Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: broilers

63 Sound Exposure Effects towards Ross Broilers Growth Rate

Authors: Rashidah Ghazali, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Mashitah Shikh Maidin, Shafishuhaza Sahlan, Noramli Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Sound exposure effects have been investigated by broadcasting a group of broilers with sound of Quran verses (Group B) whereas the other group is the control broilers (Group C). The growth rate comparisons in terms of weight and raw meat texture measured by shear force have been investigated. Twenty-seven broilers were randomly selected from each group on Day 24 and weight measurement was carried out every week till the harvest day (Day 39). Group B showed a higher mean weight on Day 24 (1.441±0.013 kg) than Group C. Significant difference in the weight on Day 39 existed for Group B compared to Group C (p< 0.05). However, there was no significant (p> 0.05) difference of shear force in the same muscles (breast and drumstick raw meat) of both groups but the shear force of the breast meat for Group B and C broilers was lower (p < 0.05) than that of their drumstick meat. Thus, broadcasting the sound of Quran verses in the coop can be applied to improve the growth rate of broilers for producing better quality poultry.

Keywords: broilers, sound, shear force, weight

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62 The Influence of Cage versus Floor Pen Management of Broilers

Authors: Hanan Al-Khalifa

Abstract:

There has been an interest in raising poultry in environmentally controlled cages rather than on floor, because poultry raised on floor are more susceptible to environmental stress including pathogens and heat stress. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of managerial environmental conditions on body weight gain of Cobb 500 broiler breed. Broilers were raised in cages and on floor in two separate rooms. Body weight at different ages of the broilers was monitored. It was found that body weight at slaughter age (5weeks) for boilers raised in batteries were significantly higher than those raised on the floor.

Keywords: broilers, cages, floor, poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
61 Haematological Changes and Anticoccidial Activities of Kaempferol in Eimeria Tenella Infected Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ya'u Muhammad, Umar Umar A. Mallammadori, Dahiru Mansur

Abstract:

Effect of kaempferol on haematological parameters in two weeks old broiler chickens with experimental Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated in this study. Sixty-day old broilers were randomly allotted into six groups (I-VI) of ten broilers each and brooded for two weeks with commercial broiler feed (vital feed®) and provided water ad libitum. At two weeks of age broilers in group 1 were neither infected nor treated. Broilers in groups II-VI were infected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocyst (104/ml) via oral inoculation. After infection was established, broilers in groups II-IV were treated orally with 1 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg of kaempferol, respectively. Broilers in group V were treated for five days with amprolium, 1.25 g/L in drinking water. Broilers in group VI were administered normal saline, 5 ml/kg per os for five days. Five days post infection; all broilers were sacrificed by severing their jugular veins. Blood sample from each bird was collected in EDTA container for haematology. Caecal contents were harvested and used to determine the lesion score and caecal Oocyst count respectively. Data obtained was analyzed using pad prism version 5.0. Mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and Red Blood Cell (RBC) count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. Similarly, PCV, Hb concentration, and RBC count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV when compared to VI. No significant (P > 0.05) difference in the mean values of PCV, Hb and RBC count were recorded between groups treated with kaempferol and group V. Caecal Oocyst counts and lesion scores reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. It was therefore observed in this study that kaempferol improved haematological parameters and reduced Oocyst count as well as the lesion scores in broilers infected with Eimeria tenella.

Keywords: broilers, Eimeria tenella, kaempferol, lesion scores, oocyst count,

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
60 Effects of Bile Acids and Lipase Supplementation in Low-Energy Diets on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate the effect of bile acids and lipase supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Seven hundred day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 45.9 ± 0.3 g were assigned to 5 dietary treatments, with five replications of 28 birds each in a completely randomized design. The five treatments were as follows: (i) HE: broilers received a diet with high energy content; (ii) LE: broilers received a diet with low energy content and energy content reduced by 100 kcal/kg as compared to HE; (iii) LEB: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 300 g/ton bile acids; (iv) LEL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 180 g/ton lipase enzyme and (v) LEBL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with both 300 g/ton bile acids and 180 g/ton lipase enzyme. The experimental period lasted for 35 days. Broilers fed HE had a lower (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) gain and lower feed intake (1-35 d), but during finisher period (21-35 d), BW gain was similar with other treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in HE and higher in LEBL group (P < 0.05), while the LE, LEB, and LEL had intermediate values. At 35 d no difference occurred between treatment for water holding capacity and pH of breast and thigh muscles (P > 0.05). The relative weight of pancreas was higher (P < 0.05) in LEB treatment but lower (P < 0.05) in LEL treatment. In conclusion, bile acids and lipase supplementation at 300 g/ton and 150g/ton of feed in low-energy diets respectively had no effect on broiler performance and meat quality. However, FCR was improved in HE treatment.

Keywords: bile acids, energy, enzyme, growth

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59 Dietary Effect of Selenium-Enriched Radish Sprouts, Vitamin E and Rhodobacter capsulatus on Hypocholesterolemia and Immunity of Broiler

Authors: Abdul G. Miah, Hirotada Tsujii, Ummay Salma, Iwao Takeda

Abstract:

The study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary Selenium-enriched radish sprouts (Se-RS), Vitamin E (Vit E) and Rhodobacter capsulatus (RC) on broiler's immunity, cholesterol concentration and fatty acid composition in broiler meat. A total of 100 two-week-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 5 dietary groups, such as i) Control; ii) Se-RS (5 μg/kg Se-RS); iii) Se-RS+RC (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC); iv) Se-RS+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 50 mg/kg Vit E) and v) Se-RS+RC+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC + 50 mg/kg Vit E). The broilers were offered ad libitum specific diets and clean drinking water. After the end of 3-wk of feeding period, serum cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were decreased (p<0.05) specially, in the broilers fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet compared to the broilers fed control diet. At the end of the 6-wk feeding period, Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet significantly (p<0.05) reduced cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations, and improved the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) in broiler meat. The highest (p<0.05) number of leukocytes was observed in the broilers fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet than that of the broilers fed control diet. Spleen, bursa and thymus weight were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet than the control diet. Compared to the control diet, Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet significantly (p<0.05) increased foot web index. Moreover, there was no mortality in all groups of broilers during the experimental period. Therefore, the study may conclude that there are dual benefits of Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplementation in broiler diet improved immunity and meat quality for health conscious consumers.

