Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Kshitij Bhardwaj

26 A Viable Approach for Biological Detoxification of Non Edible Oil Seed Cakes and Their Utilization in Food Production Using Aspergillus Niger

Authors: Kshitij Bhardwaj, R.K. Trivedi, Shipra Dixit

Abstract:

We used biological detoxification method that converts toxic residue waste of Jatropha curcas oil seeds (non edible oil seed) into industrial bio-products and animal feed material. Present study describes the complete degradation of phorbol esters by Aspergillus Niger strain during solid state fermentation (SSF) of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake. Phorbol esters were completely degraded in 15 days under the optimized SSF conditions viz deoiled cake 5.0 gm moistened with 5.0 ml distilled water; inoculum 2 ml of overnight grown Aspergillus niger; incubated at 30◦ C, pH 7.0. This method simultaneously induces the production of Protease enzyme by Aspergillus Niger which has high potential to be used in feedstuffs .The maximum Protease activities obtained were 709.16 mg/ml in Jatropha curcas oil seed cake. The protein isolate had small amounts of phorbol esters, phytic acid, and saponin without any lectin. Its minimum and maximum solubility were at pH 4.0&12.0. Water and oil binding capacities were 3.22 g water/g protein and 1.86 ml oil/g protein respectively.Emulsion activity showed high values in a range of basic pH. We concluded that Jatropha Curcas seed cake has a potential to be used as a novel source of functional protein for food or feed applications.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Jatropha curcas, oil seed cake, phorbol ester

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25 Statistical Convergence for the Approximation of Linear Positive Operators

Authors: Neha Bhardwaj

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider positive linear operators and study the Voronovskaya type result of the operator then obtain an error estimate in terms of the higher order modulus of continuity of the function being approximated and its A-statistical convergence. Also, we compute the corresponding rate of A-statistical convergence for the linear positive operators.

Keywords: Poisson distribution, Voronovskaya, modulus of continuity, a-statistical convergence

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24 To Study the Effect of Optic Fibre Laser Cladding of Cast Iron with Silicon Carbide on Wear Rate

Authors: Kshitij Sawke, Pradnyavant Kamble, Shrikant Patil

Abstract:

The study investigates the effect on wear rate of laser clad of cast iron with silicon carbide. Metal components fail their desired use because they wear, which causes them to lose their functionality. The laser has been used as a heating source to create a melt pool over the surface of cast iron, and then a layer of hard silicon carbide is deposited. Various combinations of power and feed rate of laser have experimented. A suitable range of laser processing parameters was identified. Wear resistance and wear rate properties were evaluated and the result showed that the wear resistance of the laser treated samples was exceptional to that of the untreated samples.

Keywords: laser clad, processing parameters, wear rate, wear resistance

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23 Parallel Version of Reinhard’s Color Transfer Algorithm

Authors: Abhishek Bhardwaj, Manish Kumar Bajpai

Abstract:

An image with its content and schema of colors presents an effective mode of information sharing and processing. By changing its color schema different visions and prospect are discovered by the users. This phenomenon of color transfer is being used by Social media and other channel of entertainment. Reinhard et al’s algorithm was the first one to solve this problem of color transfer. In this paper, we make this algorithm efficient by introducing domain parallelism among different processors. We also comment on the factors that affect the speedup of this problem. In the end by analyzing the experimental data we claim to propose a novel and efficient parallel Reinhard’s algorithm.

Keywords: Reinhard et al’s algorithm, color transferring, parallelism, speedup

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22 Multilevel Gray Scale Image Encryption through 2D Cellular Automata

Authors: Rupali Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Cryptography is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data; the data are converted into some other gibberish form, and then the encrypted data are transmitted. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide two levels of security through a two-step process, rather than transmitted the message bits directly, first encrypted it using 2D cellular automata and then scrambled with Arnold Cat Map transformation; it provides an additional layer of protection and reduces the chance of the transmitted message being detected. A comparative analysis on effectiveness of scrambling technique is provided by scrambling degree measurement parameters i.e. Gray Difference Degree (GDD) and Correlation Coefficient.

Keywords: scrambling, cellular automata, Arnold cat map, game of life, gray difference degree, correlation coefficient

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21 Analysis of Supply Chain Complexity Sub-Dimensions for Garment Industry

Authors: Niyanta Mehra, Aakriti Khurania, Kshitij Rastogi, S. K. Garg

Abstract:

There is plenty of literature available that accounts for complexity management in a supply chain. A major fraction of this literature considers a large number of parameters in order to devise management techniques. However, multiple such parameters do not directly affect the result, and incorporating these can make the analyses overly complicated. Most of the causes of supply chain inefficiencies are due to the interconnectedness and interdependencies in the structure, processes, and environment of the supply chains. The level of complexity varies across industries in terms of intensity and ease of management. After a review of the literature related to complexities in supply chains, the paper attempts to build a framework to study the relative significance of these complexities. This paper aims to identify critical complexities for the garment industry. Understanding and controlling these complexities open avenues for better supply chain management and also assist decision-makers in the garment industry in formulating risk mitigation strategies.

