Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: Anastasia V. Orekhova

39 Aspergillus micromycetes as Producers of Hemostatically Active Proteases

Authors: Alexander A. Osmolovskiy, Anastasia V. Orekhova, Daria M. Bednenko, Yelyzaveta Boiko

Abstract:

Micromycetes from Aspergillus genus can produce proteases capable of promoting proteolysis of hemostasis proteins or, along with hydrolytic activity, to show the ability to convert proenzymes of this system activating them into an active form. At the same time, practical medicine needs specific activators for quantitation of the level of some plasma enzymes, especially protein C and factor X, the lack of which leads to the development of thromboembolic diseases. Thus, some micromycetes of the genus Aspergillus were screened for the ability to synthesize extracellular proteases with promising activity for designing anti-thrombotic and diagnostic preparations. Such standard methods like salting out, electrophoresis, isoelectrofocusing were used for isolation, purification and study of physicochemical properties of proteases. Enzyme activity was measured spectrophotometrically fibrin as a substrate of the reaction and chromogenic peptide substrates of different proteases of the human hemostasis system. As a result of the screening, four active producers were selected: Aspergillus janus 301, A. flavus 1, A. terreus 2, and A. ochraceus L-1. The enzyme of A. janus 301 showed the greatest fibrinolytic activity (around 329.2 μmol Tyr/(ml × min)). The protease produced by A. terreus 2 had the highest plasmin-like activity (54.1 nmol pNA/(ml × min)), but fibrinolytic activity was lower than A. janus 301 demonstrated (25.2 μmol Tyr/(ml × min)). For extracellular protease of micromycete A. flavus a high plasmin-like activity was also shown (39.8 nmol pNA / (ml × min)). Moreover, according to our results proteases one of the fungi - A. terreus 2 were able to activate protein C of human plasma - the key factor of the human anticoagulant hemostasis system. This type of activity was 39.8 nmol pNA/(ml × min)). It was also shown that A. ochraceus L-1 could produce extracellular proteases with protein C and factor X activator activities (65.9 nmol pNA/(ml × min) and 34.6 nmol pNA/(ml × min) respectively). The maximum accumulation of the proteases falls on the 4th day of cultivation. Using isoelectrofocusing was demonstrated that the activation of both proenzymes might proceed via limited proteolysis induced by proteases of A. ochraceus L-1. The activatory activity of A. ochraceus L-1 proteases toward essential hemostatic proenzymes, protein C and X factor may be useful for practical needs. It is well known that similar enzymes, activators of protein C and X factor isolated from snake venom, South American copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix and Russell’s viper Daboia russelli russeli, respectively, are used for the in vitro diagnostics of the functional state of these proteins in blood plasma. Thus, the proteases of Aspergillus genus can be used as cheap components for enzyme thrombolytic preparations.

Keywords: anti-trombotic drugs, fibrinolysis, diagnostics, proteases, micromycetes

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
38 Designing and Enacting an Adjunct Faculty Self-Study of Teaching Community

Authors: Anastasia P. Samaras, Allison Ward-Parsons, Beth Dalbec, Paula Cristina Azevedo, Anya Evmenova, Arvinder Johri, Lynne Scott Constantine, Lesley Smith

Abstract:

Two cycles of qualitative data were collected. Cycle One sources included participant survey results, participant postings on Blackboard forums, facilitator memos, and meeting notes as well as reflections and notes from whole-group meetings.

Keywords: adjunct faculty, professional development, self-study methodology, teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
37 The Psychological Impact of War Trauma on Refugees

Authors: Anastasia Papachristou, Anastasia Ntikoudi, Vasileios Saridakis

Abstract:

The safety and health care needs of refugees have become an increasingly important issue all over the world especially during last few decades. Wars are the primary reason for refugees to leave their countries. Moreover, refugees are frequently exposed to a variety of stressors such as socioeconomic disadvantages, poverty, changes in family structure and functioning, losing social support, difficulty to access education, living in very crowded places, experiencing racism and isolation. This systematic review included research studies published between 2007-2017 from the search databases Medline, Scopus, Cinahl and PubMed, with keywords 'war survivors', 'war trauma', 'psychiatric disorders', 'refugees'. In order to meet the purpose of the systematic review, further research for complementary studies was conducted into the literature references of the research articles included in this study that would meet the criteria. Overall, 14 studies were reviewed and evaluated. The majority of them demonstrated that the most common psychiatric disorders observed among war refugees are post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and multiple somatic complaints. Moreover, significant relationship was shown between the number of traumatic events experienced by the refugees and sociodemographic features such as gender, age and previous family history of any psychological disorder. War violence is highly traumatic, causing multiple, long-term negative outcomes such as the aforementioned psychiatric disorders. The number of the studies reviewed in this systematic review is not representative of the problem and its significance. The need for care of the survivors and their families is vital. Further research is necessary in order to clarify the role of predictive factors in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress and the rest psychiatric disorders following war trauma. In conclusion, it is necessary to have large multicenter studies in the future in order to be able to draw reliable conclusions about the effects of war.

Keywords: psychiatric disorders, refugees, war survivors, war trauma

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
36 Synthesis, Structure and Functional Characteristics of Solid Electrolytes Based on Lanthanum Niobates

Authors: Maria V. Morozova, Yulia V. Emelyanova, Anastasia A. Levina, Elena S. Buyanova, Zoya A. Mikhaylovskaya, Sofia A. Petrova

Abstract:

The solid solutions of lanthanum niobates substituted by yttrium, bismuth and tungsten were synthesized. The structure of the solid solutions is either LaNbO4-based monoclinic or BiNbO4-based triclinic. The series where niobium is substituted by tungsten on B site reveals phase-modulated structure. The values of cell parameters decrease with increasing the dopant concentration for all samples except the tungsten series although the latter show higher total conductivity.

