Search results for: resistance
2826 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance
Authors: Abishek Rajkumar
Abstract:Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.
Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 253
2825 Antibiotic Resistance and Tolerance to Biocides in Enterobacter
Authors: Rebiahi Sid Ahmed, Boutarfi Zakaria, Rahmoun Malika, Antonio Galvez
Abstract:The objective of this study was to explore the possible correlation between resistance to antibiotics and tolerance to biocides in Gram-negative bacilli isolated from the University Hospital Center of Tlemcen. This study focused on 175 clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli, it is a question of exploring: their level and profile of resistance to antibiotics, their tolerance to biocides, as well as the identification of the genetic supports of this resistance. Enterobacter spp. was the most predominant bacterial genus, all isolates harbored at least one of the studied genes with significant resistance capacity. Our results show, in some cases, a possible positive correlation between the presence of biocide tolerance genes and those of antibiotic resistance; in fact, tolerance to biocides could be one of the co-selection factors for antibiotic resistance. The results of this study should encourage the good practice of hygiene measures as well as the rational use of antimicrobials in order to hinder the development and emergence of resistance in our hospital departments.Mots clés : Antibiotiques, Biocides, Enterobacter, Hôpital, Résistance,
Keywords: antibiotic, biocides, enterobacter, hospital, resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 21
2824 Four-Week Plyometric and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Sprint Performance in Wheelchair Racing Athletes
Authors: K. Thawichai, R. Pornthep
Abstract:The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a four week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training or resistance training alone on muscle strength and sprint performance in wheelchair racing athletes. The participants were sixteen healthy male wheelchair racing athletes of the Thai national team. All participants were randomly assignments into two groups in the plyometric and resistance training group (n = 8) performed plyometric exercises followed by resistance training, whereas the resistance training group (n = 8) performed static stretching and the same resistance training program. At baseline and after training all participants were tested on 1-RM bench press for muscle strength and 100-m cycling sprint performance. The results of this study show that the plyometric and resistance training group made significantly greater improvements in overall muscle strength and sprint performance than the resistance training group following training. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the addition of a four week plyometric and resistance training program more beneficial than resistance training alone on muscle strength and sprint performance in wheelchair racing athletes.
Keywords: plyometric, resistance training, strength, sprint, wheelchair athletesProcedia PDF Downloads 463
2823 Detection of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Rainbow Trout
Authors: M. Raissy, M. Shahrani
Abstract:The present study was done to evaluate the presence of tetracycline resistance genes in Lactococcus garvieae isolated from cultured rainbow trout, West Iran. The isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance using disc diffusion method. Of the 49 strains tested, 19 were resistant to tetracycline (38.7%), 32 to enrofloxacin (65.3%), 21 to erythromycin (42.8%), 20 to chloramphenicol and trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40.8%). The strains were then characterized for their genotypic resistance profiles. The results revealed that all 49 isolates contained at least one of the tetracycline resistance genes. Tet (A) was found in 89.4% of tetracycline resistant isolates and the frequency of other gene were as follow: tet (E) 42.1%, tet (B) 47.3%, tet (D) 15.7%, tet (L) 26.3%, tet (K) 52.6%, tet (G) 36.8%, tet (34) 21%, tet (S) 63.1%, tet (C) 57.8%, tet (M) 73.6%, tet (O) 42.1%. The results revealed high levels of antibiotic resistance in L. garvieae strains which is a potential danger for trout culture as well as for public health.
Keywords: Lactococcus garvieae, tetracycline resistance genes, rainbow trout, antimicrobial resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 446
2822 Total Thermal Resistance of Graphene-Oxide-Substrate Stack: Role of Interfacial Thermal Resistance in Heat Flow of 2D Material Based Devices
Authors: Roisul H. Galib, Prabhakar R. Bandaru
Abstract:In 2D material based device, an interface between 2D materials and substrates often limits the heat flow through the device. In this paper, we quantify the total thermal resistance of a graphene-based device by series resistance model and show that the thermal resistance at the interface of graphene and substrate contributes to more than 50% of the total resistance. Weak Van der Waals interactions at the interface and dissimilar phonon vibrational modes create this thermal resistance, allowing less heat to flow across the interface. We compare our results with commonly used materials and interfaces, demonstrating the role of the interface as a potential application for heat guide or block in a 2D material-based device.
