Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: lipase

56 Isolation, Characterization and Optimization of Alkalophilic and Thermotolerant Lipase from Bacillus subtilis Strain

Authors: Indu Bhushan Sharma, Rashmi Saraswat

Abstract:

The thermotolerant, solvent stable and alkalophilic lipase producing bacterial strain was isolated from the water sample of the foothills of Trikuta Mountain in Kakryal (Reasi district) in Jammu and Kashmir, India. The lipase-producing microorganisms were screened using tributyrin agar plates. The selected microbe was optimized for maximum lipase production by subjecting to various carbon and nitrogen sources, incubation period and inoculum size. The selected strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis strain kakrayal_1 (BSK_1) using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Effect of pH, temperature, metal ions, detergents and organic solvents were studied on lipase activity. Lipase was found to be stable over a pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 and exhibited maximum activity at pH 8. Lipolytic activity was highest at 37°C and the enzyme activity remained at 60°C for 24hrs, hence, established as thermo-tolerant. Production of lipase was significantly induced by vegetable oil and the best nitrogen source was found to be peptone. The isolated Bacillus lipase was stimulated by pre-treatment with Mn2+, Ca2+, K+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. Lipase was stable in detergents such as triton X 100, tween 20 and Tween 80. The 100% ethyl acetate enhanced lipase activity whereas, lipase activity were found to be stable in Hexane. The optimization resulted in 4 fold increase in lipase production. Bacillus lipases are ‘generally recognized as safe’ (GRAS) and are industrially interesting. The inducible alkaline, thermo-tolerant lipase exhibited the ability to be stable in detergents and organic solvents. This could be further researched as a potential biocatalyst for industrial applications such as biotransformation, detergent formulation, bioremediation and organic synthesis.

Keywords: bacillus, lipase, thermotolerant, alkalophilic

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55 Effect of Some Metal Ions on the Activity of Lipase Produced by Aspergillus Niger Cultured on Vitellaria Paradoxa Shells

Authors: Abdulhakeem Sulyman, Olukotun Zainab, Hammed Abdulquadri

Abstract:

Lipases (triacylglycerol acyl hydrolases) (EC 3.1.1.3) are class of enzymes that catalyses the hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids. They account for up to 10% of the enzyme in the market and have a wide range of applications in biofuel production, detergent formulation, leather processing and in food and feed processing industry. This research was conducted to study the effect of some metal ions on the activity of purified lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells. Purified lipase in 12.5 mM p-NPL was incubated with different metal ions (Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺, Fe²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺). The final concentrations of metal ions investigated were 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0 mM. The results obtained from the study showed that Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ ions increased the activity of lipase up to 3.0, 3.0, 1.0, and 26.0 folds respectively. Lipase activity was partially inhibited by Na⁺ and Mg²⁺ with up to 88.5% and 83.7% loss of activity respectively. Lipase activity was also inhibited by K⁺ with up to 56.7% loss in the activity as compared to in the absence of metal ions. The study concluded that lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells can be activated by the presence of Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ and inhibited by Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Vitellaria paradoxa, lipase, metal ions

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
54 Using Submerge Fermentation Method to Production of Extracellular Lipase by Aspergillus niger

Authors: Masoumeh Ghasemi, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Arman Farahbakhsh, Ali Asghar Safari

Abstract:

In this study, lipase production has been investigated using submerge fermentation by Aspergillus niger in Kilka fish oil as main substrate. The Taguchi method with an L9 orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of parameters and their levels on lipase productivity. The optimum conditions for Kilka fish oil concentration, incubation temperature and pH were obtained 3 gr./ml 35°C and 7, respectively. The amount of lipase activity in optimum condition was obtained 4.59IU/ml. By comparing this amount with the amount of productivity in the olive oil medium based on the cost of each medium, it was that using Kilka fish oil is 84% economical. Therefore Kilka fish oil can be used as an economical and suitable substrate in the lipase production and industrial usages.

Keywords: lipase, Aspergillus niger, Kilka fish oil, submerge fermentation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
53 Lipase-Mediated Formation of Peroxyoctanoic Acid Used in Catalytic Epoxidation of α-Pinene

Authors: N. Wijayati, Kusoro Siadi, Hanny Wijaya, Maggy Thenawijjaja Suhartono

Abstract:

This work describes the lipase-mediated synthesis of α-pinene oxide at ambient temperature. The immobilized lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is used to generate peroxyoctanoic acid directly from octanoic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The peroxy acid formed is then applied for in situ oxidation of α-pinene. High conversion of α-pinene to α-pinene oxide (approximately 78%) was achieved when using 0,1 g enzim lipase, 6 mmol H2O2, dan 5 mmol octanoic acid. Various parameters affecting the conversion of α-pinene to α pinene oxide were studied.