Keywords: impedance spectroscopy, LaNbO4, lanthanum ortho-niobates, solid electrolyte

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
35 Energy Performance of Buildings Due to Downscaled Seasonal Models

Authors: Anastasia K. Eleftheriadou, Athanasios Sfetsos, Nikolaos Gounaris

Abstract:

The present work examines the suitability of a seasonal forecasting model downscaled with a very high spatial resolution in order to assess the energy performance and requirements of buildings. The application of the developed model is applied on Greece for a period and with a forecast horizon of 5 months in the future. Greece, as a country in the middle of a financial crisis and facing serious societal challenges, is also very sensitive to climate changes. The commonly used method for the correlation of climate change with the buildings energy consumption is the concept of Degree Days (DD). This method can be applied to heating and cooling systems for a better management of environmental, economic and energy crisis, and can be used as medium (3-6 months) planning tools in order to predict the building needs and country’s requirements for residential energy use.

Keywords: downscaled seasonal models, degree days, energy performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
34 Characterization and Geographical Differentiation of Yellow Prickly Pear Produced in Different Mediterranean Countries

Authors: Artemis Louppis, Michalis Constantinou, Ioanna Kosma, Federica Blando, Michael Kontominas, Anastasia Badeka

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to differentiate yellow prickly pear according to geographical origin based on the combination of mineral content, physicochemical parameters, vitamins and antioxidants. A total of 240 yellow prickly pear samples from Cyprus, Spain, Italy and Greece were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, electrical conductivity, protein, moisture, ash, fat, antioxidant activity, individual antioxidants, sugars and vitamins by UPLC-MS/MS as well as minerals by ICP-MS. Statistical treatment of the data included multivariate analysis of variance followed by linear discriminant analysis. Based on results, a correct classification of 66.7% was achieved using the cross validation by mineral content while 86.1% was achieved using the cross validation method by combination of all analytical parameters.

Keywords: geographical differentiation, prickly pear, chemometrics, analytical techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
33 Impact of Microfinance in Promoting Rural Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Udeh Anastasia Ifeoma

Abstract:

The need to develop the rural areas in developing countries where there have been decades of neglect are on the increase. It is against this background that this paper examined the impact of micro finance contribution to Nigeria’s gross domestic product. Time series data for 12-years period 1999-2010 were collated from Central Bank of Nigeria published annual reports. The least squares (LS) regression was used to analyze the data. The result revealed that microfinance activities have negative and non-significant contribution to gross domestic product in Nigeria. The paper recommends that rural poverty is often a product of poor infrastructural facilities; therefore government should make a conscious effort towards industrializing the rural areas thereby motivating the micro finance institutions to locate their offices and extend credit facilities to rural areas thereby improving rural economic growth.

Keywords: microfinance, rural economic growth, Nigeria, developing countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
32 Reliability of Self-Reported Language Proficiency Measures in l1 Attrition Research: A Closer Look at the Can-Do-Scales.

Authors: Anastasia Sorokina

Abstract:

Self-reported language proficiency measures have been widely used by researchers and have been proven to be an accurate tool to assess actual language proficiency. L1 attrition researchers also rely on self-reported measures. More specifically, can-do-scales has gained popularity in the discipline of L1 attrition research. The can-do-scales usually contain statements about language (e.g., “I can write e-mails”); participants are asked to rate each statement on a scale from 1 (I cannot do it at all) to 5 (I can do it without any difficulties). Despite its popularity, no studies have examined can-do-scales’ reliability at measuring the actual level of L1 attrition. Do can-do-scales positively correlate with lexical diversity, syntactic complexity, and fluency? The present study analyzed speech samples of 35 Russian-English attriters to examine whether their self-reported proficiency correlates with their actual L1 proficiency. The results of Pearson correlation demonstrated that can-do-scales correlated with lexical diversity, syntactic complexity, and fluency. These findings provide a valuable contribution to the L1 attrition research by demonstrating that can-do-scales can be used as a reliable tool to measure L1 attrition.

Keywords: L1 attrition, can-do-scales, lexical diversity, syntactic complexity

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
31 Evaluation of Multi-Sectoral Schistosomiasis Control in Indonesia

Authors: Hayani Anastasia, Junus Widjaja, Anis Nur Widayati

Abstract:

In Indonesia, schistosomiasis is caused by Schistosoma japonicum with Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis as the intermediate host. Schistosomiasis can infect humans and all species of mammals. In order to achieve schistosomiasis elimination by 2020, schistosomiasis control, including environmental management, has been carried out by multi-sector. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 to evaluate the multi-sectoral schistosomiasis control program. Data were collected by depth interviews of stakeholders, stool surveys, snail surveys, observation, and document reviews. About 53.6% of control programs in the schistosomiasis control roadmap were not achieved. The number of foci area found in 2018 are not significantly different compared to before the control programs. Moreover, the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the human was 0-5.1% and in mammals was the range from 0 to 10%. In order to overcome the problems, a policy about schistosomiasis as a priority program in ministries and agencies other than the Ministry of Health is needed. Innovative health promotion with interactive media also needs to be applied. Also, the schistosomiasis work team needs to be more active with the Agency of Regional Development as the leading sector.

