior, and emotional and cognitive development throughout childhood, adolescence and adulthood. The positive outcomes observed following strong mother-infant bonding emphasize the need to screen new mothers for disrupted mother-infant bonding, and in turn the need for a robust, valid tool to assess mother-infant bonding. A recent scoping review conducted by the research team identified four tools to assess mother-infant bonding, all of which employed self-rating scales. Thus, whilst these tools demonstrated both adequate validity and reliability, they rely on self-reported information from the mother. As such this may reflect a mother’s perception of bonding with their infant, rather than their actual behavior. Therefore, a new tool to assess mother-infant bonding has been developed. The Recorded Interaction Task (RIT) addresses shortcomings of previous tools by employing observational methods to assess bonding. The RIT focusses on the common interaction between mother and infant of changing a nappy, at the target age of 2-6 months, which is visually recorded and then later assessed. Thirteen maternal and seven infant behaviors are scored on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet, and a final combined score of mother-infant bonding is determined. The aim of the current study was to assess the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the RIT. A panel of six experts with specialized expertise in bonding and infant behavior were consulted. Experts were provided with the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet, a visual recording of a nappy change interaction, and a feedback form. Experts scored the mother and infant interaction on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet and completed the feedback form which collected their opinions on the validity of each item on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet and the RIT as a whole. Twelve of the 20 items on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet were scored ‘Valid’ by all (n=6) or most (n=5) experts. Two items received a ‘Not valid’ score from one expert. The remainder of the items received a mixture of ‘Valid’ and ‘Potentially Valid’ scores. Few changes were made to the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet following expert feedback, including rewording of items for clarity and the exclusion of an item focusing on behavior deemed not relevant for the target infant age. The overall ICC for single rater absolute agreement was 0.48 (95% CI 0.28 – 0.71). Experts (n=6) ratings were less consistent for infant behavior (ICC 0.27 (-0.01 – 0.82)) compared to mother behavior (ICC 0.55 (0.28 – 0.80)). Whilst previous tools employ self-report methods to assess mother-infant bonding, the RIT utilizes observational methods. The current study highlights adequate content validity and moderate inter-rater reliability of the RIT, supporting its use in future research. A convergent validity study comparing the RIT against an existing tool is currently being undertaken to confirm these results.

Keywords: content validity, inter-rater reliability, mother-infant bonding, observational tool, recorded interaction task

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154 Maternal Awareness of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Jordanian Study

Authors: Nemeh Ahmad Al-Akour, Ibrahem Alfaouri

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Objective: To examine the level of maternal awareness of SIDS and its prevention amongst Jordanian mothers in the north of Jordan, as well as to determine their SIDS-related infant care practices. Design: A cross-sectional design. Setting: The study was conducted in maternal out-patients clinics of two teaching hospitals and three maternal and child health clinic in three major health care centers in Northern Jordan. Participants: A total of 356 mothers of infants attending the maternal and child health clinics were included in this study. Measurements and findings: A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting data study. In this study, 64%of mothers didn’t hear about SIDS, while only 7% of mothers were able to identify factors risk-reducing recommendations. Avoidance of prone sleeping was the most frequently identified recommendation (5%). There were 67.7% of mothers who put their infant in a lateral position to sleep, 61% used soft mattress surface for their babies sleep and 25.8% who shared a bed with their babies. Employed mother, mothers of higher age, and mothers living within a nuclear family were the only factors associated with maternal awareness of SIDS. Friends were the highest a source of knowledge of SIDS for mothers (44.7%). Key conclusions: There was a low level of awareness of SIDS and its associated risk factor among the mothers in Jordan. The mothers' misconception about smoking and sleeping position for their infants requires further efforts. Implications for practice: To ensure raising awareness of infant care practice regarding SIDS, a national educational intervention on SIDS risk reduction strategies and recommendations is necessary for maintaining a low rate of SIDS in the population.

