Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: fibrinolytic protease

69 Isolation and Identification Fibrinolytic Protease Endophytic Fungi from Hibiscus Leaves in Shah Alam

Authors: Mohd Sidek Ahmad, Zainon Mohd Noor, Zaidah Zainal Ariffin

Abstract:

Fibrin degradation is an important part in prevention or treatment of intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Plasmin like fibrinolytic enzymes has given new hope to patient with cardiovascular diseases by treating fibrin aggregation related diseases with traditional plasminogen activator which have many side effects. Various researches involving wide range of sources for production of fibrinolytic proteases, from bacteria, fungi, insects and fermented foods. But few have looked into endophytic fungi as a potential source. Sixteen (16) endophytic fungi were isolated from Hibiscus sp. leaves from six different locations in Shah Alam, Selangor. Only two endophytic fungi, FH3 and S13 showed positive fibrinolytic protease activities. FH3 produced 5.78cm and S13 produced 4.48cm on Skim Milk Agar after 4 days of incubation at 27°C. Fibrinolytic activity was observed; 3.87cm and 1.82cm diameter clear zone on fibrin plate of FH3 and S13 respectively. 18srRNA was done for identification of the isolated fungi with positive fibrinolytic protease. S13 had the highest similarity (100%) to that of Penicillium citrinum strain TG2 and FH3 had the highest similarity (99%) to that of Fusarium sp. FW2PhC1, Fusarium sp. 13002, Fusarium sp. 08006, Fusarium equiseti strain Salicorn 8 and Fungal sp. FCASAn-2. Media composition variation showed the effects of carbon nitrogen on protein concentration, where the decrement of 50% of media composition caused drastic decrease in protease of FH3 from 1.081 to 0.056 and also S13 from 2.946 to 0.198.

Keywords: isolation, identification, fibrinolytic protease, endophytic fungi, Hibiscus leaves

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68 A Promising Thrombolytic and Anticoagulant Serine Protease Purified from Lug Worms Inhabiting Tidal Flats

Authors: Hye Jin Kim, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Ischemic stroke means the caused brain damage due to neurological defects, occurring occlusion of cerebral vascular resulting in thrombus or embolism. t-PA (tissue Plasminogen Activator) is the only thrombolytic agent passed the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). However, t-PA directly dissolves the thrombus (direct activity) through fibrinolysis, showing side effects such as re-occlusion. In this study, we evaluated the thrombolytic activities of the serine protease extracted from lugworms inhabiting tidal flats. The new serine protease identified as 38 kDa by SDS-PAGE was not toxic to brain endothelial cells line (hCMEC/D3). Also, the plasmin synthesis inhibition activity (indirect activity) of the new serine protease was confirmed through fibrin zymography assay and fibrin plate assay. It was higher than direct activity as compared to u-PA (urokinase Plasminogen Activator). The activities were found to be maintained at a wide range of temperature (4-70 ℃) and pH 7-10 compared to previous thrombolytic agents from the azocasein assay. In addition, the new serine protease has shown anticoagulant activity from fibrinogenolytic activity assay. In conclusion, the serine protease in lug worms inhabiting the tidal flats could be considered a promising thrombolytic candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

Keywords: alkaline serine protease, bifunctional thrombolytic activity, fibrinolytic activity, ischemic stroke, lug worms

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67 Aspergillus micromycetes as Producers of Hemostatically Active Proteases

Authors: Alexander A. Osmolovskiy, Anastasia V. Orekhova, Daria M. Bednenko, Yelyzaveta Boiko

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Micromycetes from Aspergillus genus can produce proteases capable of promoting proteolysis of hemostasis proteins or, along with hydrolytic activity, to show the ability to convert proenzymes of this system activating them into an active form. At the same time, practical medicine needs specific activators for quantitation of the level of some plasma enzymes, especially protein C and factor X, the lack of which leads to the development of thromboembolic diseases. Thus, some micromycetes of the genus Aspergillus were screened for the ability to synthesize extracellular proteases with promising activity for designing anti-thrombotic and diagnostic preparations. Such standard methods like salting out, electrophoresis, isoelectrofocusing were used for isolation, purification and study of physicochemical properties of proteases. Enzyme activity was measured spectrophotometrically fibrin as a substrate of the reaction and chromogenic peptide substrates of different proteases of the human hemostasis system. As a result of the screening, four active producers were selected: Aspergillus janus 301, A. flavus 1, A. terreus 2, and A. ochraceus L-1. The enzyme of A. janus 301 showed the greatest fibrinolytic activity (around 329.2 μmol Tyr/(ml × min)). The protease produced by A. terreus 2 had the highest plasmin-like activity (54.1 nmol pNA/(ml × min)), but fibrinolytic activity was lower than A. janus 301 demonstrated (25.2 μmol Tyr/(ml × min)). For extracellular protease of micromycete A. flavus a high plasmin-like activity was also shown (39.8 nmol pNA / (ml × min)). Moreover, according to our results proteases one of the fungi - A. terreus 2 were able to activate protein C of human plasma - the key factor of the human anticoagulant hemostasis system. This type of activity was 39.8 nmol pNA/(ml × min)). It was also shown that A. ochraceus L-1 could produce extracellular proteases with protein C and factor X activator activities (65.9 nmol pNA/(ml × min) and 34.6 nmol pNA/(ml × min) respectively). The maximum accumulation of the proteases falls on the 4th day of cultivation. Using isoelectrofocusing was demonstrated that the activation of both proenzymes might proceed via limited proteolysis induced by proteases of A. ochraceus L-1. The activatory activity of A. ochraceus L-1 proteases toward essential hemostatic proenzymes, protein C and X factor may be useful for practical needs. It is well known that similar enzymes, activators of protein C and X factor isolated from snake venom, South American copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix and Russell’s viper Daboia russelli russeli, respectively, are used for the in vitro diagnostics of the functional state of these proteins in blood plasma. Thus, the proteases of Aspergillus genus can be used as cheap components for enzyme thrombolytic preparations.