Keywords: hypocholesterolemia, immunity of broiler, rhodobacter capsulatus, selenium-enriched radish sprouts, vitamin E

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58 Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics of Broilers Chicken Fed on Diet Containing Brewer Spent Grain at Finisher Phase

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, L. A Tijani

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer spent grain (BSG) on growth performance and serum biochemistry characteristics of blood of broilers chickens. Three hundred and fifteen (4 weeks old) Oba – Marshall Broilers were used for the experiment. Five experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 (T1) containing 100% soya bean meal as the control, Diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 had BSG as replacement for soya bean meal at 0%, 36%, 57%, 76% and 100% respectively. The birds were allocated into each dietary group in a completely randomized design with 63 chicks in 3 replicates of 21 chicks each. The birds were offered these diets ad libitum from four weeks old to nine weeks old (35 days). Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were assessed. Blood samples were also collected to examine the effect of BSG waste on hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers. Result indicated that BSG did not significantly (P>0.05) affect feed intake and weight gain. However, FCR and final weight of finishing broilers differs significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. The blood hematology and serum biochemistry indices did not follow a particular trend. Cholesterol concentration reduced with increasing level of BSG in the diet. Hb, RBC, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, heterophiles and MCHC were significant (P<0.05) while MHC and MVC were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by BSG in diets. serum total protein, albumin, and cholesterol concentration also showed significance (P<0.05) difference. Thus, BSG can replace soya bean meal up to 14% in the broiler finisher diet without deleterious effect on the growth, hematology and the serum biochemistry of broiler chicken.

Keywords: broilers, growth performance, haematology, serum biochemistry

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57 Effect of Supplemental Bacterial Phytase at Different Dietary Levels of Phosphorus on Tibial Bone Characteristics and Body Weight Gain in Broilers

Authors: Saqib Saleem Abdullah, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Shela Gul Bokhari, Muti Ur Rehman, Jamil Akbar

Abstract:

A 5- weeks feeding trial was carried out to determine the effectiveness of Bacterial Phytase (Phyzyme®) in broilers, at different dietary levels of Phosphorous. 140 d-old broilers (Hubbard) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=4). Birds were fed corn-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 different levels of non Phytate Phosphorous (NPP) (0.45 %, 0.30 % and 0.15 %). Furthermore, the diets were supplemented with bacterial Phytase. Birds were fed ad libitum and kept under thermo neutral conditions. The parameters studied were; body weight gain (BWG), tibial bone characteristics (TBC), serum Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P) and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) levels and tibia ash percentage (TAP). BWG of the broilers was calculated at weekly interval and remaining parameters were calculated after slaughtering the birds at 35thday. Results suggested that Phytase supplementation at 0.30% NPP (Non Phytate Phosphorus + Bacterial Phytase) increased (P < 0.05) the BWG, bone length, bone weight, tibiotarsal index, medullary canal diameter and diaphysis diameter however, rubosticity index was reduced to minimum (P < 0.05) at this dietary level of phosphorous when compared with other groups. Maximum (P < 0.05) rubosticity index was observed in control group with 0% Phytase. Furthermore, Phytase addition at 0.30 % NPP also improved (P < 0.05) Ca, P and AP levels in the blood. Phytase supplementation at lower phosphorus level (0.30%NPP) improved BWG and TBC including bone density and bone quality in broilers hence it can be concluded that addition of Phytase at 0.30% NPP may prove beneficial for bone and overall performance in broilers.

Keywords: diaphysis diameter, phytase, rubosticity index, tibia

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56 Effects of Propolis on Immunomodulatory and Antibody Production in Broilers

Authors: Yu-Hsiang Yu

Abstract:

The immunomodulatory effect of propolis has been widely investigated in the past decade. However, the beneficial effects in broilers are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propolis added in drinking water on immunomodulatory and antibody production in broiler. Total of 48 chicks were randomly allocated into four groups with 12 broilers per group. All birds were intranasal inoculated with Newcastle Disease vaccine at 4 and 14 days old of age. Four groups, including control without any treatment, groups of A, B and F [3 days of anterior (A), 3 days of posterior (P) and 6 days of full (F)] were supplied the propolis at 300 ppm in drinking water when vaccination was performed, respectively. Our results showed that no significant difference was found in growth performance, antibody production and immune organ index among groups. However, propolis treatments in broilers significantly reduced IL-4 expression in spleen at 14 days-old of age and bursa at 28 days-old of age compared with control group. The expression of IFN-gamma in spleen (A, P and F group) and bursal (F group) were elevated compared with control group at 28 days-old of age. In conclusion, our results indicated that propolis-treated birds could bear the capability for immunomodulatory effects by change Th1 subset cytokine expression in vaccination.