Keywords: 2D material, graphene, thermal conductivity, thermal conductance, thermal resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 65
2821 A Qualitative Exploration of the Strategic Management of Employee Resistance to Organisational Change
Authors: Muneeb Banday, Anukriti Dixit
Abstract:Change in organizations is viewed as a conversion process of the organizational functioning. One of the crucial elements of this conversion process is the employee resistance to organizational change. The existing literature on change resistance has generally treated resistance as a barrier or an opportunity for successful implementation of change. However, there is little empirical research exploring how resistance to change is managed. This may be partially due to difficulty in getting information on resistance to change. The top management does not divulge such information to avoid negative evaluation whereas employees face huge risk in sharing information related to resistance. The focus of the study is to understand how the organization under study dealt with the employee resistance to change. The conversion process is a story of how the organization went from one stage to another. We used narrative approach to change. Data was collected data through company visits and interviews. The interviews were transcribed, coded, and themes were identified. We focused on the strands that left huge scope for alternative interpretations than the dominant narrative of change prevalent in the organization. The study reveals that the top management strategically uses the legitimacy of leadership, roles of key employees, and rationality of change to manage resistance.
Keywords: employee resistance, legitimacy of leadership, narrative analysis, organisational changeProcedia PDF Downloads 196
2820 Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents in Relation to Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight
Authors: E. Vlachopapadopoulou, E. Dikaiakou, E. Anagnostou, I. Panagiotopoulos, E. Kaloumenou, M. Kafetzi, A. Fotinou, S. Michalacos
Abstract:Aim: To investigate the relation and impact of Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Fat Weight (BFW) on insulin resistance (MATSUDA INDEX < 2.5) in children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 95 overweight and obese children (47 boys and 48 girls) with mean age 10.7 ± 2.2 years were analyzed. ROC analysis was used to investigate the predictive ability of BMI, WC and BFW for insulin resistance and find the optimal cut-offs. The overall performance of the ROC analysis was quantified by computing area under the curve (AUC). Results: ROC curve analysis indicated that the optimal-cut off of WC for the prediction of insulin resistance was 97 cm with sensitivity equal to 75% and specificity equal to 73.1%. AUC was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63-0.92, p=0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of obesity for the discrimination of participants with insulin resistance from those without insulin resistance were equal to 58.3% and 75%, respectively (AUC=0.67). BFW had a borderline predictive ability for insulin resistance (AUC=0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.74, p=0.101). The predictive ability of WC was equivalent with the correspondence predictive ability of BMI (p=0.891). Obese subjects had 4.2 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 1.71-10.30, p < 0.001), while subjects with WC more than 97 had 8.1 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 2.14-30.86, p=0.002). Conclusion: BMI and WC are important clinical factors that have significant clinical relation with insulin resistance in children and adolescents. The cut off of 97 cm for WC can identify children with greater likelihood for insulin resistance.
Keywords: body fat weight, body mass index, insulin resistance, obese children, waist circumferenceProcedia PDF Downloads 227
2819 The Effect of Resistance and Progressive Training on Hsp 70 and Glucose
Authors: F. Nameni, H. Poursadra
Abstract:The present study investigated resistance and progressive training alters the expression of chaperone proteins. These proteins function to maintain homeostasis, facilitate repair from injury, and provide protection. Nineteen training female in 2 groups taking part in the intervention volunteered to give blood samples. Levels of chaperone proteins were measured in response to resistance and progressive training. Hsp 70 levels were increased immediately after 2 h progressive training but decreased after resistance training. The data showed that human skeletal muscle responds to the stress of a single period of progressive training by up-regulating and resistance training by down-regulating expression of HSP70. Physical exercise can elevate core temperature and muscle temperatures and the expression pattern of HSP70 due to training status may be attributed to adaptive mechanisms.
