Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4899

Search results for: antifungal activity

4899 An in vitro Study on Synergetic Antifungal Activity of Garlic Extract with Honey and Lemon Juice against Candida sp.

Authors: P. Karpagam, Babu Joseph, P. Ashok Kumar

Abstract:

The incidence of Candida infections is increasing worldwide. The serious nature of these infections is compounded by increasing levels of drug resistance. Pure cultures of the Candida sp. were obtained from clinical isolates and fresh garlic extracts were obtained by extraction techniques. The antifungal activity of garlic extract was investigated in an in vitro system. The extract (100%, 75% and 50%) showed significant antifungal activity against Candida, whereas, low concentration (25%) of the extract showed less antifungal activity against the test organism. Antifungal activities of honey and lemon juice were tested against the Candida; however, the growth was not inhibited by these extracts. On the other hand honey and lemon when combined with garlic exhibited a good antifungal activity. The study thus confirms the antifungal properties of garlic extract along with additives like honey and lemon have significant antifungal activity against isolates of Candida species.

Keywords: Candida, garlic extract, lemon, synergitic antifungal activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
4898 Design, Synthesis and In-Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Some Novel Spiro[Azetidine-2, 3’-Indole]-2, 4(1’H)-Dione

Authors: Ravi J. Shah

Abstract:

The present study deals with the synthesis of novel spiro[azetidine-2, 3’-indole]-2’, 4(1’H)-dione derivative from the reactions of 3-(phenylimino)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one derivatives with chloracetyl chloride in presence of triethyl amine (TEA). All the compounds were characterized using IR, 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. They were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Results revealed that, compounds (7a), (7b), (7c), (7d) and (7e) showed very good activity with MIC value of 6.25-12.5 μg/ml against three evaluated bacterial strains and the remaining compounds showed good to moderate activity comparable to standard drugs as antibacterial agents. Compounds (7c) and (7h) displayed equipotent antifungal activity in comparison to standard drugs. Structure-activity relationship study of the compounds showed that the presence of electron withdrawing group substitution at 5’ and 7’ positions of indoline ring and on ortho or para position of phenyl ring increases both antibacterial and antifungal activity of the compound. Henceforth, our findings will have a good impact on chemists and biochemists for further investigations in search of bromine containing spiro fused antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, 2-Azetidinone, indoline

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
4897 Control of Spoilage Fungi by Lactobacilli

Authors: Laref Nora, Guessas Bettache

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a major potential to be used in biopreservation methods because they are safe to consume (GRAS: generally regarded as safe) and they naturally occurring microflora of many foods. The preservative action of LAB is due to several antimicrobial metabolites, including lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocins, carbon dioxide, diacetyl, and reuterin. Several studies have focused on the antifungal activity compounds from natural sources for biopreservation in alternatives to chemical use. LAB has an antifungal activity which may inhibit food spoilage fungi. Lactobacillus strains isolated from silage prepared in our laboratory by fermentation of grass in anaerobic condition were screened for antifungal activity with overlay assay against Aspergillus spp. The antifungal compounds were originated from organic acids; inhibitory activity did not change after treatment with proteolytic enzymes. Lactobacillus strains were able also to inhibit Trichoderma spp, Penicillium spp, Fusarium roseum, and Stemphylim spp by confrontation assay. The inhibitory activity could be detected against the mould Aspergillus spp in the apricot juice but not in a bakery product. These antifungal compounds have the potential to be used as food biopreservation to inhibit conidia germination, and mycelia growth of spoilage fungi depending on food type, pH of food especially in heat, and cold processed foods.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, antifungal activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
4896 In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil Artemisia Absinthium

Authors: Bouchenak Fatima, Lmegharbi Abdelbaki, Houssem Degaichia, Benrebiha Fatima

Abstract:

The essential oil composition of the leaf of Artemisia absinthium from region of Cherchell (The south of Algeria) was investigated by GC, GC-MS. 27 constituents were identified correspond to 84, 63% of the total oil. The major components are Thujone (60, 82%), Chamazulènel (16, 62%), ρ-cymène (4, 29%) and 2-carène (4.25%). The antimicrobial activity of oil was tested in vitro by two methods (agar diffusion and microdilution) on three plant pathogenic fungi. This oil has been tested for antimicrobial activity against three pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum and Helminthosporium Sp.).The study of activity was evaluated by two methods: Method of diffusion in gelose and the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC. This oil exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity. A preliminary study showed that this oil presented high toxicity against this fungus. These results, although preliminary show a good antifungal activity, to limit and inhibit stop the development of those pathogen agent.

Keywords: artemisia absinthian, extraction process, chemical study, antifungal activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
4895 Antifungal Activity of Silver Colloidal Nanoparticles against Phytopathogenic Fungus (Phomopsis sp.) in Soybean Seeds

Authors: J. E. Mendes, L. Abrunhosa, J. A. Teixeira, E. R. de Camargo, C. P. de Souza, J. D. C. Pessoa

Abstract:

Among the many promising nanomaterials with antifungal properties, metal nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles) stand out due to their high chemical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Phomopsis sp. AgNPs were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. The synthesized AgNPs have further been characterized by UV/Visible spectroscopy, Biophysical techniques like Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The average diameter of the prepared silver colloidal nanoparticles was about 52 nm. Absolute inhibitions (100%) were observed on treated with a 270 and 540 µg ml-1 concentration of AgNPs. The results from the study of the AgNPs antifungal effect are significant and suggest that the synthesized silver nanoparticles may have an advantage compared with conventional fungicides.

