Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4574

Search results for: immune response

4574 Evaluation of Two DNA Vaccine Constructs in Labeo rohita against Edwardsiella tarda

Authors: Ranjeeta Kumari, Makesh M, Gayatri Tripathi, K V Rajendran, Megha Bedekar

Abstract:

A comparative study on DNA immunization with recombinant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) construct of Edwardsiella tarda (pGPD group) and a bicistronic construct expressing GAPDH plus IFN-γ of Labeo rohita as adjuvant (pGPD+IFN group) was undertaken in Labeo rohita along with the control animals. Successful co-expression of two genes that is GAPDH and IFN-γ was confirmed in SSN-1 cells line by RT-qPCR and western blot. The protective immune response of host to DNA vaccine construct was determined by RPS and specific antibody production. Fishes immunized with plasmids via intramuscular injection (I/M) exhibited a considerable relative percentage survivability of 66.66% in pGPD+IFN immunized group and 53.34% in pGPD immunized group after challenge with E. tarda. Antibody response was also significantly high in pGPD+IFN group at all time points under study. This was analysed by competitive ELISA, using anti GAPDH monoclonal antibodies. The experiment revealed that the GAPDH gene of E. tarda is one of the ideal candidates for generating protective immune response in L. rohita. Further addition of Interferon gamma to DNA vaccine construct can enhance the immune response in host.

Keywords: DNA vaccine, Edwardsiella tarda, Labeo rohita, zoonosis, immune response

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4573 Systematic Analysis of Immune Response to Biomaterial Surface Characteristics

Authors: Florian Billing, Soren Segan, Meike Jakobi, Elsa Arefaine, Aliki Jerch, Xin Xiong, Matthias Becker, Thomas Joos, Burkhard Schlosshauer, Ulrich Rothbauer, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Hanna Hartmann, Christopher Shipp

Abstract:

The immune response plays a major role in implant biocompatibility, but an understanding of how to design biomaterials for specific immune responses is yet to be achieved. We aimed to better understand how changing certain material properties can drive immune responses. To this end, we tested immune response to experimental implant coatings that vary in specific characteristics. A layer-by-layer approach was employed to vary surface charge and wettability. Human-based in vitro models (THP-1 macrophages and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS)) were used to assess immune responses using multiplex cytokine analysis, flow cytometry (CD molecule expression) and microscopy (cell morphology). We observed dramatic differences in immune response due to specific alterations in coating properties. For example altering the surface charge of coating A from anionic to cationic resulted in the substantial elevation of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MIP-1beta, while the pro-wound healing factor VEGF was significantly down-regulated. We also observed changes in cell surface marker expression in relation to altered coating properties, such as CD16 on NK Cells and HLA-DR on monocytes. We furthermore observed changes in the morphology of THP-1 macrophages following cultivation on different coatings. A correlation between these morphological changes and the cytokine expression profile is ongoing. Targeted changes in biomaterial properties can produce vast differences in immune response. The properties of the coatings examined here may, therefore, be a method to direct specific biological responses in order to improve implant biocompatibility.

Keywords: biomaterials, coatings, immune system, implants

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4572 Do Immune Organ Weights Indicate Immunomodulation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids?

Authors: H. Al-Khalifa, A. Al-Nasser

Abstract:

The main immune organs in poultry are the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. During an immune response, mature lymphocytes and other immune cells interact with antigens in these tissues. Consequently, the mass of these organs can in some cases indicate immune status. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding flaxseed on immune tissue weights. Cobb 500 broiler chickens were fed flaxseed at 15%, the control diet did not contain any flaxseed. Results showed that dietary supplementation with flaxseed did not affect the weights of the spleens of broiler chickens. However, it significantly lowered bursa weights (p<0.01), compared to the control diet. In addition, the bursae were thinner in appearance compared with bursii from chickens fed the control diets.

Keywords: bursa of fabricius, flaxseed, spleen, thymus

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4571 Fabrication of Immune-Affinity Monolithic Array for Detection of α-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen

Authors: Li Li, Li-Ru Xia, He-Ye Wang, Xiao-Dong Bi

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented a highly sensitive immune-affinity monolithic array for detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Firstly, the epoxy functionalized monolith arrays were fabricated using UV initiated copolymerization method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed that the poly(BABEA-co-GMA) monolith exhibited a well-controlled skeletal and well-distributed porous structure. Then, AFP and CEA immune-affinity monolithic arrays were prepared by immobilization of AFP and CEA antibodies on epoxy functionalized monolith arrays. With a non-competitive immune response format, the presented AFP and CEA immune-affinity arrays were demonstrated as an inexpensive, flexible, homogeneous and stable array for detection of AFP and CEA.

Keywords: chemiluminescent detection, immune-affinity, monolithic copolymer array, UV-initiated copolymerization

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4570 An Analysis of the Impact of Immunosuppression upon the Prevalence and Risk of Cancer

Authors: Aruha Khan, Brynn E. Kankel, Paraskevi Papadopoulou

Abstract:

In recent years, extensive research upon ‘stress’ has provided insight into its two distinct guises, namely the short–term (fight–or–flight) response versus the long–term (chronic) response. Specifically, the long–term or chronic response is associated with the suppression or dysregulation of immune function. It is also widely noted that the occurrence of cancer is greatly correlated to the suppression of the immune system. It is thus necessary to explore the impact of long–term or chronic stress upon the prevalence and risk of cancer. To what extent can the dysregulation of immune function caused by long–term exposure to stress be controlled or minimized? This study focuses explicitly upon immunosuppression due to its ability to increase disease susceptibility, including cancer itself. Based upon an analysis of the literature relating to the fundamental structure of the immune system alongside the prospective linkage of chronic stress and the development of cancer, immunosuppression may not necessarily correlate directly to the acquisition of cancer—although it remains a contributing factor. A cross-sectional analysis of the survey data from the University of Tennessee Medical Center (UTMC) and Harvard Medical School (HMS) will provide additional supporting evidence (or otherwise) for the hypothesis of the study about whether immunosuppression (caused by the chronic stress response) notably impacts the prevalence of cancer. Finally, a multidimensional framework related to education on chronic stress and its effects is proposed.