Keywords: bed sharing, infant care, Jordan, sleep position, sudden infant death

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153 Analysis of Factors Affecting the Number of Infant and Maternal Mortality in East Java with Geographically Weighted Bivariate Generalized Poisson Regression Method

Authors: Luh Eka Suryani, Purhadi

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Poisson regression is a non-linear regression model with response variable in the form of count data that follows Poisson distribution. Modeling for a pair of count data that show high correlation can be analyzed by Poisson Bivariate Regression. Data, the number of infant mortality and maternal mortality, are count data that can be analyzed by Poisson Bivariate Regression. The Poisson regression assumption is an equidispersion where the mean and variance values are equal. However, the actual count data has a variance value which can be greater or less than the mean value (overdispersion and underdispersion). Violations of this assumption can be overcome by applying Generalized Poisson Regression. Characteristics of each regency can affect the number of cases occurred. This issue can be overcome by spatial analysis called geographically weighted regression. This study analyzes the number of infant mortality and maternal mortality based on conditions in East Java in 2016 using Geographically Weighted Bivariate Generalized Poisson Regression (GWBGPR) method. Modeling is done with adaptive bisquare Kernel weighting which produces 3 regency groups based on infant mortality rate and 5 regency groups based on maternal mortality rate. Variables that significantly influence the number of infant and maternal mortality are the percentages of pregnant women visit health workers at least 4 times during pregnancy, pregnant women get Fe3 tablets, obstetric complication handled, clean household and healthy behavior, and married women with the first marriage age under 18 years.

Keywords: adaptive bisquare kernel, GWBGPR, infant mortality, maternal mortality, overdispersion

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152 A Comparison Study: Infant and Children’s Clothing Size Charts in South Korea and UK

Authors: Hye-Won Lim, Tom Cassidy, Tracy Cassidy

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Infant and children’s body shapes are changing constantly while they are growing up into adults and are also distinctive physically between countries. For this reason, optimum size charts which can represent body sizes and shapes of infants and children are required. In this study, investigations of current size charts in South Korea and UK (n=50 each) were conducted for understanding and figuring out the sizing perspectives of the clothing manufacturers. The size charts of the two countries were collected randomly from online shopping websites and those size charts’ average measurements were compared with both national sizing surveys (SizeKorea and Shape GB). The size charts were also classified by age, gender, clothing type, fitting, and other factors. In addition, the key measurement body parts of size charts of each country were determined and those will be suggested for new size charts and sizing system development.

Keywords: infant clothing, children’s clothing, body shapes, size charts

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151 Association of Maternal Diet Quality Indices and Dietary Patterns during Lactation and the Growth of Exclusive Breastfed Infant

Authors: Leila Azadbakht, Maedeh Moradi, Mohammad Reza Merasi, Farzaneh Jahangir

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Maternal dietary intake during lactation might affect the growth rate of an exclusive breastfed infant. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of maternal dietary patterns and quality during lactation on the growth of the exclusive breastfed infant. Methods: 484 healthy lactating mothers with their infant were enrolled in this study. Only exclusive breastfed infants were included in this study which was conducted in Iran. Dietary intake of lactating mothers was assessed using a validated and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality indices such as alternative Healthy eating index (HEI), Dietary energy density (DED), and adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern score, Nordic and dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating pattern were created. Anthropometric features of infant (weight, height, and head circumference) were recorded at birth, two and four months. Results: Weight, length, weight for height and head circumference of infants at two months and four months age were mostly in the normal range among those that mothers adhered more to the HEI in lactation period (normal weight: 61%; normal height: 59%). The prevalence of stunting at four months of age among those whose mothers adhered more to the HEI was 31% lower than those with the least adherence to HEI. Mothers in the top tertiles of HEI score had the lowest frequency of having underweight infants (18% vs. 33%; P=0.03). Odds ratio of being overweight or obese at four months age was the lowest among those infants whose mothers adhered more to the HEI (OR: 0.67 vs 0.91; Ptrend=0.03). However, there was not any significant association between adherence of mothers to Mediterranean diet as well as DASH diet and Nordic eating pattern and the growth of infants (none of weight, height or head circumference). Infant weight, length, weight for height and head circumference at two months and four months did not show significant differences among different tertile categories of mothers’ DED. Conclusions: Higher diet quality indices and more adherence of lactating mother to HEI (as an indicator of diet quality) may be associated with better growth indices of the breastfed infant. However, it seems that DED of the lactating mother does not affect the growth of the breastfed infant. Adherence to the different dietary patterns such as Mediterranean, DASH or Nordic among mothers had no different effect on the growth indices of the infants. However, higher diet quality indices and more adherence of lactating mother to HEI may be associated with better growth indices of the breastfed infant. Breastfeeding is a complete way that is not affected much by the dietary patterns of the mother. However, better diet quality might be associated with better growth.