Keywords: antifungal activity, Phomopsis sp., seeds, silver nanoparticles, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
4894 Seasonal Stirred Variations in Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata

Authors: Francis Machumi, Ester Innocent, Pius Yanda, Philip C. Stevenson

Abstract:

Curative dependence of traditionally used medicinal plants on season of harvest is an alleged claim by traditional health practitioners. This study intended to verify these claims by investigating antifungal activity and chemical composition of traditionally used medicinal plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata harvested in rainy season and dry season. The antifungal activities were determined by broth microdilution method whereas chemical profiling of the extracts from the plant materials was done by gas chromatography (GC). Results indicated that extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season showed enhanced antifungal activity as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season. GC chromatograms showed overalls increase in number and amount of chemical species for extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season.

Keywords: antifungal activity, chemical composition, medicinal plants, seasonal dependence

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
4893 Antifungal Activity of Free Fatty Acids Methyl Esters Extracted from Citrullus colocynthis L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L. against Toxigenic Aspergillus

Authors: H. Malainine, A. Amrouche, H. Benmehdi

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was aimed at evaluating antifungal effect of crude esters and their corresponding FAMEs isolated from Citrullus colocynthis L., Linum usitatissimum L. and Nigella sativa L. seeds against two toxigenic fungal strains namely Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus. The results of the antifungal activity performed radial growth on solid medium (PDA; potatoes dextrose agar) showed that the crude esters and their corresponding FAMEs have exhibited against the two strains tested. Overall, FAMEs have provided an antifungal effect more efficient than that of crude esters. Inhibition of Aspergillus ochraceus has been labeled with percentages ranging from 13.33 to 26.61% by crude esters, While FAMEs inhibition was ranged between 27.33 to 41.13%. However, the inhibition observed against the Aspergillus flavus was varying from 14.68 to 18.59% by crude esters compared with the inhibition percentages ranging from 21.5 to 33.45% by the FAMEs. The antifungal potency of esters oils seeds of the studied plants may be an alternative for consideration by the authorities interested, due to serving the public health, in reducing the fungal enormous peril.

Keywords: Citrullus colocynthis L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., FAMEs, antifungal activity, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
4892 Promissing Antifungal Chitinase from Marine Strain of Bacillus

Authors: Ben Amar Cheba, Taha Ibrahim Zaghloul, Mohamad Hisham El-Massry, Ahmad Rafik El-Mahdy

Abstract:

Seventy two bacterial strains with ability to degrade chitin were isolated during a screening program. One of the most potent isolates (strain R2) was identified as Bacillus sp. using conventional methods as well as 16S rRNA technique and submitted in the Gen Bank sequence database as Bacillus sp. R2 with a given accession number DQ 923161. This strain was able to produce high levels of extracellular chitinase. The chitinase of Bacillus sp. R2 hydrolyzed several chitinous substrates preferentially and showed a maximum activity toward the β chitin such as Calmar pen and squid bone chitins with the folds 1.47 and 1.23 respectively. The enzyme also exhibited a substrate binding capacity of more than 70% for squid chitin, shrimp shell colloidal chitin, chitosan and prawn shell chitin. The chitinase showed a moderate antifungal activity against many phytopathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium degitatum and Fusarium calmorum.This strain could be a suitable candidate for chitinase production on an industrial scale for using as promising antifungal biopestecide.

Keywords: antifungal activity, Bacillus sp. R2, chitinase, substrate specificity

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
4891 Investigation of the Effect of Anaerobic Digestate on Antifungal Activity and in Different Parameters of Maize

Authors: Nazia Zaffar, Alam Khan, Abdul Haq, Malik Badshah

Abstract:

Pakistan is an agricultural country. The increasing population leads to an increase in demand for food. A large number of crops are infected by different microbes, and nutrient deficiency of soil adversely affects the yield of crops. Furthermore, the use of chemical fertilizers like Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK) Urea, and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and pesticides have environmental consequences. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore alternative renewable and sustainable biofertilizers. Maize is one of the top growing crops in Pakistan, but it has low yield compared to other countries due to deficiency of organic matter, widespread nutrients deficiency (phosphorus and nitrogen), unbalanced use of fertilizers and various fungal diseases. In order to get rid of all these disadvantages, Digestate emerged as a win-win opportunity for the control of a few plant diseases and a replacement for the chemical fertilizers. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Anerobic digestate on Antifungal Activity and in different parameters of Maize. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) against selected phytopathogens (Colletotrichum coccodis, Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsci, Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris oryzae and Fusarium Fujikuroi) were determined by microtiter plate method. The effect of various fertilizers in different growth parameters height, diameter, chlorophyll, leaf area, biomass, and yield were studied in field experiments. The extracts from anaerobic digestate have shown antifungal activity against selected phytopathogens, the highest activity was noted against P. ultimum, the MIC activity was high in case of P. ultimum and B. oryzae. The present study concludes that anaerobic digestate have a positive effect on maize growth and yield as well as an antifungal activity which can be potentially a good biofertilizer.