Keywords: immune system, immunosuppression, long–term (chronic) stress, risk of cancer

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4569 Methylprednisolone Injection Did Not Inhibit Anti-Hbs Response Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Mice

Authors: P. O. Ughachukwu, P. O. Okonkwo, P. C. Unekwe, J. O. Ogamba

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection is high worldwide with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as important complications. Cases of poor antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination abound. Immunosuppression, especially from glucocorticoids, is often cited as a cause of poor antibody response and there are documented evidences of irrational administration of glucocorticoids to children and adults. The study was, therefore, designed to find out if administration of glucocorticoids affects immune response to vaccination against hepatitis B in mice. Methods: Mice of both sexes were randomly divided into 2 groups. Daily intramuscular methylprednisolone injections, (15 mg kg-1), were given to the test group while sterile deionized water (0.1ml) was given to control mice for 30 days. On day 6 all mice were given 2 μg (0.1ml) hepatitis B vaccine and a booster dose on day 27. On day 34, blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-HBs titres using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was done using Graph Pad Prism 5.0 and the results taken as statistically significant at p value < 0.05. Results: There were positive serum anti-HBs responses in all mice groups but the differences in titres were not statistically significant. Conclusions: At the dosages and length of exposure used in this study, methylprednisolone injection did not significantly inhibit anti-HBs response in mice following immunization against hepatitis B virus. By extrapolation, methylprednisolone, when used in the usual clinical doses and duration of therapy, is not likely to inhibit immune response to hepatitis B vaccinations in man.

Keywords: anti-HBs, hepatitis B vaccine, immune response, methylprednisolone, mice

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4568 Characterization of the Immune Response of Inactivated RVF Vaccine: A Comparative Study in Sheep and Goats as Experimental Model

Authors: Ahmed Zaghawa

Abstract:

Rift Valley Fever is an economically specific disease of the health and arboviral disease that affects many types of animals, causing significant economic losses in livestock, and it is transmitted to humans and has public health issues. The vaccine program is the backbone for the control of this disease. The goal of this study was to apply a new approach to evaluate the inactivated RVF vaccine developed in Egypt. In this study, the RVF vaccine was evaluated in young puppies and compared with sheep; the findings showed that young puppies were susceptible to infection with the inhibitory RVF virus and had a strong response of antibodies with two doses of the RVF vaccine within the two-week interval. The neutralization indices began to appear to the protective level on the 7th day at 1.35 and steadily elevated at 14,21 and 28 days to 1.35, 1.43, and 1.20, respectively, in comparison to the control group. While in sheep, the neutralization indices began to appear to the protective level on the 7th day at 1.10 and remain strongly at high titer at 14, 21, and 28 days with NI values 1.20, 1.50, and 1.50, respectively. The new approach for comparing the immune response in puppies and sheep via SNT indicated the high response in both species was evident as well as the neutralization indices values in young puppies at different periods after RVF vaccination reported the value of 1.08±0.03, 1.23±0.04, 1.30±0.03, and 1.45±0.02 after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-vaccination respectively. On the other side, a nearly similar immune response was noticed in sheep with NI values of 1.15±0.02, 1.27±0.02, 1.42±0.05, and 1.55±0.03 at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-vaccination, respectively. In conclusion, young puppies are similar to sheep in developing antibodies after vaccination with the RVF vaccine and can replace sheep for evaluating the efficacy of the RVF vaccine. Further studies are mandatory to assess more recent methods for evaluating inhibition of the RVF vaccine.

Keywords: immune response, puppies, RVF, sheep, vaccine

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4567 Evaluation of Humoral Immune Response Against Somatic and Excretory- Secretory Antigens of Dicrocoelium Dendriticum in Infected Sheep by Western Blot

Authors: Arash Jafari, Somaye Bahrami, Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali

Abstract:

The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of excretory-secretory and somatic antigens from D. dendriticum by SDS-PAGE and evaluation of humeral immune response against these antigens. The sera of infected sheep with different infection degrees were collected. Somatic and ES proteins were isolated with SDS PAGE. Immunogenicity properties of the resulting proteins were determined using western blot analysis. The total extract of somatic antigens analysed by SDS-PAGE revealed 21 proteins. In mild infection, bands of 130 KDa were immune dominant. In moderate infections 48, 80 and 130 KDa and in heavy infections 48, 60, 80, 130 KDa were detected as immune dominant bands. In ES antigens, mild infection 130 KDa, in moderate infection 100, 120 and 130 KDa and in heavy infection 45, 80, 85, 100, 120 and 130 KDa were immune dominant bands. The most immunogenic protein band during different degrees of infection was 130KDa.

Keywords: Dicrocoelium dendriticum excretory-secretory antigens, somatic antigens, western blot

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4566 DNA Prime/MVTT Boost Enhances Broadly Protective Immune Response against Mosaic HIV-1 Gag

Authors: Wan Liu, Haibo Wang, Cathy Huang, Zhiwu Tan, Zhiwei Chen

Abstract:

The tremendous diversity of HIV-1 has been a major challenge for an effective AIDS vaccine development. Mosaic approach presents the potential for vaccine design aiming for global protection. The mosaic antigen of HIV-1 Gag allows antigenic breadth for vaccine-elicited immune response against a wider spectrum of viral strains. However, the enhancement of immune response using vaccines is dependent on the strategy used. Heterologous prime/boost regimen has been shown to elicit high levels of immune responses. Here, we investigated whether priming using plasmid DNA with electroporation followed by boosting with the live replication-competent modified vaccinia virus vector TianTan (MVTT) combined with the mosaic antigenic sequence could elicit a greater and broader antigen-specific response against HIV-1 Gag in mice. When compared to DNA or MVTT alone, or MVTT/MVTT group, DNA/MVTT group resulted in coincidentally high frequencies of broadly reactive, Gag-specific, polyfunctional, long-lived, and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and increased anti-Gag antibody titer. Meanwhile, the vaccination could upregulate PD-1+, and Tim-3+ CD8+ T cell, myeloid-derived suppressive cells and Treg cells to balance the stronger immune response induced. Importantly, the prime/boost vaccination could help control the EcoHIV and mesothelioma AB1-gag challenge. The stronger protective Gag-specific immunity induced by a Mosaic DNA/MVTT vaccine corroborate the promise of the mosaic approach, and the potential of two acceptably safe vectors to enhance anti-HIV immunity and cancer prevention.