Keywords: propolis, broiler, immunomodulatory, vaccination

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55 Effects of Eggs Storage Period and Layer Hen Age on Eggs Hatchability and Weight of Broilers of Breed Ross

Authors: Alipanah Masoud, Sheihkei Iman

Abstract:

One day old chicken quality has great deal of contributions in increasing daily weight gain as well as economical productivity of broilers production. On the other hand, eggs are kept in different times in layer hens flocks and subsequently are transported to incubation units. In order to evaluate effects of two factors layer hen age and storage period of eggs on one day old broilers weight gain during feeding, eggs for layer hen gathered on 32 weeks old (young hen) and 74 weeks old (older ones) were used. Storage period for samples was set as 1 and 9 days. Data were analysed in completely randomized design in four replicates by software SAS. Results indicated that one day old broiler chickens from young had less weight gain, although they exhibited higher weight gain during next weeks. At the same time, there was no difference between chickens from eggs stored for nine days and those from stored for one day.

Keywords: egg, chicken, hatchability, layer

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54 Effect of Bacillus subtilis Pb6 on Growth and Gut Microflora in Clostridium perfringens Challenged Broilers

Authors: A. Khalique, T. Naseem, N. Haque, Z. Rasool

Abstract:

The objective of current study was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis PB6 (CloSTAT) as a probiotic in broilers. The corn-soybean based diet was divided into four treatment groups; T1 (basal diet with no probiotic and no Clostridium perfringens); T2 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens without probiotic); T3 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens having 0.05% probiotic); T4 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens having 0.1% probiotic). Every treatment group had four replicates with 24 birds each. Body weight and feed intake were measured on weekly basis, while ileal bacterial count was recorded on day-28 following Clostridium perfringens challenge. The 0.1% probiotic treatment showed 7.2% increase in average feed intake (P=0.05) and 8% increase in body weight compared to T2. In 0.1% treatment body weight was 5% higher than T3 (P=0.02). It was also observed that 0.1% treatment had improved feed conversion ratio (1.77) on 6th week. No effect of treatment was observed on mortality and ileal bacterial count. The current study indicated that 0.1% use of probiotic had positive response in C. perfringens challenged broilers.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis PB6, antibiotic growth promoters, Clostridium perfringens, broilers

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
53 Influence of Copper-Methionine on Hematological and Biochemical Changes and Ascites Incidence in Cold-Stressed Broilers

Authors: M. Bagheri Varzaneh, H. R. Rahmani, R. Jahanian

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of copper-methionine on ascites incidence and hematological, morphological and enzymatic responses in broiler chickens. A total of 480 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments including two ambient temperatures (thermoneutral and cold stress) and three copper levels (0, 100, and 200 mg/kg as copper-methionine) with 4 replicates (20 birds in each replicate). Broilers were kept in an environmentally-controlled room from 1 to 28 days; then, half of them exposed to cold temperature from 28 to 45 days of age. The birds were sacrificed at days 38 and 45 of age. Heparinized blood samples were collected to measure hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell (RBC) count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Heart, lungs, liver, and spleen were collected and weighed separately on a sensitive digital scale. At d 38 of age, none of hematological variables, enzymatic parameters, and relative weights of organs were affected by treatments. Ascitic broilers were observed in group subjected to cold temperature and control diet (without supplemental copper) at d 45 of age. Relative weight of lungs and relative weight of heart in broilers fed on copper-methionine supplemented diets in cold temperature were lower compared with other groups. Relative liver weight, ALT, AST activities, and hematological parameters such as hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count in ascitic broilers were significantly increased. In contrast, a significant decrease of the relative weight of spleen was shown in these chickens. The results showed that dietary supplementation with copper–methionine can decrease probability of ascites incidence in broilers chicks, especially under cold condition.

Keywords: ascites, cold temperature, copper-methionine, cold-stressed broiler

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52 Protective Effects of Urtica dioica Seed Extract in Aflatoxicosis: Histopathological and Biochemical Findings

Authors: Ahmet Uyar, Zabit Yener, Abdulahad Dogan

Abstract:

(1). The ameliorative potential and antioxidant capacity of an extract of Urtica dioica seeds (UDS) were investigated using histopathological changes in liver and kidney of broiler, measuring serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) content in various tissues of broilers exposed to aflatoxin (AF). (2). A total of 32 broilers were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, UDS extract-treated, AF-treated and AF+UDS extract-treated. Broilers in control and UDS extract-treated groups were fed on a diet without AF. The AF-treated group and AF+UDS extract-treated groups were treated with an estimated 1 mg total AF/kg feed. The AF+UDS extract groups received in addition 30 ml UDS extract/kg diet for 21 days. (3). The AF-treated group had significantly decreased body weight gain when compared to the other groups. (4). Biochemical analysis showed a small increase in the concentrations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the AF-treated group compared to that of the control group, whereas concentrations of these enzymes were decreased in the AF+UDS group compared to that of the AF-treated group. (5). Administration of supplementary UDS extract helped restore the AF-induced increase in MDA and reduced the antioxidant system towards normality, particularly in the liver, brain, kidney and heart. Hepatorenal protection by UDS extracts was further supported by the almost normal histology in AF +UDS extract-treated group as compared to the degenerative changes in the AF-treated broilers. (6). It was concluded that UDS extract has a protective hepatorenal effect in broilers affected by aflatoxicosis, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defence systems.