Keywords: anaerobic digestate, antifungal activity, MIC, phytopathogens

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
4890 Antifungal Lactobacilli Affect Mycelium Morphology and Protect Apricot Juice against Mold Spoilage

Authors: Nora Laref, Bettache Guessas

Abstract:

Preservation of foods mainly depends on delaying or inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms, and antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria is one of the technological properties researched. The antifungal activity was screened with overlay method of six strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LB54, LB52, LB51, LB20, LB24 Lactobacillus farciminis LB53) isolated from silage, camel milk and carrot against Aspergillus sp. Lactobacillus plantarum and farciminis inhibit spore germination and mycelia growth of Aspergillus sp., the production of antifungal compounds by these strains was detectable after 4h of incubation at 30°C and show total inhibition after 24h in liquid media, but in solid media showed a good inhibition after 96h of incubation, these compounds cause malformations in the thalle, conidiophore and conidia. These strains could be used as agents of biopreservation since have the ability to retard Aspergillus sp., growth in apricot juice with and without sugar conserved in refrigerator but not in bread.

Keywords: lactobacillus, antifungal substances, aspergillus, biopreservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
4889 In vitro Susceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis to the Extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus Leaves

Authors: Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Abdel Khalig Muddather, Hiba Abdel Rahman Ali, Saad Mohamed Hussein Ayoub

Abstract:

Anogeissusleiocarpus (Combretaceae) is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, for treating many human diseases mainly skin diseases and infections.Mycetoma disease is a fungal and/ or bacterial skin infection, mainly cause by Madurella mycetomatis fungus.This study was carried out in vitro to investigate the antifungal activity of Anogeissusleiocarpus leaf extracts against the isolated pathogenicMadurellamycetomatis, by using the NCCLS modified method compared to Ketoconazole standard drug and MTT assay. The bioactive fraction was subjected to chemical analysis implementing different chromatographic analytical methods (TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS/MS). The results showed significance antifungal activity of A. leiocarpus leaf extractsagainst the isolated pathogenicM. mycetomatis, compared to negative and positive controls. The chloroform fraction showed the highest antifungal activity.The chromatographic analysis of the chloroform fraction with the highest activity showed the presence of important bioactive compounds such as ellagic and flavellagic acids derivatives, flavonoids and stilbenoid, which are well known for their antifungal activity.

Keywords: Anogeissus leiocarpus, crude extracts and fractions of Anogeissus leiocarpus, in vitrosusceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis, Madurella mycetomatis

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
4888 Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Substituted Pyrimidine Derivative Containing Thiol Group

Authors: Shradha S. Binani, Pravin S. Bodke, Ravi V. Joat

Abstract:

An efficient method has been described for the synthesis of 6-(substituted aryl)-4-(2'- hydroxy-5'-chlorophenyl)-1, 6-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiol, as a beneficial antibacterial and antifungal agents. The diketones of title compounds were synthesized in four steps and subsequently these diketones were further reacted with thiourea in the presence of DMF, which led to the formation of dihydropyrimidine derivatives 5 (a-f). Compounds 5 (a-f) were screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity by agar well method. Compounds 5b, 5c, 5e, and 5f were exhibited significant antimicrobial potential against tested strains at 50ug/ml and 100ug/ml concentrations. Six novel dihydropyrimidine analogues have been synthesized, characterized and found to be promising antibacterial and antifungal agents.

Keywords: diketones, dihyropyrimidine, antimicrobial activity, thiol group

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
4887 Antımıcrobıal Actıvıty of Gırardınıa Heterophılla

Authors: P. S. BEDI* , Neavty Thakur, Balvınder Sıngh

Abstract:

In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare the crude extracts of leaves and stem of ‘Girardinia heterophylla’ by using various solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and double distilled water. The samples were given the code NGLS 1, NGLS 2, NGLS 3, NGSS 1, NGSS 2 and NGSS 3 respectively. All the extracts were used to study their antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria eg. Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacteria eg. E. coli, K. pneumonia and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed that all the crude extracts of the plant posseses antibacterial activity. Maximum antibacterial activity was shown by NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 3 against K. pneumonia. The growth of fungus A. niger was also inhibited by all the crude extracts. Maximum inhibition was shown by NGSS 2 followed by NGSS 1.

Keywords: Girardinia heterophylla, leaves and stem extracts, Antibacterial activity, antifungal activity.

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
4886 Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally for the Treatment of Fungal Infections and Related Ailments in South Africa

Authors: T. C. Machaba, S. M. Mahlo

Abstract:

The current study investigates the antifungal properties of crude plant extracts from selected medicinal plant species. Eight plant species used by the traditional healers and local people to treat fungal infections were selected for further phytochemical analysis and biological assay. The selected plant species were extracted with solvent of various polarities such as acetone, methanol, ethanol, hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water. Leaf, roots and bark extracts of Maerua juncea Pax, Albuca seineri (Engl & K. Krause) J.C Manning & Goldblatt, Senna italica Mill., Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels, Indigofera circinata Benth., Schinus molle L., Asparagus buchananii Bak., were screened for antifungal activity against three animal fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans). All plant extracts were active against the tested microorganisms. Acetone, dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol extracts of Senna italica and Elephantorrhiza elephantine had excellent activity against Candida albicans and A. fumigatus with the lowest MIC value of 0.02 mg/ml. Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds presence in the plant extracts. No active compounds were observed in plant extracts of Indigofera circinnata, Schinus molle and Pentarrhinum insipidum with good antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. fumigatus indicating possible synergism between separated metabolites.