Keywords: α-Pinene; P. aeruginosa; Octanoic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
52 Effect of Anion and Amino Functional Group on Resin for Lipase Immobilization with Adsorption-Cross Linking Method

Authors: Heri Hermansyah, Annisa Kurnia, A. Vania Anisya, Adi Surjosatyo, Yopi Sunarya, Rita Arbianti, Tania Surya Utami

Abstract:

Lipase is one of biocatalyst which is applied commercially for the process in industries, such as bioenergy, food, and pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, biocatalysts are preferred in industries because they work in mild condition, high specificity, and reduce energy consumption (high pressure and temperature). But, the usage of lipase for industry scale is limited by economic reason due to the high price of lipase and difficulty of the separation system. Immobilization of lipase is one of the solutions to maintain the activity of lipase and reduce separation system in the process. Therefore, we conduct a study about lipase immobilization with the adsorption-cross linking method using glutaraldehyde because this method produces high enzyme loading and stability. Lipase is immobilized on different kind of resin with the various functional group. Highest enzyme loading (76.69%) was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous which have anion functional group (OH). However, highest activity (24,69 U/g support) through olive oil emulsion method was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-chitosan which have amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group. In addition, it also success to produce biodiesel until reach yield 50,6% through interesterification reaction and after 4 cycles stable 63.9% relative with initial yield. While for Aspergillus, niger lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-kitosan have unit activity 22,84 U/g resin and yield biodiesel higher than commercial lipase (69,1%) and after 4 cycles stable reach 70.6% relative from initial yield. This shows that optimum functional group on support for immobilization with adsorption-cross linking is the support that contains amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group because they can react with glutaraldehyde and binding with enzyme prevent desorption of lipase from support through binding lipase with a functional group on support.

Keywords: adsorption-cross linking, immobilization, lipase, resin

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51 The Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist on the Lipase Activity

Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani

Abstract:

Lipases constitute one of the most important groups of industrial enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to glycerol and fatty acids. Muscarinic antagonist relieves smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract and effect on the cardiovascular system. In this research, the effect of a muscarinic antagonist on the lipase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. Lineweaver–Burk plot showed that the drug inhibited the enzyme by competitive inhibition. The IC50 value (60 uM) and Ki (30 uM) of the drug revealed the drug bound to the enzyme with high affinity. Determination of enzyme activity in various pH and temperature showed that the maximum activity of lipase was at pH 8 and 60°C both in presence and absence of the drug.

Keywords: bacteria, inhibition, kinetics, lipase

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
50 Screening, Selection and Optimization of Extracellular Methanol and Ethanol Tolerant Lipase from Acinetobacter sp. K5B4

Authors: Khaled M. Khleifat

Abstract:

An extracellular methanol and ethanol tolerant lipase producing bacterial strain K5b4 was isolated from soil samples contaminated with hydrocarbon residues. It was identified by using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16srRNA technique as Acinetobacter species. The immobilized lipase from Acinetobacter sp. K5b4 retained more than 98% of its residual activity after incubation with pure methanol and ethanol for 24 hours. The highest hydrolytic activity of the immobilized enzyme was obtained in the presence of 75% (v/v) methanol in the assay solution. In contrary, the enzyme was able to maintain its original activity up to only 25% (v/v) ethanol whereas at elevated concentrations of 50 and 75% (v/v) the enzyme activity was reduced to 10 and 40%, respectively. Maximum lipase activity of 31.5 mU/mL was achieved after 48 hr cultivation when the optimized medium (pH 7.0) that composed of 1.0% (w/v) olive oil, 0.2% (w/v) glycerol, 0.15% (w/v) yeast extract, and 0.05% (w/v) NaCl was inoculated with 0.4% (v/v) seed culture and incubated at 30°C and 150 rpm agitation speed. However, the presence of CaCl2 in the growth media did not show any inhibitory or stimulatory effect on the enzyme production as it compared to the control experiment. Meanwhile, the other mineral salts MgCl2, MnCl2, KCl and CoCl2 were negatively affected the production of lipase enzyme. The inhibition of lipase production from Acinetobacter sp. K5b4 in presence of glucose suggesting that lipase gene expression is prone to catabolic repression.

Keywords: K5B4, methanol and ethanol, acinetobacter, morphological

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
49 Pancreatic Lipase and Cholesterol Esterase Inhibitors from Thai Medicinal Plants

Authors: Kwanchai Ratanamanee, Pattra Ahmadi Pirshahid, Yaowaluk Khamphan, Sirinan Thubthimthad

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Obesity is a main global health problem. The obesity rated has continued to be higher and higher. It causes to serious systems, diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, and some types of cancer. Oristat is one of the best drugs worldwide used as a pancreatic lipase inhibitor. To develop the new therapeutic drugs from medicinal plant always explored. In this study, 24 medicinal plants were investigated for their pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory effects with Fluorometer assay and oristat as a positive control. It showed that the ethanolic extract of pods of Acacia concinna (Willd.) D.C., possess pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory activities of IC50 at 2.73 and 3.77 mg/ml respectively as well as oral acute toxicity of the extract (LD50) was 6,300 mg/kg body weight. The extract of A.concinna should be further investigated in animal testing. The results of pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitor of the extracts will lead us to utilize A.concinna for developing as obesity dietary supplement from a medicinal plant.

Keywords: Acacia concinna (Willd.) D. C., cholesterol esterase, obesity, pancreatic lipase

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48 Molecular Docking of Marrubiin in Candida Rugosa Lipase

Authors: Benarous Khedidja, Yousfi Mohamed

Abstract:

Infections caused by Candida species manifest in a number of diseases, including candidemia, vulvovaginal candidiasis, endocarditis, and peritonitis. These Candida species have been reported to have lipolytic activity by secretion of lipolytic enzymes such as esterases, lipases and phospholipases. These Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes seem to play an important role in Candida overgrowth. Candidiasis is commonly treated with antimycotics such as clotrimazole and nystatin, which bind to a major component of the fungal cell membrane (ergosterol). This binding forms pores in the membrane that lead to death of the fungus. Due to their secondary effects, scientists have thought of another treatment basing on lipase inhibition but we haven’t found any lipase inhibitors used as candidiasis treatment. In this work, we are interested to lipases inhibitors such as alkaloids as another candidiasis treatment. In the first part, we have proceeded to optimize the alkaloid structures and protein 3D structure using Hyperchem software. Secondly, we have docked inhibitors using Genetic algorithm with GOLD software. The results have shown ten possibilities of binding inhibitor to Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) but only one possibility has been accepted depending on the weakest binding energy.