Keywords: DNA/MVTT vaccine, EcoHIV, mosaic antigen, mesothelioma AB1-gag

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4565 Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex with Cell Mediated Immunity

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni

Abstract:

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the best characterized genetic regions associated with immune responses and controlling disease resistance in chicken. Association of the MHC with a wide range of immune responses makes it a valuable predictive factor for the disease pathogenesis and outcome. In this study, the association of MHC with cell-mediated immune responses was analyzed in commercial broiler chicken. The tandem repeat LEI0258 was applied to investigate the MHC polymorphism. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated by peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assay using MTT method. Association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on cellular immune responses in this population. Alleles 385 and 448 bp were associated with elevated cell-mediated immunity. Haplotypes associated with improved immune responses could be considered as candidate markers for disease resistance and applied to breeding strategies.

Keywords: MHC, cell-mediated immunity, broiler, chicken

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4564 Effect of Falcaria vulgaris in Wound Healing and Immune Response of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Authors: N. Choobkar, M. Rezaeimanesh, A. M. Emami Rad, M. Ghaeni, H. Norouzi, S. Pahlavani, M. S. Tamasoki, E. Nezafatian

Abstract:

Antibiotics are used to increase the immune and wound healing in many animals . But due to the residual effects of a drug , researchers sought to replace them with natural materials such as Plant extracts. Falcaria vulgaris is the most attractive sources of the new drugs. Falcaria vulgaris (locally named Ghazzyaghi/Poghazeh) is a member of Umbelliferae family which grows near farmlands and is consumed as a vegetable in some regions of Iran. In the West of the country, in the wound healing and irregularities in the digestive system is also used. There were no scientific reports available in literature in support of the traditional claims of F. vulgaris in fish. The present study is therefore an attempt to assess the efficacy of this indigenous herb for its healing effect in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Falcaria vulgaris at concentrations of 0, 2 and 10 % with Lophag foods used on wound healing of common carp and immune response, and weight grow and survival during periods of 21 days with feeding 2 times per day on the basis of body weight. The results showed that, compared with the control group, using of concentration 10 % F. vulgaris have significant effect on wound healing and stimulates the immune system by increasing white blood cells (WBC) and weight grow and survival of carp. The herb can used in wound healing, increased resistance to disease and weight grow in fish and the beneficial effects of this combination goes back to man.

Keywords: common carp, falcaria vulgaris, immune response, wound healing

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4563 Evaluation of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy

Authors: Mir Mohammad Reza Hosseini

Abstract:

In new years immune checkpoint inhibitors have gathered care as being one of the greatest talented kinds of immunotherapy on the prospect. There has been a specific emphasis on the immune checkpoint molecules, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). In 2011, ipilimumab, the primary antibody obstructive an immune checkpoint (CTLA4) was authorized. It is now documented that recognized tumors have many devices of overpowering the antitumor immune response, counting manufacture of repressive cytokines, staffing of immunosuppressive immune cells, and upregulation of coinhibitory receptors recognized as immune checkpoints. This was fast followed by the growth of monoclonal antibodies directing PD1 (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) and PDL1 (atezolizumab and durvalumab). Anti-PD1/PDL1 antibodies have developed some of the greatest extensively set anticancer therapies. We also compare and difference their present place in cancer therapy and designs of immune-related toxicities and deliberate the role of dual immune checkpoint inhibition and plans for the organization of immune-related opposing proceedings. In this review, the employed code and present growth of numerous immune checkpoint inhibitors are abridged, while the communicating device and new development of Immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy-based synergistic therapies with additional immunotherapy, chemotherapy, phototherapy, and radiotherapy in important and clinical educations in the historical 5 years are portrayed and tinted. Lastly, we disapprovingly measure these methods and effort to find their fortes and faintness based on pre-clinical and clinical information.

Keywords: checkpoint, cancer therapy, PD-1, PDL-1, CTLA4, immunosuppressive

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4562 Proinflammatory Response of Agglomerated TiO2 Nanoparticles in Human-Immune Cells

Authors: Vaiyapuri Subbarayn Periasamy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Ali A. Alshatwi

Abstract:

The widespread use of Titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), now are found with different physic-chemical properties (size, shape, chemical properties, agglomeration, etc.) in many processed foods, agricultural chemicals, biomedical products, food packaging and food contact materials, personal care products, and other consumer products used in daily life. Growing evidences have been highlighted that there are risks of physico-chemical properties dependent toxicity with special attention to “TiO2-NPs and human immune system”. Unfortunately, agglomeration and aggregation have frequently been ignored in immuno-toxicological studies, even though agglomeration and aggregation would be expected to affect nanotoxicity since it changes the size, shape, surface area, and other properties of the TiO2-NPs. In this present investigation, we assessed the immune toxic effect of TiO2-NPs on human immune cells Total WBC including Lymphocytes (T cells (CD3+), T helper cells (CD3+, CD4+), Suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD3+/CD8+) and NK cells (CD3-/CD16+ and CD56+), Monocytes (CD14+, CD3-) and B lymphocytes (CD19+, CD3-) in order to find the immunological response (IL1A, IL1B, IL2 IL-4, IL5 IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and TNF-a) and redox gene regulation (TNF, p53, BCl-2, CAT, GSTA4, TNF, CYP1A, POR, SOD1, GSTM3, GPX1, and GSR1)-linking physicochemical properties with special reference to agglomeration of TiO2-NPs. Our findings suggest that TiO2-NPs altered cytokine production, enhanced phagocytic indexing, metabolic stress through specific immune regulatory- genes expression in different WBC subsets and may contribute to pro-inflammatory response. Although TiO2-NPs have great advantages in the personal care products, biomedical, food and agricultural products, its chronic and acute immune-toxicity still need to be assessed carefully with special reference to food and environmental safety.