Keywords: complexity dimensions, garment industry, supply chain complexity, supply chain management

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20 A Closed-Form Solution and Comparison for a One-Dimensional Orthorhombic Quasicrystal and Crystal Plate

Authors: Arpit Bhardwaj, Koushik Roy

Abstract:

The work includes derivation of the exact-closed form solution for simply supported quasicrystal and crystal plates by using propagator matrix method under surface loading and free vibration. As a numerical example a quasicrystal and a crystal plate are considered, and after investigation, the variation of displacement and stress fields along the thickness of these two plates are presented. Further, it includes analyzing the displacement and stress fields for two plates having two different stacking arrangement, i.e., QuasiCrystal/Crystal/QuasiCrystal and Crystal/QuasiCrystal/Crystal and comparing their results. This will not only tell us the change in the behavior of displacement and stress fields in two different materials but also how these get changed after trying their different combinations. For the free vibration case, Crystal and Quasicrystal plates along with their different stacking arrangements are considered, and displacements are plotted in all directions for different Mode Shapes.

Keywords: free vibration, multilayered plates, surface loading, quasicrystals

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19 Internet of Things: Route Search Optimization Applying Ant Colony Algorithm and Theory of Computer Science

Authors: Tushar Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Internet of Things (IoT) possesses a dynamic network where the network nodes (mobile devices) are added and removed constantly and randomly, hence the traffic distribution in the network is quite variable and irregular. The basic but very important part in any network is route searching. We have many conventional route searching algorithms like link-state, and distance vector algorithms but they are restricted to the static point to point network topology. In this paper we propose a model that uses the Ant Colony Algorithm for route searching. It is dynamic in nature and has positive feedback mechanism that conforms to the route searching. We have also embedded the concept of Non-Deterministic Finite Automata [NDFA] minimization to reduce the network to increase the performance. Results show that Ant Colony Algorithm gives the shortest path from the source to destination node and NDFA minimization reduces the broadcasting storm effectively.

Keywords: routing, ant colony algorithm, NDFA, IoT

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18 Prevalence of Headache among Adult Population in Urban Varanasi, India

Authors: Hari Shankar, Kshitij Raj, Priya Keshari, Pragya Singh

Abstract:

Headache is one of the most ubiquitous and frequent neurological disorders interfering with everyday life in all countries. India appears to be no exception. Objectives are to assess the prevalence of headache among adult population in urban area of Varanasi and to find out factors influencing the occurrence of headache. A community based cross sectional study was conducted among adult population in urban area of Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Total 151 eligible respondents were interviewed by simple random sampling technique. Proportion percentage and Chisquare test were applied for data analysis. Out of 151 respondents, majority (58.3%) were females. In this study, 92.8% respondents belonged to age group 18-60 years while 7.2% was either 60 year of age or above. The overall prevalence of headache was found to be 51.1%. Highest and lowest prevalence of headache was recorded in age groups 18-29 year & 40-49 year respectively. Headache was 62.1% in illiterate and was 40.0% among graduate & above. Unskilled workers had more headache 73.1% than other type of occupation. Headache was more prevalent among unemployed (35.9%) than employed (6.4%). Females had higher family history of headache (48.9%) as compared to males (41.3%). Study subjects having peaceful relation with family members, relatives and neighbors had more headache than those having no peaceful relation.  

Keywords: family relationship, headache, neighbors, ration cards

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17 Secondary Metabolite Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extract of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem

Authors: Richa Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem is a monotypic genus belonging to family Bignoniaceae. The plant holds tremendous potential of medicinal value and has been traditionally used in various ailments like syphilis, leukoderma, blood disorders to name a few. The plant has gained prominence due to the presence of some prominent secondary metabolites. The present study focuses on the GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts of T. undulata which revealed the presence of certain bioactive compounds like stigmasterol, sitosterol, thiazoline, phytol, pthalic acid, methyl alpha ketopalmitate and so forth. A total of about 20 bioactive compounds were identified from the leaf extract spectra. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract was assayed against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The alkaloids from leaf extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis. The flavonoids from leaves showed positive activity against Penicillium species and Candida albicans. The study thus infers that the presence of bioactive components may be the principle behind the antimicrobial property of different plant parts and therefore Tecomella forms a potential plant for herbal drug formulation.

Keywords: Tecomella undulata, bioactive compounds, GC-MS, antimicrobial activity

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16 Identity of Indian Migrants and Muslim Refugee Women in Sydney, Australia

Authors: Sheikh, R. Author, Bhardwaj S. Author, Jr.