Keywords: antifungal activity, bioautography, ethnobotanical survey, minimum inhibitory concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
4885 An Antifungal Peptide from Actinobacteria (Streptomyces Sp. TKJ2): Isolation and Partial Characterization

Authors: Abdelaziz Messis, Azzeddine Bettache, Nawel Boucherba, Said Benallaoua, Mouloud Kecha

Abstract:

Actinobacteria are of special biotechnological interest since they are known to produce chemically diverse compounds with a wide range of biological activity. This distinct clade of Gram-positve bacteria include some of the key antibiotic producers and are also sources of several bioactive compounds, established commercially a newly filamentous bacteria was recovered from Tikjda forest soil (Algeria) for its high antifungal activity against various pathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene (1454 pb) of Streptomyces sp. TKJ2 exhibited close similarity (99 %) with other Streptomyces16S rRNA genes. Antifungal metabolite production of Streptomyces sp TKJ2 was evaluated using six different fermentation media. The extracellular products contained potent antifungal agents. Antifungal protein produced by Streptomyces sp. TKJ2 on PCA medium has been purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, SPE column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography in a reverse-phase column. The UV chromatograms of the active fractions obtained at 214 nm by NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS have different molecular weights. The F20 Peptidic fraction obtained from culture filtrat of Streptomyces sp. TKJ2 precipitated at 30% of ammonium sulfate was selected for analysis by infusion ESI-MS which yielded a singly charged ion mass of 437.17 Da.

Keywords: actinobacteria, antifungal protein, chromatography, Streptomyces

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
4884 In vitro Antifungal Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Eight Various Cultivar of Persian Punica granatum L. against Candida Species

Authors: Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie, Farzad Katiraee, Mannan Hajimahmoodi, Ehsan Mostafavi, Malihe Talebi

Abstract:

Objective: Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents has potentially serious implications for management of infections. Candida species are now fourth common organisms isolated from hospitalized patients. It is important to increase effective therapy. In the past decade, numerous reports of treatment failures were reported. Prevention and control of these infections will require new antimicrobial agents. Plant-derived antifungal have always been a source of novel therapeutics. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of methanolic extract of pomegranate peel and pulp against Candida species. Material and Methods: Eight cultivars of Punica granatum L. were collected from Saveh Agricultural Investigation Center in Iran. Both pomegranate pulp and peel were dried and powdered separately. The dried powders were extracted by using a soxhlet extractor. The antifungal effect of methanolic extract of pomegranate peel and pulp were determined in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five standard species of (ATCC 10231), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019), C. tropicalis (ATCC 750), C. glabrata (PTCC 5297), and C. kroseii (PTCC 5295). Results: Maximum inhibitions of antifungal effect were attributed to peel extract pomegranate cultivar and Candida species. The most potential antifungal inhibition among 8 different cultivars observed by sour malas, sour white peel, and sour summer extracts respectively, against five Candida strains. The antifungal activity of pulp extracts against Candida species was approximately negative. Conclusion: The use of Punica granatum peel extract has been shown to possess antifungal activities. The phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of Punica granatum peel components suggest a wide range of clinical applications for the treatment and prevention of candidiasis.

Keywords: antifungal activity, Candida species, Punica granatum L., pharmacognosy

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
4883 Investigating the Potential Use of Unsaturated Fatty Acids as Antifungal Crop Protective Agents

Authors: Azadeh Yasari, Michael Ganzle, Stephen Strelkov, Nuanyi Liang, Jonathan Curtis, Nat N. V. Kav

Abstract:

Pathogenic fungi cause significant yield losses and quality reductions to major crops including wheat, canola, and barley. Toxic metabolites produced by phytopathogenic fungi also pose significant risks to animal and human health. Extensive application of synthetic fungicides is not a sustainable solution since it poses risks to human, animal and environmental health. Unsaturated fatty acids may provide an environmentally friendly alternative because of their direct antifungal activity against phytopathogens as well as through the stimulation of plant defense pathways. The present study assessed the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of two hydroxy fatty acids, coriolic acid and ricinoleic acid, against the phytopathogens Fusarium graminearum, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Pyrenophora teres f. teres, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans. Antifungal activity of coriolic acid and ricinoleic acid was evaluated using broth micro-dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results indicated that both ricinoleic acid and coriolic acid showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens, with the strongest inhibitory activity against L. maculans, but the MIC varied greatly between species. An antifungal effect was observed for coriolic acid in vivo against pathogenic fungi of wheat and barley. This effect was not correlated to the in vitro activity because ricinoleic acid with equivalent in vitro antifungal activity showed no protective effect in vivo. Moreover, neither coriolic acid nor ricinoleic acid controlled fungal pathogens of canola. In conclusion, coriolic acid inhibits some phytopathogens in vivo and may have the potential to be an effective crop protection agent.