Keywords: evaluation, Indonesia, multi-sector, schistosomiasis

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
30 The Structure of the Intangible Capital

Authors: Kolesnikova Julia, Fakhrutdinova Elena, Zagidullina Venera, Kamasheva Anastasia

Abstract:

The article deals with the structure of intangible capital. A significant share of intangible capital is associated with a person as such and can be considered as human capital, which in turn also has a complex structure, including intellectual, social, organizational, client, reputational capital. We have allocated a separate category of intangible capital - unidentifiable capital, including a variety of synergistic interaction effects, etc. the structure of intangible capital. A significant share of intangible capital is associated with a person as such and can be considered as human capital, which in turn also has a complex structure, including intellectual, social, organizational, client, reputational capital. We have allocated unidentifiable capital as a separate category of intangible capital, including a variety of synergistic interaction effects and other.

Keywords: intangible capital, intangible property, object of intangible property, reputation capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
29 Genetically Encoded Tool with Time-Resolved Fluorescence Readout for the Calcium Concentration Measurement

Authors: Tatiana R. Simonyan, Elena A. Protasova, Anastasia V. Mamontova, Eugene G. Maksimov, Konstantin A. Lukyanov, Alexey M. Bogdanov

Abstract:

Here, we describe two variants of the calcium indicators based on the GCaMP sensitive core and BrUSLEE fluorescent protein (GCaMP-BrUSLEE and GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145). In contrast to the conventional GCaMP6-family indicators, these fluorophores are characterized by the well-marked responsiveness of their fluorescence decay kinetics to external calcium concentration both in vitro and in cellulo. Specifically, we show that the purified GCaMP-BrUSLEE and GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 exhibit three-component fluorescence decay kinetics, with the amplitude-normalized lifetime component (t3*A3) of GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 changing four-fold (500-2000 a.u.) in response to a Ca²⁺ concentration shift in the range of 0—350 nM. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy of live cells displays the two-fold change of the GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 mean lifetime upon histamine-stimulated calcium release. The aforementioned Ca²⁺-dependence calls considering the GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 as a prospective Ca²⁺-indicator with the signal read-out in the time domain.

Keywords: calcium imaging, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, fluorescent proteins, genetically encoded indicators

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
28 A Process to Support Multidisciplinary Teams to Design Serious Games

Authors: Naza Djafarova, Tony Bates, Margaret Verkuyl, Leonora Zefi, Ozgur Turetken, Alex Ferworn, Mastrilli Paula, Daria Romaniuk, Kosha Bramesfeld, Anastasia Dimitriadou, Cheryl To

Abstract:

Designing serious games for education is a challenging and resource-intensive effort. If a well-designed process that balances pedagogical principles with game mechanics is in place, it can help to simplify the design process of serious games and increase efficiency. Multidisciplinary teams involved in designing serious games can benefit tremendously from such a process in their endeavours to develop and implement these games at undergraduate and graduate levels. This paper presentation will outline research results on identified gaps within existing processes and frameworks and present an adapted process that emerged from the research. The research methodology was based on a survey, semi-structured interviews and workshops for testing the adapted process for game design. Based on the findings, the authors propose a simple process for the pre-production stage of serious game design that may help guide multidisciplinary teams in their work. This process was used to facilitate team brainstorming, and is currently being tested to assess if multidisciplinary teams find value in using it in their process of designing serious games.

Keywords: serious game-design, multidisciplinary team, game design framework, learning games, multidisciplinary game design process

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
27 The Implementation of the Javanese Lettered-Manuscript Image Preprocessing Stage Model on the Batak Lettered-Manuscript Image

Authors: Anastasia Rita Widiarti, Agus Harjoko, Marsono, Sri Hartati

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a study to test whether the Javanese character manuscript image preprocessing model that have been more widely applied, can also be applied to segment of the Batak characters manuscripts. The treatment process begins by converting the input image into a binary image. After the binary image is cleaned of noise, then the segmentation lines using projection profile is conducted. If unclear histogram projection is found, then the smoothing process before production indexes line segments is conducted. For each line image which has been produced, then the segmentation scripts in the line is applied, with regard of the connectivity between pixels which making up the letters that there is no characters are truncated. From the results of manuscript preprocessing system prototype testing, it is obtained the information about the system truth percentage value on pieces of Pustaka Batak Podani Ma AjiMamisinon manuscript ranged from 65% to 87.68% with a confidence level of 95%. The value indicates the truth percentage shown the initial processing model in Javanese characters manuscript image can be applied also to the image of the Batak characters manuscript.

Keywords: connected component, preprocessing, manuscript image, projection profiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
26 Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Co-Taught Classes in Greece: Teachers’ View

Authors: Tryfon Mavropalias, Anastasia Alevriadou

Abstract:

Co-teaching is a relatively recent model of providing teaching services to students with disabilities in Greece. According to recent studies, it seems that the largest number of students who take part in the Greek co-teaching programme are children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of the suggested study is to investigate the effectiveness and usefulness of co-teaching to students with ASD as well as skills students with ASD develop during co-teaching in primary education classes. To conduct the research, quantitative method of research was used, with the means of research being a questionnaire including open and close type questions. The sample of this research consists of 142 primary school co-teachers from all over Northern Greece (71 general education teachers and 71 special education teachers). Given the results, it was concluded that co-teachers believe that including and educating children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the general class benefits those who autism is measured from the middle to the upper end of the spectrum. Additionally, children develop social skills first, followed by emotional and cognitive skills. Ultimately, educators declared that they are prepared only to a limited degree to effectively support students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in general classes.