Keywords: resistance training, heat shock proteins, leukocytes, Hsp 70Procedia PDF Downloads 379
2818 The Resistance Reader Program Based on Image Processing
Authors: Janpen Srijan, Nahathai Tanmang, Thanit Purathanang, Anun Dowchern, Saksit Summart, Seangduan Kampimpa
Abstract:This paper presents the resistance reader program based on image processing by using MATLAB. The proposed program is divided into six parts; the first part is the web camera; the second part is a watt selection before shooting the resistor; the third part is a part of finding the position of the color on the mid-point of resistor; the fourth part is a part of identifying color code of the resistor; the fifth part is a part of taking the number of values for each color for resistance calculation and the last part is a part of displaying result of resistance value. The experimental result of the resistance reader program based on image processing was able to display the resistance value of resistor. The accuracy of proposed program is 85 percent for 1 watt resistor. It has 15 percent of reading error because a problem with the color code of some resistor was too bright.
Keywords: resistance reader program, image processing, resistor, MATLABProcedia PDF Downloads 300
2817 Resistance Analysis for a Trimaran
Authors: C. M. De Marco Muscat-Fenech, A. M. Grech La Rosa
Abstract:Importance has been given to resistance analysis for various types of vessels; however explicit guidelines applied to multihull vessels have not been clearly defined. The purpose of this investigation is to highlight the importance of the vessel’s layout in terms of three axes positioning, the transverse (separation), the longitudinal (stagger) and the vertical (draught) with respect to resistance analysis. A vessel has the potential to experience less resistance, at a particular range of speeds, for a vast selection of hull positioning. Many potential layouts create opportunities of various design for both the commercial and leisure market.
Keywords: multihull, reistance, trimaran, vesselsProcedia PDF Downloads 395
2816 Modification of Four Layer through the Thickness Woven Structure for Improved Impact Resistance
Authors: Muhammad Liaqat, Hafiz Abdul Samad, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, Yasir Nawab
Abstract:In the current research, the four layers, orthogonal through the thickness, 2D woven, 3D fabric structure was modified to improve the impact resistance of 3D fabric reinforced composites. This was achieved by imparting the auxeticity into four layers through the thickness woven structure. A comparison was made between the standard and modified four layers through the thickness woven structure in terms of auxeticity, penetration and impact resistance. It was found that the modified structure showed auxeticity in both warp and weft direction. It was also found that the penetration resistance of modified sample was less as compared to the standard structure, but impact resistance was improved up to 6.7% of modified four layers through the thickness woven structure.
Keywords: 2D woven, 3D fabrics, auxetic, impact resistance, orthogonal through the thicknessProcedia PDF Downloads 246
2815 An Approach for Thermal Resistance Prediction of Plain Socks in Wet State
Authors: Tariq Mansoor, Lubos Hes, Vladimir Bajzik
Abstract:Socks comfort has great significance in our daily life. This significance even increased when we have undergone a work of low or high activity. It causes the sweating of our body with different rates. In this study, plain socks with differential fibre composition were wetted to saturated level. Then after successive intervals of conditioning, these socks are characterized by thermal resistance in dry and wet states. Theoretical thermal resistance is predicted by using combined filling coefficients and thermal conductivity of wet polymers instead of dry polymer (fibre) in different models. By this modification, different mathematical models could predict thermal resistance at different moisture levels. Furthermore, predicted thermal resistance by different models has reasonable correlation range between (0.84 -0.98) with experimental results in both dry (lab conditions moisture) and wet states. "This work is supported by Technical University of Liberec under SGC-2019. Project number is 21314".