Keywords: coriolic acid, minimum inhibitory concentration, pathogenic fungi, ricinoleic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
4882 Antimicrobial Activity of Igusa and the Application to Foam Materials for Food Industry

Authors: I. Nanako, Mariko Era, Hiroshi Morita

Abstract:

Objectives: Japanese uses TATAMI rather than flooring at home. Igusa ( Juncus effuses var. decipiens ), which is commonly known in the forms of TATAMI. Juncus spp. grow at a relatively high humidity area (Japan, China and Southeast Asia ). Yatsushiro region in the southern part of Kumamoto prefecture is major produing area of Igusa. Igusa found to have honeycomb structure and was also shown to have the ability to control humidity. And Igusa has been used as a medicinal herb for diuretic and antiphlogistic agent. In previous study, we investigated antimicrobial effects of Igusa, and showed high antimicrobial activity against food poisoning bacteria. Therefore, the food trays blended Igusa can be kept clean by antimicrobial activity of Igusa. We focus on ‘Igusa foam materials’. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal activity of Igusa, and new application to foam materials for food industry. Materials and method: We used Igusa foam materials (3 × 3 × 3 cm) as a sample. We set about fifteen types of samples combined with a commercial antibacterial agent A, a commercial antibacterial agent B, potassium laurate (C12K) and a commercial antifungal agent C, a commercial antifungal agent D and a commercial antifungal agent E. We selected four bacteria strains (Escherichia coli NBRC 3972, Staphylococus aureus NBRC 12732, Salmonella typhimurium NBRC 13245, Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 ) and three fungus strains (Penicillium pinophilum NBRC 6345, Cladosporium cladosporioides NBRC 30314, Aspergillus oryzae NBRC 5238 ). The fungus was cultured at 30 °C on Igusa foam materials after inoculation of the fungus for fourteen days. The bacteria was cultured at 30 °C on Igusa foam materials after inoculation of the bacteria for three days. And the Igusa foam materials were washed with 10 mL normal saline after three days. The normal saline washed Igusa foam materials plated the NA medium. After, It was cultured at 30 °C and used colony counting method. Result and Conclusion: The fifteen types of sample of Igusa foam materials had antifungal activity against C. cladosporioides, A. oryzae and P. pinophilum for fourteen days. The four types of sample contained potassium laurate and antibacterial agent A, sample contained antibacterial agent B and antifungal agent D, sample contained A and antifungal agent E, sample contained B and E had antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. The three types of sample contained potassium laurate and A, sample contained B and D, sample contained A and E had antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium. The five types of sample contained potassium laurate and A, sample contained B and D, sample contained A and E, sample contained B and E, sample contained B and antifungal agent C had antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. These results indicate that Igusa of Igusa foam materials had high antifungal activity. In addition, Igusa foam materials combined with a commercial antibacterial agent had antibacterial activity. In the future, we consider that use of Igusa foam materials may be spread from food industry.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, foam materials, Igusa

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
4881 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpou, Majid Afkhami, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, hard corals, Persian Gulf

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
4880 Quinazolino-Thiazoles: Fused Pharmacophores as Antimicrobial Agents

Authors: Sanjay Bari, Vinod Ugale, Kamalkishor Patil

Abstract:

Over the past several years the emergence of micro-organisms resistant to nearly all the class of antimicrobial agents has become a serious public health concern. In the present research, we report the synthesis and in-vitro antimicrobial activity of a new series of novel quinazolino-thiadiazoles 3 (a-j). The synthesized compounds were confirmed by melting point, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopy. In general, the results of the in-vitro antibacterial activity are encouraging, as out of 10 compounds tested, Compound 3f and 3i with a 4-chloro phenyl and 4-nitro phenyl at C-2 of thiadiazolyl of quinazolino-thiadiazoles, displayed the excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities against all the tested microorganisms (Bacterial and Fungal strain) with MIC values of 62.5 μg/mL. It is worth to mention that the combination of two biologically active moieties quinazoline and thiadiazole profoundly influences the biological activity. While evaluating the antimicrobial activity, it was observed that compounds having electron withdrawing groups on thiazole has shown profound activity in comparison to compounds having electron releasing groups. As a result of this study, it can be concluded that halogen substituent on thiazole ring increases antimicrobial activity. Possible improvements in the antimicrobial activity can be further achieved by slight modifications in the substituent’s and/or additional structural activity investigations to have good antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: antifungal, antimicrobial, quinazolino-thiazoles, synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
4879 Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Insilco Docking of Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Potential Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase Inhibitors

Authors: Suman Bala, Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis has been developed to relate antifungal activity of novel substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger using computer assisted multiple regression analysis. The study has shown the better relationship between antifungal activities with respect to various descriptors established by multiple regression analysis. The analysis has shown statistically significant correlation with R2 values 0.932 and 0.782 against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively. These derivatives were further subjected to molecular docking studies to investigate the interactions between the target compounds and amino acid residues present in the active site of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. All the synthesized compounds have better docking score as compared to standard fluconazole. Our results could be used for the further design as well as development of optimal and potential antifungal agents.