Keywords: aflatoxicosis, biochemistry, broiler, histopathology, Urtica dioica seed extract

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51 Effect of Dietary Graded Levels of L-Theanine on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, and Immune Response of Broilers

Authors: Muhammad Saeed, Sun Chao

Abstract:

L-theanine is water soluble non-proteinous amino acid found in green tea leaves. Despite the availability of abundant literature on green tea, studies on the use of L-theanine as an additive in animals especially broilers are scanty. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different dietary levels of L-theanine on growth performance, meat quality, growth, immune response and blood chemistry in broilers. A total of 400 day-old chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups (A, B, C, and D) using a complete randomized design. Treatments were as follows: A; control (basal diet), B; basal diet+100 mg L-theanine / kg diet, C; basal diet+ 200 mg L-theanine / kg diet, and D; basal diet+ 300 mg L-theanine / kg diet. Results revealed that intermediate level of L-theanine (200 mg/ kg diet, group C) showed better results in terms of BWG, FC, and FCR compared with control and other L-theanine levels. The live weight eviscerated weight and gizzard weight was higher in all L-theanine levels as compared to that of the control group. The heaviest (P > 0.05) spleen and bursa were found in group C (200 mg L-theanine / kg diet). Analysis of meat colors according to yellowness (b*), redness (a*), and lightness (L*) showed significantly higher values of a* and b* in L-theanine groups. Supplementing broiler diet with L-theanine minimized (P=0.02) total cholesterol contents in serum. Further analysis revealed , lower mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in thymus and IFN- γ and IL-2 in spleen was observed in L-theanine group It is concluded that supplementation of L-theanine at 200mg/kg diet showed better results in terms of performance and it could be utilized as a natural feed additive alternative to antibiotics to improve overall performance of broilers. Increasing the levels up to 300 mg L-theanine /kg diet may has deleterious effects on performance and other health aspects.

Keywords: blood chemistry, broilers growth, L-theanine, meat quality

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50 Optimal Selling Prices for Small Sized Poultry Farmers

Authors: Hidefumi Kawakatsu, Dong Li, Kosuke Kato

Abstract:

In Japan, meat-type chickens are mainly classified into three categories: (1) Broilers, (2) Branded chickens, and (3) Jidori (Free-range local traditional pedigree chickens). The Jidori chickens are certified by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, whilst, for the Branded chickens, there is no regulation with respect to their breed (genotype) or methods for rearing them. It is, therefore, relatively easy for poultry farmers to introduce Branded than Jidori chickens. The Branded chickens are normally fed a low-calorie diet with ingredients such as herbs, which lengthens their breeding period (compared with that of the Broilers) and increases their market value. In the field of inventory management, fast-growing animals such as broilers are categorised as ameliorating items. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous studies that have explicitly considered smaller sized poultry farmers with limited breeding areas. This study develops an inventory model for a small sized poultry farmer that produces both the Broilers (Product 1) and the Branded chickens (Product 2) with different amelioration rates. The poultry farmer’s total profit per unit of time is formulated as a function of selling prices by using a price-dependent demand function. The existence of a unique optimal selling price for each product, which maximises the total profit, established. It has also been confirmed through numerical examples that, when the breeding area is fixed, the total profit could increase if the poultry farmer reduced the product quantity of Product 1 to introduce Product 2.

Keywords: amelioration, deterioration, small sized poultry farmers, optimal price

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49 Effects of Cinnamon, Garlic, and Yucca Extracts on Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

Authors: Anguo Chen, Huajie Chen, Caimei Yang, Qihua Hong, Jun Feng

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted with 360 one-day-old Avian commercial broilers to study the effects of dietary cinnamon extract (CE), garlic extract (GE) and yucca extract (YE) on growth performance and serum biochemical parameters in broilers. The chickens were randomly divided equally into 4 treatment groups, each group with 3 replications, and received the same basal corn-bean diets included a starter from 1 d to 21 d and then a grower until 42 d, added with recommended dose 250 mg/kg CE, 25 mg/kg GE and 10 mg/kg YE to relevant group, respectively. The birds were kept in a stainless steel net coop each replication with 24 h light and were fed and drunk ad libitum. At 21 d and 42 d of age, 6 chicks were respectively picked out from every group and were bled to collect serum samples and intestinal samples for laboratory analysis. The results showed that the average daily gain (ADG) of CE, GE and YE group were increased by 7.20% (P<0.05), 3.43% (P>0.05) and 4.89% (P>0.05), feed gain ratio (F/G) was improved by 9.71% (P<0.05), 3.40% (P>0.05) and 3.40% (P>0.05) compared with the control, respectively. At 21 d of age, the content of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and serum uric acid (SUA) and the activity of serum xanthine oxidase (SXO) in CE group were reduced by 35.17% (P<0.01), 13.73% (P<0.01) and 16.33% (P<0.05) compared with the control, respectively. At 42 d of age, SUN and SUA level and SXO activity were lowered by 24.35% (P<0.01), 15.49% (P<0.05) and 23.09% (P<0.01), respectively. The SXO activity in CE group was decreased by 14.86% (P<0.01) and 15.34%(P<0.01) compare with GE and YE group, respectively. Also, adding CE, GE and YE into broiler diets resulted in lower UN and UA level of intestinal contents. It is clear that CE was more significantly decreased the SXO activity and SUA levels than GE and YE, especially at the latter period, thereby it may play a more important role in improving the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: cinnamon extract, broiler, growth performance, serum uric acid, serum xanthine oxidase

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48 Sound Analysis of Young Broilers Reared under Different Stocking Densities in Intensive Poultry Farming

Authors: Xiaoyang Zhao, Kaiying Wang

Abstract:

The choice of stocking density in poultry farming is a potential way for determining welfare level of poultry. However, it is difficult to measure stocking densities in poultry farming because of a lot of variables such as species, age and weight, feeding way, house structure and geographical location in different broiler houses. A method was proposed in this paper to measure the differences of young broilers reared under different stocking densities by sound analysis. Vocalisations of broilers were recorded and analysed under different stocking densities to identify the relationship between sounds and stocking densities. Recordings were made continuously for three-week-old chickens in order to evaluate the variation of sounds emitted by the animals at the beginning. The experimental trial was carried out in an indoor reared broiler farm; the audio recording procedures lasted for 5 days. Broilers were divided into 5 groups, stocking density treatments were 8/m², 10/m², 12/m² (96birds/pen), 14/m² and 16/m², all conditions including ventilation and feed conditions were kept same except from stocking densities in every group. The recordings and analysis of sounds of chickens were made noninvasively. Sound recordings were manually analysed and labelled using sound analysis software: GoldWave Digital Audio Editor. After sound acquisition process, the Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC) was extracted from sound data, and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used as an early detector and classifier. This preliminary study, conducted in an indoor reared broiler farm shows that this method can be used to classify sounds of chickens under different densities economically (only a cheap microphone and recorder can be used), the classification accuracy is 85.7%. This method can predict the optimum stocking density of broilers with the complement of animal welfare indicators, animal productive indicators and so on.