Keywords: breastfeeding, growth, infant, maternal diet

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150 Unveiling the Realities of Marrying Too Young: Evidence from Child Brides in Sub-Saharan Africa and Infant Mortality Implications

Authors: Emmanuel Olamijuwon

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Despite laws against child marriage - a violation against child rights, the practice remains widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and globally partly because of persistent poverty, gender inequality, protection and the need to reinforce family ties. Using pooled data from the recent demographic and health surveys of 20-sub-Saharan African countries with a regional representative sample of 36,943 girls under 18 years, this study explores the prevalence, pattern and infant mortality implications of this marriage type while also examining its regional variations. Indications from the study are that child marriage is still very high in the region with variations above one-tenth in West, Central and Southern Africa regions except in the East African region where only about 7% of children under 18 were already married. Preliminary findings also suggest that about one-in-ten infant deaths were to child brides many of whom were residing in poor households, rural residence, unemployed and have less than secondary education. Based on these findings, it is, therefore, important that government of African countries addresses critical issues through increased policies towards increasing enrollment of girl children in schools as many of these girls are not likely to have any economic benefit to the region if the observed pattern continues.

Keywords: child marriage, infant mortality, Africa, child brides

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149 Material Response Characterisation of a PolyJet 3D Printed Human Infant Skull

Authors: G. A. Khalid, R. Prabhu, W. Whittington, M. D. Jones

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To establish a causal relationship of infant head injury consequences, this present study addresses the necessary challenges of cranial geometry and the physical response complexities of the paediatric head tissues. Herein, we describe a new approach to characterising and understanding infant head impact mechanics by developing printed head models, using high resolution clinical postmortem imaging, to provide the most complete anatomical representation currently available, and biological material response data-matched polypropylene polymers, to replicate the relative mechanical response properties of immature cranial bone, sutures and fontanelles. Additive manufacturing technology was applied to creating a physical polymeric model of a newborn infant skull, using PolyJet printed materials. Infant skull materials responses, were matched by a response characterisation study, utilising uniaxial tensile testing (1 mm min-1 loading rate), to determine: the stiffness, ultimate tensile strength and maximum strain of rigid and rubber additively manufactured acrylates. The results from the mechanical experiments confirm that the polymeric materials RGD835 Vero White Plus (White), representing the frontal and parietal bones; RGD8510- DM Rigid Light Grey25 (Grey), representing the occipital bone; and FLX9870-DM (Black) representing the suture and fontanelles, were found to show a close stiffness -correlation (E) at ambient temperatures. A 3D physical model of infant head was subsequently printed from the matched materials and subsequently validated against results obtained from a series of Post Mortem Human Surrogate (PMHS) tests. A close correlation was demonstrated between the model impact tests and the PMHS. This study, therefore, represents a key step towards applying printed physical models to understanding head injury biomechanics and is useful in the efforts to predict and mitigate head injury consequences in infants, whether accidental or by abuse.

Keywords: infant head trauma, infant skull, material response, post mortem human subjects, polyJet printing

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148 Formulation, Nutritive Value Assessment And Effect On Weight Gain Of Infant Formulae Prepared From Locally Available Materia

Authors: J. T. Johnson, R. A. Atule, E. Gbodo

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The widespread problem of infant malnutrition in developing countries has stirred efforts in research, development and extension by both local and international organizations. As a result, the formulation and development of nutritious weaning foods from local and readily available raw materials which are cost effective has become imperative in many developing countries. Thus, local and readily available raw materials where used to compound and develop nutritious new infant formulae. The materials used for this study include maize, millet, cowpea, pumpkin, fingerlings, and fish bone. The materials where dried and blended to powder. The powders were weighed in the ratio of 4:4:4:3:1:1 respectively and were then mixed properly. Analysis of nutritive value was conducted on the formulae and compared with NAN-2 standard and results reveals that the formulae had reasonable amount of moisture, lipids, carbohydrate, protein, and fibre. Although NAN-2 was superior in both carbohydrate and protein, the new infant formula was higher in mineral elements, vitamins, fibre, and lipids. All the essentials vitamins and both macro and micro minerals where found in appreciable quantity capable of meeting the biochemical and physiological demand of the body while the anti-nutrients composition were significantly below FAO and WHO safe limits. Finally, the compounded infant formulae was feed to a set of albino Wistar rats while some other set of rats was feed with NAN-2 for the period of twenty seven (27) days and body weight was measure at three days intervals. The results of body weight changes was spectacular as their body weight over shot or almost double that of those animals that were feed with NAN-2 at each point of measurement. The results suggest that the widespread problem of infant malnutrition in the developing world especially among the low income segment of the society can now be reduced if not totally eradicated since nutritive and cost effective weaning formulae can be prepared locally from common readily available materials.