Keywords: 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole, QSAR, multiple linear regression, docking, glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
4878 Antifungal Potential of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Infecting Kidney Beans

Authors: Zhazira Shemsheyeva, Zhanara Suleimenova, Olga Shemshura, Gulnaz Mombekova, Zhanar Rakhmetova

Abstract:

Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). They not only provide nutrients to the plants (direct plant growth promotion) and protect plants against the phytopathogens (indirect plant growth promotion) but also increase the soil fertility. Indirectly PGPRs improve the plant growth by becoming a biocontrol agent for a fungal pathogen. The antifungal activities of the PGPrhizobacteria were assayed against different species of phytopathogenic fungi such as Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotiniasclerotiorum, and Botrytis cinerea. Pseudomonas putidaSM-1, Azotobacter sp., and Bacillus thuringiensis AKS/16 strains have been used in experimental tests on growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi infecting Kidney beans. Agar well diffusion method was used in this study. Diameters of the zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. It was found that Bacillus thuringiensis AKS/16 strain showed the lowest antifungal activity against all fungal pathogens tested. Zones of inhibition were 15-18 mm. In contrast, Pseudomonas putida SM-1 exhibited good antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium tricinctum by producing 29-30 mm clear zones of inhibition. The moderate inhibitory effect was shown by Azotobacter sp. against all fungal pathogens tested with zones of inhibition from24 to 26 mm. In summary, Pseudomonas putida SM-1 strain demonstrated the potential of controlling root rot diseases in kidney beans.

Keywords: PGPR, pseudomonas putida, kindey beans, antifungal activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
4877 Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Salvia nemorosa L.

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah

Abstract:

In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil and ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. nemorosa were examined against some species of bacteria and fungi. The essential oil of the aerial part of S. nemorosa was examined by GC and GC-MS. In the essential oil of S. nemorosa 26 Compounds have been identified. 2-Nonanone (44.09 %), 2-Undecanone (33.79 %), E-Caryophyllene (3.74 %) and 2-Decanone (2.89 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). In conclusion, we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. nemorosa may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Salvia nemorosa L., essential oils, biological activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
4876 Investigating the Use of Seaweed Extracts as Biopesticides

Authors: Emma O’ Keeffe, Helen Hughes, Peter McLoughlin, Shiau Pin Tan, Nick McCarthy

Abstract:

Biosecurity is emerging as one of the most important issues facing the agricultural and forestry community. This is as a result of increased invasion from new pests and diseases with the main protocol for dealing with these species being the use of synthetic pesticides. However, these chemicals have been shown to exhibit negative effects on the environment. Seaweeds represent a vast untapped resource of bio-molecules with a broad range of biological activities including pesticidal. This project investigated both the antifungal and antibacterial activity of seaweed species against two problematic root rot fungi, Armillaria mellea and Heterobasidion annosum and ten quarantine bacterial plant pathogens including Xanthomonas arboricola, Xanthomonas fragariae, and Erwinia amylovora. Four seaweed species were harvested from the South-East coast of Ireland including brown, red and green varieties. The powdered seaweeds were extracted using four different solvents by liquid extraction. The poisoned food technique was employed to establish the antifungal efficacy, and the standard disc diffusion assay was used to assess the antibacterial properties of the seaweed extracts. It was found that extracts of the green seaweed exhibited antifungal activity against H. annosum, with approximately 50% inhibition compared to the negative control. The protectant activities of the active extracts were evaluated on disks of Picea sitchensis, a plant species sensitive to infection from H. annosum and compared to the standard chemical control product urea. The crude extracts exhibited very similar activity to the 10% and 20% w/v concentrations of urea, demonstrating the ability of seaweed extracts to compete with commercially available products. Antibacterial activity was exhibited by a number of seaweed extracts with the red seaweed illustrating the strongest activity, with a zone of inhibition of 15.83 ± 0.41 mm exhibited against X. arboricola whilst the positive control (10 μg/disk of chloramphenicol) had a zone of 26.5 ± 0.71 mm. These results highlight the potential application of seaweed extracts in the forestry and agricultural industries for use as biopesticides. Further work is now required to identify the bioactive molecules that are responsible for this antifungal and antibacterial activity in the seaweed extracts, including toxicity studies to ensure the extracts are non-toxic to plants and humans.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, biopesticides, seaweeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
4875 In vivo Anticandida Activity of Three Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants in East Africa

Authors: Daniel P. Kisangau, Ken M. Hosea, Herbert V. M. Lyaruu, Cosam C. Josep, Zakaria H. Mbwambo, Pax J. Masimba

Abstract:

Crude extracts of Dracaena steudneri bark (DSB), Sapium ellipticum bark (SEB) and Capparis erythrocarpos root (CER) were investigated for their antifungal activity in immunocompromised mice infected with Candida albicans in an in vivo mice infection model. The results revealed a substantial dose dependency in all treatments given, with mice survival to the end of the experiment correlating well to the dose levels. At a dose of 400 mg/kg, C. erythrocarpos was the most effective with mice survival of 60% and organ burden clearance ranging from 64.0%-99.9% (P<0.0001) in all treatments. At the same dose, the least effective plant was S. ellipticum which had a mice survival of 20% and organ burden clearance ranging from 78.0%-96.6 (P>0.05). Mice survival for D. steudneri was 30% with organ burden clearance ranging from 89.0%-99.9% (P<0.05). All mice receiving no active treatment died before ten days post infection. In all treatment groups, there was a steady decline in mean weights of mice immediately after immunosuppression followed by gradual recovery in some cases which appeared to be dose dependent a few days post infection. Thus, extracts of D. steudneri and C. erythrocarpos portrayed the most significant potential as sources of antifungal drugs.