Keywords: thermal resistance, mathematical model, plain socks, moisture loss rateProcedia PDF Downloads 81
2814 Effects of Resistance Exercise Training on Blood Profile and CRP in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Authors: Mohsen Salesi, Seyyed Zoheir Rabei
Abstract:Exercise has been considered a cornerstone of diabetes prevention and treatment for decades, but the benefits of resistance training are less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training on blood profile and inflammatory marker (CRP) of type 2 diabetes mellitus people. Thirty diabetic male were recruited (age: 50.34±10.28 years) and randomly assigned to 8 weeks resistance exercise training (n=15) and control groups (n=15). Before and after training blood pressure, weight, lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c) and hs-CRP were measured. The resistance exercise training group took part in supervised 50–80 minutes resistance training sessions, three days a week on non-consecutive days for 8 weeks. Each exercise session included approximately 10 min of warm-up and cool-down periods. Results showed that TG significantly decreased (pre 210.19±9.31 vs. 101.12±7.25, p=0.03) and HDL-c significantly increased (pre 42.37±3.15 vs. 47.50±2.19, p=0.01) after exercise training. However, there was no difference between groups in TC, LDL-c, BMI and weight. In addition, a decrease in fasting blood glucose levels showed significant difference between groups (pre 144.65±5.73 vs. 124.21±6.48 p=0.04). Regular resistance exercise training can improve the lipid profile and reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM patients.
Keywords: lipid profile, resistance exercise, type 2 diabetes mellitus, menProcedia PDF Downloads 328
2813 Improvement of Wear Resistance of 356 Aluminum Alloy by High Energy Electron Beam Irradiation
Authors: M. Farnush
Abstract:This study is concerned with the microstructural analysis and improvement of wear resistance of 356 aluminum alloy by a high energy electron beam. Shock hardening on material by high energy electron beam improved wear resistance. Particularly, in the surface of material by shock hardening, the wear resistance was greatly enhanced to 29% higher than that of the 356 aluminum alloy substrate. These findings suggested that surface shock hardening using high energy electron beam irradiation was economical and useful for the development of surface shock hardening with improved wear resistance.
Keywords: Al356 alloy, HEEB, wear resistance, frictional characteristicsProcedia PDF Downloads 224
2812 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Polymorphism and Disease Resistance
Authors: Oya Bulut, Oguzhan Avci, Zafer Bulut, Atilla Simsek
Abstract:Livestock breeders have focused on the improvement of production traits with little or no attention for improvement of disease resistance traits. In order to determine the association between the genetic structure of the individual gene loci with possibility of the occurrence and the development of diseases, MHC (major histocompatibility complex) are frequently used. Because of their importance in the immune system, MHC locus is considered as candidate genes for resistance/susceptibility against to different diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity and have been considered candidate molecular markers of an association between polymorphisms and resistance/susceptibility to diseases. The purpose of this study is to give some information about MHC genes become an important area of study in recent years in terms of animal husbandry and determine the relation between MHC genes and resistance/susceptibility to disease.
Keywords: MHC, polymorphism, disease, resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 461
2811 Investigation on the Effect of Sugarcane Bagasse/HDPE Composition on the Screw Withdrawal Resistance of Injection Molded Parts
Authors: Seyed Abdol Mohammad Rezavand, Mohammad Nikbakhsh
Abstract:Withdrawal resistance of screws driven into HDPE/Sugarcane Bagasse injection molded parts was investigated. After chemical treatment and drying, SCB was pre-mixed with HDPE using twin extruder. The resulting granules are used in producing samples in injection molding machine. SCB with the quantity of %10, %20, and %30 was used. By using a suitable fixture, screw heads can take with tensile test machine grips. Parts with screws in the center and edge were fasten together. Then, withdrawal resistance was measured with tensile test machine. Injection gate is at the one edge of the part. The results show that by increasing SCB content in composite, the withdrawal resistance is decreased. Furthermore, the withdrawal resistance at the edges (near injection gate and the end of the filling path of mold cavity) is more than that of the center.