Keywords: anti-trombotic drugs, fibrinolysis, diagnostics, proteases, micromycetes

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66 Production of Fish Hydrolyzates by Single and Multiple Protease Treatments under Medium High Pressure of 300 MPa

Authors: Namsoo Kim, So-Hee Son, Jin-Soo Maeng, Yong-Jin Cho, Chong-Tai Kim

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It has been reported that some enzymes such as trypsin and Alcalase 2.4L are tolerant to a medium high pressure of 300 MPa and preparation of protein hydrolyzates under 300 MPa was advantageous with regard to hydrolysis rate and thus production yield compared with the counterpart under ambient pressure.1,2) In this study, nine fish comprising halibut, soft shell clam and carp were hydrolyzed using Flavourzyme 500MG only, and the combination of Flavourzyme 500 mg, Alcalase 2.4 L, Marugoto E, and Protamex under 300 MPa. Then, the effects of single and multiple protease treatments were determined with respect to contents of soluble solid (SS) and soluble nitrogen, sensory attributes, electrophoretic profiles, and HPLC peak patterns of the fish hydrolyzates (FHs) from various species. The contents of SS of the FHs were quite species-specific and the hydrolyzates of halibut showed the highest SS contents. At this point, multiple protease treatment increased SS content conspicuously in all fish tested. The contents of total soluble nitrogen and TCA-soluble nitrogen were well correlated with those of SS irrespective of fish species and methods of enzyme treatment. Also, it was noticed that multiple protease treatment improved sensory attributes of the FHs considerably. Electropherograms of the FHs showed fast migrating peptide bands that had the molecular masses mostly lower than 1 kDa and this was confirmed by peptide patterns from HPLC analysis for some FHs that had good sensory quality.

Keywords: production, fish hydrolyzates, protease treatments, high pressure

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65 Enzyme Producing Psyhrophilic Pseudomonas app. Isolated from Poultry Meats

Authors: Ali Aydin, Mert Sudagidan, Aysen Coban, Alparslan Kadir Devrim

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Pseudomonas spp. (specifically, P. fluorescens and P. fragi) are considered the principal spoilage microorganisms of refrigerated poultry meats. The higher the level psychrophilic spoilage Pseudomonas spp. on carcasses at the end of processing lead to decrease the shelf life of the refrigerated product. The aim of the study was the identification of psychrophilic Pseudomonas spp. having proteolytic and lipolytic activities from poultry meats by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, investigation of protease and lipase related genes and determination of proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. In the of isolation procedure, collected chicken meat samples from local markets and slaughterhouses were homogenized and the lysates were incubated on Standard method agar and Skim Milk agar for selection of proteolytic bacteria and tributyrin agar for selection of lipolytic bacteria at +4 °C for 7 days. After detection of proteolytic and lipolytic colonies, the isolates were firstly analyzed by biochemical tests such as Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests. DNA gene sequencing analysis and comparison with GenBank revealed that 126 strong enzyme Pseudomonas spp. were identified as predominantly P. fluorescens (n=55), P. fragi (n=42), Pseudomonas spp. (n=24), P. cedrina (n=2), P. poae (n=1), P. koreensis (n=1), and P. gessardi (n=1). Additionally, protease related aprX gene was screened in the strains and it was detected in 69/126 strains, whereas, lipase related lipA gene was found in 9 Pseudomonas strains. Protease activity was determined using commercially available protease assay kit and 5 strains showed high protease activity. The results showed that psychrophilic Pseudomonas strains were present in chicken meat samples and they can produce important levels of proteases and lipases for food spoilage to decrease food quality and safety.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, chicken meat, protease, lipase

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64 Production of Organic Solvent Tolerant Hydrolytic Enzymes (Amylase and Protease) by Bacteria Isolated from Soil of a Dairy Farm

Authors: Alok Kumar, Hari Ram, Lebin Thomas, Ved Pal Singh

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Organic solvent tolerant amylases and proteases of microbial origin are in great demand for their application in transglycosylation of water-insoluble flavanoids and in peptide synthesizing reaction in organic media. Most of the amylases and proteases are unstable in presence of organic solvent. In the present work two different bacterial strains M-11 and VP-07 were isolated from the soil sample of a dairy farm in Delhi, India, for the efficient production of extracellular amylase and protease through their screening on starch agar (SA) and skimmed milk agar (SMA) plates, respectively. Both the strains (M-11 and VP-07) were identified based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. After analysis through Ez-Taxon software, the strains M-11 and VP-07 were found to have maximum pairwise similarity of 98.63% and 100% with Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum BGSC 3A28 and Bacillus anthracis ATCC 14578 and were therefore identified as Bacillus sp. UKS1 and Bacillus sp. UKS2, respectively. Time course study of enzyme activity and bacterial growth has shown that both strains exhibited typical sigmoid growth behavior and maximum production of amylase (180 U/ml) and protease (78 U/ml) by these strains (UKS1 and UKS2) was commenced during stationary phase of growth at 24 and 20 h, respectively. Thereafter, both amylase and protease were tested for their tolerance towards organic solvents and were found to be active as well stable in p-xylene (130% and 115%), chloroform (110% and 112%), isooctane (119% and 107%), benzene (121% and 104%), n-hexane (116% and 103%) and toluene (112% and 101%, respectively). Owing to such properties, these enzymes can be exploited for their potential application in industries for organic synthesis.

Keywords: amylase, enzyme activity, industrial applications, organic solvent tolerant, protease

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63 Human LACE1 Functions Pro-Apoptotic and Interacts with Mitochondrial YME1L Protease

Authors: Lukas Stiburek, Jana Cesnekova, Josef Houstek, Jiri Zeman

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Cellular function depends on mitochondrial function and integrity that is therefore maintained by several classes of proteins possessing chaperone and/or proteolytic activities. In this work, we focused on characterization of LACE1 (lactation elevated 1) function in mitochondrial protein homeostasis maintenance. LACE1 is the human homologue of yeast mitochondrial Afg1 ATPase, a member of SEC18-NSF, PAS1, CDC48-VCP, TBP family. Yeast Afg1 was shown to be involved in mitochondrial complex IV biogenesis, and based on its similarity with CDC48 (p97/VCP) it was suggested to facilitate extraction of polytopic membrane proteins. Here we show that LACE1, which is a mitochondrial integral membrane protein, exists as part of three complexes of approx. 140, 400 and 500 kDa and is essential for maintenance of fused mitochondrial reticulum and lamellar cristae morphology. Using affinity purification of LACE1-FLAG expressed in LACE1 knockdown background we show that the protein physically interacts with mitochondrial inner membrane protease YME1L. We further show that human LACE1 exhibits significant pro-apoptotic activity and that the protein is required for normal function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Thus, our work establishes LACE1 as a novel factor with the crucial role in mitochondrial homeostasis maintenance.

Keywords: LACE1, mitochondria, apoptosis, protease

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62 Improving the Quality of Casava Peel-Leaf Mixture through Fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas Poultry Ration

Authors: Mirnawati, G. Ciptaan, Ferawati

Abstract:

This study aims to improve the quality of the cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) through fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas poultry ration. This research is an experimental study using a completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus. The treatments were a combination of cassava peel and leaves with the ratio of; A (9:1), B (8:2), C (7:3), and D (6:4). The observed variables were protease enzyme activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and metabolic energy. The results of the diversity analysis showed that there was a very significant (p < 0.01) effect on protease activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and energy metabolism of fermented CPLM. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that CPLM (6:4) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus gave the best results seen from protease activity 7,25 U/ml, 21.23% crude protein, 19.80% crude fiber, 59.65% nitrogen retention, 62.99% crude fiber digestibility and metabolic energy 2671 Kcal/kg.