Keywords: broiler, stocking density, poultry farming, sound monitoring, Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC), Support Vector Machine (SVM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
47 The Effects of Organic or Inorganic Zinc and Microbial Phytase, Alone or in Combination, on the Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Fed a Diet Low in Available Phosphorus

Authors: Mustafa Midilli, Mustafa Salman, Omer Hakan Muglali, Tülay Ögretmen, Sena Cenesiz, Neslihan Ormanci

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn) from different sources and microbial phytase on the broiler performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of nutrients when they were added to broiler diets containing low available phosphorus. A total of 875, 1-day-old male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were randomly separated into two control groups (positive and negative) and five treatment groups each containing 125 birds; each group was divided into 5 replicates of 25 birds. The positive control (PC) group was fed a diet containing adequate concentration (0.45%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The negative control (NC) group was fed a basal diet including low concentration (0.30%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.30% phosphorus and 500 FTU phytase (PH); 0.30% phosphorus and organic zinc (OZ; 75mg/kg of Zn from Zn-proteinate); 0.30% phosphorus and inorganic zinc (IZ; 75 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4); 0.30% phosphorus, organic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (OZ + PH); and 0.30% phosphorus, inorganic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (IZ + PH) in the treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The lowest value for mean body weight was in the negative control group on a diet containing low available phosphorus. The use of supplementation with organic and inorganic zinc alone or in combination with microbial phytase significantly (P<0.05) increased the digestibility of Zn in the male broilers. Supplementation of those diets with OZ + PH or IZ + PH was very effective for increasing the body weight, body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the effects on broilers of diets with low phosphorus levels may be overcome by the addition of inorganic or organic zinc compounds in combination with microbial phytase.

Keywords: broiler, performance, phytase, phosphorus, zinc

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46 Effect of Microencapsulated Butyric Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance, Ileal Digestibility of Protein, Gut Health and Immunity in Broilers

Authors: Saeed Ahmed, Muhammad Imran, Yasir Allah Ditta, Shahid Mehmood, Zahid Rasool

Abstract:

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of microencapsulated butyric (MEB) on growth performance, gut health and immunity in commercial broiler chickens. In total, 336 day-old Hubbard classic broilers chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments (Control, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45g/kg of butyric acid) under completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 28 birds in each replicate. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, intestinal morphology, apparent ileal digestibility of protein and immunity parameters were evaluated. At the end of the experiment (35-d) 3 birds/replicate in each group were randomly selected and slaughtered to collect blood, duodenal samples and ileal digesta. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA technique. The results indicated improved body weight gain (P = 0.0222), feed conversion ratio (P = 0.0056), duodenal villus height (P = 0.0512), AID (P = 0.0098) antibody titer against Newcastle disease improved (P = 0.0326). Treatments remained unresponsive with respect to feed intake (P = 0.9685).

Keywords: butyric acid, broilers, gut health, ileal digestibility

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45 Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) Pods as a Local Alternative to Feed Poultry

Authors: Abdulrahman Al-Soqeer, Osamah Fahmy

Abstract:

This research was aimed to investigate the possibility of using Prosopis juliflora pods as a fodder source for poultry. The study have shown that the inclusion of ground Prosopis pods in a broiler diet added some positive effects on broiler performance such as improving carcasses weight and reducing the weights of the inedible parts. The obtained results encourage repeating the experiment with an increased percentage of Prosopis supplementation in the broiler diets, using some treatments on the Prosopis pods to reduce the undesirable effects of the antinutritional factors in the pods and to increase the percentage of the essential amino acids present in the pods (lysine, methionine, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylealanine) up to the limits recommended for broilers by NRC 1990.

Keywords: amino acids, arginine, broilers, lysine, methionine

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44 Effect of Different Levels of Dried Citrus Sinensis Peel on Blood Parameters of Broilers

Authors: Abbas Ebrahimi, Zohreh Pourhossein, Nariman Miraalami

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of dried citrus sinensis peel (DCSP) on the blood parameters of broilers. Four hundred Ross 308 strain day old broiler in a completely randomized design with five treatments (four replicates per treatment and each replicate had 20 chicks) were categorized. Each treatment used either regulatory diet including 1.5% and 3% DCSP in the base diet and in two periods of 1st to 21st day and 1st to 42nd day and base diet without any additive for six weeks. Data analysis was performed using SAS software and mean comparison was conducted by Duncan method. The results determined that using different level of DCSP has significant effects on blood plasma parameters (P<0.05). Cholesterol, glucose, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) at the rearing period was significantly influenced by experimental treatments (P<0.05). However, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was not affected by experimental treatments (P>0.05). The lowest rate of blood cholesterol was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood cholesterol were concerned to the control treatment. The lowest rate of blood triglyceride was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood triglyceride were concerned to the control treatment. The lowest rate of blood alkaline phosphatase was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood alkaline phosphatase were concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 21st day.