Keywords: antifungal activity, medicinal plants, candida albicans, East Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
4874 Beta-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes for Antifungal Food Packaging Applications

Authors: Cristina Munoz-Shuguli, Francisco Rodriguez, Julio Bruna, M. Jose Galotto, Abel Guarda

Abstract:

The microbial contamination in fruits due to the presence of fungal is the most important cause of their deterioration and loss. The development of active food packaging materials with antifungal properties has been proposed as an innovative strategy in order to prevent this problem. In this way, natural compounds as the essential oils or their derivatives, also called volatile compounds (VC), can be incorporated in the food packaging materials to control the fungal growth during fruit packaging. However, if the VC is incorporated directly in the packaging material, it is released very fast due to VC high volatility. For this reason, the formation of inclusion complexes through the encapsulation of VC into beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and their incorporation in package materials is an alternative to maintain an antifungal atmosphere around the packaged fruits for longer times. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop inclusion complexes based in β-CD and VC (β-CD:VC) for further application in the antifungal food packaging materials development. β-CD:VC inclusion complexes were obtained with two different molar ratios 2:1 and 1:1, through co-precipitation method. The entrapment efficiency of β-CD:VC as well the release of antifungal compound from inclusion complexes exposed to different relative humidity (25, 50, and 97 %) to headspace were determined by gaseous chromatography (GC). Also, thermal and antimicrobial properties of β-CD:VC were determined through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and antifungal assays against Botrytis cinerea, respectively. GC results showed that β-CD:VC 2:1 had a higher entrapment efficiency than β-CD:VC 1:1, with values of 75.5 ± 3.71 % and 59.6 ± 1.51 %, respectively. It was probably because during the synthesis of β-CD:VC 1:1, there was less molecular space to the movement of VC molecules. Furthermore, the release of VC from β-CD:VC was directly related with the relative humidity. High amount of VC was released when the inclusion complexes were exposed to high humidity, possibly due to the interactions between the water molecules and the β-CD hydrophilic wall. On the other hand, a better thermal stability of VC in inclusion complexes allowed to verify its effective encapsulation into β-CD. Finally, antimicrobial assays showed that the inclusion complexes had a high antifungal activity at very low concentrations. Therefore, the results obtained in this work allow suggesting the β-CD:VC inclusion complexes as potential candidates to the development of fruit antifungal packaging materials, which activity is relative humidity dependent.

Keywords: Botrytis cinerea, fruit packaging, headspace release, volatile compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
4873 A Comparative Study on the Synthesis, Characterizations and Biological (Antibacterial and Antifungal) Activities of Zinc Doped Silica Oxide Nanoparticles Based on Various Solvents

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti, Abdul Qayyum

Abstract:

Zinc-doped silica oxide nanoparticles having size 7.93nm were synthesized by the deposition precipitation method by using different solvents (acetonitrile, n-hexane, isoamylalchol). Biological potential such as antibacterial activities against Bacillussubtilusand Escherichia coli, and antifungal activities against Candida parapsilosis and Aspergilusniger were also investigated by Disc diffusion method. Different characterizations techniques including Fournier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Thermo-gravimeteric Analysis (TGA), Atomic forced microscopy (AFM), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) were used. FT-IR characterization confirmed the presence of metal oxide bond (SiO2) while XRD showed the hexagonal structure. SEM and TEM characterization showed the morphology of nanoparticles. AFM study showed good particle size distribution as depicted by a histogram. DLS study showed the gradual decease in the size of nanoparticles from 24.86nm to 13.24 nm. Highest antibacterial activities revealed by acetonitrile solvents (6%and 4.5%) followed by isoamylalchol (3% and 2.4%) while n-hexane solvent showed the lowest activity (2%and 1%) respectively. Higher antifungal activities exhibited by n-hexane (0.34 % and 0.43%) followed by isoamylalchol (0.27% and 0.19%) solvent while acetonitrile (0.21% and 0.17%) showed least activity respectively. Statistical analysis by using one-way ANOVA also indicated the significant results of both biological activities.