Keywords: marrubiin, candida rugosa lipase, docking, gold

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
47 Immobilization of Lipase Enzyme by Low Cost Material: A Statistical Approach

Authors: Md. Z. Alam, Devi R. Asih, Md. N. Salleh

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Immobilization of lipase enzyme produced from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by the activated carbon (AC) among the low cost support materials was optimized. The results indicated that immobilization of 94% was achieved by AC as the most suitable support material. A sequential optimization strategy based on a statistical experimental design, including one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method was used to determine the equilibrium time. Three components influencing lipase immobilization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the face-centered central composite design (FCCCD). On the statistical analysis of the results, the optimum enzyme concentration loading, agitation rate and carbon active dosage were found to be 30 U/ml, 300 rpm and 8 g/L respectively, with a maximum immobilization activity of 3732.9 U/g-AC after 2 hrs of immobilization. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high regression coefficient (R2) of 0.999, which indicated a satisfactory fit of the model with the experimental data. The parameters were statistically significant at p<0.05.

Keywords: activated carbon, POME based lipase, immobilization, adsorption

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46 Synthesis of DHA Rich Glycerides with Immobilized Lipases from Mucor miehei and Rhizopus oryzae

Authors: Satyendra P. Chaurasia, Aditi Sharma, Ajay K. Dalai

Abstract:

The esterification of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with glycerol using immobilized Mucor mie-hei lipase (MML) and Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) have been studied in the present paper to synthesize triglycerides (TG) rich in DHA. Both immobilized lipases (MML and ROL), and their support materials (immobead-150 and ion-exchange resin) were characterized and compared for surface properties with BET, for chemical functional groups with FT-IR, and for particle size distribution with particle size analyzer. The most suitable reaction conditions for synthesis of DHA rich TG in biphasic solvent system were found as 1:3 (wt/wt) glycerol to DHA ratio, 1:1 (wt/wt) buffer to DHA ratio, 1:1 (wt/wt) solvent to DHA ratio at 50 ºC temperature, and 600 rpm speed of agitation with 100 mg of immobilized lipases. Maximum 95.9 % esterification was obtained with immobilized MML in 14 days reaction with formation of 65.7 wt% DHA rich TG. Whereas, immobilized ROL has shown formation of only 23.8 wt% DHA rich TG with total 78.9 % esterification in 15 days. Additionally, repeated use of both immobilized lipases was con-ducted up to five cycles, indicated 50.4% and 41.2 % activity retention after fifth repeated use of immobilized MML and ROL, respectively.

Keywords: DHA, immobilized Mucor miehei lipase, Rhizopus oryzae lipase, esterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
45 Production and Characterisation of Lipase from a Novel Streptomyces.sp - Its Molecular Identification

Authors: C. Asha Poorna, N. S. Pradeep

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The biological function of lipase is to catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols to give free fatty acid, diacylglycerols, mono-acylglycerols and glycerol. They constitute the most important group of biocatalysts for biotechnological applications. The aim of the present study was to identify the lipolytic activity of Streptomyces sp. From soil sample collected from the sacred groves of southern Kerala. The culture conditions of the isolate were optimised and the enzyme was purified and characterised. The purification was attempted with acetone precipitation. The isolate observed to have high lipolytic activity and identified to be of Streptomyces strain. The purification was attempted with acetone precipitation. The purified enzyme observed to have an apparent molecular mass of ~60kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme showed maximum activity at 60oC and pH-8. The lipase showed tolerance towards different organic solvents like ethanol and methanol that are commonly used in transesterification reactions to displace alcohol from triglycerides contained in renewable resources to yield fatty acid alkyl esters known as biodiesel.

Keywords: lipase, Streptomyces, biodiesel, fatty acid, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
44 Effect of Drying Condition on the Wheat Germ Stability Using Fluidized-Bed Dryer

Authors: J. M. Hung, J. S. Chan, M. I. Kuo, D. S. Chan, C. P. Lu

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Wheat germ is a by-product obtained from wheat milling and it contains highly concentrated nutrients. Due to highly lipase and lipoxygenase activities, wheat germ products can easily turn into rancid flavor and cause a short life. The objective of this study is to control moisture content and retard lipid hydrolysis by fluidized-bed drying. The raw wheat germ of 2 kg was dried with a vertical batch fluidized bed with the following varying conditions, inlet air temperature of 50, 80 and 120°C, inlet air velocity of 3.62 m/s. The experiment was designed to obtain a final product at around 40°C with water activity of 0.3 ± 0.1. Changes in the moisture content, water activity, enzyme activity of dried wheat germ during storage were measured. Results showed the fluidized-bed drying was found to reduce moisture content, water activity and lipase activity of raw wheat germ. After drying wheat germ, moisture content and water activity were between 5.8% to 7.2% and 0.28 to 0.40 respectively during 12 weeks of storage. The variation range of water activity indicated to retard lipid oxidation. All drying treatments displayed inactivation of lipase, except for drying condition of 50°C which showed relative high enzyme activity. During storage, lipase activity increased slowly during the first 6 weeks of storage and reached a plateau for another 6 weeks. As a result, using a fluidized-bed dryer was found to be effective drying technique in improving storage stability of wheat germ.