Keywords: polyethylene, sugarcane bagasse, wood plastic, screw, withdrawal resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 429
2810 Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Concretes with BFSA
Authors: Alena Sicakova
Abstract:Air-cooled Blast furnace slag aggregate (BFSA) is usually referred to as a material providing for unique properties of concrete. On the other hand, negative influences are also presented in many aspects. The freeze-thaw resistance of concrete is dependent on many factors, including regional specifics and when a concrete mix is specified it is still difficult to tell its exact freeze-thaw resistance due to the different components affecting it. An important consideration in working with BFSA is the granularity and whether slag is sorted or not. The experimental part of the article represents a comparative testing of concrete using both the sorted and unsorted BFSA through the freeze-thaw resistance as an indicator of durability. Unsorted BFSA is able to be successfully used for concretes as they are specified for exposure class XF4 with providing that the type of cement is precisely selected.
Keywords: blast furnace slag aggregate, concrete, freeze-thaw resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 315
2809 Corrosion Resistance of Mild Steel Coated with Different Polyimides/h-Boron Nitride Composite Films
Authors: Tariku Nefo Duke
Abstract:Herein, we synthesized three PIs/h-boron nitride composite films for corrosion resistance of mild steel material. The structures of these three polyimide/h-boron nitride composite films were confirmed using (FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 2D NMR) spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized PIs composite films have high mechanical properties, thermal stability, high glass-transition temperature (Tg), and insulating properties. It has been shown that the presence of electroactive TiO2, SiO2, and h-BN, in polymer coatings effectively inhibits corrosion. The h-BN displays an admirable anti-corrosion barrier for the 6F-OD and BT-OD films. PI/ h-BN composite films of 6F-OD exhibited better resistance to water vapor, high corrosion resistance, and positive corrosion voltage. Only four wt. percentage of h-BN in the composite is adequate.
Keywords: polyimide, corrosion resistance, electroactive, TgProcedia PDF Downloads 49
2808 High Performance of Direct Torque and Flux Control of a Double Stator Induction Motor Drive with a Fuzzy Stator Resistance Estimator
Authors: K. Kouzi
Abstract:In order to have stable and high performance of direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of double star induction motor drive (DSIM), proper on-line adaptation of the stator resistance is very important. This is inevitably due to the variation of the stator resistance during operating conditions, which introduces error in estimated flux position and the magnitude of the stator flux. Error in the estimated stator flux deteriorates the performance of the DTFC drive. Also, the effect of error in estimation is very important especially at low speed. Due to this, our aim is to overcome the sensitivity of the DTFC to the stator resistance variation by proposing on-line fuzzy estimation stator resistance. The fuzzy estimation method is based on an on-line stator resistance correction through the variations of the stator current estimation error and its variations. The fuzzy logic controller gives the future stator resistance increment at the output. The main advantage of the suggested algorithm control is to avoid the drive instability that may occur in certain situations and ensure the tracking of the actual stator resistance. The validity of the technique and the improvement of the whole system performance are proved by the results.
Keywords: direct torque control, dual stator induction motor, Fuzzy Logic estimation, stator resistance adaptationProcedia PDF Downloads 262
2807 A Review of Critical Thinking Formative Assessment Framework: Coping with Teachers Resistance to Critical Pedagogy
Authors: Chenhui Wang, Chwee Beng Lee
Abstract:The practice of critical pedagogy is challenged by resistance from teachers. This study presents a discussion on teachers' resistance to critical pedagogy and previous practical frameworks for assessing critical thinking in formative assessment in the classroom through a critical review of the related literature. The authors found out that the main issue of teachers' resistance is not whether teachers should possess theoretical knowledge of critical thinking but how they apply that knowledge in their classroom teaching. In addition, critical thinking in formative assessment may provide teachers with a comprehensive understanding of critical pedagogical planning, implementing, and reflecting. Therefore, this paper intends to discuss a practical step-by-step framework for critical thinking formative assessment to address this resistance. Such discussion is based on a thorough examination of the related theories and frameworks. This review paper will benefit teachers in understanding and reducing their resistance to critical pedagogy as well as in implementing critical pedagogy.