Keywords: blood parameters, broilers, dried citrus sinensis peel, regulatory diet

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43 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo

Abstract:

The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler growth performance, heat stress, vitamin supplementation, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

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42 The Effect of Using Levels of Red Tiger Shrimp Meal in Starter Broiler Diet upon Growth Performance

Authors: Mohammed I.A. Al-Neemi, Mohammed S.B., Al-Hlawee, Ilham N. Ezaddin, Soz A. Faris, Omer E. Fakhry, Heemen S. Mageed

Abstract:

This objective of this study was to measure the effect of replacing different levels of animal protein concentrate with Red Tiger shrimp meal (RTSM: 60 % crude protein, 2400 M.E kcal/kg and the source of RTSM was imported from china) in the broiler starter diets. A total 300 broiler chicks (Ross-308) were randomly assigned in treatments dietary contained three different levels of RTSM (0.00, 4.16 and 8.32 %) in experimental diet with a completely randomized design (CRD). Each treatment included four replicates (floor pens) and 25 broilers in each replication (Pen). Therefore, floor space for each boilers was 900 cm2. Initially, the broilers where exposed to a continues lighting of 23:30 hours and dark period of 30 minutes in each 24 hours. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum to the broilers throughout the experimental period (1-21 days). The results of this study indicated that body weight (B.W.), body weight gain (B.W.G), conversion ratio of feed, protein and energy (F.CR, P.C.R and E.C.R) were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased by complete substituting (RTSM) for animal protein concentration (third treatment). Mortality percentage significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased for third dietary treatment. No significant differences were found for feed, protein and energy intake among treatments during the experimental period (three weeks). In conclusion, (RTSM) could be included to 4.16% in the broiler starter diet or substitute the protein Red Tiger shrimp as alternative of protein animal protein concentrate as much as 50%.

Keywords: red tiger shrimp, broiler, starter diet, growth performance, animal protein concentrate

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41 Blood Profile, Organs, and Carcass Analysis and Performance of Broilers Fed Cowpea Testa Based Diet

Authors: O. J. Osunkeye, P. O. Fakolade, B. E. Olorede

Abstract:

Broilers productions depend on the provision of adequate and goo quality feed containing all the nutrients, including proteins, carbohydrate, fats, vitamins, minerals and water. All these nutrients have to be provided at a required amount to support maximum productivity and normal physiological functions and demands. Among these nutrients proteins are particularly important, since they are essential for meat and muscle production, optimum growth and health status. Poultry production industry in the developing countries is been threatened because of the over dependency on Soybean meal as one of the key/major conventional protein stuff for feeding livestock. Even the competition between man and livestock for Soybean and other protein sources made the price of this feed stuff to be on the increase. Hence the needs to seek for an alternative feed stuff which is cheap and less competitive. This study showed the blood profile, organ and carcass characteristics and performance of broilers fed with Cowpea Testa Meal (CTM) based diets. Four diets were formulated with Cowpea Testa replacing Soybean at 0%, 15%, 30%, and 50% graded levels. One hundred and twenty day-old unsexed broiler birds were allotted to these four treatments with 3 replicates of 10 birds per replicate. The results showed no significant differences in all the haematological parameters measured (P>0.05), the serum metabolites analysis revealed significant different in Cholesterol (99.8 mg/dl, 112.84 mg/dl, 131.07 mg/dl and 97.66 mg/dl respectively) (P<0.05) among others. There were significant differences within the diets for average daily weight gain, average feed intake and feed to gain ratio. The birds on control (0%) and CTM gained more weight than those fed with 30% and 50% CTM diets. The organs and carcass primal cuts of the broilers expressed significant different for the spleen (0.12 g, 0.09 g, 0.11 g and 0.14 g respectively), lungs (0.97 g, 0.72 g, 0.77 g and 1.01g respectively) and proventriculus (0.96 g, 0.99 g, 0.81 g and 0.85 g respectively) (P<0.05). For the carcass, there were no significant differences (P<0.05) in the breast, thigh, drumstick, wing and neck except for the Back (21.27 g, 21.04 g, 17.71 g, and 17.89 g respectively). In conclusion, CTM inclusion in broiler’s diet could be used as an alternative feed stuff in replacement of Soybean meal up to 15% without any adverse effects as revealed by the blood profile and to increase the growth performance of the birds.

Keywords: physiological functions, cholesterol, blood profiles, CTM and carcass analysis

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40 The Efferent of Different Levels of Recycled Soybean Oil(RSO) on Growth and Performance of Broilers

Authors: Seyed Babak Asadi

Abstract:

In this experiment the effect of recycled soybean oil (RSO) on the growth and performance carcass of broiler was investigated. The percentages of recycled soybean oil (RSO) used in this experiment were 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. In this regard, 300 one-day-old broilers were selected randomly consisting of five treatments and three replicates(20 chickens per replicate). The chicks were kept in an accumulated manner for the first week, then divided between treatments and kept until they reached the age of 42 days. Body weight at 21 and 42, weight gain, food intake and food conversion ratio in starter (0-21 d), finisher (21-42 d) and overall were measured. At the end of the experiment (42 days-old) 2 chicks from each replicate which had the nearest weight to the average group in their group were selected, slaughtered and different parts of their carcass were weight separately. The result showed that the rate of feed intake and feed conversion coefficient have significantly increased with higher levels of recycled soybean oil. There was not a significant different between experimental groups for liver, heart, intestine and the weight of carcass. Results from this experiment showed that it is possible to use recycled soybean oil for up to 8 percent of food ration for broiler chicks without any significant effects on carcass quality.