Keywords: wheat germ, fluidized-bed dryer, storage, lipase, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
43 Association of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene (HindIII rs320) Polymorphisms with Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia Secondary to Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Meryem Abi-Ayad, Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Daniela Foti, Mohamed Benyoucef, Antonio Brunetti

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Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme for lipid metabolism; its genetic polymorphism can be a candidate for modulating lipids parameters in metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to determine whether lipoproteins lipase polymorphisMetS (LPL-HindIII) could be associated with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (secondary to metabolism syndrome). The polymorphism Hind III (rs320) was assessed by PCR-RFLP in 51 MetS patients and 17 healthy controls from the hospital in Tlemcen. The logistic regression analyses showed no significant association with Hind III genotype and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1,5g/l or TG lower treatment) (P=0,455), metabolic syndrome (P=0,455), hypertension (P=0,802) and type 2 diabetes (P=0,144). In terms of plasma biomarkers, although not statistically significant, there was a difference in TG levels (P > 0,05), which was lowest among carriers of the homogenous mutant allele (H-). In this study, there was no association between the rare allele (H-) and disease protection, and between the frequent allele (H+) and disease prevalence (hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes).

Keywords: moderate secondary hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, lipids, polymorphism lipoprotein lipase, HindIII(rs320)

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
42 Surface Display of Lipase on Yarrowia lipolytica Cells

Authors: Evgeniya Y. Yuzbasheva, Tigran V. Yuzbashev, Natalia I. Perkovskaya, Elizaveta B. Mostova

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Cell-surface display of lipase is of great interest as it has many applications in the field of biotechnology owing to its unique advantages: simplified product purification, and cost-effective downstream processing. One promising area of application for whole-cell biocatalysts with surface displayed lipase is biodiesel synthesis. Biodiesel is biodegradable, renewable, and nontoxic alternative fuel for diesel engines. Although the alkaline catalysis method has been widely used for biodiesel production, it has a number of limitations, such as rigorous feedstock specifications, complicated downstream processes, including removal of inorganic salts from the product, recovery of the salt-containing by-product glycerol, and treatment of alkaline wastewater. Enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel can overcome these drawbacks. In this study, Lip2p lipase was displayed on Yarrowia lipolytica cells via C- and N-terminal fusion variant. The active site of lipase is located near the C-terminus, therefore to prevent the activity loosing the insertion of glycine-serine linker between Lip2p and C-domains was performed. The hydrolytic activity of the displayed lipase reached 12,000–18,000 U/g of dry weight. However, leakage of enzyme from the cell wall was observed. In case of C-terminal fusion variant, the leakage was occurred due to the proteolytic cleavage within the linker peptide. In case of N-terminal fusion variant, the leaking enzyme was presented as three proteins, one of which corresponded to the whole hybrid protein. The calculated number of recombinant enzyme displayed on the cell surface is approximately 6–9 × 105 molecules per cell, which is close to the theoretical maximum (2 × 106 molecules/cell). Thus, we attribute the enzyme leakage to the limited space available on the cell surface. Nevertheless, cell-bound lipase exhibited greater stability to short-term and long-term temperature treatment than the native enzyme. It retained 74% of original activity at 60°C for 5 min of incubation, and 83% of original activity after incubation at 50°C during 5 h. Cell-bound lipase had also higher stability in organic solvents and detergents. The developed whole-cell biocatalyst was used for recycling biodiesel synthesis. Two repeated cycles of methanolysis yielded 84.1–% and 71.0–% methyl esters after 33–h and 45–h reactions, respectively.

Keywords: biodiesel, cell-surface display, lipase, whole-cell biocatalyst

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41 Bioconversion of Capsaicin Using the Optimized Culture Broth of Lipase Producing Bacterium of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Authors: Doostishoar Farzad, Forootanfar Hamid, Hasan-Bikdashti Morvarid, Faramarzi Mohammad Ali, Ameri Atefe

Abstract:

Introduction: Chili peppers and related plants in the family of capsaicum produce a mixture of capsaicins represent anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, and chemopreventive properties. Vanillylamine, the main product of capsaicin hydrolysis is applied as a precursor for manufacturing of natural vanillin (a famous flavor). It is also used in the production of synthetic capsaicins harboring a wide variety of physiological and biological activities such as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects as well as enhancing of adrenal catecholamine secretion, analgesic, and antioxidative activities. The ability of some lipases, such as Novozym 677 BG and Novozym 435 and also some proteases e.g. trypsine and penicillin acylase, in capsaicin hydrolysis and green synthesis of vanillylamine has been investigated. In the present study the optimized culture broth of a newly isolated lipase-producing bacterial strain (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) applied for the hydrolysis of capsaicin. Materials and methods: In order to compare hydrolytic activity of optimized and basal culture broth through capsaicin 2 mL of each culture broth (as sources of lipase) was introduced to capsaicin solution (500 mg/L) and then the reaction mixture (total volume of 3 mL) was incubated at 40 °C and 120 rpm. Samples were taken every 2 h and analyzed for vanillylamine formation using HPLC. Same reaction mixture containing boiled supernatant (to inactivate lipase) designed as blank and each experiment was done in triplicate. Results: 215 mg/L of vanillylamine was produced after the treatment of capsaicin using the optimized medium for 18 h, while only 61 mg/L of vanillylamine was detected in presence of the basal medium under the same conditions. No capsaicin conversion was observed in the blank sample, in which lipase activity was suppressed by boiling of the sample for 10 min. Conclusion: The application of optimized broth culture for the hydrolysis of capsaicin led to a 43% conversion of that pungent compound to vanillylamine.