Keywords: critical thinking, critical pedagogy, critical thinking formative assessment framework, teachers resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 47
2806 Cyclic Liquefaction Resistance of Reinforced Sand
Authors: S. A. Naeini, Z. Eftekhari
Abstract:Liquefaction phenomenon in sand is nowadays a classical soil mechanics subject. Using a cyclic triaxial test apparatus, we use non-woven geotextile reinforcement to improve the liquefaction resistance of sand. The layer configurations used are zero, one, two and three horizontal reinforcing layers in a triaxial test sample. The influences of the number of geotextile layers, and cyclic stress ratio (CSR) were studied and described. The results illustrated that the geotextile inclusion increases liquefaction resistance.
Keywords: liquefaction resistance, geotextile, sand, cyclic triaxial test, cyclic stress ratioProcedia PDF Downloads 500
2805 The Economic Value of Mastitis Resistance in Dairy Cattle in Kenya
Authors: Caleb B. Sagwa, Tobias O. Okeno, Alexander K. Kahi
Abstract:Dairy cattle production plays an important role in the Kenyan economy. However, high incidences of mastitis is a major setback to the productivity in this industry. The current dairy cattle breeding objective in Kenya does not include mastitis resistance, mainly because the economic value of mastitis resistance has not been determined. Therefore this study aimed at estimating the economic value of mastitis resistance in dairy cattle in Kenya. Initial input parameters were obtained from literature on dairy cattle production systems in the tropics. Selection index methodology was used to derive the economic value of mastitis resistance. Somatic cell count (SCC) was used an indicator trait for mastitis resistance. The economic value was estimated relative to milk yield (MY). Economic values were assigned to SCC in a selection index such that the overall gain in the breeding goal trait was maximized. The option of estimating the economic value for SCC by equating the response in the trait of interest to its index response was considered. The economic value of mastitis resistance was US $23.64 while maximum response to selection for MY was US $66.01. The findings of this study provide vital information that is a pre-requisite for the inclusion of mastitis resistance in the current dairy cattle breeding goal in Kenya.
Keywords: somatic cell count, milk quality, payment system, breeding goalProcedia PDF Downloads 177
2804 Modeling the Moment of Resistance Generated by an Ore-Grinding Mill
Authors: Marinka Baghdasaryan, Tigran Mnoyan
Abstract:The pertinence of modeling the moment of resistance generated by the ore-grinding mill is substantiated. Based on the ranking of technological indices obtained in the result of the survey among the specialists of several beneficiating plants, the factors determining the level of the moment of resistance generated by the mill are revealed. A priori diagram of the ranks is obtained in which the factors are arranged in the descending order of the impact degree on the level of the moment. The obtained model of the moment of resistance shows the technological character of the operation modes of the ore-grinding mill and can be used for improving the operation modes of the system motor-mill and preventing the abnormal mode of the drive synchronous motor.
Keywords: model, abnormal mode, mill, correlation, moment of resistance, rotational speedProcedia PDF Downloads 383
2803 The Effect of Increased Tip Area of Suction Caissons on the Penetration Resistance Coefficients
Authors: Ghaem Zamani, Farveh Aghaye Nezhad, Amin Barari
Abstract:The installation process of caissons has usually been a challenging step in the design phase, especially in the case of suction-assisted installation. The engineering practice for estimating the caisson penetration resistance is primarily controlled by the resistance governed by inner and outer skirt friction and the tip resistance. Different methods have been proposed in the literature to evaluate the above components, while the CPT-based methodology has attained notable popularity among others. In this method, two empirical coefficients are suggested, k𝒻 and kp, which relate the frictional resistance and tip resistance to the cone penetration resistance (q𝒸), respectively. A series of jacking installation and uninstallation experiments for different soil densities were carried out in the offshore geotechnical laboratory of Aalborg University, Denmark. The main goal of these tests was to find appropriate values for empirical coefficients of the CPT-based method for the buckets with large embedment ratio (i.e., d/D=1, where d is the skirt length and D is the diameter) and increased tip area penetrated into dense sand deposits. The friction resistance effects were isolated during the pullout experiments; hence, the k𝒻 was back-measured from the tests in the absence of tip resistance. The actuator force during jacking installation equals the sum of frictional resistance and tip resistance. Therefore, the tip resistance of the bucket is calculated by subtracting the back-measured frictional resistance from penetration resistance; hence the relevant coefficient kp would be achieved. The cone penetration test was operated at different points before and after each installation attempt to measure the cone penetration resistance (q𝒸), and the average value of q𝒸 is used for calculations. The experimental results of the jacking installation tests indicated that a larger friction area considerably increased the penetration resistance; however, this effect was completely diminished when foundation suction-assisted penetration was used. Finally, the values measured for the empirical coefficient of the CPT-based method are compared with the highest expected and most probable values suggested by DNV(1992) for uniform thickness buckets.