Keywords: Autistic spectrum disorders, co-teaching, co-teachers, co-taught class

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
25 Hybrid Materials on the Basis of Magnetite and Magnetite-Gold Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application

Authors: Mariia V. Efremova, Iana O. Tcareva, Anastasia D. Blokhina, Ivan S. Grebennikov, Anastasia S. Garanina, Maxim A. Abakumov, Yury I. Golovin, Alexander G. Savchenko, Alexander G. Majouga, Natalya L. Klyachko

Abstract:

During last decades magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) attract a deep interest of scientists due to their potential application in therapy and diagnostics. However, magnetite nanoparticles are toxic and non-stable in physiological conditions. To solve these problems, we decided to create two types of hybrid systems based on magnetite and gold which is inert and biocompatible: gold as a shell material (first type) and gold as separate NPs interfacially bond to magnetite NPs (second type). The synthesis of the first type hybrid nanoparticles was carried out as follows: Magnetite nanoparticles with an average diameter of 9±2 nm were obtained by co-precipitation of iron (II, III) chlorides then they were covered with gold shell by iterative reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. According to the TEM, ICP MS and EDX data, final nanoparticles had an average diameter of 31±4 nm and contained iron even after hydrochloric acid treatment. However, iron signals (K-line, 7,1 keV) were not localized so we can’t speak about one single magnetic core. Described nanoparticles covered with mercapto-PEG acid were non-toxic for human prostate cancer PC-3/ LNCaP cell lines (more than 90% survived cells as compared to control) and had high R2-relaxivity rates (>190 mМ-1s-1) that exceed the transverse relaxation rate of commercial MRI-contrasting agents. These nanoparticles were also used for chymotrypsin enzyme immobilization. The effect of alternating magnetic field on catalytic properties of chymotrypsin immobilized on magnetite nanoparticles, notably the slowdown of catalyzed reaction at the level of 35-40 % was found. The synthesis of the second type hybrid nanoparticles also involved two steps. Firstly, spherical gold nanoparticles with an average diameter of 9±2 nm were synthesized by the reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate with oleylamine; secondly, they were used as seeds during magnetite synthesis by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in octadecene. As a result, so-called dumbbell-like structures were obtained where magnetite (cubes with 25±6 nm diagonal) and gold nanoparticles were connected together pairwise. By HRTEM method (first time for this type of structure) an epitaxial growth of magnetite nanoparticles on gold surface with co-orientation of (111) planes was discovered. These nanoparticles were transferred into water by means of block-copolymer Pluronic F127 then loaded with anti-cancer drug doxorubicin and also PSMA-vector specific for LNCaP cell line. Obtained nanoparticles were found to have moderate toxicity for human prostate cancer cells and got into the intracellular space after 45 minutes of incubation (according to fluorescence microscopy data). These materials are also perspective from MRI point of view (R2-relaxivity rates >70 mМ-1s-1). Thereby, in this work magnetite-gold hybrid nanoparticles, which have a strong potential for biomedical application, particularly in targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging, were synthesized and characterized. That paves the way to the development of special medicine types – theranostics. The authors knowledge financial support from Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (14.607.21.0132, RFMEFI60715X0132). This work was also supported by Grant of Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation К1-2014-022, Grant of Russian Scientific Foundation 14-13-00731 and MSU development program 5.13.

Keywords: drug delivery, magnetite-gold, MRI contrast agents, nanoparticles, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
24 Impact of Ship Traffic to PM 2.5 and Particle Number Concentrations in Three Port-Cities of the Adriatic/Ionian Area

Authors: Daniele Contini, Antonio Donateo, Andrea Gambaro, Athanasios Argiriou, Dimitrios Melas, Daniela Cesari, Anastasia Poupkou, Athanasios Karagiannidis, Apostolos Tsakis, Eva Merico, Rita Cesari, Adelaide Dinoi

Abstract:

Emissions of atmospheric pollutants from ships and harbour activities are a growing concern at International level given their potential impacts on air quality and climate. These close-to-land emissions have potential impact on local communities in terms of air quality and health. Recent studies show that the impact of maritime traffic to atmospheric particulate matter concentrations in several coastal urban areas is comparable with the impact of road traffic of a medium size town. However, several different approaches have been used for these estimates making difficult a direct comparison of results. In this work an integrated approach based on emission inventories and dedicated measurement campaigns has been applied to give a comparable estimate of the impact of maritime traffic to PM2.5 and particle number concentrations in three major harbours of the Adriatic/Ionian Seas. The influences of local meteorology and of the logistic layout of the harbours are discussed.

Keywords: ship emissions, PM2.5, particle number concentrations, impact of shipping to atmospheric aerosol

Procedia PDF Downloads 678
23 High Power Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications Using Phase Change Material Slurry

Authors: Anastasia Stamatiou, Markus Odermatt, Dominic Leemann, Ludger J. Fischer, Joerg Worlitschek

Abstract:

The successful integration of thermal energy storage in industrial processes is expected to play an important role in the energy turnaround. Latent heat storage technologies can offer more compact thermal storage at a constant temperature level, in comparison to conventional, sensible thermal storage technologies. The focus of this study is the development of latent heat storage solutions based on the Phase Change Slurry (PCS) concept. Such systems promise higher energy densities both as refrigerants and as storage media while presenting better heat transfer characteristics than conventional latent heat storage technologies. This technology is expected to deliver high thermal power and high-temperature stability which makes it ideal for storage of process heat. An evaluation of important batch processes in industrial applications set the focus on materials with a melting point in the range of 55 - 90 °C. Aluminium ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate (NH₄Al(SO₄)₂·12H₂O) was chosen as the first interesting PCM for the next steps of this study. The ability of this material to produce slurries at the relevant temperatures was demonstrated in a continuous mode in a laboratory test-rig. Critical operational and design parameters were identified.