Keywords: Capsaicin, green synthesis, lipase, stenotrophomonas maltophilia

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40 Study of the Chronic Effects of CRACK on Some Biochemical Parameters Including Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Amylase, Lipase, Albumin, Protein in Rat

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Bahram Amu-Oqhli Tabrizi, Hadi Khayat Nouri, Arash Khaki

Abstract:

30 head of adult Vistar rats were chosen to evaluate the chronic narcotic effects of crack on some biochemical parameters. The rats weighted approximately 200 to 250 g. They were divided into 5 groups of 6 and were housed in identical condition in terms of food and ambience. Rats were maintained at 12 hours light and 12 hours darkness. Rats were injected 7.8 mg/kg BW crack intraperitoneally. The groups one to four received daily medication for one to four weeks respectively. The control groups were injected identical dose of saline. The blood was taken from control and test groups then serum was separated from. Serum biochemical parameters of amylase, lipase, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, protein and albumin were measured by diagnostic kits. Serum protein and albumin levels did not show statistically significant changes. Serum lipase and amylase showed significant changes both of which were increased. The serum levels of cholesterol, LDL and HDL demonstrated no significant changes. Triglycerides values showed a significant increase in serum. Serum VLDL in groups 3 and 4 exhibited significant changes compare to other groups.

Keywords: albumin, amylase, cholesterol, crack, HDL, LDL, lipase, protein, rat, triglycerides, VLDL

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39 Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist Drug on Extracellular Lipase Activityof Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani

Abstract:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, rode shape and aerobic bacterium that has shown to be resistance to many antibiotics. This resistance makes the bacterium very harmful in some diseases. It can also generate diseases in any part of the gastrointestinal tract from oropharynx to rectum. P. aeruginosa has become an important cause of infection, especially in patients with compromised host defense mechanisms. One of the most important reasons that make P. aeruginosa an emerging opportunistic pathogen in patients is its ability to use various compounds as carbon sources. Lipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids. Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of lipid substrate. Some lipases are expressed and secreted by pathogenic organisms during the infection. Muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. The drug has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms. Aim: In this study the inhibitory effect of a muscarinic antagonist on lipase of P. aeruginosa was investigated. Methods: P. aeruginosa was cultured in minimal salt medium with 1% olive oil as carbon source. The cells were harvested and the supernatant, which contained lipase, was used for enzyme assay. Results: Our results showed that the drug can inhibit P. aeruginosa lipase by competitive manner. In the presence of different concentrations of the drug, the Vmax (2 mmol/min/mg protein) of enzyme did not change, while the Km raised by increasing the drug concentration. The Ki (inhibition constant) and IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) value of drug was estimated to be about 30 uM and 60 uM which determined that the drug binds to enzyme with high affinity. Maximum activity of the enzyme was observed at pH 8 in the absence and presence of muscarinic antagonist, respectively. The maximum activity of lipase was observed at 600C and the enzyme became inactive at 900C. Conclusion: The muscarinic antagonist drug could inhibit lipase of P. aeruginosa and changed the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. The drug binded to enzyme with high affinity and did not chang the optimum pH of the enzyme. Temperature did not affect the binding of drug to musmuscarinic antagonist.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, drug, enzyme, inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
38 Effects of Bile Acids and Lipase Supplementation in Low-Energy Diets on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate the effect of bile acids and lipase supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Seven hundred day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 45.9 ± 0.3 g were assigned to 5 dietary treatments, with five replications of 28 birds each in a completely randomized design. The five treatments were as follows: (i) HE: broilers received a diet with high energy content; (ii) LE: broilers received a diet with low energy content and energy content reduced by 100 kcal/kg as compared to HE; (iii) LEB: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 300 g/ton bile acids; (iv) LEL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 180 g/ton lipase enzyme and (v) LEBL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with both 300 g/ton bile acids and 180 g/ton lipase enzyme. The experimental period lasted for 35 days. Broilers fed HE had a lower (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) gain and lower feed intake (1-35 d), but during finisher period (21-35 d), BW gain was similar with other treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in HE and higher in LEBL group (P < 0.05), while the LE, LEB, and LEL had intermediate values. At 35 d no difference occurred between treatment for water holding capacity and pH of breast and thigh muscles (P > 0.05). The relative weight of pancreas was higher (P < 0.05) in LEB treatment but lower (P < 0.05) in LEL treatment. In conclusion, bile acids and lipase supplementation at 300 g/ton and 150g/ton of feed in low-energy diets respectively had no effect on broiler performance and meat quality. However, FCR was improved in HE treatment.

Keywords: bile acids, energy, enzyme, growth

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37 Polymerization of Epsilon-Caprolactone Using Lipase Enzyme for Medical Applications

Authors: Sukanya Devi Ramachandran, Vaishnavi Muralidharan, Kavya Chandrasekaran

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Polycaprolactone is polymer belonging to the polyester family that has noticeable characteristics of biodegradability and biocompatibility which is essential for medical applications. Polycaprolactone is produced by the ring opening polymerization of the monomer epsilon-Caprolactone (ε-CL) which is a closed ester, comprising of seven-membered ring. This process is normally catalysed by metallic components such as stannous octoate. It is difficult to remove the catalysts after the reaction, and they are also toxic to the human body. An alternate route of using enzymes as catalysts is being employed to reduce the toxicity. Lipase enzyme is a subclass of esterase that can easily attack the ester bonds of ε-CL. This research paper throws light on the extraction of lipase from germinating sunflower seeds and the activity of the biocatalyst in the polymerization of ε-CL. Germinating Sunflower seeds were crushed with fine sand in phosphate buffer of pH 6.5 into a fine paste which was centrifuged at 5000rpm for 10 minutes. The clear solution of the enzyme was tested for activity at various pH ranging from 5 to 7 and temperature ranging from 40oC to 70oC. The enzyme was active at pH6.0 and at 600C temperature. Polymerization of ε-CL was done using toluene as solvent with the catalysis of lipase enzyme, after which chloroform was added to terminate the reaction and was washed in cold methanol to obtain the polymer. The polymerization was done by varying the time from 72 hours to 6 days and tested for the molecular weight and the conversion of the monomer. The molecular weight obtained at 6 days is comparably higher. This method will be very effective, economical and eco-friendly to produce as the enzyme used can be regenerated as such at the end of the reaction and can be reused. The obtained polymers can be used for drug delivery and other medical applications.