Keywords: TiO2 nanoparticles, oxidative stress, cytokine, human immune cells

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4561 Garlic Extracts Stimulating Innate Immune System in Marble Goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus)

Authors: Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn, Mallika Supa-Aksorn, Sudaporn Tongsiri, Prachaub Chaibu

Abstract:

Marble goby is one of high demand consuming in Southeast Asia. However, the product was from riparian fisheries because of low yield in aquaculture, especially in nursery stage. Therefore, we studied for herb supplement in pellet feed of marble goby fingering. Garlic, a common herb and illustrated novel pharmaceutical and medical effectiveness, was considered. Garlic extracts with water (DW), 50% EtOH (50E), 95% EtOH (95E) and diethyl ether (DE) were subjected for feed additive to induce immune response in marble goby fingering for 0 (control), 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 % (w/w). After seven days of feeding, blood was collected for analysis of blood composition; i.e. haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and humoral immune responses; i.e. lysozyme activity (Lys). It was resulted that values of HCT, WBC and Lys in all garlic fed group were significantly different from control (p < 0.05). For HCT, the highest values belonged to 5% DW and 0.5% 95E. For WBC and Lys, the highest values were 5% DW. For RBC, there was not obviously significant (p < 0.05). There were only 3 groups; 0.5% 95E, 1% and 5% DW, showed distinct statistical significance from the other groups. It was concluded that garlic extracts showed satisfy bioactivity to enhancing innate immune response in marble goby fingering. This result will be valuable for specific feed formula of marble goby nursery.

Keywords: garlic extract, innate immune, marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus

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4560 ICAM-2, A Protein of Antitumor Immune Response in Mekong Giant Catfish (Pangasianodon gigas)

Authors: Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn

Abstract:

ICAM-2 (intercellular adhesion molecule 2) or CD102 (Cluster of Differentiation 102) is type I trans-membrane glycoproteins, composing 2-9 immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains. ICAM-2 plays the particular role in immune response and cell surveillance. It is concerned in innate and specific immunity, cell survival signal, apoptosis, and anticancer. EST clone of ICAM-2, from P. gigas blood cell EST libraries, showed high identity to human ICAM-2 (92%) with conserve region of ICAM N-terminal domain and part of Ig superfamily. Gene and protein of ICAM-2 has been founded in mammals. This is the first report of ICAM-2 in fish.

Keywords: ICAM-2, CD102, Pangasianodon gigas, antitumor

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4559 Growth and Immune Response of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) Postlarvae Fed Diets Containing Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Gian Carlo F. Maliwat, Stephanie F. Velasquez, Janice A. Ragaza

Abstract:

A 50-day growth trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris (Beijerinck) as an ingredient in the diets of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) postlarvae (PL30). Immune response (total haemocyte count and prophenoloxidase activity) was also assessed by subjecting postlarvae to a challenge test against Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) for 14 days. Isonitrogenous and iso-lipidic test diets were prepared using a fishmeal-based-positive control diet (D0) and four basal diets with inclusion levels of 2% (D2), 4% (D4), 6% (D6) and 8% (D8) C. vulgaris. Postlarvae of M. rosenbergii were randomly stocked (mean initial body weight of 0.19 ± 0.02 g) in 30-L tanks in three replicates per dietary treatment for evaluation of growth performance. Another set of postlarvae (mean initial body weight of 1.25 ± 0.02 g) was randomly distributed in 95-L tanks in three replicates per dietary treatment for the assessment of immune response. Results showed that specific growth rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in postlarvae fed D4 and D6. Variations in values for carcass protein, lipid, moisture, and ash were also evident. Postlarvae fed diets with Chlorella showed increased prophenol oxidase activity and total haemocyte counts. Moreover, the survival rate after challenge with A. hydrophila was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Inclusion of C. vulgaris in diets enhanced immune response and resistance of M. rosenbergii postlarvae against A. hydrophila infection.

Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris, haemocyte count, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, prophenoloxidase activity

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4558 NK Cells Expansion Model from PBMC Led to a Decrease of CD4+ and an Increase of CD8+ and CD25+CD127- T-Reg Lymphocytes in Patients with Ovarian Neoplasia

Authors: Rodrigo Fernandes da Silva, Daniela Maira Cardozo, Paulo Cesar Martins Alves, Sophie Françoise Derchain, Fernando Guimarães

Abstract:

T-reg lymphocytes are important for the control of peripheral tolerance. They control the adaptive immune system and prevent autoimmunity through its suppressive action on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. The suppressive action also includes B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages and recently, studies have shown that T-reg are also able to inhibit NK cells, therefore they exert their control of the immune response from innate to adaptive response. Most tumors express self-ligands, therefore it is believed that T-reg cells induce tolerance of the immune system, hindering the development of successful immunotherapies. T-reg cells have been linked to the suppression mechanisms of the immune response against tumors, including ovarian cancer. The goal of this study was to disclose the sub-population of the expanded CD3+ lymphocytes reported by previous studies, using the long-term culture model designed by Carlens et al 2001, to generate effector cell suspensions enriched with cytotoxic CD3-CD56+ NK cells, from PBMC of ovarian neoplasia patients. Methods and Results: Blood was collected from 12 patients with ovarian neoplasia after signed consent: 7 benign (Bng) and 5 malignant (Mlg). Mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll-Paque gradient. Long-term culture was conducted by a 21 day culturing process with SCGM CellGro medium supplemented with anti-CD3 (10ng/ml, first 5 days), IL-2 (1000UI/ml) and FBS (10%). After 21 days of expansion, there was an increase in the population of CD3+ lymphocytes in the benign and malignant group. Within CD3+ population, there was a significant decrease in the population of CD4+ lymphocytes in the benign (median Bgn D-0=73.68%, D-21=21.05%) (p<0.05) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=64.00%, D-21=11.97%) (p < 0.01) group. Inversely, after 21 days of expansion, there was an increase in the population of CD8+ lymphocytes within the CD3+ population in the benign (median Bgn D-0=16.80%, D-21=38.56%) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=27.12%, D-21=72.58%) group. However, this increase was only significant on the malignant group (p<0.01). Within the CD3+CD4+ population, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the population of T-reg lymphocytes in the benign (median Bgn D-0=9.84%, D-21=39.47%) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=3.56%, D-21=16.18%) group. Statistical analysis inter groups was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test and intra groups by Mann Whitney test. Conclusion: The CD4+ and CD8+ sub-population of CD3+ lymphocytes shifts with the culturing process. This might be due to the process of the immune system to produce a cytotoxic response. At the same time, T-reg lymphocytes increased within the CD4+ population, suggesting a modulation of the immune response towards cells of the immune system. The expansion of the T-reg population can hinder an immune response against cancer. Therefore, an immunotherapy using this expansion procedure should aim to halt the expansion of T-reg or its immunosuppresion capability.

Keywords: regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, NK cell expansion

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4557 Dys-Regulation of Immune and Inflammatory Response in in vitro Fertilization Implantation Failure Patients under Ovarian Stimulation

Authors: Amruta D. S. Pathare, Indira Hinduja, Kusum Zaveri

Abstract:

Implantation failure (IF) even after the good-quality embryo transfer (ET) in the physiologically normal endometrium is the main obstacle in in vitro fertilization (IVF). Various microarray studies have been performed worldwide to elucidate the genes requisite for endometrial receptivity. These studies have included the population based on different phases of menstrual cycle during natural cycle and stimulated cycle in normal fertile women. Additionally, the literature is also available in recurrent implantation failure patients versus oocyte donors in natural cycle. However, for the first time, we aim to study the genomics of endometrial receptivity in IF patients under controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) during which ET is generally practised in IVF. Endometrial gene expression profiling in IF patients (n=10) and oocyte donors (n=8) were compared during window of implantation under COS by whole genome microarray (using Illumina platform). Enrichment analysis of microarray data was performed to determine dys-regulated biological functions and pathways using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, v6.8 (DAVID). The enrichment mapping was performed with the help of Cytoscape software. Microarray results were validated by real-time PCR. Localization of genes related to immune response (Progestagen-Associated Endometrial Protein (PAEP), Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF), Interleukin-6 Signal Transducer (IL6ST) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The study revealed 418 genes downregulated and 519 genes upregulated in IF patients compared to healthy fertile controls. The gene ontology, pathway analysis and enrichment mapping revealed significant downregulation in activation and regulation of immune and inflammation response in IF patients under COS. The lower expression of Progestagen Associated Endometrial Protein (PAEP), Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) and Interleukin 6 Signal Transducer (IL6ST) in cases compared to controls by real time and immunohistochemistry suggests the functional importance of these genes. The study was proved useful to uncover the probable reason of implantation failure being imbalance of immune and inflammatory regulation in our group of subjects. Based on the present study findings, a panel of significant dysregulated genes related to immune and inflammatory pathways needs to be further substantiated in larger cohort in natural as well as stimulated cycle. Upon which these genes could be screened in IF patients during window of implantation (WOI) before going for embryo transfer or any other immunological treatment. This would help to estimate the regulation of specific immune response during WOI in a patient. The appropriate treatment of either activation of immune response or suppression of immune response can be then attempted in IF patients to enhance the receptivity of endometrium.

Keywords: endometrial receptivity, immune and inflammatory response, gene expression microarray, window of implantation

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4556 Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Vaccination in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Looking Forward to Post-COVID-19

Authors: Achiron Anat, Mathilda Mandel, Mayust Sue, Achiron Reuven, Gurevich Michael

Abstract:

Introduction: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is currently spreading around the world, it is of importance to assess the ability of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients to mount an appropriate immune response to the vaccine in the context of disease-modifying treatments (DMT’s). Objectives: Evaluate immunity generated following COVID-19 vaccination in MS patients, and assess factors contributing to protective humoral and cellular immune responses in MS patients vaccinated against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) virus infection. Methods: Review our recent data related to (1) the safety of PfizerBNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in adult MS patients; (2) the humoral post-vaccination SARS-CoV2 IgG response in MS vaccinees using anti-spike protein-based serology; and (3) the cellular immune response of memory B-cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and memory T-cells secreting IFN-g and/or IL-2 in response to SARS-CoV2 peptides using ELISpot/Fluorospot assays in MS patients either untreated or under treatment with fingolimod, cladribine, or ocrelizumab; (4) covariate parameters related to mounting protective immune responses. Results: COVID-19 vaccine proved safe in MS patients, and the adverse event profile was mainly characterised by pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache. Not any increased risk of relapse activity was noted and the rate of patients with acute relapse was comparable to the relapse rate in non-vaccinated patients during the corresponding follow-up period. A mild increase in the rate of adverse events was noted in younger MS patients, among patients with lower disability, and in patients treated with DMTs. Following COVID-19 vaccination protective humoral immune response was significantly decreased in fingolimod- and ocrelizumab- treated MS patients. SARS-CoV2 specific B-cell and T-cell cellular responses were respectively decreased. Untreated MS patients and patients treated with cladribine demonstrated protective humoral and cellular immune responses, similar to healthy vaccinated subjects. Conclusions: COVID-19 BNT162b2 vaccine proved as safe for MS patients. No increased risk of relapse activity was noted post-vaccination. Although COVID-19 vaccination is new, accumulated data demonstrate differences in immune responses under various DMT’s. This knowledge can help to construct appropriate COVID-19 vaccine guidelines to ensure proper immune responses for MS patients.