Keywords: esters, latent heat storage, phase change materials, thermal properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
22 Unbranched, Saturated, Carboxylic Esters as Phase-Change Materials

Authors: Anastasia Stamatiou, Melissa Obermeyer, Ludger J. Fischer, Philipp Schuetz, Jörg Worlitschek

Abstract:

This study evaluates unbranched, saturated carboxylic esters with respect to their suitability to be used as storage media for latent heat storage applications. Important thermophysical properties are gathered both by means of literature research as well as by experimental measurements. Additionally, esters are critically evaluated against other common phase-change materials in terms of their environmental impact and their economic potential. The experimental investigations are performed for eleven selected ester samples with a focus on the determination of their melting temperature and their enthalpy of fusion using differential scanning calorimetry. Transient Hot Bridge was used to determine the thermal conductivity of the liquid samples while thermogravimetric analysis was employed for the evaluation of the 5% weight loss temperature as well as of the decomposition temperature of the non-volatile samples. Both experimental results and literature data reveal the high potential of esters as phase-change materials. Their good thermal and environmental properties as well as the possibility for production from natural sources (e.g. vegetable oils) render esters as very promising for future storage applications. A particularly high short term application potential of esters could lie in low temperature storage applications where the main alternative is using salt hydrates as phase-change material.

Keywords: esters, phase-change materials, thermal properties, latent heat storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
21 Evaluating Language Loss Effect on Autobiographical Memory by Examining Memory Phenomenology in Bilingual Speakers

Authors: Anastasia Sorokina

Abstract:

Graduate language loss or attrition has been well documented in individuals who migrate and become emersed in a different language environment. This phenomenon of first language (L1) attrition is an example of non-pathological (not due to trauma) and can manifest itself in frequent pauses, search for words, or grammatical errors. While the widely experienced loss of one’s first language might seem harmless, there is convincing evidence from the disciplines of Developmental Psychology, Bilingual Studies, and even Psychotherapy that language plays a crucial role in the memory of self. In fact, we remember, store, and share personal memories with the help of language. Dual-Coding Theory suggests that language memory code deterioration could lead to forgetting. Yet, no one has investigated a possible connection between language loss and memory. The present study aims to address this research gap by examining a corpus of 1,495 memories of Russian-English bilinguals who are on a continuum of L1 (first language) attrition. Since phenomenological properties capture how well a memory is remembered, the following descriptors were selected - vividness, ease of recall, emotional valence, personal significance, and confidence in the event. A series of linear regression statistical analyses were run to examine the possible negative effects of L1 attrition on autobiographical memory. The results revealed that L1 attrition might compromise perceived vividness and confidence in the event, which is indicative of memory deterioration. These findings suggest the importance of heritage language maintenance in immigrant communities who might be forced to assimilate as language loss might negatively affect the memory of self.

Keywords: L1 attrition, autobiographical memory, language loss, memory phenomenology, dual coding

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
20 Coastalization and Urban Sprawl in the Mediterranean: Using High-Resolution Multi-Temporal Data to Identify Typologies of Spatial Development

Authors: Apostolos Lagarias, Anastasia Stratigea

Abstract:

Coastal urbanization is heavily affecting the Mediterranean, taking the form of linear urban sprawl along the coastal zone. This process is posing extreme pressure on ecosystems, leading to an unsustainable model of growth. The aim of this research is to analyze coastal urbanization patterns in the Mediterranean using High-resolution multi-temporal data provided by the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) database. Methodology involves the estimation of a set of spatial metrics characterizing the density, aggregation/clustering and dispersion of built-up areas. As case study areas, the Spanish Coast and the Adriatic Italian Coast are examined. Coastalization profiles are examined and selected sub-areas massively affected by tourism development and suburbanization trends (Costa Blanca/Murcia, Costa del Sol, Puglia, Emilia-Romagna Coast) are analyzed and compared. Results show that there are considerable differences between the Spanish and the Italian typologies of spatial development, related to the land use structure and planning policies applied in each case. Monitoring and analyzing spatial patterns could inform integrated Mediterranean strategies for coastal areas and redirect spatial/environmental policies towards a more sustainable model of growth

Keywords: coastalization, Mediterranean, multi-temporal, urban sprawl, spatial metrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
19 The Automatic Transliteration Model of Images of the Book Hamong Tani Using Statistical Approach

Authors: Agustinus Rudatyo Himamunanto, Anastasia Rita Widiarti

Abstract:

Transliteration using Javanese manuscripts is one of methods to preserve and legate the wealth of literature in the past for the present generation in Indonesia. The transliteration manual process commonly requires philologists and takes a relatively long time. The automatic transliteration process is expected to shorten the time so as to help the works of philologists. The preprocessing and segmentation stage firstly done is used to manage the document images, thus obtaining image script units that will compile input document images free from noise and have the similarity in properties in the thickness, size, and slope. The next stage of characteristic extraction is used to find unique characteristics that will distinguish each Javanese script image. One of characteristics that is used in this research is the number of black pixels in each image units. Each image of Java scripts contained in the data training will undergo the same process similar to the input characters. The system testing was performed with the data of the book Hamong Tani. The book Hamong Tani was selected due to its content, age and number of pages. Those were considered sufficient as a model experimental input. Based on the results of random page automatic transliteration process testing, it was determined that the maximum percentage correctness obtained was 81.53%. The percentage of success was obtained in 32x32 pixel input image size with the 5x5 image window. With regard to the results, it can be concluded that the automatic transliteration model offered is relatively good.