Abstract:

The emphasis of this paper is to investigate the identity shifts experienced within the Indian community and among Muslim refugee women in Sydney. Using Goffman’s paradigm of everyday interactions, attention is paid to how migrants navigate and perform their multiple identities in their daily life. By focusing on narratives of the migrant- migration is understood as processual instead of a one time decision of re-location. The paper aims to highlight how individuals choose and re-adapt their cultural and social practices within the context of Australia. Migrant narratives are rooted in specific socio-cultural settings of one’s own community as well as the nature of migration to a specific country. Differences and similarities will be observed within the Indian community, and among Muslim refugee women in terms of how identity is negotiated, social networks are re-established in Australia. Some attention will also be paid to difficulties that are being faced by migrants-especially in terms of Muslim identity for Refugee women, particularly in terms of assimilation, building on Ghassan Hage’s use of appraisal theory and how a diversity of language and religion is accommodated within the Indian community. By using two diverse groups, it would be able to identify and contrast migrant experiences.

Keywords: identity, migrant, refugee, women, assimilation, narratives

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15 Nitric Oxide: Role in Immunity and Therapeutics

Authors: Anusha Bhardwaj, Shekhar Shinde

Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO•) has been documented in research papers as one of the most versatile player in the therapeutics. It is identified as a biological multifunctional messenger molecule which is synthesized by the action of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme from L-arginine. The protective and the toxic effect in conjunction form the complete picture of the biological function of nitric oxide in humans. The dual nature is because of various factors such as concentration of NO, the isoform of NOS involved, type of cells in which it is synthesized, reaction partners like proteins, reactive oxygen intermediates, prosthetic groups, thiols etc., availability of the substrate L-arginine, intracellular environment in which NO is produced and generation of guanosine 3, 5’- cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Activation of NOS through infection or trauma leads to one or more systemic effects including enhanced immune activity against invading pathogens, vaso/bronchodilatation in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and altered neurotransmission which can be protective or toxic. Hence, NO affects the balance between healthy signaling and neurodegeneration in the brain. In lungs, it has beneficial effects on the function of airways as a bronchodilator and acts as the neurotransmitter of bronchodilator nerves. Whereas, on the other hand, NO may have deleterious effects by amplifying the asthmatic inflammatory response and also act as a vasodilator in the airways by increasing plasma exudation. But NOS Inhibitors and NO donors hamper the signalling pathway and hence a therapeutic application of NO is compromised.

Keywords: nitric oxide, multifunctional, dual nature, therapeutic applications

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14 Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety Profile of Tolvaptan Administered in Hyponatremia Patients

Authors: Sree Vennela P., V. Samyuktha Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Hyponatremia is an electrolyte disturbance in which the sodium ion concentration in the serum is lower than normal. Sodium is the dominant extracellular cation (positive ion) and cannot freely cross from the interstitial space through the cell membrane, into the cell. Its homeostasis (stability of concentration) inside the cell is vital to the normal function of any cell. Normal serum sodium levels are between 135 and 145 mEq/L. Hyponatremia is defined as a serum level of less than 135 mEq/L and is considered severe when the serum level is below 125 mEq/L. In the vast majority of cases, Hyponatremia occurs as a result of excess body water diluting the serum sodium (salt level in the blood). Hyponatremia is often a complication of other medical illnesses in which excess water accumulates in the body at a higher rate than can be excreted (for example in congestive heart failure, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, SIADH, or polydipsia). Sometimes it may be a result of over-hydration (drinking too much water).Lack of sodium (salt) is very rarely the cause of Hyponatremia, although it can promote Hyponatremia indirectly. In particular, sodium loss can lead to a state of volume depletion (loss of blood volume in the body), with volume depletion serving as a signal for the release of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone). As a result of ADH-stimulated water retention (too much water in the body), blood sodium becomes diluted and Hyponatremia results.

Keywords: Tolvaptan, hyponatremia, syndrome of insufficient anti diuretic hormone (SIADH), euvolemic hyponatremia

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13 Investigation of Effects of Geomagnetic Storms Produced by Different Solar Sources on the Total Electron Content (TEC)

Authors: P. K. Purohit, Azad A. Mansoori, Parvaiz A. Khan, Purushottam Bhawre, Sharad C. Tripathi, A. M. Aslam, Malik A. Waheed, Shivangi Bhardwaj, A. K. Gwal

Abstract:

The geomagnetic storm represents the most outstanding example of solar wind-magnetospheric interaction, which causes global disturbances in the geomagnetic field as well as the trigger ionospheric disturbances. We study the behaviour of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) during the geomagnetic storms. For the present investigation we have selected 47 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ -100nT) that were observed during the solar cycle 23 i.e. during 1998-2006. We then categorized these storms into four categories depending upon their solar sources like Magnetic Cloud (MC), Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR), SH+ICME and SH+MC. We then studied the behaviour of ionospheric TEC at a mid latitude station Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), Japan during these storm events produced by four different solar sources. During our study we found that the smooth variations in TEC are replaced by rapid fluctuations and the value of TEC is strongly enhanced during the time of these storms belonging to all the four categories. However, the greatest enhancements in TEC are produced during those geomagnetic storms which are either caused by sheath driven magnetic cloud (SH+MC) or sheath driven ICME (SH+ICME). We also derived the correlation between the TEC enhancements produced during storms of each category with the minimum Dst. We found the strongest correlation exists for the SH+ICME category followed by SH+MC, MC and finally CIR. Since the most intense storms were either caused by SH+ICME or SH+MC while the least intense storms were caused by CIR, consequently the correlation was the strongest with SH+ICME and SH+MC and least with CIR.

Keywords: GPS, TEC, geomagnetic storm, sheath driven magnetic cloud

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12 Hydro-Chemical Characterization of Glacial Melt Waters Draining from Shaune Garang Glacier, Himachal Himalaya

Authors: Ramesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Shaktiman Singh, Atar Singh, Anshuman Bhardwaj, Ravindra Kumar Sinha, Anupma Kumari

Abstract:

A detailed study of the ion chemistry of the Shaune Garnag glacier meltwater has been carried out to assess the role of active glacier in the chemical denudation rate. The chemical compositions of various ions in meltwater of the Shaune Garang glacier were analyzed during the melting period 2015 and 2016. Total 112 of melt water samples twice in a day were collected during ablation season of 2015 and 2016. To identify various factors controlling the dissolved ionic strength of Shaune Garang Glacier meltwater statistical analysis such as correlation matrix, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and factor analysis were applied to deduce the result. Cation concentration for Ca²⁺ > Mg²⁺ > Na⁺ > K⁺ in the meltwater for both the years can be arranged in the order as Ca²⁺ > Mg²⁺ > Na⁺ > K⁺. Study showed that Ca²⁺ and HCO₃⁻ found to be dominant on the both melting period. Carbonate weathering identified as the dominant process controlling the dissolved ion chemistry of meltwater due to the high ratios of (Ca²⁺ + Mg²⁺) versus TZ+ and (Ca²⁺ + Mg²⁺) versus (Na⁺ + K⁺) in the study area. The cation denudation rate of the Shaune Garnag catchment is 3412.2 m⁻² a⁻¹, i.e. higher than the other glacierised catchment in the Himalaya, indicating intense chemical erosion in this catchment.

Keywords: Shaune Garang glacier, Hydrochemistry, chemical composition, cation denudation rate, carbonate weathering

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11 Antiulcer Activity of Aloe vera Gel against Indomethacin and Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats

Authors: Jyoti Manandhar Shrestha, Saurab Raj Joshi, Maya Shrestha, Prashanna Shrestha, Kshitij Chaulagain

Abstract:

Background: The widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has increased the incidence of ulcer and serious complications, such as perforation and bleeding. Although, the H2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors decrease the acid secretion and promote healing of ulcer, their value in preventing relapse, recurrence, “acid rebound” after cessation of therapy and associated long term adverse effects limit their utility. So to minimize this, the herbal plant Aloe vera having anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, mucus secreting, cyto-protective and healing property is believed to cure the peptic ulcer. Objectives: To observe whether oral treatment with Aloe vera gel can prevent peptic ulcer. Indomethacin and ethanol were used to induce gastric ulcers. Thirty six albino rats of either sex were randomly allotted to six groups of six animals each. The negative control was pretreated with normal saline, the positive controls received ranitidine (20 mg/kg) and the test group received Aloe vera gel (300 mg/kg) orally for eight days. Then, after a 24 hour fast Indomethacin (20 mg/kg) or 80% ethanol (2ml) was administered orally to induce ulceration. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed, their stomachs opened, the ulcer index studied and tissues sent for histopathological examination. Results: It was observed that, in indomethacin treated group, the ulcer index in control group was 8.167 ± 1.72.In the Aloe vera pretreated animals, the ulcer index was 2.83 ± 1.72 and the standard ranitidine pretreated group ulcer index was 1.67 ± 1.36. In ethanol treated group, the ulcer index in control group was 7.5 ± 2.73. In the Aloe vera pretreated animals, the ulcer index was 2.67 ± 1.75 and the standard ranitidine pretreated group ulcer index was 1.33±1.21. Both ranitidine and Aloe vera gel significantly prevented stomach from gastric ulceration induced by indomethacin and ethanol. Conclusion: The results indicated that Aloe vera gel is effective against indomethacin and ethanol mediated gastric ulcer.

