Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Search results for: cheese

75 Effect pH on Chemical and Physical Properties of Iranian Fetta Cheese

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of pH on chemical, structural, and functional properties of Fetta cheese, and to relate changes in structure to changes in cheese unctionality. Fetta cheese was obtained from a cheese-production facility and stored at 4°C. Ten days after manufacture, the cheese was cut into blocks that were vacuum-packaged and stored for 4 d at 4°C. Cheese blocks were then high-pressure injected one, three, or five times with a 20% (wt/wt) glucono-δ-lactone solution. Successive injections were performed 24 h apart. Cheese blocks were then analyzed after 40 d of storage at 4°C. Acidulant injection decreased cheese pH from 5.3 in the uninjected cheese to 4.7 after five injections. Decreased pH increased the content of soluble calcium and slightly decreased the total calcium content of cheese. At the highest level, injection of acidulant promoted syneresis. Thus, after five injections, the moisture content of cheese decreased from 34 to 31%, which esulted in decreased cheese weight. Lowered cheese pH, 4.7 compared with 5.3, also resulted in contraction of the protein matrix. Acidulant injection decreased cheese hardness and cohesiveness, and the cheese became more crumbly.

Keywords: calcium, high-pressure injection, protein matrix, syneresis

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74 Effect of Crude Flowers Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco Flowers on Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Cheddar Cheese

Authors: Usman Mir Khan, Ishtiaque Ahmad, Saima Inayat, H. M. Arslan Amin, Muhammad Ayaz, Nisar Ahmad

Abstract:

Citrus reticulata Blanco crude flowers extract (CFE) at four different concentration (1, 2, 3 and 4%, v/v) were used as natural milk coagulant instead of rennet to apply for Cheddar cheese making from buffalo milk. The physicochemical properties and nutrition composition of Cheddar cheeses were compared with cheese made with 0.002% (v/v) rennet (control cheese). Physico-chemical of Cheddar cheese showed that cheese made with 1% and 2% of CFE had a crumbly and slightly softer texture of cheese. While, cheeses containing 3 and 4% CFE had semi-hard textural properties of curd similar to rennet added cheese. The CFE made cheese had moisture 37 %, fat 45 % on dry basis similar to rennet made Cheddar cheese. Protein analysis shows that CFE made cheese had significant higher protein content than control. The Cheddar cheese with 3% and 1% CFE were preferred by consumers instead of 2% and 4% CFE for their taste, texture/appearance and overall acceptability. Conclusively, CFE coagulated Cheddar cheese fulfills the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics and at the same time provides nutritional health benefits.

Keywords: cheddar cheese, Citrus reticulata Blanco, buffalo milk, milk coagulant

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73 Effect of Microfiltration on the Composition and Ripening of Iranian Fetta Cheese

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati belvirdi, M. Shakerian, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

The effect of Microfiltration (MF) on proteolysis, hardness, and flavor of Feta cheese during 6 mo of aging was determined. Raw skim milk was microfiltered two-fold in two cheese making trials. In trial 1, four vats of cheese were made in 1 d using unconcentrated milk (1X), 1.26X, 1.51X, and 1.82X Concentration Factors (CF). Casein-(CN)-to-fat ratio was constant among treatments. Proteolysis during cheese aging decreased with increasing CF due to either limitation of substrate availability for chymosin due to low moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS), inhibition of chymosin activity by high molecular weight milk serum proteins, such as α2-macroglobulin, retained in the cheese or low residual chymosin in the cheese. Hardness of fresh cheese increased, and cheese flavor intensity decreased with increasing CF. In trial 2, the 1X and 1.8X CF were compared directly. Changes made in the cheese making procedure for the 1.8X CF (more chymosin and less cooking) increased the MNFS and made proteolysis during aging more comparable for the 1X and 1.8X cheeses. The significant difference in cheese hardness due to CF in trial 1 was eliminated in trial 2. In a triangle test, panelists could not differentiate between the 1X and 1.8X cheeses. Therefore, increasing chymosin and making the composition of the two cheeses more similar allowed production of aged Fetta cheese from milk concentrated up to 1.8X by MF that was not perceived as different from aged feta cheese produced without MF.