Keywords: formulation, nutritive value, local, materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
147 An Intelligent Baby Care System Based on IoT and Deep Learning Techniques

Authors: Chinlun Lai, Lunjyh Jiang

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Due to the heavy burden and pressure of caring for infants, an integrated automatic baby watching system based on IoT smart sensing and deep learning machine vision techniques is proposed in this paper. By monitoring infant body conditions such as heartbeat, breathing, body temperature, sleeping posture, as well as the surrounding conditions such as dangerous/sharp objects, light, noise, humidity and temperature, the proposed system can analyze and predict the obvious/potential dangerous conditions according to observed data and then adopt suitable actions in real time to protect the infant from harm. Thus, reducing the burden of the caregiver and improving safety efficiency of the caring work. The experimental results show that the proposed system works successfully for the infant care work and thus can be implemented in various life fields practically.

Keywords: baby care system, Internet of Things, deep learning, machine vision

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146 Application of Natural Dyes on Polyester and Polyester-Cellulosic Blended Fabrics

Authors: Deepali Rastogi, Akanksha Rastogi

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Comfort and safety are two essential factors in a newborn’s clothing. Natural dyes are considered safe for infant clothes because they are non-toxic and have medicinal properties. Natural dyes are sensitive to pH and may show changes in hue under different pH conditions. Infant garments face treatments different than adult clothing, for instance, exposure to infant’s saliva, milk, and urine. The present study was designed to study the suitability of natural dyes for infant clothes. Cotton fabric was dyed using fifteen natural dyes and two mordants, alum, and ferrous sulphate. The dyed samples were assessed for colour fastness to washing, rubbing, perspiration and light. In addition, fastness to milk, saliva, and urine was also tested. Simulated solutions of saliva and urine were prepared for the study. For milk, one of the commercial formulations for infants was taken and used as per the directions. A wide gamut of colours was obtained after dyeing the cotton with different natural dyes and mordants. The colour strength of all the dyed samples was determined in terms of K/S values. Most of the ferrous sulphate mordanted dyes gave higher K/S values than alum mordanted samples. The wash fastness of dyed cotton fabrics ranged from 3/4 -5. Perspiration fastness test for the samples was done in both acidic and alkaline mediums. The ratings ranged from 3-5, with most of the dyes falling in the range of 4-5. The rubbing fastness of the dyed samples was tested in dry and wet conditions. The results showed excellent rub fastness ranging between 4-5. Light fastness was found to be good to moderate. The main food for infants is milk, and this becomes one of the main agents to spot infants' garments. All dyes showed excellent fastness properties against milk with a grey scale rating of 4-5. Fastness against saliva is recommended by various eco-labels, standards, and organizations for fabrics of infants or babies. The fastness of most of the dyes was found to be satisfactory against saliva. Infant garments get frequently soiled with urine. Most of the natural dyes on cotton fabric had good to excellent fastness to simulated urine. The grey scale ratings ranged from 3/4 – 5. Thus, it can be concluded that most of the natural dyes can be successfully used for infant wear and accessories and are fast to various liquids to which infant wear are exposed. Therefore, we can surround little ones with beautiful hues from nature's garden and clothe them in natural fibres dyed with natural dyes.

Keywords: fastness properties, infant wear, mordants, natural dyes

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145 Maternal Health Care Utilization and Its Effect on Pregnancy Outcome in Nepal