Keywords: Aloe vera gel, ethanol, indomethacin, peptic ulcer, ranitidine

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10 White Light Emitting Carbon Dots- Surface Modification of Carbon Dots Using Auxochromes

Authors: Manasa Perikala, Asha Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs), a young member of Carbon nanomaterial family, has gained a lot of research attention across the globe due to its highly luminescent emission properties, non-toxic behavior, stable emission properties, and zero re-absorption lose. These dots have the potential to replace the use of traditional semiconductor quantum dots in light-emitting devices (LED’s, fiber lasers) and other photonic devices (temperature sensor, UV detector). However, One major drawback of Carbon dots is that, till date, the actual mechanism of photoluminescence (PL) in carbon dots is still an open topic of discussion among various researchers across the globe. PL mechanism of CDs based on wide particle size distribution, the effect of surface groups, hybridization in carbon, and charge transfer mechanisms have been proposed. Although these mechanisms explain PL of CDs to an extent, no universally accepted mechanism to explain complete PL behavior of these dots is put forth. In our work, we report parameters affecting the size and surface of CDs, such as time of the reaction, synthesis temperature and concentration of precursors and their effects on the optical properties of the carbon dots. The effect of auxochromes on the emission properties and re-modification of carbon surface using an external surface functionalizing agent is discussed in detail. All the explanations have been supported by UV-Visible absorption, emission spectroscopies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. Once the origin of PL in CDs is understood, parameters affecting PL centers can be modified to tailor the optical properties of these dots, which can enhance their applications in the fabrication of LED’s and other photonic devices out of these carbon dots.

Keywords: carbon dots, photoluminescence, size effects on emission in CDs, surface modification of carbon dots

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9 Significance of Life Values in Relationship: A Detailed Analysis of Teenage Population

Authors: Preeti Nakhat

Abstract:

Background: Values are essential part of one's life. They are inculcated since the early years of life and shape the personality of the individual. They play a tremendous role in decision making. Teenagers are seen perplexed about the values of their life. The challenge faced by majority of the teenage population in choosing between a positive and negative value is high. The values they adopt remain throughout their life and in every decision, hence it is a crucial topic of research. Research Methodology: This research aimed at finding out the value conflict of teenagers in relations. Hypothesis of the study are: H₀- There is no significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students; H₁– There is a significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students. For the same, the standardized tool, value conflict scale by R. L. Bhardwaj has been used. The tool consists 24 questions of different life situations with multiple choice options. Findings: There is 96% variation in value conflict due to evasion vs. fortitude, dependence vs. self-reliance, selfishness vs. probity, hate vs. love, fear vs. assertion and pragmatism vs. idealism life values. There is a positive association between all the life values and value conflict of higher secondary school students. Percentages of association are: 0.17% between value conflict and evasion vs. fortitude value, 0.16% between value conflict and dependence vs. self-reliance value, 0.17% between value conflict and selfishness vs. probity value, 0.16% between value conflict and hate vs. love value, 0.17% between value conflict and fear vs. assertion, 0.17% between value conflict and pragmatism vs. idealism value. Discussions: The dilemma faced by the students regarding value conflict is high. Bewilderment of being honest or lying, of loving or hating family and friends, being pragmatic or idealistic in life decision, being selfish or selfless is seen among the students. It is the challenge for the future. Teaching of values with a practical aspect should be added in the school curriculum.

Keywords: dilemma, conflict, school, values

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8 Patient Advocates to Improve Access to Justice in Involuntary Hospitalisation

Authors: Zuzana Durajova, Natasa Diatkova, Shreya Bhardwaj

Abstract:

This paper introduces the project START, its activities, goals, evaluation and final results. Over the past few decades, the legal discourse surrounding mental health has resulted in improvement in patient rights (in Netherlands, etc.), the appointment of Ombudspersons for psychiatric patients (in Austria, Sweden) and facilitating the participation of patients in decision-making processes. Czech legislation already recognizes the position of “patient’s advocate” as a person of trust. However, this instrument is not very widely known and rarely used in practice. In the pilot study of the project, legal training for patient advocacy is provided to persons with experience with mental health problems/psychiatric hospitalization chosen from a Czech-based NGO. These persons (patient advocates) visit patients in involuntary hospitalization in one closed ward in the chosen psychiatric institution. During visits, the patient advocates inform patients about their legal standing, their procedural rights and also offer them individual support in contacting their counsel, family members etc. To understand the effect of the intervention, qualitative interviews and participant observations are conducted with the patients, advocates, the hospital management and staff and other identifiable stakeholders, such as government officials responsible for mental health care reform. The interviews are held before, during and after the intervention (support from patient advocates in hospitals). Given the ethical quandaries arising from using psychiatric wards as a field setting, we assume a participatory approach to ensure respect for patient boundaries and dignity. Through this project, we seek to establish a profession of patient advocates based on professional standards.