Keywords: lipase, monomer, polycaprolactone, polymerization

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36 Phytochemical and Biological Study of Chrozophora oblongifolia

Authors: Al-Braa Kashegari, Ali M. El-Halawany, Akram A. Shalabi, Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim, Hossam M. Abdallah

Abstract:

Chemical investigation of Chrozophora oblongifolia resulted in the isolation of five major compounds that were identified as apeginin-7-O-glucoside (1), quercetin-3-O-glucuronic acid (2), quercetin-3-O-glacturonic acid (3), rutin (4), and 1,3,6-trigalloyl glucose (5). The identity of isolated compounds was assessed by different spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional NMR. The isolated compounds were tested for their antioxidant activity using different assays viz., DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, ORAC, and metal chelation effects. In addition, the inhibition of target enzymes involved in the metabolic syndrome, such as alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, were carried out. Moreover, the effect of the compounds on the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) as one of the major complications of oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in metabolic syndromes were carried out using BSA‐fructose (bovine serum albumin), BSA-methylglyoxal, and arginine methylglyoxal models. The pure isolates showed a protective effect in metabolic syndromes as well as promising antioxidant activity. The results showed potent activity of compound 5 in all measured parameters meanwhile, none of the tested compounds showed activity against pancreatic lipase.

Keywords: Chrozophora oblongifolia, antioxidant, pancreatic lipase, metabolic syndromes

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35 Candida antarctica Lipase-B Catalyzed Alkaline-Hydrolysis of Some Aryl-Alkyl Acetate in Non-Aqueous Media

Authors: M. Merabet-Khelassi, Z. Houiene, L. Aribi-Zouioueche, O. Riant

Abstract:

Lipases (EC.3.1.1.3) are efficient biotools widely used for their remarkable chemo-, regio- and enantio-selectivity, especially, in kinetic resolution of racemates. They offer access to a large panel of enantiopure building blocks, such as secondary benzylic alcohols, commonly used as synthetic intermediates in pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Due to the stability of lipases in both water and organic solvents poor in water, they are able to catalyze both transesterifications of arylalkylcarbinols and hydrolysis of their corresponding acetates. The use of enzymatic hydrolysis in aqueous media still limited. In this presentation, we expose a practical methodology for the preparation of optically enriched acetates using a Candida antarctica lipase B-catalyzed hydrolysis in non-aqueous media in the presence of alkaline carbonate salts. The influence of several parameters which can intervene on the enzymatic efficiency such as the impact of the introduction of the carbonates salts, its amount and the nature of the alkaline earth metal are discussed. The obtained results show that the use of sodium carbonate with CAL-B enhances drastically both reactivity and selectivity of this immobilized lipase. In all cases, the resulting alcohols and remaining acetates are obtained in high ee values (up to > 99 %), and the selectivities reach (E > 500).

Keywords: alkaline-hydrolysis, enzymatic kinetic resolution, lipases, arylalkylcarbinol, non-aqueous media

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34 Assessing Digestive Enzymes Inhibitory Properties of Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Apple, Red Grape, Cinnamon

Authors: Pinar Ercan, Sedef N. El

Abstract:

The goals of this study were to determine the total anthocyanin and procyanidin contents and their in vitro bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape and cinnamon by a static in vitro digestion method reported by the COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST, as well as in vitro inhibitory effects of these food samples on starch and lipid digestive enzymes. While the highest total anthocyanin content was found in red grape (164.76 ± 2.51 mg/100 g), the highest procyanidin content was found in cinnamon (6432.54±177.31 mg/100 g) among the selected food samples (p<0.05). The anthocyanin bioaccessibilities were found as 10.23±1 %, 8.23±0.64 %, and 8.73±0.70 % in apple, red grape, and cinnamon, respectively. The procyanidin bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape, and cinnamon were found as 17.57±0.71 %, 14.08±0.74 % and 18.75±1.49 %, respectively. The analyzed apple, red grape and cinnamon showed the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 544.27±21.94, 445.63±15.67, 1592±17.58 μg/mL, respectively), α-amylase (IC50 38.41±7.26, 56.12±3.60, 3.54±0.86 μg/mL, respectively), and lipase (IC50 52.65±2.05, 581.70±54.14, 49.63±2.72 μg/mL, respectively). Red grape sample showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, cinnamon showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase and lipase according to IC50 (concentration of inhibitor required to produce a 50% inhibition of the initial rate of reaction) and Catechin equivalent inhibition capacity (CEIC50) values. This study reported that apple, grape and cinnamon samples can inhibit the activity of digestive enzymes in vitro. The consumption of these samples would be used in conjunction with a low-calorie diet for body weight management.