Keywords: Javanese script, character recognition, statistical, automatic transliteration

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
18 System of System Decisions Framework for Cross-Border Railway Projects

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki, Anastasia Kalamakidou

Abstract:

Transport infrastructure assets are key components of the national asset portfolio. The decision to invest in a new infrastructure in transports could take from a few years to some decades. This is mainly because of the need to reserve and spent many capitals, the long payback period, the number of the stakeholders involved in the decision process and –many times- the investment and business risks are high. Decision makers and stakeholders need to define the framework and the outputs of the decision process taking into account the project characteristics, the business uncertainties, and the different expectations. Therefore, the decision assessment framework is an essential challenge linked with the key decision factors meet the stakeholder expectations highlighting project trade-offs, financial risks, business uncertainties and market limitations. This paper examines the decision process for new transport infrastructure projects in cross-border regions, where a wide range of stakeholders with different expectation is involved. According to a consequences analysis systemic approach, the relationship of transport infrastructure development, economic system development and stakeholder expectation is analysed. Adopting the on system of system methodological approach, the decision making the framework, variables, inputs and outputs are defined, highlighting the key shareholder’s role and expectations. The application provides the methodology outputs presenting the proposed decision framework for a strategic railway project in north Greece deals with the upgrade of the existing railway corridor connecting Greece, Turkey, and Bulgaria.

Keywords: system of system decision making, managing decisions for transport projects, decision support framework, defining decision process

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
17 Cytotoxic Activity of Acetone and Ethanol Overripe Tempe Extracts against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells and Their Antioxidant Property

Authors: Dian Muzdalifah, Anastasia F. Devi, Zatil A. Athaillah, Linar Z. Udin

Abstract:

Tempe is a functional food prepared from soybeans through Rhizopus spp fermentation. It is well known as functional food, originated from Indonesia. Most studies on tempe functionalities refer to ripe (48 h fermentation) tempe and only limited studies discuss overripe tempe while longer fermentation time possibly increased tempe health benefit. Hence, the present study was performed to investigate the cytotoxic activity againts MCF-7 breast cancer cells and antioxidant property of tempe prepared from 0–156 h of fermentation. Tempe samples were dried and extracted with acetone and ethanol, respectively. Their extracts were used for subsequent analysis. The cytotoxic activity was assessed on MCF 7 breast cancer cells using Alamar Blue method. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The results indicated that acetone extracts of 108 h tempe had a potent cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 2.54 ± 0,30 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts of 108 h tempe also showed the potency, but at slightly higher IC50 (5.20 ± 1.01 μg/mL). Both acetone and ethanol extracts of 108 and 120 h tempe showed high antioxidant activity expressed as percent inhibition with no significant difference. However, acetone extracts of 120 h tempe (81.31 ± 3.70 %) had better ability to inhibit oxidation reaction than that of ethanol extracts (75.77 ± 6.00 %). It can be concluded that the cytotoxic activity of tempe from 0–156 h of fermentation is positively correlated to their corresponding antioxidant property. Longer fermentation time, up to 108 h, increased the ability of tempe to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and oxidative reaction. But extended fermentation time, up to 156 h, tends to decrease its ability. Further studies are encouraged to identify the active components contained in each extract.

Keywords: antioxidant property, cytotoxic activity, extracts, overripe tempeh

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
16 Cytotoxic Activity against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells and Antioxidant Property of Aqueous Tempe Extracts from Extended Fermentation

Authors: Zatil Athaillah, Anastasia Devi, Dian Muzdalifah, Wirasuwasti Nugrahani, Linar Udin

Abstract:

During tempe fermentation, some chemical changes occurred and they contributed to sensory, appearance, and health benefits of soybeans. Many studies on health properties of tempe have specialized on their isoflavones. In this study, other components of tempe, particularly water soluble chemicals, was investigated for their biofunctionality. The study was focused on the ability to suppress MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth and antioxidant activity, as expressed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenols and total flavonoids, of the water extracts. Fermentation time of tempe was extended up to 120 hr to increase the possibility to find the functional components. Extraction yield and soluble nitrogen content were also quantified as accompanying data. Our findings suggested that yield of water extraction of tempe increased as fermentation was extended up to 120 hr, except for a slight decrease at 72 hr. Water extracts of tempe showed inhibition of MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth, as shown by lower IC50 values when compared to control (unfermented soybeans). Among the varied fermentation timescales, 60-hr period showed the highest activity (IC50 of 8.7 ± 4.95 µg/ml). The anticancer activity of extracts obtained from different fermentation time was positively correlated with total soluble nitrogens, but less relevant with antioxidant data. During 48-72 hr fermentation, at which cancer suppression activity was significant, the antioxidant properties from the three assays were not higher than control. These findings indicated that water extracts of tempe from extended fermentation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth but further study to determine the mechanism and compounds that play important role in the activity should be conducted.

Keywords: tempe, anticancer, antioxidant, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
15 Studying Perceived Stigma, Economic System Justification and Social Mobility Beliefs of Socially Vulnerable (Poor) People: The Case of Georgia

Authors: Nazi Pharsadanishvili, Anastasia Kitiashvili

Abstract:

The importance of studying the social-psychological features of people living in poverty is often emphasized in international research. Building a multidimensional economic framework for reducing poverty grounded in people’s experiences and values is the main goal of famous Poverty Research Centers (such as Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab). The aims of the proposed research are to investigate the following characteristics of socially vulnerable people living in Georgia: 1) The features of the perceived stigma of poverty; 2) economic system justification and social justice beliefs; 3) Perceived social mobility and actual attempts at upward social mobility. Qualitative research was conducted to address the indicated research goals and descriptive research questions. Conducting in-depth interviews was considered to be the most appropriate method to capture the vivid feelings and experiences of people living in poverty. 17 respondents (registered in the unified database of socially vulnerable families) participated in in-depth interviews. According to the research results, socially vulnerable people living in Georgia perceive stigma targeted toward them. Two sub-dimensions were identified in perceived stigma: experienced stigma and internalized stigma. Experienced stigma reflects the instances of being discriminated and perceptions of negative treatment from other members of society. Internalized stigma covers negative personal emotions, the feelings of shame, the fear of future stigmatization, and self-isolation. The attitudes and justifications of the existing economic system affect people’s attempts to cope with poverty. Complex analysis of those results is important during the planning and implementing of social welfare reforms. Particularly, it is important to implement poverty stigma reduction mechanisms and help socially vulnerable people to see real perspectives on upward social mobility.