Keywords: broiler, recycled soybean oil (RSO), growth, performance

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39 Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Kernel Inclusion in Broiler Diet on Growth Performance, Organ Weight and Gut Morphometry

Authors: Olatundun Bukola Ezekiel, Adejumo Olusoji

Abstract:

A feeding trial was conducted with 100 two-weeks old broiler chicken to evaluate the influence of inclusion in broiler diets at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% neem kernel (used to replace equal quantity of maize) on their performance, organ weight and gut morphometry. The birds were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments, each treatment having four replicates consisting of five broilers in a completely randomized design. The diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous (23% CP). Weekly feed intake and changes in body weight were calculated and feed efficiency determined. At the end of the 28-day feeding trial, four broilers per treatment were selected and sacrificed for carcass evaluation. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using the analysis of variance procedures of Statistical Analysis Software The treatment means were presented with group standard errors of means and where significant, were compared using the Duncan multiple range test of the same software. The results showed that broilers fed 2.5% neem kernel inclusion diets had growth performance statistically comparable to those fed the control diet. Birds on 5, 7.5 and 10% neem kernel diets showed significant (P<0.05) increase in relative weight of liver. The absolute weight of spleen also increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds on 10 % neem kernel diet. More than 5 % neem kernel diets gave significant (P<0.05) increase in the relative weight of the kidney. The length of the small intestine significantly increased in birds fed 7.5 and 10% neem kernel diets. Significant differences (P<0.05) did not occur in the length of the large intestine, right and left caeca. It is recommended that neem kernel can be included up to 2.5% in broiler chicken diet without any deleterious effects on the performance and physiological status of the birds.

Keywords: broiler chicken, growth performance, gut morphometry, neem kernel, organ weight

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38 Bartlett Factor Scores in Multiple Linear Regression Equation as a Tool for Estimating Economic Traits in Broilers

Authors: Oluwatosin M. A. Jesuyon

Abstract:

In order to propose a simpler tool that eliminates the age-long problems associated with the traditional index method for selection of multiple traits in broilers, the Barttlet factor regression equation is being proposed as an alternative selection tool. 100 day-old chicks each of Arbor Acres (AA) and Annak (AN) broiler strains were obtained from two rival hatcheries in Ibadan Nigeria. These were raised in deep litter system in a 56-day feeding trial at the University of Ibadan Teaching and Research Farm, located in South-west Tropical Nigeria. The body weight and body dimensions were measured and recorded during the trial period. Eight (8) zoometric measurements namely live weight (g), abdominal circumference, abdominal length, breast width, leg length, height, wing length and thigh circumference (all in cm) were recorded randomly from 20 birds within strain, at a fixed time on the first day of the new week respectively with a 5-kg capacity Camry scale. These records were analyzed and compared using completely randomized design (CRD) of SPSS analytical software, with the means procedure, Factor Scores (FS) in stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) procedure for initial live weight equations. Bartlett Factor Score (BFS) analysis extracted 2 factors for each strain, termed Body-length and Thigh-meatiness Factors for AA, and; Breast Size and Height Factors for AN. These derived orthogonal factors assisted in deducing and comparing trait-combinations that best describe body conformation and Meatiness in experimental broilers. BFS procedure yielded different body conformational traits for the two strains, thus indicating the different economic traits and advantages of strains. These factors could be useful as selection criteria for improving desired economic traits. The final Bartlett Factor Regression equations for prediction of body weight were highly significant with P < 0.0001, R2 of 0.92 and above, VIF of 1.00, and DW of 1.90 and 1.47 for Arbor Acres and Annak respectively. These FSR equations could be used as a simple and potent tool for selection during poultry flock improvement, it could also be used to estimate selection index of flocks in order to discriminate between strains, and evaluate consumer preference traits in broilers.

Keywords: alternative selection tool, Bartlet factor regression model, consumer preference trait, linear and body measurements, live body weight

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37 Relationship between Causes of Carcass Condemnation and Other Welfare Indicators Collected in Three Poultry Slaughterhouses

Authors: Sara Santos, Cristina Saraiva, Sónia Saraiva

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the welfare of reared broilers using scoring systems at the slaughterhouse. The welfare of broilers from 70 different flocks was assessed in three different slaughterhouses, regarding 373043 animals, although not in equal proportions in each slaughterhouse due to the difference in the amount of flocks slaughtered per day because of different company size. Twenty-one flocks were evaluated in slaughterhouse A (30%), thirty in slaughterhouse B (42,9%) and nineteen in slaughterhouse C (27,1%). The parameters evaluated were feather cleanness, foot pad dermatitis, hock burn, breast burn and causes of carcass condemnation. Feather cleanness was scored into three classes: 0=clean; 1=moderately dirty and 2=dirty feathers. Foot pad dermatitis, hock burn and breast ulcer were graded in three classes: 0=no lesions, 1=moderate lesions and 2=severe lesions. Causes of carcass condemnation were divided into emaciation, ascites, colour alteration and febrile state, arthritis, aerosaculitis, dermatitis, peritonitis, myositis, cellulitis, extensive trauma and technopathies as mechanical trauma, insufficient bleeding and deficient plucking. Broilers evaluated had a body weight ranging between 0,909kg and 2,588kg (median 1,522kg) and age between 25 days and 45 days (median 33 days). Rejection rate of flocks ranged between 0,1% and 10,48% (median 1,4029%) and footpad dermatitis total score between 2 and 197, resulting in 20 flocks presenting moderate lesions and 15 flocks with severe lesions. Moderate hock burn was associated with severe foot pad dermatitis and with breast burn. The associations between these lesions suggest that the development of contact dermatitis is caused by a common cause, the prolonged contact with litter of poor quality. In conclusion, contact dermatitis lesions, mostly foot pad dermatitis, feather hygiene conditions and rejection rate were the main restrictions of good welfare and considered important indicators for the follow-up on the farm conditions.