Keywords: quality, Casava peel-leaf mixture, fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus

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61 Expression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Signal Peptides Targeting for Delivery to Apoplast, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Cytosol Spaces

Authors: Sadegh Lotfieblisofla, Arash Khodabakhshi

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Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a serine protease plays an important role in the fibrinolytic system and the dissolution of fibrin clots in human body. The production of this drug in plants such as tobacco could reduce its production costs. In this study, expression of tPA gene and protein targeting to different plant cell compartments, using various signal peptides has been investigated. For high level of expression, Kozak sequence was used after CaMV35S in the beginning of the gene. In order to design the final construction, Extensin, KDEL (amino acid sequence including Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) and SP (γ-zein signal peptide coding sequence) were used as leader signals to conduct this protein into apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol spaces, respectively. Cloned human tPA gene under the CaMV (Cauliflower mosaic virus) 35S promoter and NOS (Nopaline Synthase) terminator into pBI121 plasmid was transferred into tobacco explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. The presence and copy number of genes in transgenic tobacco was proved by Southern blotting. Enzymatic activity of the rt-PA protein in transgenic plants compared to non-transgenic plants was confirmed by Zymography assay. The presence and amount of rt-PA recombinant protein in plants was estimated by ELISA analysis on crude protein extract of transgenic tobacco using a specific antibody. The yield of recombinant tPA in transgenic tobacco for SP, KDEL, Extensin signals were counted 0.50, 0.68, 0.69 microgram per milligram of total soluble proteins.

Keywords: tPA, recombinant, transgenic, tobacco

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60 Extracellular Hydrolase-Producing Bacteria Isolated from Chilca Salterns in Peru

Authors: Carol N. Flores-Fernández, Guadalupe Espilco, Cynthia Esquerre, Amparo I. Zavaleta

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Saline environments represent a valuable source of enzymes with novel properties and particular features for application in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industry. This study focuses on the isolation and screening of hydrolase-producing bacteria from Chilca salterns and the evaluation of their biotechnological potential. Soil samples were collected from Chilca salterns in Peru. For the isolation, medium containing 0.2 % of yeast extract, 5 % of NaCl and 10 % of the soil sample was used. After 72 h of incubation at 37 °C, serial dilutions were made up to 10−12 dilutions, spread on agar plates with 0.5 % of yeast extract and 5 % of NaCl, and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. Screening of hydrolase-producing bacteria was carried out for cellulases, amylases, lipases, DNase, and proteases on specific media. Moreover, protease-producing bacteria were tested using protein extracted from the following legumes as substrate: Glycine max, Lupinus mutabilis, Pisum sativum, Erythrina edulis, Cicer arietinum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba. A total of 16 strains were isolated from soil samples. On the screening media; 75, 44, 81 and 50 % were cellulase, amylase, DNase and protease producers, respectively. Also, 19 % of the isolates produced all the hydrolytic enzymes above mentioned. Lipase producers were not found. The 37 % and 12 % of the strains grew at 20 % and 30 % of salt concentration, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the strains grew at pH range between 5 and 10. From the total of protease-producing bacteria, 100 % hydrolyzed Glycine max, Lupinus mutabilis, and Pisum sativum protein, while 87 % hydrolyzed Erythrina edulis and Cicer arietinum protein. Finally, 75 % and 50 % of the strains hydrolyzed Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba protein, respectively. Hydrolase-producing bacteria isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru grew at high salt concentrations and wide range of pH. In addition, protease-producing bacteria hydrolyzed protein from different sources such as leguminous. These enzymes have great biotechnological potential and could be used for different industrial processes and applications.

Keywords: bacteria, extracellular, hydrolases, Peru, salterns

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59 Biological Regulation of Endogenous Enzymatic Activity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) with Protease Inhibitors Chickpea in Model Systems

Authors: Delgado-Meza M., Minor-Pérez H.

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Protease is the generic name of enzymes that hydrolyze proteins. These are classified in the subgroup EC3.4.11-99X of the classification enzymes. In food technology the proteolysis is used to modify functional and nutritional properties of food, and in some cases this proteolysis may cause food spoilage. In general, seafood and rainbow trout have accelerated decomposition process once it has done its capture, due to various factors such as the endogenous enzymatic activity that can result in loss of structure, shape and firmness, besides the release of amino acid precursors of biogenic amines. Some studies suggest the use of protease inhibitors from legume as biological regulators of proteolytic activity. The enzyme inhibitors are any substance that reduces the rate of a reaction catalyzed by an enzyme. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reduction of the proteolytic activity of enzymes in extracts of rainbow trout with protease inhibitors obtained from chickpea flour. Different proportions of rainbow trout enzyme extract (75%, 50% and 25%) and extract chickpea enzyme inhibitors were evaluated. Chickpea inhibitors were obtained by mixing 5 g of flour in 30 mL of pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. The sample was centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant was stored at -15°C. Likewise, 20 g of rainbow trout were ground in 20 mL of phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0 and the mixture was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 20 min. The supernatant was used for the study. In each treatment was determined the specific enzymatic activity with the technique of Kunitz, using hemoglobin as substrate for the enzymes acid fraction and casein for basic enzymes. Also biuret protein was quantified for each treatment. The results showed for fraction of basic enzymes in the treatments evaluated, that were inhibition of endogenous enzymatic activity. Inhibition values compared to control were 51.05%, 56.59% and 59.29% when the proportions of endogenous enzymes extract rainbow trout were 75%, 50% and 25% and the remaining volume used was extract with inhibitors. Treatments with acid enzymes showed no reduction in enzyme activity. In conclusion chickpea flour reduced the endogenous enzymatic activity of rainbow trout, which may favor its application to increase the half-life of this food. The authors acknowledge the funding provided by the CONACYT for the project 131998.

Keywords: rainbouw trout, enzyme inhibitors, proteolysis, enzyme activity

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58 The Role of Neuroserpin in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Sevil Arabaci Tamer, Gonul Gurol, Ibrahim Tekeoglu, Halil Harman, Ihsan Hakki Ciftci

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Neuroserpin (NSP) is a serine protease inhibitor and member of the serpin family. It is expressed in developing and adult nervous systems, and acts as an inhibitor of protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and a regulator of neuronal growth and plasticity. Also NSP displays anti-inflammatory activity. But, its role in rheumatoid arthritis had never been studied before. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of neuroserpin in patients with RA. A total of 50 frozen (-20 ºC) serum samples 40 of them belonged to patients with RA, and 10 sample belonged to healthy subjects, were enrolled prospectively. We used DAS-28 to evaluate disease activity. The following clinical data gathered from the original patients' charts. Serum neuroserpin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our preliminary study results demonstrate, for the first time, that NSP levels are significantly different in RA patients relative to healthy subjects (P = 0.014). So, NSP contribute to pathological condition of RA. Thus, we believe that serum NSP levels can be as a marker in patients with RA. However other inflammatory diseases should be further investigated.