Keywords: covid-19, vaccination, multiple sclerosis, IgG

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4555 Role of Biomaterial Surface Nanotopography on Protein Unfolding and Immune Response

Authors: Rahul Madathiparambil Visalakshan, Alex Cavallaro, John Hayball, Krasimir Vasilev

Abstract:

The role of biomaterial surface nanotopograhy on fibrinogen adsorption and unfolding, and the subsequent immune response were studied. Inconsistent topography and varying chemical functionalities along with a lack of reproducibility pose a challenge in determining the specific effects of nanotopography or chemistry on proteins and cells. It is important to have a well-defined nanotopography with a homogeneous chemistry to study the real effect of nanotopography on biological systems. Therefore, we developed a technique that can produce well-defined and highly reproducible topography to identify the role of specific roughness, size, height and density with the presence of homogeneous chemical functionality. Using plasma polymerisation of oxazoline monomers and immobilized gold nanoparticles we created surfaces with an equal number density of nanoparticles of different sizes. This surface was used to study the role of surface nanotopography and the interplay of surface chemistry on proteins and immune cells. The effect of nanotopography on fibrinogen adsorption was investigated using Quartz Cristal Microbalance with Dissipation and micro BCA. The mass of fibrinogen adsorbed on the surface increased with increasing size of nano-topography. Protein structural changes up on adsorption to the nano rough surface was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Fibrinogen unfolding varied depending on the specific nanotopography of the surfaces. It was revealed that the in vitro immune response to the nanotopography surfaces changed due to this protein unfolding.

Keywords: biomaterial inflammation, protein and cell responses, protein unfolding, surface nanotopography

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4554 Screening Active Components in YPFS for Regulating Initiative Key Factors in Allergic Inflammation

Authors: Dandan Shen, Hui-zhu Wang, Xi Yu, LiLi Gui, Xiao Wei, Xiao-yan Jiang, Da-wei Wang, Min Hong

Abstract:

Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a clinical medicine for asthma and other allergic diseases, but the mechanism of YPFS on relapse of allergy is unclear. Currently, people come to realize the epithelial cells(EC) play a key role in stimulating and regulating local immune response. The study of thymic stromal lymphopoietin(TSLP derived from EC provides an important evidence that the EC can regulate immune response to stimulate allergic response. In this study, we observed the effect of YPFS on TSLP in vivo and in vitro. We established a method by using bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) for screening potential bioactive components by HPLC-MS in YPFS and then analyzed the components in serum containing YPFS by UPLC-MS. The results showed that YPFS could decrease TSLP protein level in OVA-sensitized mice and 16HBE cells. Five components combing with the 16HBE cells were both detected in the serum.

Keywords: TSLP, bronchial epithelial cells, cell-binding, drug-containing serum

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4553 Effect of Dietary Organic Zinc Supplementation on Immunocompetance and Reproductive Performance in Rats

Authors: D. Nagalakshmi, S. Parashuramulu K. Sadasiva Rao, G. Aruna, L. Vikram

Abstract:

The zinc (Zn) is the second most abundant trace element in mammals and birds, forming structural component of over 300 enzymes, playing an important role in anti-oxidant defense, immune response and reproduction. Organic trace minerals are more readily absorbed from the digestive tract and more biologically available compared with its inorganic salt. Thus, the present study was undertaken on 60 adult female Sprague Dawley rats (275±2.04 g) for experimental duration of 12 weeks to investigate the effect of dietary Zn supplementation from various organic sources on immunity, reproduction, oxidative defense mechanism and blood biochemical profile. The rats were randomly allotted to 30 replicates (2 per replicate) which were in turn randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments varying in Zn source i.e., one inorganic source (Zn carbonate) and 4 organic sources (Zn-proteinate, Zn-propionate, Zn-amino acid complex and Zn-methionine) so as to supply NRC recommended Zn concentration (12 ppm Zn). Supplementation of organic Zn had no effect on various haematological and serum biochemical constituents compared to inorganic Zn fed rats. The TBARS and protein carbonyls concentration in liver indicative of oxidative stress was comparable between various organic and inorganic groups. The glutathione reductase activity in haemolysate (P<0.05) and reduced glutathione concentration in liver (P<0.01) was higher when fed organic Zn and RBC catalase activity was higher (P<0.01) on Zn methionine compared to other organic sources tested and the inorganic source. The humoral immune response assessed as antibody titres against sheep RBC was higher (P<0.05) when fed organic sources of zinc compared to inorganic source. The cell mediated immune response expressed as delayed type hypersensitivity reaction was higher (P<0.05) in rats fed Zn propionate with no effect of other organic Zn sources. The serum progesterone concentration was higher (P<0.05) in rats fed organic Zn sources compared to inorganic zinc. The data on ovarian folliculogenesis indicated that organic Zn supplementation increased (P<0.05) the number of graafian follicles and corpus luteum with no effect on primary, secondary and tertiary follicle number. The study indicated that rats fed organic sources of Zn had higher antioxidant enzyme activities, immune response and serum progesterone concentration with higher number of mature follicles. Though the effect of feeding various organic sources were comparable, rats fed zinc methionine had higher antioxidant activity and cell mediated immune response was higher in rats on Zn propionate.