Keywords: nanoparticles, precipitation methods, antibacterial, antifungal, characterizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
4872 Inhibitory Action of Fatty Acid Salts against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Dermatophagoides farinae

Authors: Yui Okuno, Mariko Era, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita

Abstract:

Introduction: Fungus and mite are known as allergens that cause an allergic disease for example asthma bronchiale and allergic rhinitis. Cladosporium cladosporioides is one of the most often detected fungi in the indoor environment and causes pollution and deterioration. Dermatophagoides farinae is major mite allergens indoors. Therefore, the creation of antifungal agents with high safety and the antifungal effect is required. Fatty acid salts are known that have antibacterial activities. This report describes the effects of fatty acid salts against Cladosporium cladosporioides NBRC 30314 and Dermatophagoides farinae. Methods: Potassium salts of 9 fatty acids (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with the appropriate amount of KOH solution to a concentration of 175 mM and pH 10.5. The antifungal method, the spore suspension (3.0×104 spores/mL) was mixed with a sample of fatty acid potassium (final concentration of 175 mM). Samples were counted at 0, 10, 60, 180 min by plating (100 µL) on PDA. Fungal colonies were counted after incubation for 3 days at 30 °C. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) against the fungi was determined by the two-fold dilution method. Each fatty acid salts were inoculated separately with 400 µL of C. cladosporioides at 3.0 × 104 spores/mL. The mixtures were incubated at the respective temperature for each organism for 10 min. The tubes were then contacted with the fungi incubated at 30 °C for 7 days and examined for growth of spores on PDA. The acaricidal method, twenty D. farinae adult females were used and each adult was covered completely with 2 µL fatty acid potassium for 1 min. The adults were then dried with filter paper. The filter paper was folded and fixed by two clips and kept at 25 °C and 64 % RH. Mortalities were determained 48 h after treatment under the microscope. D. farina was considered to be dead if appendages did not move when prodded with a pin. Results and Conclusions: The results show that C8K, C10K, C12K, C14K was effective to decrease survival rate (4 log unit) of the fatty acids potassium incubated time for 10 min against C. cladosporioides. C18:3K was effective to decrease 4 log unit of the fatty acids potassium incubated time for 60 min. Especially, C12K was the highest antifungal activity and the MIC of C12K was 0.7 mM. On the other hand, the fatty acids potassium showed no acaricidal effects against D. farinae. The activity of D. farinae was not adversely affected after 48 hours. These results indicate that C12K has high antifungal activity against C. cladosporioides and suggest the fatty acid potassium will be used as an antifungal agent.

Keywords: fatty acid salts, antifungal effects, acaricidal effects, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Dermatophagoides farinae

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
4871 Post-Harvest Biopreservation of Fruit and Vegetables with Application of Lactobacillus Strains

Authors: Judit Perjessy, Zsolt Zalan, Ferenc Hegyi, Eniko Horvath-Szanics, Krisztina Takacs, Andras Nagy, Adel Klupacs, Erika Koppany-Szabo, Zhirong Wang, Kaituo Wang, Muying Du, Jianquan Kan

Abstract:

The post-harvest diseases cause great economic losses in the fruit and vegetables; the prevention of these deterioration has great importance. Against the fungi, which cause most of the diseases, are extensively used the fungicides. However, there are increasing consumer concerns over the presence of pesticide residues in food. An alternative and in recent years, increasingly studied method for the prevention of the diseases is biocontrol, where antagonistic microorganisms are used for the control of fungi. The genera of Lactobacillus is well known and extensively studied, but its applicability as biocontrol agents in post-harvest preservation of fruit and vegetables is poorly investigated. However these bacteria can be found on the surface of the plants and have great antimicrobial activity. In our study we have investigated the chitinase activity, the antifungal effect and the applicability of several Lactobacillus strains to select potential biocontrol agents. We investigated the determination of the environmental parameters of a gene (encoding chitinase) expression and we also investigated the relationship between actual antifungal activity and potential chitinase activity. Mixed cultures were also developed to enhance the antifungal activity and determined the optimal mold spore and bacteria concentration ratio for the appropriate efficacy. Five Lactobacillus strains (L. acidophilus N2, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus B397, L. sp. 2231, L. sake subsp. sake 2471, L. buchneri 1145) possess chitinase-coding gene from the 43 investigated Lactobacillus strains. Proteins with similar molecular weight and separation properties like bacterial chitinases were detected from these strains, which also possess chitin-binding property. Nevertheless, they were inactive, lacks the chitinolytic activity. In point of the cumulative activity of inhibition, our results showed that certain strains were statistically significant in a positive direction compared to other strains, e.g., L. rhamnosus VT1 and L. Casey 154 have shown great general antifungal effect against 11 molds from the genera Penicillium and Botrytis and isolated from spoiled fruit and vegetables. Also, some mixed cultures (L. rhamnosus VT1 - L. Plantarum 299v) showed significant antifungal effects against the indigenous molds on the surface of apple fruit during the industrial storage experiment. Thus, they could be promising for post-harvest biopreservation.

Keywords: biocontrol, chitinase, Lactobacillus, post-harvest

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
4870 Fatty Acid Extracts of Sea Pen (Virgularia gustaviana) and Their Potential Applications as Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Authors: Sharareh Sharifi

Abstract:

In this study, the crude extracts of Virgularia gustavina were examined as antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory agent. To assess inflammation, Xylene was applied to the ear of mice. The mice of the experimental group were fed with doses of 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg of lipid extract of chloroform and hexane as a separate group and then statistical analysis was performed on the results. Chloroform and hexane extracts of sea pen have strong anti-inflammatory effects even at low doses which is probably due to 54% arachidonic acid. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of hexane and chloroform extracts were measured with MIC and MBC methods and it is shown that chloroform extract has best activity against Staphylococcus aureus on 125 µg/ml doze in MIC method.

Keywords: sea pen (virgularia gustaviana), lipid extract, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activities, fatty acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 161