Authors: Adrita Banerjee, Ajeet Kumar Singh

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Antenatal care (ANC) from a skilled provider is important to monitor the pregnancy and reduce the risk of morbidity for mother and baby during pregnancy and delivery. The quality of antenatal care can be monitored through the content of services received and the kind of information mothers are given during their visit. Objective: The paper tries to examine the association between ANC check-ups and size/ birth weight. It also focuses on investigating the relationship between utilization of recommended prenatal care for mothers and its effect on infant survival in Nepal. Data and methods: This paper uses data from Nepal demographic Health Survey 2011. To understand the relationship bi-variate statistical analysis and logistic regressions has been done. Maternal health care utilization include ANC check-ups i.e. the type of ante-natal care providers, the number and timing of the visit. The various components of the check-ups include intake of iron tablets/syrups, intestinal parasitic drugs, etc. Results: The results show that women who had no antenatal care visits about 40% had small sized babies at the time of birth compared to women to had at least 3 ANC check up. Women who had at least 3 check-ups 17% of the babies have a small size. It has also been found that about 50 % of the women prefer ANC check-ups during pregnancies which have resulted in lowering the infant mortality by about 40% during 1996-2011. Conclusion: Ante natal care check is care and monitoring of the pregnant woman and her foetus throughout pregnancy. ANC checks have an effect on the infant health and child survival. A woman who had at least three check-ups the possibilities of adverse effect on infant health and infant survival was significantly lower. The findings argue for a more enhanced focus on ANC check-ups for improving the maternal and child health in Nepal.

Keywords: maternal, health, pregnancy, outcome

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
144 Logistic Regression Model versus Additive Model for Recurrent Event Data

Authors: Entisar A. Elgmati

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Recurrent infant diarrhea is studied using daily data collected in Salvador, Brazil over one year and three months. A logistic regression model is fitted instead of Aalen's additive model using the same covariates that were used in the analysis with the additive model. The model gives reasonably similar results to that using additive regression model. In addition, the problem with the estimated conditional probabilities not being constrained between zero and one in additive model is solved here. Also martingale residuals that have been used to judge the goodness of fit for the additive model are shown to be useful for judging the goodness of fit of the logistic model.

Keywords: additive model, cumulative probabilities, infant diarrhoea, recurrent event

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143 Development of a Paediatric Head Model for the Computational Analysis of Head Impact Interactions

Authors: G. A. Khalid, M. D. Jones, R. Prabhu, A. Mason-Jones, W. Whittington, H. Bakhtiarydavijani, P. S. Theobald

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Head injury in childhood is a common cause of death or permanent disability from injury. However, despite its frequency and significance, there is little understanding of how a child’s head responds during injurious loading. Whilst Infant Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) experimentation is a logical approach to understand injury biomechanics, it is the authors’ opinion that a lack of subject availability is hindering potential progress. Computer modelling adds great value when considering adult populations; however, its potential remains largely untapped for infant surrogates. The complexities of child growth and development, which result in age dependent changes in anatomy, geometry and physical response characteristics, present new challenges for computational simulation. Further geometric challenges are presented by the intricate infant cranial bones, which are separated by sutures and fontanelles and demonstrate a visible fibre orientation. This study presents an FE model of a newborn infant’s head, developed from high-resolution computer tomography scans, informed by published tissue material properties. To mimic the fibre orientation of immature cranial bone, anisotropic properties were applied to the FE cranial bone model, with elastic moduli representing the bone response both parallel and perpendicular to the fibre orientation. Biofiedility of the computational model was confirmed by global validation against published PMHS data, by replicating experimental impact tests with a series of computational simulations, in terms of head kinematic responses. Numerical results confirm that the FE head model’s mechanical response is in favourable agreement with the PMHS drop test results.

Keywords: finite element analysis, impact simulation, infant head trauma, material properties, post mortem human subjects

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142 The Most Effective Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity

Authors: Sarah-Anne Schumann, Chintan Shah, Sandeep Ponniah, Syeachia Dennis

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Effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity include limiting sugar-sweetened beverage intake (SOR: B, longitudinal study), school and home based strategies to reduce total screen time and increase physical activity, behavioral and dietary counseling, and support for parents and families (SOR: A, meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized controlled trials). Risk factors for childhood obesity include maternal pre-pregnancy weight, high infant birth weight, early infant rapid weight gain and maternal smoking during pregnancy which may provide opportunities to intervene and prevent childhood obesity (SOR: B, meta-analysis of observational studies).