Keywords: suction caisson, offshore geotechnics, cone penetration test, wind turbine foundationProcedia PDF Downloads 13
2802 Multidrug Resistance Mechanisms among Gram Negative Clinical Isolates from Egypt
Authors: Mona T. Kashef, Omneya M. Helmy
Abstract:Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a significant public health threat. The prevalence rates, of Gram negative MDR bacteria, are in continuous increase. However, few data are available about these resistant strains. Since, third generation cephalosporins are one of the most commonly used antimicrobials, we set out to investigate the prevalence, different mechanisms and clonal relatedness of multidrug resistance among third generation resistant Gram negative clinical isolates. A total of 114 Gram negative clinical isolates, previously characterized as being resistant to at least one of 3rd generation cephalosporins, were included in this study. Each isolate was tested, using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method, against its assigned categories of antimicrobials. The role of efflux pump in resistance development was tested by the efflux pump inhibitor-based microplate assay using chloropromazine as an inhibitor. Detecting different aminoglycosides, β-lactams and quinolones resistance genes was done using polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of MDR isolates was investigated using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA technique. MDR phenotype was detected in 101 isolates (89%). Efflux pump mediated resistance was detected in 49/101 isolates. Aminoglycosides resistance genes; armA and aac(6)-Ib were detected in one and 53 isolates, respectively. The aac(6)-Ib-cr allele, that also confers resistance to floroquinolones, was detected in 28/53 isolates. β-lactam resistance genes; blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M group 1 and group 9 were detected in 52, 29, 61 and 35 isolates, respectively. Quinolone resistance genes; qnrA, qnrB and qnrS were detectable in 2, 14, 8 isolates respectively, while qepA was not detectable at all. High diversity was observed among tested MDR isolates. MDR is common among 3rd generation cephalosporins resistant Gram negative bacteria, in Egypt. In most cases, resistance was caused by different mechanisms. Therefore, new treatment strategies should be implemented.
Keywords: gram negative, multidrug resistance, RAPD typing, resistance genesProcedia PDF Downloads 235
2801 Blast Resistance Enhancement of Structures Subjected to Improvised Explosive Devices Attack: A Numerical Study
Authors: Michael I. Okereke, Ambrose I. Akpoyomare
Abstract:This paper presents a numerical study of the impact mechanic of metallic and sandwich structures incorporate with blast resistance enhancements. The study focuses on structures that have been exposed to improvised explosives devices (IEDs) attacks. The results show numerical conclusions on mechanisms to ensure blast resistance enhancement for the applications studied in this work. The work has identified optimal panel configuration both in geometry and configurations to ensure optimal blast resistance response to such IEDs discharges. Findings from this work will drive improvements in especially military and civilian vehicles in countries where blast attacks on vehicular occupants are quite rampant like Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Keywords: blast resistance, blast enhancement, explosives, material behaviorProcedia PDF Downloads 308
2800 Evaluation of Fire Resistance of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns with Spiral Wire Rope
Authors: Ki-Seok Kwon, Heung-Youl Kim
Abstract:This research evaluated fire resistances of high-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) column, spiral wire rope which applied with 60, and 100MPa. The fire resistance test of RC column with loading condition was conducted following the ISO 834 (3 hours). This experiment set mixing of fiber (PP fiber, Steel fiber) and types of horizontal reinforcement as a variable of reinforcement method. The fire resistance test measured the main steel bar’s max and mean temperatures also the shrinkage and shrinking ratio of columns(500 X 500 X 3,000mm) with loadings. As a result, the specimen of 60MPa attained three hours fire resistance with only spiral wire rope. Also, the specimen of 100MPa must be reinforced with fibers and spiral wire rope to attain three hours fire resistance.