Keywords: patient advocacy, involuntary hospitalization, Czech Republic, patient Rights, professionalization

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7 AMF activates PDH 45 and G-proteins Genes to Alleviate Abiotic Stress in Tomato Plants

Authors: Deepak Bhardwaj, Narendra Tuteja

Abstract:

Global climate change is impacting large agrarian societies, especially those in countries located near the equator. Agriculture, and consequently, plant-based food, is the hardest hit in tropical and sub-tropical countries such as India due to an increased incidence of drought as well as an increase in soil salinity. One method that holds promise is AMF-rich biofertilizers which assist in activating proteins which in turn help alleviate abiotic stress in plants. In the present study, we identified two important species of (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus) AMF belonging to Glomus and Gigaspora from the rhizosphere of the important medicinal plant Justicia adathoda. These two species have been found to be responsible for the abundance of Justicia adathoda in the semi-arid areas of the Jammu valley located in northern India, namely, the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. We isolated the species of Glomus and Gigaspora from the rhizosphere of Justicia adathoda and used them as biofertilizers for the tomato plant. Significant improvements in the growth parameters were observed in the tomato plants inoculated with Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp. in comparison with the tomato plants that were grown without AMF treatments. Tomato plants grown along with Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp. have been observed to withstand 200 mM of salinity and 25% PEG stress. AMF also resulted in an increased concentration of proline and antioxidant enzymes in tomato plants. We also examined the expression levels of salinity and drought stress-inducible genes such as pea DNA helicase 45 (PDH 45) and genes of G-protein subunits of the tomato plants inoculated with and without AMF under stress and normal conditions. All the stress-inducible genes showed a significant increase in their gene expression under stress and AMF inoculation, while their levels were found to be normal under AMF inoculation without stress. We propose a model of abiotic stress alleviation in tomato plants with the help of external factors such as AMF and internally with the help of proteins like PDH 45 and G-proteins.

Keywords: AMF, abiotic stress, g-proteins, PDH-45

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6 Evaluating the Challenges of Large Scale Urban Redevelopment Projects for Central Government Employee Housing in Delhi

Authors: Parul Kapoor, Dheeraj Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Delhi and other Indian cities accommodate thousands of Central Government employees in housing complexes called ‘General Pool Residential Accommodation’ (GPRA), located in prime parcels of the city. These residential colonies are now undergoing redevelopment at a massive scale, significantly impacting the ecology of the surrounding areas. Essentially, these colonies were low-rise, low-density planned developments with a dense tree cover and minimal parking requirements. But with increasing urbanisation and spike in parking demand, the proposed built form is an aggregate of high-rise gated complexes, redefining the skyline of the city which is a huge departure from the mediocre setup of Low-rise Walk-up apartments. The complexity of these developments is further aggravated by the need for parking which necessitates cutting huge number of trees to accommodate multiple layers of parking beneath the structures thus sidelining the authentic character of these areas which is laden with a dense tree cover. The aftermath of this whole process is the generation of a huge carbon footprint on the surrounding areas, which is unaccounted for, in the planning and design practice. These developments are currently planned as mix-use compounds with large commercial built-up spaces which have additional parking requirements over and above the residential parking. Also, they are perceived as gated complexes and not as neighborhood units, thus project isolated images of high-rise, dense systems with little context to the surroundings. The paper would analyze case studies of GPRA Redevelopment projects in Delhi, and the lack of relevant development control regulations which have led to abnormalities and complications in the entire redevelopment process. It would also suggest policy guidelines which can establish comprehensive codes for effective planning of these settlements.

Keywords: gated complexes, GPRA Redevelopment projects, increased densities, huge carbon footprint, mixed-use development

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5 Studies of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Proteosomal Gene Complex and Their Association with HBV Infection Risk in India

Authors: Jasbir Singh, Devender Kumar, Davender Redhu, Surender Kumar, Vandana Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Single Nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of proteosomal gene complex is involved in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. Some of such proteosomal gene complex are large multifunctional proteins (LMP) and antigen associated transporters that help in antigen presentation. Both are involved in intracellular processing and presentation of viral antigens in association with Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) Class I molecules. A total of hundred each of hepatitis B virus infected and control samples from northern India were studied. Genomic DNA was extracted from all studied samples and PCR-RFLP method was used for genotyping at different positions of LMP genes. Genotypes at a given position were inferred from the pattern of bands and genotype frequencies and haplotype frequencies were also calculated. Homozygous SNP {A>C} was observed at codon 145 of LMP7 gene and having a protective role against HBV as there was statistically significant high distribution of this SNP among controls than cases. Heterozygous SNP {A>C} was observed at codon 145 of LMP7 gene and made individuals more susceptible to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this SNP among cases than control. SNP {T>C} was observed at codon 60 of LMP2 gene but statistically significant differences were not observed among controls and cases. For codon 145 of LMP7 and codon 60 of LMP2 genes, four haplotypes were constructed. Haplotype I (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘A’) made individuals carrying it more susceptible to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this haplotype among cases than control. Haplotype II (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘C’) made individuals carrying it more immune to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this haplotype among control than cases. Thus it can be concluded that homozygous SNP {A>C} at codon 145 of LMP7 and Haplotype II (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘C’) has a protective role against HBV infection whereas heterozygous SNP {A>C} at codon 145 of LMP7 and Haplotype I (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘A’) made individuals more susceptible to HBV infection.

Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus, single nucleotide polymorphism, low molecular weight proteins, transporters associated with antigen presentation

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4 Molecular Insights into the 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship, Pre-Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion and Docking Studies

Authors: Richa Dhingra, Monika, Manav Malhotra, Tilak Raj Bhardwaj, Neelima Dhingra

Abstract:

5-Alpha-reductases (5AR), a membrane bound, NADPH dependent enzyme and convert male hormone testosterone (T) into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is the required for the development and function of male sex organs, but its overproduction has been found to be associated with physiological conditions like Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Thus the inhibition of 5ARs could be a key target for the treatment of BPH. In present study, 2D and 3D Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) pharmacophore models have been generated for 5AR based on known inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) values with extensive validations. The four featured 2D pharmacophore based PLS model correlated the topological interactions (–OH group connected with one single bond) (SsOHE-index); semi-empirical (Quadrupole2) and physicochemical descriptors (Mol. wt, Bromines Count, Chlorines Count) with 5AR inhibitory activity, and has the highest correlation coefficient (r² = 0.98, q² =0.84; F = 57.87, pred r² = 0.88). Internal and external validation was carried out using test and proposed set of compounds. The contribution plot of electrostatic field effects and steric interactions generated by 3D-QSAR showed interesting results in terms of internal and external predictability. The well validated 2D Partial Least Squares (PLS) and 3D k-nearest neighbour (kNN) models were used to search novel 5AR inhibitors with different chemical scaffold. To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of action of these steroidal derivatives, molecular docking and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies were also performed. Studies have revealed the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding of the ligand with residues Alanine (ALA) 63A, Threonine (THR) 60A, and Arginine (ARG) 456A of 4AT0 protein at the hinge region. The results of QSAR, molecular docking, in silico ADME studies provide guideline and mechanistic scope for the identification of more potent 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI).

Keywords: 5α-reductase inhibitor, benign prostatic hyperplasia, ligands, molecular docking, QSAR

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3 Tuning the Surface Roughness of Patterned Nanocellulose Films: An Alternative to Plastic Based Substrates for Circuit Priniting in High-Performance Electronics

Authors: Kunal Bhardwaj, Christine Browne

Abstract:

With the increase in global awareness of the environmental impacts of plastic-based products, there has been a massive drive to reduce our use of these products. Use of plastic-based substrates in electronic circuits has been a matter of concern recently. Plastics provide a very smooth and cheap surface for printing high-performance electronics due to their non-permeability to ink and easy mouldability. In this research, we explore the use of nano cellulose (NC) films in electronics as they provide an advantage of being 100% recyclable and eco-friendly. The main hindrance in the mass adoption of NC film as a substitute for plastic is its higher surface roughness which leads to ink penetration, and dispersion in the channels on the film. This research was conducted to tune the RMS roughness of NC films to a range where they can replace plastics in electronics(310-470nm). We studied the dependence of the surface roughness of the NC film on the following tunable aspects: 1) composition by weight of the NC suspension that is sprayed on a silicon wafer 2) the width and the depth of the channels on the silicon wafer used as a base. Various silicon wafers with channel depths ranging from 6 to 18 um and channel widths ranging from 5 to 500um were used as a base. Spray coating method for NC film production was used and two solutions namely, 1.5wt% NC and a 50-50 NC-CNC (cellulose nanocrystal) mixture in distilled water, were sprayed through a Wagner sprayer system model 117 at an angle of 90 degrees. The silicon wafer was kept on a conveyor moving at a velocity of 1.3+-0.1 cm/sec. Once the suspension was uniformly sprayed, the mould was left to dry in an oven at 50°C overnight. The images of the films were taken with the help of an optical profilometer, Olympus OLS 5000. These images were converted into a ‘.lext’ format and analyzed using Gwyddion, a data and image analysis software. Lowest measured RMS roughness of 291nm was with a 50-50 CNC-NC mixture, sprayed on a silicon wafer with a channel width of 5 µm and a channel depth of 12 µm. Surface roughness values of 320+-17nm were achieved at lower (5 to 10 µm) channel widths on a silicon wafer. This research opened the possibility of the usage of 100% recyclable NC films with an additive (50% CNC) in high-performance electronics. Possibility of using additives like Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) is also being explored due to the hypothesis that CMC would reduce friction amongst fibers, which in turn would lead to better conformations amongst the NC fibers. CMC addition would thus be able to help tune the surface roughness of the NC film to an even greater extent in future.