Keywords: feta cheese, microfiltration, concentration factor, proteolysis

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72 Assay of Formulation of Fresh Cheese Using Lemon and Orange Juices as Clotting Agents

Authors: F. Bouchouka, S. Benamara

Abstract:

The present work is an attempt to prepare a fresh cheese using lemon juice and lemon juice / orange juice mixture as acidifying / clotting agents. A reference cheese is obtained by acidification with commercial vinegar. The analysis performed on the final product (fat, cheese yield, sensory analysis, rheological and bacteriological properties) confirmed the technical feasibility of a natural cheese, using a lemon juice and / or lemon juice / orange juice mixture as acidifying / clotting agents. In addition, a general acceptance test allowed to select the cheese sample acidified with lemon juice as the best, compared to the two other samples (lemon juice/orange juice acidification and commercial vinegar acidification).

Keywords: clotting agent, fresh cheese, juice, lemon, orange

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71 The Relation Between Protein-Protein and Polysaccharide-Protein Interaction on Aroma Release from Brined Cheese Model

Authors: Mehrnaz Aminifar

Abstract:

The relation between textural parameters and casein network on release of aromatic compounds was investigated over 90-days of ripening. Low DE maltodextrin and WPI were used to modify the textural properties of low fat brined cheese. Hardness, brittleness and compaction of casein network were affected by addition of maltodextrin and WPI. Textural properties and aroma release from cheese texture were affected by interaction of WPI protein-cheese protein and maltodexterin-cheese protein.

Keywords: aroma release, brined cheese, maltodexterin, WPI

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70 Recovery of Value-Added Whey Proteins from Dairy Effluent Using Aqueous Two-Phase System

Authors: Perumalsamy Muthiah, Murugesan Thanapalan

Abstract:

The remains of cheese production contain nutritional value added proteins viz., α-Lactalbumin, β-Lactoglobulin representing 80- 90% of the total volume of milk entering the process. Although several possibilities for cheese-whey exploitation have been assayed, approximately half of world cheese-whey production is not treated but is discarded as effluent. It is necessary to develop an effective and environmentally benign extraction process for the recovery of value added cheese whey proteins. Recently aqueous two phase system (ATPS) have emerged as potential separation process, particularly in the field of biotechnology due to the mild conditions of the process, short processing time, and ease of scale-up. In order to design an ATPS process for the recovery of cheese whey proteins, development of phase diagram and the effect of system parameters such as pH, types and the concentrations of the phase forming components, temperature, etc., on the partitioning of proteins were addressed in order to maximize the recovery of proteins. Some of the practical problems encountered in the application of aqueous two-phase systems for the recovery of Cheese whey proteins were also discussed.

Keywords: aqueous two-phase system, phase diagram, extraction, cheese whey

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69 Effects of Milk Fat Sustitution by Margarine on Iranian uf Brine Cheese

Authors: Mahnaz Manafi Dizaj Yekan, Mostafa Mazaheri Tehrani, Javad Hesari

Abstract:

Physicochemical properties of Ultrafiltered White cheese analogues made with substituting 1/3 and 2/3 of the dairy fat with vegetable fat, margarine, were studied during ripening. Results showed replacement of milk fat by margarine made to more hardness and springiness in cheese samples and overcome to softening of texture as one of the main defects of UF white cheeses. Analysis of Fatty acids Profiles of samples fat by Gas Chromatography revealed cheese analogues samples had higher ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and can led to improve nutritional quality of product. Sensorial characteristics of analogue cheeses were similar to control samples with respect to color but better than control samples in stiffness, while overall acceptance of analogues with 1/3 fat replacement was similar to control cheeses and better than analogue cheeses with 2/3 fat replacement.