Keywords: childhood, obesity, prevent obesity, interventions to prevent obesity

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141 Effect of Whey Protein-Lactose Conjugates on the in-vitro Infants Digestion

Authors: Sarizan Sabari, Norliza Julmohammad

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Protein base modification is a notable and potential method to alter the molecular structure, change the physicochemical and functional properties of the protein, thus affecting protein digestibility. This study is set out to investigate the protein digestibility of whey protein-lactose (WP-Lac) conjugates using an in-vitro infant digestion model. WP was conjugated using lactose by dry Maillard Reaction (MR) method under optimized conditions. WP-Lac heated at 40℃, water activity Aw=0.80 and incubation time from 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days were studied. To monitor the extent of conjugation, visible browning colour observation, ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometer, and L*a*b* analysis was performed using WP alone as a control in this study. Lactosylation will be then monitored with ortho-pthaldialdehyde (OPA) analysis to determine the primary amino groups present in both WP-Lac conjugates and WP alone (control). The covalent bond formation is observed between WP to lactose using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique. Under simulated gastric conditions at pH 3, 19uL of a 0.625 mg/mL pepsin is added to WP-Lac conjugates and WP alone (control), whereas in duodenal phase digestion, pH is set at 6.5 and 32uL of a 5.899mg/mL pancreatin is added to WP-Lac and WP (control). The digestion product affirms dry MR conjugation has the potential to improve WP digestibility. Herein, this study of WP-Lac conjugates will also explain its effect on WP digestibility, and it helps understand how WP-disaccharide glycate affects protein digestion during in-vitro infant digestion. Therefore, it could lead to the release of immunogenic protein by lactose and the development of hypoallergenic protein.

Keywords: in-vitro infant digestion, maillard reaction, protein digestibility, WPs-lactose conjugates

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140 Determinants of Cessation of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Ankesha Guagusa Woreda, Awi Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Tebikew Yeneabat, Tefera Belachew, Muluneh Haile

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Background: Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) is the practice of feeding only breast milk (including expressed breast milk) during the first six months and no other liquids and solid foods except medications. The time to cessation of exclusive breast-feeding, however, is different in different countries depending on different factors. Studies showed the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality is higher among none exclusive breast-feeding infants, common during starting other foods. However, there is no study that evaluated the time to cessation of exclusive breast-feeding in the study area. The aim of this study was to show time to cessation of EBF and its predictors among mothers of index infants less than twelve months old. Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study from February 13 to March 3, 2012 using both quantitative and qualitative methods. This study included a total of 592 mothers of index infant using multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed. Results: Cessation of exclusive breast-feeding occurred in 392 (69.63%) cases. Among these, 224 (57.1%) happened before six months, while 145 (37.0%) and 23 (5.9%) occurred at six months and after six months of age of the index infant respectively. The median time for infants to stay on exclusive breast-feeding was 6.36 months in rural and 5.13 months in urban, and this difference was statistically significant on a Log rank (Cox-mantel) test. Maternal and paternal occupation, place of residence, postnatal counseling on exclusive breast-feeding, mode of delivery, and birth order of the index infant were significant predictors of cessation of exclusive breast-feeding. Conclusion: Providing postnatal care counseling on EBF, routine follow-up and support of those mothers having infants stressing for working mothers can bring about implementation of national strategy on infant and young child feeding.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, cessation, median duration, Ankesha Guagusa Woreda

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139 The Imperative of Indigenous Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development in the Globalized Economy

Authors: Innocent Felix Idoko

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The development of indigenous entrepreneurship is critical to the achievement of sustainable development in the internationalized economy. Sustainable development implies a continuous stimulus of growth and improvement of an economy in a fairly stable manner. The paradigms of a globalization are numerous to mention. However, to a great extent, these are trade-offs and dilemmas for indigenous entrepreneurship, particularly in the developing economies with infant industries that are essentially crucial to development. This paper analyses the pros and cons of globalization as relates to the complementary role of both foreign and indigenous entrepreneurs, the conflict of values between globalization and protectionism for local entrepreneurship. Using analytical and descriptive approach, the views of academicians, research fellows, literature reviews and both the theories of the mercantilists and those of free trade mainstream economists, and the G20, the paper concludes that there is a legitimate need for protectionism for domestic entrepreneurship in the developing economies as doing otherwise amount to stifling them.