Keywords: neuroserpin, rheumatoid arthritis, tPA, tPA inhibitor

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57 Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Fibrinolytic and Coagulative Factors in Healthy Young Man

Authors: Farshad Ghazalian, Seyed Hossein Alavi

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Background: Use of whole body vibration (WBV) as an exercise method has rapidly increased over the last decade. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of five week whole-body vibration training with different amplitudes and progressive frequencies on fibrinolytic and coagulative factors. Methods: Twenty five healthy male students were divided randomly in three groups: high amplitude vibration group (n=10), low amplitude vibration group (n=10), and control group (n=5). The vibration training consisted of 5 week whole-body vibration 3 times a week with amplitudes 4 and 2 mm and progressive frequencies from 25Hz with increments of 5Hz weekly. Concentrations of fibrinogen, plasminogen, tPA, and PAI-1 before and after 5 weeks of training were measured in plasma samples. Statistical analysis was done using one way analysis of variance. In order to compare pre-test with post test we used Wilcoxon signed ranked test .P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The 5 week high amplitude vibration training caused a significant improvement in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (p=0.028), and PAI-1 (p=0.033), fibrinogen showed decrease albeit not significantly (p=0.052). Plasminogen showed decrease not significantly (p=0.508). Low-amplitude vibration training caused a significant improvement in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (p=0.006) and and PAI-1 showed decrease not significantly (p=0.907). Fibrinogen showed decrease albeit not significantly (p=0.19). Plasminogen showed decrease not significantly (p=0.095). However, between groups there was no significant effect on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (p = 0.50), PAI-1 (p=0.249), Plasminogen (p=0.742), and fibrinogen (p=0.299). Conclusion: Amplitude of vibrations training is a important variable that effect on fibrino lytic factors.

Keywords: vibration, fibrinolysis, blood coagulation, plasminogen

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56 Biological Activities of Protease Inhibitors from Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus limensis

Authors: Tooba N. Shamsi, Romana Perveen, Sadaf Fatima

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Protease Inhibitors (PIs) are widespread in nature, produced by animals, plants and microorganisms. They play vital role in various biological activities by keeping a check on activity of proteases. Present study aims to investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of PPI from Cajanus cajan (CCTI) and Phaseolus limensis (LBTI). PPI was purified from C. cajan (PUSA-992) by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography. The anti-oxidant activity was analyzed by two most common radical scavenging assays of FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and DPPH (1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). Also, in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation assay and membrane stabilization assay at different concentrations. Ascorbic acid and aspirin were used as a standards for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays respectively. The PPIs were also checked for antimicrobial activity against a number of bacterial strains. The CCTI and LBTI showed DPPH radical scavenging activity in a concentration–dependent manner with IC50 values 544 µg/ml and 506 µg/ml respectively comparative to ascorbic acid which was 258 µg/ml. Following FRAP assay, it was evaluated that LBTI had 87.5% and CCTI showed 84.4% antioxidant activity, taking value of standard ascorbic acid to be 100%. The PPIs also showed in-vitro anti‐inflammatory activity by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation with IC50 values of 686 µg/ml and 615 µg/ml for CCTI and LBTI respectively compared to the standard (aspirin) which was 70.8 µg/ml. Red blood cells membrane stabilization with IC50 values of 641 µg/ml and 587 µg/ml for CCTI and LBTI respectively against aspirin which showed IC50 value of 70.4 µg/ml. PPIs showed antibacterial activity against 7 known strains while there was apparently no action against fungi.

Keywords: Cajanus cajan, Phaseolus limensis, Lima beans, protein protease inhibitor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activity

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55 Study of the Efficacy of Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Alone or Combined with Praziquantel as Chemotherapy for Mice Schistosomiasis mansoni

Authors: Alyaa Ahmed Farid, Aida Ismail, Ibrahim Rabia, Azza Fahmy, Azza El Amir

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This study was designed for assessment of 3 types of Cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) fluromethylketone (FMK), vinyl sulfone (VS) and sodium nitro prussid (SNP), to define which of them is the best? The experiments aimed to define the protective power of each inhibitor alone or combined with PZQ for curing S. mansoni infection in mice. In vitro, treated S. mansoni adult worms recorded a mortality rate after 1 hr of exposure to 500 ppm of FMK, VS and SNP as 75, 70 and 60%, while, treated cercaria recorded 75, 60 and 50%, respectively. FMK+PZQ treatment recorded the maximum reduction in worm burden (97.2% at 5 wk PI). VS treatment alone or combined with PZQ increases IgM, total IgG, IgG2 and IgG4 levels. In EM study of worm tegument, while only detachment of spines was observed in PZQ treated group, the completely implanted spines were reported in the degenerated tegument of adult worms in all groups treated with CPIs. Treatment with VS+PZQ increased Igs levels but, its effect was different on worm reduction. So, it is not enough to eliminate the infection and FMK+PZQ considered the antischistosomicidal drug of choice.

Keywords: praziquantel, fluromethylketone, vinyl sulfone, worm burden, immunoglobulin pattern

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54 Tetra Butyl Ammonium Cyanate Mediated Selective Synthesis of Sulfonyltriuret and Their Investigation towards Trypsin Protease Modulation

Authors: Amarjyoti Das Mahapatra, Umesh Kumar, Bhaskar Datta

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A pseudo peptide can mimic the biological or structural properties of natural peptides. They have become an increasing attention in medicinal chemistry because of their interesting advantages like more bioavailability and less biodegradation than compare to the physiologically active native peptides which increase their therapeutic applications. Many biologically active compounds contain urea as functional groups, and they have improved pharmacokinetic properties because of their bioavailability and metabolic stability. Recently we have reported a single-step synthesis of sulfonyl urea and sulfonyltriuret from sulfonyl chloride and sodium cyanate. But the yield of sulfonyltriuret was less around 40-60% because of the formation of other products like sulfonamide and sulfonylureas. In the present work, we mainly focused on the selective synthesis of sulfonyltriuret using tetrabutylammonium cyanate and sulfonyl chloride. More precisely, we are interested in the controlled synthesis of oligomeric urea mainly sulfonyltriuret as a new class of pseudo peptide and their application as protease modulators. The distinctive architecture of these molecules in the form of their pseudo-peptide backbone offers promise as a potential pharmacophore. The synthesized molecules have been screened on trypsin enzyme, and we observed that these molecules are the efficient modulator of trypsin enzyme.