Keywords: analogue cheese, uf white cheese, margarine, stiffness, springiness, fatty acids profiles

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68 Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Rutin in Cheddar Cheese

Authors: Haroon Jamshaid Qazi, Namrah Wahid, Sanaullah Iqbal, Raheel Suleman

Abstract:

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Rutin in cheddar cheese. The study was conducted by adding the Rutin in the cheddar cheese in different concentrations according to experimental design, i.e., T1 (20 ppm Rutin), T2 (40 ppm Rutin), T3 (60 ppm Rutin), T4 (80 ppm Rutin). BHT was taken as a positive control at a concentration of 200 ppm, and negative control had neither Rutin nor BHT. The ripening time for cheeses was 90 days at a temperature of 8°C. The results of the various antioxidants assays (Total phenolic contents (TPC) and Antioxidant activity (AA), with storage stability tests (Anisidine value (AV) and Thiobarbituric acid value (TBARS)) performed during different storage intervals 0, 30, 60 and 90 days exhibited that AA in linoleic acid and TPC were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by the addition of rutin to cheese at all concentrations. Moreover, significant reduction in the TBARS values was also observed during the storage period. Rutin also showed a good potential to inhibit the microbial proliferation in the treated samples of cheese. There was a significant decreasing trend seen in total plate count and yeasts and molds count. The sensorial attributes i.e., color, flavor, odor and overall acceptability were increased after adding Rutin to cheddar cheese.

Keywords: cheddar cheese, Rutin, antioxidant, antimicrobial

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67 Microstracture of Iranian Processed Cheese

Authors: R. Ezzati, M. Dezyani, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

The effects of the concentration of trisodium citrate (TSC) emulsifying salt (0.25 to 2.75%) and holding time (0 to 20 min) on the textural, rheological, and microstructural properties of Iranian Processed Cheese Cheddar cheese were studied using a central composite rotatable design. The loss tangent parameter (from small amplitude oscillatory rheology), extent of flow, and melt area (from the Schreiber test) all indicated that the meltability of process cheese decreased with increased concentration of TSC and that holding time led to a slight reduction in meltability. Hardness increased as the concentration of TSC increased. Fluorescence micrographs indicated that the size of fat droplets decreased with an increase in the concentration of TSC and with longer holding times. Acid-base titration curves indicated that the buffering peak at pH 4.8, which is due to residual colloidal calcium phosphate, decreased as the concentration of TSC increased. The soluble phosphate content increased as concentration of TSC increased. However, the insoluble Ca decreased with increasing concentration of TSC. The results of this study suggest that TSC chelated Ca from colloidal calcium phosphate and dispersed casein; the citrate-Ca complex remained trapped within the process cheese matrix. Increasing the concentration of TSC helped to improve fat emulsification and casein dispersion during cooking, both of which probably helped to reinforce the structure of process cheese.

Keywords: Iranian processed cheese, cheddar cheese, emulsifying salt, rheology

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66 Use of Anti-Stick to Reduce Bitterness in Ultra Filtrated Chees-es(Single Packaged)

Authors: B. Khorram, M. Taslikh, R. Sattarzadeh, M. Ghazanfari

Abstract:

Bitterness is one of the most important problems in cheese processing industry all over the world. There are several reasons that bitterness may develop in cheese. With a few exceptions bitterness is generally associated with proteolysis. In this investigation, anti-stick as a neutral substance in proteolysis were considered and studied for reducing the problem. This vast survey was conducted in a big cheese production factory (in Neyshabur) and in the same procedure anti-stick as interested factor in cheeses packaging compared to standard cheeses production, one line productions (65200 packs with anti-stick were tested by 2953 persons for bitterness and another line was included the same procedure with standard cheese. In this investigate: 83% of standard packaging cheeses, compared with only28% of consumers cheese with anti-stick which confirmed bitterness. Although bitterness is generally associated with proteolysis and Microbial factors, Somatic cell, Starters play important role in generating bitterness in ultra filtrated cheeses, but based on the results the other factors such as anti-stick in packaging can be effective methods for reducing and removing unfavorable bitterness in cheese production.