Keywords: broiler, dermatitis, welfare, slaughterhouse

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
36 Potency of Some Dietary Acidifiers on Productive Performance and Controlling Salmonella enteritidis in Broilers

Authors: Mohamed M. Zaki, Maha M. Hady

Abstract:

Salmonella spp. have been categorized as the world’s biggest threats to human health and poultry products are mostly incriminated sources. In Egypt, it was found that S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium are the most prevalent ones in poultry farms. It is recommended to eliminate salmonella from living bird by competing for salmonella contamination in feed in order to establish a healthy gut. The Feed acidifiers are the group of feed additives containing low-molecular-weight organic acids and/ or their salts which act as performance promoters by lowering the pH in the gut, optimizes digestion and inhibit bacterial growth. The inclusion of organic acid in pure form nonetheless effective in feed, yet, it is difficult to handle in feed mills as it is corrosive and produce more losses during pelleting process. The current study aimed at to evaluate the impact of incorporation of sodium diformate (SDF) and a commercial acidifier, CA (a mixture of butyric and propionic acids and their ammonium salts) at 0.4% dietary levels on broilers performance and the control S. enteritidis infection. Two hundreds and seventy unsexed cobb chickens were allotted in one of three treatments (90/ group) which were, the control (no acidifier, C- &C+), the 0.4% SDF (SDF- & SDF +) and the 0.4% CA (CA- & CA +) dietary levels for 35 days. Before the allocation of the groups, ten extra birds and a diet sample were bacteriologically examined to ensure negative contamination with salmonella. The birds were raised on deep-litter separated pens and had free access to feed and water all the time. The experimentally formulated diets were kept at 40C. After 24h access to the different dietary treatments, all the birds in the positive groups (n=15/ replicate) were inoculated intra-crop with 0.2 ml of 24 h broth culture of S. entertidis containing 1X 107 organisms while the negative-treated groups were inoculated with the same amount of the negative broth and second inoculation was done at 22 d of age. Colocal swabs were collected individually from all birds 2 h pre-inoculation to assure the absence of salmonella, then 1, 3, 5, 7, 21 days post-inoculation to recover salmonella. Performance parameter (body weight gain and feed efficiency) were calculated. Mortalities were recorded and reisolation of the salmonella was adopted to ensure it was the inoculated ones. The results revealed that the dietary acidification with sodium diformate significantly improved broilers performance and tends to produce heavier birds as compared to the negative control and CA groups. Moreover, the dietary inclusion of both acidifiers at level of 0.4% was able to eliminate mortalities completely at the relevant inoculation time. Regarding the shedding of S. enteritidius in positive groups, the SDF treatment resulted in significant (p<0.05) cessation of the shedding at 3 days post-inoculation compared to 7 days post-inoculation for the CA-group. In conclusion, sodium diformate at 0.4% dietary level in broiler diets has a valuable effect not only on broilers performance but also by eliminating S. enteritidis the main source of salmonella contamination in poultry farms which is feed.

Keywords: acidifier, broilers, Salmonalla spp, sodium diformate

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35 A Field Study of Monochromatic Light Effects on Antibody Responses to Newcastle Disease by HI Test and the Correlation with ELISA

Authors: Seyed Mehrzad Pahlavani, Mozaffar Haji Jafari Anaraki, Sayma Mohammadi

Abstract:

A total of 34700 day-old broilers were exposed to green, blue and yellow light using a light-emitting diode system for 6 weeks to investigate the effects of light wave length on antibody responses to Newcastle disease by HI test and the correlation with ELISA. 3 poultry house broiler farms with the same conditions was selected and the lightening system of each was set according to the requirement. Blood samples were taken from 20 chicks on days 1, 24 and 46 and the Newcastle virus specific antibody was titered in serum using HI an ELISA test. On day 24, the probability value of more than 0/05 was observed in HI and ELISA tests of all groups while at the end of breeding period, the average HI serum antibody titer was more in the green light than the yellow one while the blue light was not significantly different from both. At the last titration, the green light has got the highest titer of Newcastle antibodies. There were no significant differences of Newcastle antibody titers between all groups and ages in broiler pullets in ELISA. According to the sampling and analysis of HI and ELISA serum tests, there were no significant relationships between all broiler pullets breeding in green, blue and yellow light on days 24 and 46 and the P-value was more than 0/05. It is suggested that the monochromatic light is effective on broilers immunity against Newcastle disease.

Keywords: monochromatic light, Newcastle disease, HI test, ELISA test

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34 The Effect of the Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as the Source of Protein Feed and Pathogen Antibacterial for Broiler

Authors: Waode Nurmayani, Nikmatul Riswanda

Abstract:

Broilers are chickens which are kept with the most efficient time and hoped get a good body weight. All things are done, for example with the improvement of feed and use antibiotics. Feed cost is the most cost to be spent. Nearly 80% of the cost is spent just for buy feed. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is a good choice to reduce the cost of feed protein source. The Earthworm has a high crude protein content of about 48.5%-61.9%, rich with proline amino acid about 15% of the 62 amino acids. Not only about protein, this earthworm also has a role in disease prevention. Prevention of disease in livestock usual with use feed supplement. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is one of the natural materials used as feed. In addition, several types of earthworms that have been known to contain active substances about antibacterial pathogens namely Lumbricus rubellus. The earthworm could be used as an antibiotic because it contain the antibody of Lumbricine active substance. So that, this animal feed from Lumbricus rubellus could improve the performance of broilers. Bioactive of anti-bacterial is called Lumbricine able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal wall so that the population of pathogenic bacteria is reduced. The method of write in this scientific writing is divided into 3 techniques, namely data completion, data analysis, and thinking pan from various literature about earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as broiler feed. It is expected that innovation of feed material of earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) could reduce the cost of protein feed and the use of chemical antibiotics.

Keywords: earthworm, broiler, protein, antibiotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 70