Keywords: pseudo peptide, pharmacophore, sulfonyltriuret, trypsin

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53 Change of Substrate in Solid State Fermentation Can Produce Proteases and Phytases with Extremely Distinct Biochemical Characteristics and Promising Applications for Animal Nutrition

Authors: Paula K. Novelli, Margarida M. Barros, Luciana F. Flueri

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Utilization of agricultural by-products, wheat ban and soybean bran, as substrate for solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied, aiming the achievement of different enzymes from Aspergillus sp. with distinct biological characteristics and its application and improvement on animal nutrition. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzea were studied as they showed very high yield of phytase and protease production, respectively. Phytase activity was measure using p-nitrophenilphosphate as substrate and a standard curve of p-nitrophenol, as the enzymatic activity unit was the quantity of enzyme necessary to release one μmol of p-nitrophenol. Protease activity was measure using azocasein as substrate. Activity for phytase and protease substantially increased when the different biochemical characteristics were considered in the study. Optimum pH and stability of the phytase produced by A. niger with wheat bran as substrate was between 4.0 - 5.0 and optimum temperature of activity was 37oC. Phytase fermented in soybean bran showed constant values at all pHs studied, for optimal and stability, but low production. Phytase with both substrates showed stable activity for temperatures higher than 80oC. Protease from A. niger showed very distinct behavior of optimum pH, acid for wheat bran and basic for soybean bran, respectively and optimal values of temperature and stability at 50oC. Phytase produced by A. oryzae in wheat bran had optimum pH and temperature of 9 and 37oC, respectively, but it was very unstable. On the other hand, proteases were stable at high temperatures, all pH’s studied and showed very high yield when fermented in wheat bran, however when it was fermented in soybean bran the production was very low. Subsequently the upscale production of phytase from A. niger and proteases from A. oryzae were applied as an enzyme additive in fish fed for digestibility studies. Phytases and proteases were produced with stable enzyme activity of 7,000 U.g-1 and 2,500 U.g-1, respectively. When those enzymes were applied in a plant protein based fish diet for digestibility studies, they increased protein, mineral, energy and lipids availability, showing that these new enzymes can improve animal production and performance. In conclusion, the substrate, as well as, the microorganism species can affect the biochemical character of the enzyme produced. Moreover, the production of these enzymes by SSF can be up to 90% cheaper than commercial ones produced with the same fungi species but submerged fermentation. Add to that these cheap enzymes can be easily applied as animal diet additives to improve production and performance.

Keywords: agricultural by-products, animal nutrition, enzymes production, solid state fermentation

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52 Excessive Recruitment of Neutrophils and Elastase Release in Emphysema and COPD; Effect of Natural Protease Inhibitors

Authors: Rachid Kacem

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Excessive recruitment of Neutrophils into the lungs is a hallmark of several chronic inflammatory disorders such as emphysema and COPD. The resulting of this recruitment is the pathogenesis of lungs which is characterized by an imbalance between leukocyte serine proteinases mainly neutrophil elastase and the physiological inhibitors. The development of emphysema and remodeling of airway tissue occurred when neutrophil migrate into the lungs with more release of elastase and other proteolytic enzymes. Many reports have demonstrated that the extracts from medicinal plants such as Nigella sativa (L.) seeds extracts have anti-elastase activity; this is mainly due to the enrichment of the extracts with many bioactive molecules mainly phenolic compounds. Neutrophil serine proteases including human neutrophil elastase are involved in many inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. Since the current therapies for these diseases are inadequate and have numerous adverse effects, there is an acute need of potential alternative therapies. The natural protease inhibitors have received increasing attention as useful tools for potential utilization in pharmacology. This work is elucidating the most important natural phenolic substances that have been reported recently for their effectiveness as natural anti-elastase molecules, and hence, to the possibility of their use in the field of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: medicinal plants, phenols, elastase, anti-elastase, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, emphysema

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51 A Viable Approach for Biological Detoxification of Non Edible Oil Seed Cakes and Their Utilization in Food Production Using Aspergillus Niger

Authors: Kshitij Bhardwaj, R.K. Trivedi, Shipra Dixit

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We used biological detoxification method that converts toxic residue waste of Jatropha curcas oil seeds (non edible oil seed) into industrial bio-products and animal feed material. Present study describes the complete degradation of phorbol esters by Aspergillus Niger strain during solid state fermentation (SSF) of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake. Phorbol esters were completely degraded in 15 days under the optimized SSF conditions viz deoiled cake 5.0 gm moistened with 5.0 ml distilled water; inoculum 2 ml of overnight grown Aspergillus niger; incubated at 30◦ C, pH 7.0. This method simultaneously induces the production of Protease enzyme by Aspergillus Niger which has high potential to be used in feedstuffs .The maximum Protease activities obtained were 709.16 mg/ml in Jatropha curcas oil seed cake. The protein isolate had small amounts of phorbol esters, phytic acid, and saponin without any lectin. Its minimum and maximum solubility were at pH 4.0&12.0. Water and oil binding capacities were 3.22 g water/g protein and 1.86 ml oil/g protein respectively.Emulsion activity showed high values in a range of basic pH. We concluded that Jatropha Curcas seed cake has a potential to be used as a novel source of functional protein for food or feed applications.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Jatropha curcas, oil seed cake, phorbol ester

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50 Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure as an Alternative Preservation Method in Camels Milk

Authors: Fahad Aljasass, Hamza Abu-Tarboush, Salah Aleid, Siddig Hamad

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The effects of different high hydrostatic pressure treatments on the shelf life of camel’s milk were studied. Treatments at 300 to 350 MPa for 5 minutes at 40°C reduced microbial contamination to levels that prolonged the shelf life of refrigerated (3° C) milk up to 28 days. The treatment resulted in a decrease in the proteolytic activity of the milk. The content of proteolytic enzymes in the untreated milk sample was 4.23 µM/ml. This content decreased significantly to 3.61 µM/ml when the sample was treated at 250 MPa. Treatment at 300 MPa decreased the content to 3.90 which was not significantly different from the content of the untreated sample. The content of the sample treated at 350 MPa dropped to 2.98 µM/ml which was significantly lower than the contents of all other treated and untreated samples. High pressure treatment caused a slight but statistically significant increase in the pH of camel’s milk. The pH of the untreated sample was 6.63, which increased significantly to 6.70, in the samples treated at 250 and 350 MPa, but insignificantly in the sample treated at 300 MPa. High pressure treatment resulted in some degree of milk fat oxidation. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of the untreated sample was 0.86 mg malonaldehyde/kg milk. This value remained unchanged in the sample treated at 250 MPa, but then it increased significantly to 1.25 and 1.33 mg/kg in the samples treated at 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. High pressure treatment caused a small increase in the greenness (a* value) of camel’s milk. The value of a* was reduced from -1.17 for the untreated sample to -1.26, -1.21 and -1.30 for the samples treated at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. Δa* at the 250 MPa treatment was -0.09, which then decreased to -0.04 at the 300 MPa treatment to increase again to -0.13 at the 350 MPa treatment. The yellowness (b* value) of camel’s milk increased significantly as a result of high pressure treatment. The b* value of the untreated sample was 1.40, this value increased to 2.73, 2.31 and 2.18 after treatments at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. The Δb* value was +1.33 at the treatment 250 MPa, decreased to +0.91 at 300 MPa and further to +0.78 at 350 MPa. The pressure treatment caused slight effect on color, slight decrease in protease activity and a slight increase in the oxidation products of lipids.