Keywords: reinforced concrete column, high strength concrete, wire rope, fire resistance testProcedia PDF Downloads 228
2799 Effect of Three Resistance Training Methods on Performance-Related Variables of Powerlifters
Authors: K. Shyamnath, K. Suresh Kutty
Abstract:The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of three resistance training methods on performance-related variables of powerlifters. A total of forty male students (N=40) who had participated in Kannur University powerlifting championship were selected as subjects. The age group of the subjects ranged from 18 years old to 25 years old. The selected subjects were equally divided into four groups (n=10) of three experimental groups and a control group. The experimental Group I underwent traditional resistance training (TRTG), Group II underwent combined traditional resistance training and plyometrics (TRTPG), and Group III underwent combined traditional resistance training and resistance training with high rhythm (TRTHRG). Group IV acted as the control group (CG) receiving no training during the experimental period. The duration of the experimental period was sixteen weeks, five days per week. Powerlifting performance was assessed by the 1RM test in the squat, bench press and deadlift. Performance-related variables assessed were chest girth, arm girth, forearm girth, thigh girth, and calf girth. Pre-test and post-test were conducted a day before and two days after the experimental period on all groups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to analyze the significant difference. The 0.05 level of confidence was fixed as the level of significance to test the F ratio obtained by the analysis of covariance. The result indicates that there is a significant effect of all the selected resistance training methods on the performance and selected performance-related variables of powerlifters. Combined traditional resistance training and plyometrics and combined traditional resistance training and resistance training with high rhythm proved better than the traditional resistance training in improving performance and selected performance-related variables of powerlifters. There was no significant difference between combined traditional resistance training and plyometrics and combined traditional resistance training and resistance training with high rhythm in improving performance and selected performance-related variables of powerlifters.
Keywords: girth, plyometrics, powerlifting, resistance trainingProcedia PDF Downloads 428
2798 Experiment and Analytical Study on Fire Resistance Performance of Slot Type Concrete-Filled Tube
Authors: Bum Yean Cho, Heung-Youl Kim, Ki-Seok Kwon, Kang-Su Kim
Abstract:In this study, a full-scale test and analysis (numerical analysis) of fire resistance performance of bare CFT column on which slot was used instead of existing welding method to connect the steel pipe on the concrete-filled tube were conducted. Welded CFT column is known to be vulnerable to high or low temperature because of low brittleness of welding part. As a result of a fire resistance performance test of slot CFT column after removing the welding part and fixing it by a slot which was folded into the tube, slot type CFT column indicated the improved fire resistance performance than welded CFT column by 28% or more. And as a result of conducting finite element analysis of slot type column using ABAQUS, analysis result proved the reliability of the test result in predicting the fire behavior and fire resistance hour.
Keywords: CFT (concrete-filled tube) column, fire resistance performance, slot, weldProcedia PDF Downloads 109
2797 Thermal Contact Resistance of Nanoscale Rough Surfaces
Authors: Ravi Prasher
Abstract:In nanostructured material thermal transport is dominated by contact resistance. Theoretical models describing thermal transport at interfaces assume perfectly flat surface whereas in reality surfaces can be rough with roughness ranging from sub-nanoscale dimension to micron scale. Here we introduce a model which includes both nanoscale contact mechanics and nanoscale heat transfer for rough nanoscale surfaces. This comprehensive model accounts for the effect of phonon acoustic mismatch, mechanical properties, chemical properties and randomness of the rough surface.
Keywords: adhesion and contact resistance, Kaptiza resistance of rough surfaces, nanoscale thermal transportProcedia PDF Downloads 277