Keywords: coping with poverty, economic system justification, perceived stigma of poverty, upward social mobility

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
14 Modelling of Solidification in a Latent Thermal Energy Storage with a Finned Tube Bundle Heat Exchanger Unit

Authors: Remo Waser, Simon Maranda, Anastasia Stamatiou, Ludger J. Fischer, Joerg Worlitschek

Abstract:

In latent heat storage, a phase change material (PCM) is used to store thermal energy. The heat transfer rate during solidification is limited and considered as a key challenge in the development of latent heat storages. Thus, finned heat exchangers (HEX) are often utilized to increase the heat transfer rate of the storage system. In this study, a new modeling approach to calculating the heat transfer rate in latent thermal energy storages with complex HEX geometries is presented. This model allows for an optimization of the HEX design in terms of costs and thermal performance of the system. Modeling solidification processes requires the calculation of time-dependent heat conduction with moving boundaries. Commonly used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods enable the analysis of the heat transfer in complex HEX geometries. If applied to the entire storage, the drawback of this approach is the high computational effort due to small time steps and fine computational grids required for accurate solutions. An alternative to describe the process of solidification is the so-called temperature-based approach. In order to minimize the computational effort, a quasi-stationary assumption can be applied. This approach provides highly accurate predictions for tube heat exchangers. However, it shows unsatisfactory results for more complex geometries such as finned tube heat exchangers. The presented simulation model uses a temporal and spatial discretization of heat exchanger tube. The spatial discretization is based on the smallest possible symmetric segment of the HEX. The heat flow in each segment is calculated using finite volume method. Since the heat transfer fluid temperature can be derived using energy conservation equations, the boundary conditions at the inner tube wall is dynamically updated for each time step and segment. The model allows a prediction of the thermal performance of latent thermal energy storage systems using complex HEX geometries with considerably low computational effort.

Keywords: modelling of solidification, finned tube heat exchanger, latent thermal energy storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
13 The Sources of Anti-Immigrant Sentiments in Russia

Authors: Anya Glikman, Anastasia Gorodzeisky

Abstract:

Since the late 1990th labor immigration and its consequences on the society have become one of the most frequently discussed and debated issues in Russia. Social scientists point that the negative attitudes towards immigrants among Russian majority population is widespread, and their level, at least, twice as high as their level in most other European countries. Moreover, recent study by Gorodzeisky, Glikman and Maskyleison (2014) demonstrates that the two sets of individual level predictors of anti-foreigner sentiment – socio-economic status and conservative views and ideologies – that have been repeatedly proved in research in Western countries are not effective in predicting of anti-foreigner sentiment in Post-Socialist Russia. Apparently, the social mechanisms underlying anti-foreigner sentiment in Western countries, which are characterized by stable regimes and relatively long immigration histories, do not play a significant role in the explanation of anti-foreigner sentiment in Post-Socialist Russia. The present study aims to examine alternative possible sources of anti-foreigner sentiment in Russia while controlling for socio-economic position of individuals and conservative views. More specifically, following the research literature on the topic worldwide, we aim to examine whether and to what extent human values (such as tradition, universalism, safety and power), ethnic residential segregation, fear of crime and exposure to mass media affect anti-foreigner sentiments in Russia. To do so, we estimate a series of multivariate regression equations using the data obtained from 2012 European Social Survey. The national representative sample consists of 2337 Russian born respondents. Descriptive results reveal that about 60% percent of Russians view the impact of immigrants on the country in negative terms. Further preliminary analysis show that anti-foreigner sentiments are associated with exposer to mass media as well as with fear of crime. Specifically, respondents who devoted more time watching news on TV channels and respondents who express higher levels of fear of crime tend to report higher levels of anti-immigrants sentiments. The findings would be discussed in light of sociological perspective and the context of Russian society.

Keywords: anti-immigrant sentiments, fear of crime, human values, mass media, Russia

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
12 Impact of Alkaline Activator Composition and Precursor Types on Properties and Durability of Alkali-Activated Cements Mortars

Authors: Sebastiano Candamano, Antonio Iorfida, Patrizia Frontera, Anastasia Macario, Fortunato Crea

Abstract:

Alkali-activated materials are promising binders obtained by an alkaline attack on fly-ashes, metakaolin, blast slag among others. In order to guarantee the highest ecological and cost efficiency, a proper selection of precursors and alkaline activators has to be carried out. These choices deeply affect the microstructure, chemistry and performances of this class of materials. Even if, in the last years, several researches have been focused on mix designs and curing conditions, the lack of exhaustive activation models, standardized mix design and curing conditions and an insufficient investigation on shrinkage behavior, efflorescence, additives and durability prevent them from being perceived as an effective and reliable alternative to Portland. The aim of this study is to develop alkali-activated cements mortars containing high amounts of industrial by-products and waste, such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and ashes obtained from the combustion process of forest biomass in thermal power plants. In particular, the experimental campaign was performed in two steps. In the first step, research was focused on elucidating how the workability, mechanical properties and shrinkage behavior of produced mortars are affected by the type and fraction of each precursor as well as by the composition of the activator solutions. In order to investigate the microstructures and reaction products, SEM and diffractometric analyses have been carried out. In the second step, their durability in harsh environments has been evaluated. Mortars obtained using only GGBFS as binder showed mechanical properties development and shrinkage behavior strictly dependent on SiO2/Na2O molar ratio of the activator solutions. Compressive strengths were in the range of 40-60 MPa after 28 days of curing at ambient temperature. Mortars obtained by partial replacement of GGBFS with metakaolin and forest biomass ash showed lower compressive strengths (≈35 MPa) and shrinkage values when higher amount of ashes were used. By varying the activator solutions and binder composition, compressive strength up to 70 MPa associated with shrinkage values of about 4200 microstrains were measured. Durability tests were conducted to assess the acid and thermal resistance of the different mortars. They all showed good resistance in a solution of 5%wt of H2SO4 also after 60 days of immersion, while they showed a decrease of mechanical properties in the range of 60-90% when exposed to thermal cycles up to 700°C.