Keywords: high hydrostatic pressure, camel’s milk, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, clotting, protease

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49 A Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus Involved in Immune Responses

Authors: S. D. N. K. Bathige, G. I. Godahewa, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan, Jehee Lee

Abstract:

Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KTIs) are identified in various organisms including animals, plants and microbes. These proteins shared single or multiple Kunitz inhibitory domains link together or associated with other types of domains. Characteristic Kunitz type domain composed of around 60 amino acid residues with six conserved cysteine residues to stabilize by three disulfide bridges. KTIs are involved in various physiological processes, such as ion channel blocking, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation. In this study, two Kunitz-type domain containing protein was identified from rock bream database and designated as RbKunitz. The coding sequence of RbKunitz encoded for 507 amino acids with 56.2 kDa theoretical molecular mass and 5.7 isoelectric point (pI). There are several functional domains including MANEC superfamily domain, PKD superfamily domain, and LDLa domain were predicted in addition to the two characteristic Kunitz domain. Moreover, trypsin interaction sites were also identified in Kunitz domain. Homology analysis revealed that RbKunitz shared highest identity (77.6%) with Takifugu rubripes. Completely conserved 28 cysteine residues were recognized, when comparison of RbKunitz with other orthologs from different taxonomical groups. These structural evidences indicate the rigidity of RbKunitz folding structure to achieve the proper function. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining method and exhibited that the KTIs from fish and non-fish has been evolved in separately. Rock bream was clustered with Takifugu rubripes. The SYBR Green qPCR was performed to quantify the RbKunitz transcripts in different tissues and challenged tissues. The mRNA transcripts of RbKunitz were detected in all tissues (muscle, spleen, head kidney, blood, heart, skin, liver, intestine, kidney and gills) analyzed and highest transcripts level was detected in gill tissues. Temporal transcription profile of RbKunitz in rock bream blood tissues was analyzed upon LPS (lipopolysaccharide), Poly I:C (Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid) and Edwardsiella tarda challenge to understand the immune responses of this gene. Compare to the unchallenged control RbKunitz exhibited strong up-regulation at 24 h post injection (p.i.) after LPS and E. tarda injection. Comparatively robust expression of RbKunits was observed at 3 h p.i. upon Poly I:C challenge. Taken together all these data indicate that RbKunitz may involve into to immune responses upon pathogenic stress, in order to protect the rock bream.

Keywords: Kunitz-type, rock bream, immune response, serine protease inhibitor

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48 Study of the Biochemical Properties of the Protease Coagulant Milk Extracted from Sunflower Cake: Manufacturing Test of Cheeses Uncooked Dough Press and Analysis of Sensory Properties

Authors: Kahlouche Amal, Touzene F. Zohra, Betatache Fatihaet Nouani Abdelouahab

Abstract:

The development of the world production of the cheese these last decades, as well as agents' greater request cheap coagulants, accentuated the search for new surrogates of the rennet. What about the interest to explore the vegetable biodiversity, the source well cheap of many naturals metabolites that the scientists today praise it (thistle, latex of fig tree, Cardoon, seeds of melon). Indeed, a big interest is concerned the search for surrogates of vegetable origin. The objective of the study is to show the possibility of extracting a protease coagulant the milk from the cake of Sunflower, available raw material and the potential source of surrogates of rennet. so, the determination of the proteolytic activity of raw extracts, the purification, the elimination of the pigments of tint of the enzymatic preparations, a better knowledge of the coagulative properties through study of the effect of certain factors (temperature, pH, concentration in CaCl2) are so many factors which contribute to value milk particularly those produced by the small ruminants of the Algerian dairy exploitations. Otherwise, extracts coagulants of vegetable origin allowed today to value traditional, in addition, although the extract coagulants of vegetable origin made it possible today to develop traditional cheeses whose Iberian peninsula is the promoter, but the test of 'pressed paste not cooked' cheese manufacturing led to the semi-scale pilot; and that, by using the enzymatic extract of sunflower (Helianthus annus) which gave satisfactory results as well to the level of outputs as on the sensory level,which, statistically,did not give any significant difference between studied cheeses. These results confirm the possibility of use of this coagulase as a substitute of rennet commercial on an industrial scale.

Keywords: characterization, cheese, Rennet, sunflower

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47 Characterization of Bovine SERPIN- Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT)

Authors: Sharique Ahmed, Khushtar Anwar Salman

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Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a major plasma serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN). Hereditary AAT deficiency is one of the common diseases in some part of the world. AAT is mainly produced in the liver and functions to protect the lung against proteolytic damage (e.g., from neutrophil elastase) acting as the major inhibitor for neutrophil elastase. α (1)-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an under recognized genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in 2,000 to 1 in 5,000 individuals and predisposes to liver disease and early-onset emphysema. Not only does α-1-antitrypsin deficiency lead to disabling syndrome of pulmonary emphysema, there are other disorders too which include ANCA (antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody) positive Wegener's granulomatosis, diffuse bronchiectasis, necrotizing panniculitis in α-1-antitrypsin phenotype (S), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and steroid dependent asthma. Augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) from human plasma has been available for specific treatment of emphysema due to AAT deficiency. Apart from this several observations have also suggested a role for endogenous suppressors of HIV-1, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) has been identified to be one of those. In view of its varied important role in humans, serum from a mammalian source was chosen for the isolation and purification. Studies were performed on the homogeneous fraction. This study suggests that the buffalo serum α-1-antritrypsin has characteristics close to ovine, dog, horse and more importantly to human α-1-antritrypsin in terms of its hydrodynamic properties such as molecular weight, carbohydrate content, etc. The similarities in the hydrodynamic properties of buffalo serum α-1-antitrypsin with other sources of mammalian α-1-antitrypsin mean that it can be further studied and be a potential source for "augmentation therapy", as well as a source of AAT replacement therapy to raise serum levels above the protective threshold. Other parameters like the amino acid sequence, the effect of denaturants, and the thermolability or thermostability of the inhibitor will be the interesting basis of future studies on buffalo serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT).