Keywords: nano cellulose films, electronic circuits, nanocrystals and surface roughness

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2 Criticality of Adiabatic Length for a Single Branch Pulsating Heat Pipe

Authors: Utsav Bhardwaj, Shyama Prasad Das

Abstract:

To meet the extensive requirements of thermal management of the circuit card assemblies (CCAs), satellites, PCBs, microprocessors, any other electronic circuitry, pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) have emerged in the recent past as one of the best solutions technically. But industrial application of PHPs is still unexplored up to a large extent due to their poor reliability. There are several systems as well as operational parameters which not only affect the performance of an operating PHP, but also decide whether the PHP can operate sustainably or not. Functioning may completely be halted for some particular combinations of the values of system and operational parameters. Among the system parameters, adiabatic length is one of the important ones. In the present work, a simplest single branch PHP system with an adiabatic section has been considered. It is assumed to have only one vapour bubble and one liquid plug. First, the system has been mathematically modeled using film evaporation/condensation model, followed by the steps of recognition of equilibrium zone, non-dimensionalization and linearization. Then proceeding with a periodical solution of the linearized and reduced differential equations, stability analysis has been performed. Slow and fast variables have been identified, and averaging approach has been used for the slow ones. Ultimately, temporal evolution of the PHP is predicted by numerically solving the averaged equations, to know whether the oscillations are likely to sustain/decay temporally. Stability threshold has also been determined in terms of some non-dimensional numbers formed by different groupings of system and operational parameters. A combined analytical and numerical approach has been used, and it has been found that for each combination of all other parameters, there exists a maximum length of the adiabatic section beyond which the PHP cannot function at all. This length has been called as “Critical Adiabatic Length (L_ac)”. For adiabatic lengths greater than “L_ac”, oscillations are found to be always decaying sooner or later. Dependence of “L_ac” on some other parameters has also been checked and correlated at certain evaporator & condenser section temperatures. “L_ac” has been found to be linearly increasing with increase in evaporator section length (L_e), whereas the condenser section length (L_c) has been found to have almost no effect on it upto a certain limit. But at considerably large condenser section lengths, “L_ac” is expected to decrease with increase in “L_c” due to increased wall friction. Rise in static pressure (p_r) exerted by the working fluid reservoir makes “L_ac” rise exponentially whereas it increases cubically with increase in the inner diameter (d) of PHP. Physics of all such variations has been given a good insight too. Thus, a methodology for quantification of the critical adiabatic length for any possible set of all other parameters of PHP has been established.

Keywords: critical adiabatic length, evaporation/condensation, pulsating heat pipe (PHP), thermal management

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1 A Road Map of Success for Differently Abled Adolescent Girls Residing in Pune, Maharashtra, India

Authors: Varsha Tol, Laila Garda, Neelam Bhardwaj, Malata Usar

Abstract:

In India, differently- abled girls suffer from a “dual stigma” of being female and physically challenged. The general consensus is that they are incapable of standing on their own two feet. It was observed that these girls do not have access to educational programs as most hostels do not keep them after the tenth grade. They are forced to return to a life of poverty and are often considered a liability by their families. Higher education is completely ignored. Parents focus on finding a husband and passing on their ‘burden’ to someone else. An innovative, intervention for differently-abled adolescent girls with the express purpose of mainstreaming them into society was started by Helplife. The objective was to enrich the lives of these differently abled adolescent girls through precise research, focused intervention and professionalism. This programme addresses physical, mental and social rehabilitation of the girls who come from impoverished backgrounds. These adolescents are reached by word of mouth, snowball technique and through the network of the NGO. Applications are invited from potential candidates which are scrutinized by a panel of experts. Selection criteria include her disability, socio-economic status, and desire and drive to make a difference in her own life. The six main areas of intervention are accommodation, education, health, professional courses, counseling and recreational activities. Each girl on an average resides in Helplife for a period of 2-3 years. Analysis of qualitative data collected at various time points indicates holistic development of character. A quality of life questionnaire showed a significant improvement in scores at three different time points in 75% of the current population under intervention i.e. 19 girls. Till date, 25 girls have successfully passed out from the intervention program completing their graduation/post-graduation. Currently, we have 19 differently abled girls housed in three flats in Pune district of Maharashtra. Out of which 14 girls are pursuing their graduation or post-graduation. Six of the girls are working in jobs in various sectors. In conclusion it may be noted with adequate support and guidance the sky is the limit. This journey of 12 years has been a learning for us with ups and downs modifying the intervention at every step. Helplife has a belief of impacting positively, individual lives of differently abled girls in order to empower them in a holistic manner. The intervention has a positive impact on differently abled girls. They serve as role models to other differently abled girls indicating that this is a road map to success by getting empowered to live with full potential and get integrated in the society in a dignified way.

Keywords: differently-abled, dual-stigma, empowerment, youth

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