Keywords: anthocyanin, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, procyanidin

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33 The Expression of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene with Fat Accumulations and Serum Biochemical Levels in Betong (KU Line) and Broiler Chickens

Authors: W. Loongyai, N. Saengsawang, W. Danvilai, C. Kridtayopas, P. Sopannarath, C. Bunchasak

Abstract:

Betong chicken is a slow growing and a lean strain of chicken, while the rapid growth of broiler is accompanied by increased fat. We investigated the growth performance, fat accumulations, lipid serum biochemical levels and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression of female Betong (KU line) at the age of 4 and 6 weeks. A total of 80 female Betong chickens (KU line) and 80 female broiler chickens were reared under open system (each group had 4 replicates of 20 chicks per pen). The results showed that feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) of broiler chicken were significantly higher than Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01), while feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Betong (KU line) at week 6 were significantly lower than broiler chicken (P < 0.01) at 6 weeks. At 4 and 6 weeks, two birds per replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. Carcass weight did not significantly differ between treatments; the percentage of abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat yield was higher in the broiler (P < 0.01) at 4 and 6 week. Total cholesterol and LDL level of broiler were higher than Betong (KU line) at 4 and 6 weeks (P < 0.05). Abdominal fat samples were collected for total RNA extraction. The cDNA was amplified using primers specific for LPL gene expression and analysed using real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression of LPL gene was not different when compared between Betong (KU line) and broiler chickens at the age of 4 and 6 weeks (P > 0.05). Our results indicated that broiler chickens had high growth rate and fat accumulation when compared with Betong (KU line) chickens, whereas LPL gene expression did not differ between breeds.

Keywords: lipoprotein lipase gene, Betong (KU line), broiler, abdominal fat, gene expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
32 Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Novel Nutraceutical Structured Lipids in Non-Conventional Media

Authors: Selim Kermasha

Abstract:

A process for the synthesis of structured lipids (SLs) by the lipase-catalyzed interesterification of selected endogenous edible oils such as flaxseed oil (FO) and medium-chain triacylglyceols such as tricaprylin (TC) in non-conventional media (NCM), including organic solvent media (OSM) and solvent-free medium (SFM), was developed. The bioconversion yield of the medium-long-medium-type SLs (MLM-SLs were monitored as the responses with use of selected commercial lipases. In order to optimize the interesterification reaction and to establish a model system, a wide range of reaction parameters, including TC to FO molar ratio, reaction temperature, enzyme concentration, reaction time, agitation speed and initial water activity, were investigated to establish the a model system. The model system was monitored with the use of multiple response surface methodology (RSM) was used to obtain significant models for the responses and to optimize the interesterification reaction, on the basis of selected levels and variable fractional factorial design (FFD) with centre points. Based on the objective of each response, the appropriate level combination of the process parameters and the solutions that met the defined criteria were also provided by means of desirability function. The synthesized novel molecules were structurally characterized, using silver-ion reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrophotometry (APCI-MS) analyses. The overall experimental findings confirmed the formation of dicaprylyl-linolenyl glycerol, dicaprylyl-oleyl glycerol and dicaprylyl-linoleyl glycerol resulted from the lipase-catalyzed interesterification of FO and TC.

Keywords: enzymatic interesterification, non-conventinal media, nutraceuticals, structured lipids

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31 Enzymatic Synthesis of Olive-Based Ferulate Esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: S. Mat Radzi, N. J. Abd Rahman, H. Mohd Noor, N. Ariffin

Abstract:

Ferulic acid has widespread industrial potential by virtue of its antioxidant properties. However, it is partially soluble in aqueous media, limiting their usefulness in oil-based processes in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and material industry. Therefore, modification of ferulic acid should be made by producing of more lipophilic derivatives. In this study, a preliminary investigation of lipase-catalyzed trans-esterification reaction of ethyl ferulate and olive oil was investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), to produce ferulate ester, a sunscreen agent. A statistical approach of Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the interactive effects of reaction temperature (40-80°C), reaction time (4-12 hours), and amount of enzyme (0.1-0.5 g). The optimum conditions derived via RSM were reaction temperature 60°C, reaction time 2.34 hours, and amount of enzyme 0.3 g. The actual experimental yield was 59.6% ferulate ester under optimum condition, which compared well to the maximum predicted value of 58.0%.

Keywords: ferulic acid, enzymatic synthesis, esters, RSM

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30 Enzyme Producing Psyhrophilic Pseudomonas app. Isolated from Poultry Meats

Authors: Ali Aydin, Mert Sudagidan, Aysen Coban, Alparslan Kadir Devrim

Abstract:

Pseudomonas spp. (specifically, P. fluorescens and P. fragi) are considered the principal spoilage microorganisms of refrigerated poultry meats. The higher the level psychrophilic spoilage Pseudomonas spp. on carcasses at the end of processing lead to decrease the shelf life of the refrigerated product. The aim of the study was the identification of psychrophilic Pseudomonas spp. having proteolytic and lipolytic activities from poultry meats by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, investigation of protease and lipase related genes and determination of proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. In the of isolation procedure, collected chicken meat samples from local markets and slaughterhouses were homogenized and the lysates were incubated on Standard method agar and Skim Milk agar for selection of proteolytic bacteria and tributyrin agar for selection of lipolytic bacteria at +4 °C for 7 days. After detection of proteolytic and lipolytic colonies, the isolates were firstly analyzed by biochemical tests such as Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests. DNA gene sequencing analysis and comparison with GenBank revealed that 126 strong enzyme Pseudomonas spp. were identified as predominantly P. fluorescens (n=55), P. fragi (n=42), Pseudomonas spp. (n=24), P. cedrina (n=2), P. poae (n=1), P. koreensis (n=1), and P. gessardi (n=1). Additionally, protease related aprX gene was screened in the strains and it was detected in 69/126 strains, whereas, lipase related lipA gene was found in 9 Pseudomonas strains. Protease activity was determined using commercially available protease assay kit and 5 strains showed high protease activity. The results showed that psychrophilic Pseudomonas strains were present in chicken meat samples and they can produce important levels of proteases and lipases for food spoilage to decrease food quality and safety.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, chicken meat, protease, lipase