Keywords: α-1-antitrypsin, augmentation therapy , hydrodynamic properties, serine protease inhibitor

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46 Extracellular Enzymes from Halophilic Bacteria with Potential in Agricultural Secondary Flow Recovery Products

Authors: Madalin Enache, Simona Neagu, Roxana Cojoc, Ioana Gomoiu, Delia Ionela Dobre, Ancuta Roxana Trifoi

Abstract:

Various types of halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms able to be cultivated in laboratory on culture media with a wide range of sodium chloride content are isolated from several salted environments. The extracellular enzymes of these microorganisms showed the enzymatic activity in these spectrums of salinity thus being attractive for several biotechnological processes developed at high ionic strength. In present work, a number of amylase, protease, esterase, lipase, cellulase, pectinase, xilanases and innulinase were identified for more than 50th bacterial strains isolated from water samples and sapropelic mud from four saline and hypersaline lakes located in Romanian plain. On the other hand, the cellulase and pectinase activity were also detected in some halotolerant microorganisms isolated from secondary agricultural flow of grapes processing. The preliminary data revealed that from totally tested strains seven harbor proteases activity, eight amylase activity, four for esterase and another four for lipase, three for pectinase and for one strain were identified either cellulase or pectinase activity. There were no identified enzymes able to hydrolase innulin added to culture media. Several strains isolated from sapropelic mud showed multiple extracellular enzymatic activities, namely three strains harbor three activities and another seven harbor two activities. The data revealed that amylase and protease activities were frequently detected if compare with other tested enzymes. In the case of pectinase were investigated, their ability to be used for increasing resveratrol recovery from material resulted after grapes processing. In this way, the resulted material from grapes processing was treated with microbial supernatant for several times (two, four and 24 hours) and the content of resveratrol was detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography method (HPLC). The preliminary data revealed some positive results of this treatment.

Keywords: halophilic microorganisms, enzymes, pectinase, salinity

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45 Identification and Molecular Profiling of A Family I Cystatin Homologue from Sebastes schlegeli Deciphering Its Putative Role in Host Immunity

Authors: Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, P. D. S. U. Wickramasinghe, Jehee Lee

Abstract:

Cystatins are a large superfamily of proteins which act as reversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases. Papain proteases and cysteine cathepsins are predominant substrates of cystatins. Cystatin superfamily can be further clustered into three groups as Stefins, Cystatins, and Kininogens. Among them, stefines are also known as family 1 cystatins which harbors cystatin Bs and cystatin As. In this study, a homologue of family one cystatins more close to cystatin Bs was identified from Korean black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) using a prior constructed cDNA (complementary deoxyribonucleic acid) database and designated as RfCyt1. The full-length cDNA of RfCyt1 consisted of 573 bp, with a coding region of 294 bp. It comprised a 5´-untranslated region (UTR) of 55 bp, and 3´-UTR of 263 bp. The coding sequence encodes a polypeptide consisting of 97 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 11kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 6.3. The RfCyt1 shared homology with other teleosts and vertebrate species and consisted conserved features of cystatin family signature including single cystatin-like domain, cysteine protease inhibitory signature of pentapeptide (QXVXG) consensus sequence and N-terminal two conserved neighboring glycine (⁸GG⁹) residues. As expected, phylogenetic reconstruction developed using the neighbor-joining method showed that RfCyt1 is clustered with the cystatin family 1 members, in which more closely with its teleostan orthologues. An SYBR Green qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) assay was performed to quantify the RfCytB transcripts in different tissues in healthy and immune stimulated fish. RfCyt1 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissue types of healthy animals with gill and spleen being the highest. Temporal expression of RfCyt1 displayed significant up-regulation upon infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. Recombinantly expressed RfCyt1 showed concentration-dependent papain inhibitory activity. Collectively these findings evidence for detectable protease inhibitory and immunity relevant roles of RfCyt1 in Sebastes schlegeli.

Keywords: Sebastes schlegeli, family 1 cystatin, immune stimulation, expressional modulation

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44 Experimental Design in Extraction of Pseudomonas sp. Protease from Fermented Broth by Polyethylene Glycol/Citrate Aqueous Two-Phase System

Authors: Omar Pillaca-Pullo, Arturo Alejandro-Paredes, Carol Flores-Fernandez, Marijuly Sayuri Kina, Amparo Iris Zavaleta

Abstract:

Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is an interesting alternative for separating industrial enzymes due to it is easy to scale-up and low cost. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixed with potassium phosphate or magnesium sulfate is one of the most frequently polymer/salt ATPS used, but the consequences of its use is a high concentration of phosphates and sulfates in wastewater causing environmental issues. Citrate could replace these inorganic salts due to it is biodegradable and does not produce toxic compounds. On the other hand, statistical design of experiments is widely used for ATPS optimization and it allows to study the effects of the involved variables in the purification, and to estimate their significant effects on selected responses and interactions. The 24 factorial design with four central points (20 experiments) was employed to study the partition and purification of proteases produced by Pseudomonas sp. in PEG/citrate ATPS system. ATPS was prepared with different sodium citrate concentrations [14, 16 and 18% (w/w)], pH values (7, 8 and 9), PEG molecular weight (2,000; 4,000 and 6,000 g/mol) and PEG concentrations [18, 20 and 22 % (w/w)]. All system components were mixed with 15% (w/w) of the fermented broth and deionized water was added to a final weight of 12.5 g. Then, the systems were mixed and kept at room temperature until to reach two-phases separation. Volumes of the top and bottom phases were measured, and aliquots from both phases were collected for subsequent proteolytic activity and total protein determination. Influence of variables such as PEG molar mass (MPEG), PEG concentration (CPEG), citrate concentration (CSal) and pH were evaluated on the following responses: purification factor (PF), activity yield (Y), partition coefficient (K) and selectivity (S). STATISTICA program version 10 was used for the analysis. According to the obtained results, higher levels of CPEG and MPEG had a positive effect on extraction, while pH did not influence on the process. On the other hand, the CSal could be related with low values of Y because of the citrate ions have a negative effect on solubility and enzymatic structure. The optimum values of Y (66.4 %), PF (1.8), K (5.5) and S (4.3) were obtained at CSal (18%), MPEG (6,000 g/mol), CPEG (22%) and pH 9. These results indicated that the PEG/citrate system is accurate to purify these Pseudomonas sp. proteases from fermented broth as a first purification step.