Keywords: organic zinc, immune, rats, reproductive

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4552 Targeted Photodynamic Therapy for Intraperitoneal Ovarian Cancer, A Way to Stimulate Anti-tumoral Immune Response

Authors: Lea Boidin, Martha Baydoun, Bertrand Leroux, Olivier Morales, Samir Acherar, Celine Frochot, Nadira Delhem

Abstract:

Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most defying diseases in gynecologic oncology. Even though surgery remains crucial in the therapy of patients with primary ovarian cancer, recurrent recidivism calls for the development of new therapy protocols to propose for patients dealing with this cancer. FRα is described as a tumor‐associated antigen in OC, where FRα expression is usually linked with more poorly differentiated, aggressive tumors. The Photodynamic treatment (PDT) available data have shown improvements in the uptake of small tumors and in the induction of a proper anti-tumoral immune response. In order to target specifically peritoneal metastatis, which overexpress FRα, a new-patented PS coupled with folic acid has been developed in our team. Herein we propose PDT using this new patented PS for PDT applied in an in vivo mice model. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated in mice without and with PBMC reconstitution. Mice were divided into four groups: Non-Treated, PS, Light Only, and PDT Treated and subjected to illumination by laser set at 668nm with a duration of illumination of 45 minutes (or 1 min of illumination followed by 2 minutes of pause repeated 45 times). When mice were not reconstituted and after fractionized PDT protocol, a significant decrease in the tumor volume was noticed. An induction in the anti-tumoral cytokine IFNγ chaperoned this decrease while a subsequent inhibition in the cytokine TGFβ. Even more crucial, when mice were reconstituted and upon PDT, the fold of tumor decrease was even higher. An immune response was activated decoded with an increase in NK, CD3 +, LT helper and Cytotoxic T cells. Thereafter, an increase in the expression of the cytokines IFNγ and TNFα were noticed while an inhibition in TGFβ, IL8 and IL10 accompanied this immune response activation. Therefore, our work has shown for the first time that a fractionized PDT protocol using a folate-targeted PDT is effective for treatment of ovarian cancer. The interest in using PDT in this case, goes beyond the local induction of tumor apoptosis only, but can promote subsequent anti-tumor response. Most of the therapies currently used to treat ovarian cancer, have an uncooperative outcomes on the host immune response. The readiness of a tumor adjuvant treatment like PDT adequate in eliminating the tumor and in concert stimulating anti-tumor immunity would be weighty.

Keywords: folate receptor, ovarian cancer, photodynamic therapy, humanized mice model

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4551 Monitoring of Humoral Immune Response of Monovalent and Combined PPR and FMD Serotype 'O' Virus Vaccines in Goats

Authors: Mudassar Hameed, Khushi Muhammad, Aamir Ghafoor, Masood Rabbani, Momena Habib, Jawad Nazir

Abstract:

Comparative efficacy of three formulations (non-adjuvant, gel, and oil adjuvant) of monovalent and combined PPR and FMD virus vaccines was evaluated in goats. All kinds of monovalent PPRV vaccines elicited protective antibody titers at one-month post vaccination (PV) that remained so till six months PV. Monovalent non-adjuvant (NA) FMDV vaccine provoked non-protective antibody titers that declined to undetectable levels after three months. In case of combined vaccines, all of the formulations elicited protective antibody titers against PPRV in vaccinated animals which remained above that limit for six months. However, an exceptional immune response against FMDV was observed in combined NA vaccine group where antibody titers were extremely high and remained above protective level till 4 months PV in animals who received a single vaccine shot and till six months PV in booster group. Although, adjuvant or NA combined vaccines can induce protective antibody titers against both of the viruses within one month PV, but a booster vaccine shot is needed to retain protective antibody level for 6 months duration. Immune response elicited by combined vaccines is comparable or superior to the monovalent vaccines. Hence combined vaccine can be effectively used for the control and prevention of both of the diseases.

Keywords: antibody titer, protective, combined vaccine, non adjuvant

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4550 Identification of Promiscuous Epitopes for Cellular Immune Responses in the Major Antigenic Protein Rv3873 Encoded by Region of Difference 1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa

Abstract:

Rv3873 is a relatively large size protein (371 amino acids in length) and its gene is located in the immunodominant genomic region of difference (RD)1 that is present in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis but deleted from the genomes of all the vaccine strains of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) and most other mycobacteria. However, when tested for cellular immune responses using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tuberculosis patients and BCG-vaccinated healthy subjects, this protein was found to be a major stimulator of cell mediated immune responses in both groups of subjects. In order to further identify the sequence of immunodominant epitopes and explore their Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-restriction for epitope recognition, 24 peptides (25-mers overlapping with the neighboring peptides by 10 residues) covering the sequence of Rv3873 were synthesized chemically using fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chemistry and tested in cell mediated immune responses. The results of these experiments helped in the identification of an immunodominant peptide P9 that was recognized by people expressing varying HLA-DR types. Furthermore, it was also predicted to be a promiscuous binder with multiple epitopes for binding to HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ alleles of HLA-class II molecules that present antigens to T helper cells, and to HLA-class I molecules that present antigens to T cytotoxic cells. In addition, the evaluation of peptide P9 using an immunogenicity predictor server yielded a high score (0.94), which indicated a greater probability of this peptide to elicit a protective cellular immune response. In conclusion, P9, a peptide with multiple epitopes and ability to bind several HLA class I and class II molecules for presentation to cells of the cellular immune response, may be useful as a peptide-based vaccine against tuberculosis.