Keywords: developing countries, entrepreneurship, globalization, infant-industries, protectionism, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
138 The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care and Swaddling Method on Venipuncture Pain in Premature Infant: Randomized Clinical Trials

Authors: Faezeh Jahanpour, Shahin Dezhdar, Saeedeh Firouz Bakht, Afshin Ostovar

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Objective: The hospitalized premature babies often undergo various painful procedures such as venous sampling. The Kangaroo mother care (KMC) method is one of the pain reduction methods, but as mother’s presence is not always possible, this research was done to compare the effect of swaddling and KMC method on venous sampling pain on premature neonates. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 90 premature infants selected and randomly alocated into three groups; Group A (swaddling), Group B (the kangaroo care), and group C (the control). From 10 minutes before blood sampling to 2 minutes after that in group A, the infant was wrapped in a thin sheet, and in group B, the infant was under Kangaroo care. In all three groups, the heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation in time intervals of 30 seconds before, during, 30-60-90, and 120 seconds after sampling were measured and recorded. The infant’s face was video recorded since sampling till 2 minutes and the videos were checked by a researcher who was unaware of the kind of intervention and the pain assessment tools for infants (PIPP) for time intervals of 30 seconds were completed. Data analyzed by t-test, Q square, Repeated Measure ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Post-hoc and Bonferroni test. Results: Findings revealed that the pain was reduced to a great extent in swaddling and kangaroo method compared to that in control group. But there was not a significant difference between kangaroo and swaddling care method (P ≥ 0.05). In addition, the findings showed that the heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation was low and stable in swaddling and Kangaroo care method and returned to base status faster, whereas, the changes were severe in control group and did not return to base status even after 120 seconds. Discussion: The results of this study showed that there was not a meaningful difference between swaddling and kangaroo care method on physiological indexes and pain in infants. Therefore, swaddling method can be a good substitute for kangaroo care method in this regard.

Keywords: Kangaroo mother care, neonate, pain, premature, swaddling, venipuncture,

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137 Effect of Relaxation Techniques on Immunological Properties of Breast Milk

Authors: Ahmed Ali Torad

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Background: Breast feeding maintains the maternal fetal immunological link, favours the transmission of immune-competence from the mother to her infant and is considered an important contributory factor to the neo natal immune defense system. Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of relaxation techniques on immunological properties of breast milk. Subjects and Methods: Thirty breast feeding mothers with a single, mature infant without any complications participated in the study. Subjects will be recruited from outpatient clinic of obstetric department of El Kasr El-Aini university hospital in Cairo. Mothers were randomly divided into two equal groups using coin toss method: Group (A) (relaxation training group) (experimental group): It will be composed of 15 women who received relaxation training program in addition to breast feeding and nutritional advices and Group (B) (control group): It will be composed of 15 women who received breast feeding and nutritional advices only. Results: The results showed that mean mother’s age was 28.4 ± 3.68 and 28.07 ± 4.09 for group A and B respectively, there were statistically significant differences between pre and post values regarding cortisol level, IgA level, leucocyte count and infant’s weight and height and there is only statistically significant differences between both groups regarding post values of all immunological variables (cortisol – IgA – leucocyte count). Conclusion: We could conclude that there is a statistically significant effect of relaxation techniques on immunological properties of breast milk.

Keywords: relaxation, breast, milk, immunology, lactation

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136 Rt. Side Sleeping Position Prevents Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Authors: Othman Salim Hussein Al-Fleesy

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Background: Studies showed that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has association with sleeping positions. Up-to-date no study explained how could they prevent it? Objectives: 1-To determine which sleeping position is certainly safe one to prevent SIDS. 2-To establish criteria for suggesting definition and making diagnosis for SIDS. 3-To discuss the controversy surrounding SUND, ALTE, NM, as compared to SIDS. Method: This literature review was built on a previous literature. Articles were obtained randomly according to their availability to the author. For the purpose of this work an easy approach was built by modeling an overview on SIDS topic after clarifying the misconception and misinterpretation of a number of controversial issues in regard to SIDS such as: asphyxia, sudden unexpected death among adults (Bangungut or Pokkuri), apparent life threatening event (ALTE), Nightmare, and comparing the findings with the literature review results..By this unique method we got a clue for prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Results: The revision revealed with no doubt that no study before have studied right-side sleeping position at all. The author determined right side as the only safe position to preventing SIDS. A new definition for SIDS is suggested. The author postulated a Right side position hypothesis (Alfleesy hypothesis) which is a testable hypothesis in front of all researchers for further study . Conclusion: Our results contradict totally all previous studies and recommendations. We recommended strongly the right side position only for sleeping to prevent SIDS. New definition is suggested and a new hypothesis is postulated.

Keywords: SIDS, ALTE, nightmare, forensic sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 367