Keywords: citrate, polyethylene glycol, protease, Pseudomonas sp

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43 Isolation and Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria against Wheat Pathogenic Fungus Tilletia indica

Authors: Sugandha Asthana, Geetika Vajpayee, Pratibha Kumari, Shanthy Sundaram

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An economically important disease of wheat in North Western region of India is Karnal Bunt caused by smut fungus Tilletia indica. This fungal pathogen spreads by air, soil and seed borne sporodia at the time of flowering, which ultimately leads to partial bunting of wheat kernels with fishy odor and taste to wheat flour. It has very serious effects due to quarantine measures which have to be applied for grain exports. Chemical fungicides such as mercurial compounds and Propiconazole applied to the control of Karnal bunt have been only partially successful. Considering the harmful effects of chemical fungicides on man as well as environment, many countries are developing biological control as the superior substitute to chemical control. Repeated use of fungicides can be responsible for the development of resistance in fungal pathogens against certain chemical compounds. The present investigation is based on the isolation and evaluation of antifungal properties of some isolated (from natural manure) and commercial bacterial strains against Tilletia indica. Total 23 bacterial isolates were obtained and antagonistic activity of all isolates and commercial bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis MTCC8601, Bacillus pumilus MTCC 8743, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were tested against T. indica by dual culture plate assay (pour plate and streak plate). Test for the production of antifungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by antagonistic bacteria was done by sealed plate method. Amongst all s1, s3, s5, and B. subtilis showed more than 80% inhibition. Production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes such as protease, beta 1, 4 glucanase, HCN and ammonia was studied for confirmation of antifungal activity. s1, s3, s5 and B. subtilis were found to be the best for protease activity and s5 and B. subtilis for beta 1, 4 glucanase activity. Bacillus subtilis was significantly effective for HCN whereas s3, s5 and Bacillus subtilis for ammonia production. Isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (s1) and B. licheniformis (s3, s5) by various biochemical assays and confirmed by16s rRNA sequencing. Use of microorganisms or their secretions as biocontrol agents to avoid plant diseases is ecologically safe and may offer long term of protection to crop. The above study reports the promising effects of these strains in better pathogen free crop production and quality maintenance as well as prevention of the excessive use of synthetic fungicides.

Keywords: antagonistic, antifungal, biocontrol, Karnal bunt

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42 Comparative Analysis of Soil Enzyme Activities between Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

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Soil enzyme activities in Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan) were examined to determine levels of mineralization and metabolism. Samples were selected from the soil surrounding laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Carpinus japonica (BB-2 and Pw) trees for analysis. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and protease activities were higher in BB-1 samples those in BB-2 samples. These activity levels corresponded to the distribution of cellulose and hemicellulose in the soil horizons. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and chymotrypsin activities were higher in soil from the Pw forest than in that from the BB-2 forest. The relationships between the soil enzymes calculated by Spearman’s rank correlation indicate that the interactions between enzymes in BB-2 samples were more complex than those in Pw samples.

Keywords: comparative analysis, enzyme activities, forest soil, Spearman's rank correlation

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41 Multidrug Therapies For HIV: Hybrid On-Off, Hysteresis On-Off Control and Simple STI

Authors: Magno Enrique Mendoza Meza

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This paper deals with the comparison of three control techniques: the hysteresis on-off control (HyOOC), the hybrid on-off control (HOOC) and the simple Structured Treatment Interruptions (sSTI). These techniques are applied to the mathematical model developed by Kirschner and Webb. To compare these techniques we use a cost functional that minimize the wild-type virus population and the mutant virus population, but the main objective is to minimize the systemic cost of treatment and maximize levels of healthy CD4+ T cells. HyOOC, HOOC, and sSTI are applied to the drug therapies using a reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors; simulations show that these controls maintain the uninfected cells in a small, bounded neighborhood of a pre-specified level. The controller HyOOC and HOOC are designed by appropriate choice of virtual equilibrium points.

Keywords: virus dynamics, on-off control, hysteresis, multi-drug therapies

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40 The Hidden Mechanism beyond Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Potent in vivo and in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Shahira M. Ezzat, Marwa I. Ezzat, Mona M. Okba, Esther T. Menze, Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim, Shahnas O. Mohamed

Abstract:

Background: In order to decrease the burden of the high cost of synthetic drugs, it is important to focus on phytopharmaceuticals. The aim of our study was to search for the mechanism of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) anti-inflammatory potential and to correlate it to its biophytochemicals. Methods: Various extracts viz. water, 50%, 70%, 80%, and 90% ethanol were prepared from ginger rhizomes. Fractionation of the aqueous extract (AE) was accomplished using Diaion HP-20. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by protein denaturation inhibition, membrane stabilization, protease inhibition, and anti-lipoxygenase assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AE was estimated by assessment of rat paw oedema after carrageenan injection. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), certain inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, INFr, MCP-1MIP, RANTES, and Nox) levels and MPO activity in the paw edema exudates were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was also determined. Histopathological alterations of paw tissues were scored. Results: All the tested extracts showed significant (p < 0.1) anti-inflammatory activities. The highest percentage of heat induced albumin denaturation (66%) was exhibited by the 50% ethanol (250 μg/ml). The 70 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) were more potent as membrane stabilizers (34.5 and 37%, respectively) than diclofenac (33%). The 80 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) showed maximum protease inhibition (56%). The strongest anti-lipoxygenase activity was observed for the AE. It showed more significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity than that of diclofenac (58% and 52%, respectively) at the same concentration (125 μg/ml). Fractionation of AE yielded four main fractions (Fr I-IV) which showed significant in vitro anti-inflammatory. Purification of Fr-III and IV led to the isolation of 6-poradol (G1), 6-shogaol (G2); methyl 6- gingerol (G3), 5-gingerol (G4), 6-gingerol (G5), 8-gingerol (G6), 10-gingerol (G7), and 1-dehydro-6-gingerol (G8). G2 (62.5 ug/ml), G1 (250 ug/ml), and G8 (250 ug/ml) exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in all studied assays, while G4 and G5 exhibited moderate activity. In vivo administration of AE ameliorated rat paw oedema in a dose-dependent manner. AE (at 200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction (60%) of PGE2 production. The AE at different doses (at 25-200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers except for IL-1α. AE (at 25 mg/kg) is superior to indomethacin in reduction of IL-1β. Treatment of animals with the AE (100, 200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (10 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and RANTES levels, and MPO activity by about (31, 57 and 32% ) (65, 60 and 57%) (27, 41 and 28%) (23, 32 and 23%) (66, 67 and 67%) respectively. AE at 100 and 200 mg/kg was equipotent to indomethacin in reduction of NOₓ level and in increasing the TAC. Histopathological examination revealed very few inflammatory cells infiltration and oedema after administration of AE (200 mg/kg) prior to carrageenan. Conclusion: Ginger anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by inhibiting macrophage and neutrophils activation as well as negatively affecting monocyte and leukocyte migration. Moreover, it produced dose-dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and replenished the total antioxidant capacity. We strongly recommend future investigations of ginger in the potential signal transduction pathways.

Keywords: anti-lipoxygenase activity, inflammatory markers, 1-dehydro-6-gingerol, 6-shogaol

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