Keywords: mycobacterium tuberculosis, PPE68, peptides, vaccine

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4549 Small Molecule Inhibitors of PD1-PDL1 Interaction

Authors: K. Żak, S. Przetocka, R. Kitel, K. Guzik, B. Musielak, S. Malicki, G. Dubin, T. A. Holak

Abstract:

Studies on tumor genesis revealed a number of factors that may potentially serve as molecular targets for immunotherapies. One of such promising targets are PD1 and PDL1 proteins. PD1 (Programmed cell death protein 1) is expressed by activated T cells and plays a critical role in modulation of the host's immune response. One of the PD1 ligands -PDL1- is expressed by macrophages, monocytes and cancer cells which exploit it to avoid immune attack. The notion of the mechanisms used by cancer cells to block the immune system response was utilized in the development of therapies blocking PD1-PDL1 interaction. Up to date, human PD1-PDL1 complex has not been crystallized and structure of the mouse-human complex does not provide a complete view of the molecular basis of PD1-PDL1 interactions. The purpose of this study is to obtain crystal structure of the human PD1-PDL1 complex which shall allow rational design of small molecule inhibitors of the interaction. In addition, the study presents results of binding small-molecules to PD1 and fragment docking towards PD1 protein which will facilitate the design and development of small–molecule inhibitors of PD1-PDL1 interaction.

Keywords: PD1, PDL1, cancer, small molecule, drug discovery

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4548 Role of Interleukin-36 in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Muslim Idan Mohsin, Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti, Rusul Idan Mohsin, Ali A. Majeed

Abstract:

One of the causative agents of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can lead to severe infection associated with a lung infection. There are many cytokines that are secreted in response to bacterial infection, in particular interleukin IL-36 cytokine in response to P. aeruginosa infection. The involvement of IL-36 in the P. aeruginosa infection could be a clue to find a specific way for treatments of different inflammatory and degenerative lung diseases. IL36 promotes primary immune response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Indeed, an overactivity of IL-36 might be an initiating factor for many immunopathologic sceneries in pneumonia. Here we demonstrate if the IL-36 cytokine increases in response P. aeruginosa infection that is isolated from lower respiratory tract infection (LRT). We demonstrated that IL-36 expression significantly unregulated in human lung epithelial (A549) cells after infected by P. aeruginosa at mRNA level.

Keywords: IL36, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, LRT infection, A549 cells

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4547 Functional Beverage to Boosting Immune System in Elderly

Authors: Adineh Tajmousavilangerudi, Ali Zein Alabiden Tlais, Raffaella Di Cagno

Abstract:

The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has exposed our vulnerability to new illnesses and novel viruses that attack our immune systems, particularly in the elderly. The vaccine is being gradually introduced over the world, but new strains of the virus and COVID-19 will emerge and continue to cause illness. Aging is associated with significant changes in intestinal physiology, which increases the production of inflammatory products, alters the gut microbiota, and consequently establish inadequate immune response to minimize symptoms and disease development. In this context, older people who followed a Mediterranean-style diet, rich in polyphenols and dietary fiber, performed better physically and mentally (1,2). This demonstrates the importance of the human gut microbiome in transforming complex dietary macromolecules into the most biologically available and active nutrients, which in turn help to regulate metabolism and both intestinal and systemic immune function (3,4). The role of lactic acid fermentation is prominent also as a powerful tool for improving the nutritional quality of the human diet by releasing nutrients and boosting the complex bioactive compounds and vitamin content. the PhD project aims to design fermented and functional foods/beverages capable of modulating human immune function via the gut microbiome.

Keywords: functional bevarage, fermented beverage, gut microbiota functionality, immun system

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4546 Stability Analysis of Tumor-Immune Fractional Order Model

Authors: Sadia Arshad, Yifa Tang, Dumitru Baleanu

Abstract:

A fractional order mathematical model is proposed that incorporate CD8+ cells, natural killer cells, cytokines and tumor cells. The tumor cells growth in the absence of an immune response is modeled by logistic law as it was the simplest form for which predictions also agreed with the experimental data. Natural Killer Cells are our first line of defense. NK cells directly kill tumor cells through several mechanisms, including the release of cytoplasmic granules containing perforin and granzyme, expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family members. The effect of the NK cells on the tumor cell population is expressed with the product term. Rational form is used to describe interaction between CD8+ cells and tumor cells. A number of cytokines are produced by NKs, including tumor necrosis factor TNF, IFN, and interleukin (IL-10). Source term for cytokines is modeled by Michaelis-Menten form to indicate the saturated effects of the immune response. Stability of the equilibrium points is discussed for biologically significant values of bifurcation parameters. We studied the treatment of fractional order system by investigating analytical conditions of tumor eradication. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the analytical results.

Keywords: cancer model, fractional calculus, numerical simulations, stability analysis

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4545 Programmed Cell Death in Datura and Defensive Plant Response toward Tomato Mosaic Virus

Authors: Asma Alhuqail, Nagwa Aref

Abstract:

Programmed cell death resembles a real nature active defense in Datura metel against TMV after three days of virus infection. Physiological plant response was assessed for asymptomatic healthy and symptomatic infected detached leaves. The results indicated H2O2 and Chlorophyll-a as the most potential parameters. Chlorophyll-a was considered the only significant predictor variant for the H2O2 dependent variant with a P value of 0.001 and R-square of 0.900. The plant immune response was measured within three days of virus infection using the cutoff value of H2O2 (61.095 lmol/100 mg) and (63.201 units) for the tail moment in the Comet Assay. Their percentage changes were 255.12% and 522.40% respectively which reflects the stress of virus infection in the plant. Moreover, H2O2 showed 100% specificity and sensitivity in the symptomatic infected group using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC). All tested parameters in the symptomatic infected group had significant correlations with twenty-five positive and thirty-one negative correlations where the P value was <0.05 and 0.01. Chlorophyll-a parameter had a crucial role of highly significant correlation between total protein and salicylic acid. Contrarily, this correlation with tail moment unit was (r = _0.930, P <0.01) where the P value was < 0.01. The strongest significant negative correlation was between Chlorophyll-a and H2O2 at P < 0.01, while moderate negative significant correlation was seen for Chlorophyll-b where the P value < 0.05. The present study discloses the secret of the three days of rapid transient production of activated oxygen species (AOS) that was enough for having potential quantitative physiological parameters for defensive plant response toward the virus.

Keywords: programmed cell death, plant–adaptive immune response, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), physiological parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 171