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
29 Candida antartica Lipase Assisted Enrichment of n-3 PUFA in Indian Sardine Oil

Authors: Prasanna Belur, P. R. Ashwini, Sampath Charanyaa, I. Regupathi

Abstract:

Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) are one of the richest and cheapest sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The health benefits conferred by n-3 PUFA upon consumption, in the prevention and treatment of coronary, neuromuscular, immunological disorders and allergic conditions are well documented. Natural refined Indian Sardine oil generally contain about 25% (w/w) n-3 PUFA along with various unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the form of mono, di, and triglycerides. Having high concentration of n-3 PUFA content in the glyceride form is most desirable for human consumption to avail maximum health benefits. Thus, enhancing the n-3 PUFA content while retaining it in the glyceride form with green technology is the need of the hour. In this study, refined Indian Sardine oil was subjected to selective hydrolysis by Candida antartica lipase to enhance n-3 PUFA content. The degree of hydrolysis and enhancement of n-3 PUFA content was estimated by determining acid value, Iodine value, EPA and DHA content (by Gas Chromatographic methods after derivitization) before and after hydrolysis. Various reaction parameters such as pH, temperature, enzyme load, lipid to aqueous phase volume ratio and incubation time were optimized by conducting trials with one parameter at a time approach. Incubating enzyme solution with refined sardine oil with a volume ratio of 1:1, at pH 7.0, for 60 minutes at 50 °C, with an enzyme load of 60 mg/ml was found to be optimum. After enzymatic treatment, the oil was subjected to refining to remove free fatty acids and moisture content using previously optimized refining technology. Enzymatic treatment at the optimal conditions resulted in 12.11 % enhancement in Degree of hydrolysis. Iodine number had increased by 9.7 % and n-3 PUFA content was enhanced by 112 % (w/w). Selective enhancement of n-3 PUFA glycerides, eliminating saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from the oil using enzyme is an interesting preposition as this technique is environment-friendly, cost effective and provide natural source of n-3 PUFA rich oil.

Keywords: Candida antartica, lipase, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, sardine oil

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28 Carvacrol Attenuates Lung Injury in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

Authors: Salim Cerig, Fatime Geyikoglu, Pınar Akpulat, Suat Colak, Hasan Turkez, Murat Bakir, Mirkhalil Hosseinigouzdagani, Kubra Koc

Abstract:

This study was designed to evaluate whether carvacrol (CAR) could provide protection against lung injury by acute pancreatitis development. The rats were randomized into groups to receive (I) no therapy; (II) 50 μg/kg cerulein at 1h intervals by four intraperitoneal injections (i.p.); (III) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p.; and (IV) cerulein+CAR after 2h of cerulein injection. 12h later, serum samples were obtained to assess pancreatic function the lipase and amylase values. The animals were euthanized and lung samples were excised. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), periodic acid–Schif (PAS), Mallory's trichrome and amyloid. Additionally, oxidative DNA damage was determined by measuring as increases in 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) adducts. The results showed that the serum activity of lipase and amylase in AP rats were significantly reduced after the therapy (p<0.05). We also found that the 100 mg/kg dose of CAR significantly decreased 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the severe pathological findings in the lung such as necrosis, inflammation, congestion, fibrosis, and thickened alveolar septum were attenuated in the AP+CAR groups when compared with AP group. Finally, the magnitude of the protective effect on lung is certain, and CAR is an effective therapy for lung injury caused by AP.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, acute pancreatitis, carvacrol, experimental, lung injury, oxidative DNA damage

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27 Properties of Biodiesel Produced by Enzymatic Transesterification of Lipids Extracted from Microalgae in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Medium

Authors: Hanifa Taher, Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Ali H. Al-Marzouqi, Yousef Haik, Mohammed Farid

Abstract:

Biodiesel, as an alternative renewable fuel, has been receiving increasing attention due to the limited supply of fossil fuels and the increasing need for energy. Microalgae is a promising source for lipids, which can be converted to biodiesel. The biodiesel production from microalgae lipids using lipase catalyzed reaction in supercritical CO2 medium has several advantages over conventional production processes. However, identifying the optimum microalgae lipid extraction and transesterification conditions is still a challenge. In this study, the lipids extracted from Scenedesmus sp. and their enzymatic transesterification using supercritical carbon dioxide have been investigated. The effect of extraction variables (temperature, pressure and solvent flow rate) and reaction variables (enzyme loading, incubation time, methanol to lipids molar ratio and temperature) were considered. Process parameters and their effects were studied using a full factorial analysis of both. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and was used to determine the optimum conditions for the extraction and reaction steps. For extraction, the optimum conditions were 53 °C and 500 bar, whereas for the reaction the optimum conditions were 35% enzyme loading, 4 h reaction, 9:1 molar ratio and 50 oC. At these optimum conditions, the highest biodiesel production yield was found to be 82 %. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesel, at optimum reaction condition, were determined and compared to ASTM standards. The properties were found to comply with the limits, and showed a low glycerol content, without any separation step.

Keywords: biodiesel, lipase, supercritical CO2, standards

Procedia PDF Downloads 360