Keywords: alkali activated cement, biomass ash, durability, shrinkage, slag

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
11 Sol-Gel Derived Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nanoparticles for Dental Applications: Synthesis and Characterization

Authors: Anastasia Beketova, Emmanouil-George C. Tzanakakis, Ioannis G. Tzoutzas, Eleana Kontonasaki

Abstract:

In restorative dentistry, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles can be applied as fillers to improve the mechanical properties of various resin-based materials. Using sol-gel based synthesis as simple and cost-effective method, nano-sized YSZ particles with high purity can be produced. The aim of this study was to synthesize YSZ nanoparticles by the Pechini sol-gel method at different temperatures and to investigate their composition, structure, and morphology. YSZ nanopowders were synthesized by the sol-gel method using zirconium oxychloride octahydrate (ZrOCl₂.8H₂O) and yttrium nitrate hexahydrate (Y(NO₃)₃.6H₂O) as precursors with the addition of acid chelating agents to control hydrolysis and gelation reactions. The obtained powders underwent TG_DTA analysis and were sintered at three different temperatures: 800, 1000, and 1200°C for 2 hours. Their composition and morphology were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy with associated with Energy Dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) methods, and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). FTIR and XRD analysis showed the presence of pure tetragonal phase in the composition of nanopowders. By increasing the calcination temperature, the crystallinity of materials increased, reaching 47.2 nm for the YSZ1200 specimens. SEM analysis at high magnifications and DLS analysis showed submicron-sized particles with good dispersion and low agglomeration, which increased in size as the sintering temperature was elevated. From the TEM images of the YSZ1000 specimen, it can be seen that zirconia nanoparticles are uniform in size and shape and attain an average particle size of about 50 nm. The electron diffraction patterns clearly revealed ring patterns of polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia phase. Pure YSZ nanopowders have been successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method at different temperatures. Their size is small, and uniform, allowing their incorporation of dental luting resin cements to improve their mechanical properties and possibly enhance the bond strength of demanding dental ceramics such as zirconia to the tooth structure. This research is co-financed by Greece and the European Union (European Social Fund- ESF) through the Operational Programme 'Human Resources Development, Education and Lifelong Learning 2014- 2020' in the context of the project 'Development of zirconia adhesion cements with stabilized zirconia nanoparticles: physicochemical properties and bond strength under aging conditions' (MIS 5047876).

Keywords: dental cements, nanoparticles, sol-gel, yttria-stabilized zirconia, YSZ

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
10 Employment of Persons with Disabilities in Georgia: Challenges and Perspectives

Authors: Tamar Makharadze, Anastasia Kitiashvili, Irine Zhvania, Tamar Abashidze

Abstract:

After ratification of UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD) by the Parliament of Georgia in 2013, ensuring equal access to education and employment for people with disabilities has become one of the priorities of the government. The current research has analyzed the attitudes of people with disabilities, employers and society towards various challenges that employment of persons with disabilities faces in Georgia. The study has been carried out in the capital city and three towns in West and East Georgia. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods have been used. Employers’ attitudes have been studied by analyzing research data from six focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews. Views of persons with disabilities have been analyzed relied on data from eight focus groups and 14 in-depth interviews. The quantitative study covered 490 surveyed respondents from four cities in Georgia. The research was carried out with the employees of companies selected based on the Simple Random Sample; in each company, based on the size of the company 7–10 employees were surveyed. A survey was conducted using a specially developed structured questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS (21.0). The research was carried out during June-August 2015. The research data shows that both qualitative and quantitative research participants view employment of persons with disabilities positively; however persons with severe intellectual disabilities and mental problems are viewed as less workable and desired at workplaces. The respondents support the idea of employment of persons with disabilities at an open labour market; at the same time idea of a development of sheltered workshops is also supported. The vast majority of research participants believe that employers should be rather encouraged to hire persons with disabilities than force them to do so. For employers it is important to have the state assistance in adjusting working place to the needs of employee with disabilities. Some tax benefits for employers having employees with disabilities also are seen as encouraging employment of persons with disabilities. Both employers and persons with disabilities believe that development of job coaching will help persons with disabilities to find and maintain a job at the open market. Majority of survey respondents think that the main reasons discouraging employment of persons with disabilities in Georgia are: poor socioeconomic background and high level of unemployment in the country, absence of related state programs and existed stigma towards persons with disabilities within the society. To conclude it can be said that both employers and persons with disabilities expect initiative from the government – development of the programs and services focusing on employment of persons with disabilities that will be rather encouraging and supporting than punishing and forcing. Relied on survey data it can be said that people have positive attitudes to see persons with disabilities at workplaces, educational institutions and public places. This creates a good background for extensive and consistent work towards social inclusion of persons with disabilities in Georgia.

Keywords: supported employment, job coaching, employment of persons with disabilities in Georgia, social inclusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 281