Keywords: bitterness, uf cheese, anti-stick, single packaged

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65 Evaluation of Lactobacillus helveticus as an Adjunct Culture for Removal of Bitterness in Iranian White-Brined Cheese

Authors: F. Nejati, Sh. Dokhani

Abstract:

Bitterness is a flavor defect encountered in some cheeses, such as Iranian white brined cheese and is responsible for reducing acceptability of the cheeses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an adjunct culture on removal of bitterness fro, Iranian white-brined cheese. The chemical and proteolysis characteristics of the cheese were also monitored. Bitter cheeses were made using overdose of clotting enzyme with and without L. helveticus CH-1 as an adjunct culture. Cheese made with normal doses of clotting enzyme was used as the control. Adjunct culture was applied in two different forms: attenuated and non-attenuated. Proteolysis was assessed by measuring the amount of water soluble nitrogen, 12% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen and total free amino acids during ripening. A taste panel group also evaluated the cheeses at the end of ripening period. Results of the statistical analysis showed that the adjunct caused considerable proteolysis and the level of water soluble nitrogen and 12% soluble nitrogen fractions were found to be significantly higher in the treatment involving L. helveticus (respectively P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Regarding to organoleptic evaluations, the non-shocked adjunct culture caused reduction in bitterness and enhancement of flavor in cheese.

Keywords: bitterness, Iranian white brined cheese, Lactobacillus helveticus, ripening

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64 Lactobacillus Helveticus as an Adjunct Culture for Removal of Bitterness in White-Brined Cheese

Authors: Fatemeh Nejati, Shahram Dokhani

Abstract:

Bitterness is a flavor defect encountered in some cheeses, such as Iranian white brined cheese and is responsible for reducing acceptability of the cheeses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an adjunct culture on removal of bitterness fro, Iranian white-brined cheese. The chemical and proteolysis characteristics of the cheese were also monitored. Bitter cheeses were made using overdose of clotting enzyme with and without L. helveticus CH-1 as an adjunct culture. Cheese made with normal doses of clotting enzyme was used as the control. Adjunct culture was applied in two different forms: attenuated and non-attenuated. Proteolysis was assessed by measuring the amount of water soluble nitrogen, 12% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen and total free amino acids during ripening. A taste panel group also evaluated the cheeses at the end of ripening period. Results of the statistical analysis showed that the adjunct caused considerable proteolysis and the level of water soluble nitrogen and 12% soluble nitrogen fractions were found to be significantly higher in the treatment involving L. helveticus (respectively P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Regarding to organoleptic evaluations, the non-shocked adjunct culture caused reduction in bitterness and enhancement of flavor in cheese.

Keywords: Bitterness, Iranian white brined Cheese, Lactobacillus helveticus, Ripening

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63 Iranian Processed Cheese under Effect of Emulsifier Salts and Cooking Time in Process

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati bbelvirdi, M. Shakerian, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

Sodium Hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is commonly used as an Emulsifying Salt (ES) in process cheese, although rarely as the sole ES. It appears that no published studies exist on the effect of SHMP concentration on the properties of process cheese when pH is kept constant; pH is well known to affect process cheese functionality. The detailed interactions between the added phosphate, Casein (CN), and indigenous Ca phosphate are poorly understood. We studied the effect of the concentration of SHMP (0.25-2.75%) and holding time (0-20 min) on the textural and Rheological properties of pasteurized process Cheddar cheese using a central composite rotatable design. All cheeses were adjusted to pH 5.6. The meltability of process cheese (as indicated by the decrease in loss tangent parameter from small amplitude oscillatory rheology, degree of flow, and melt area from the Schreiber test) decreased with an increase in the concentration of SHMP. Holding time also led to a slight reduction in meltability. Hardness of process cheese increased as the concentration of SHMP increased. Acid-base titration curves indicated that the buffering peak at pH 4.8, which is attributable to residual colloidal Ca phosphate, was shifted to lower pH values with increasing concentration of SHMP. The insoluble Ca and total and insoluble P contents increased as concentration of SHMP increased. The proportion of insoluble P as a percentage of total (indigenous and added) P decreased with an increase in ES concentration because of some of the (added) SHMP formed soluble salts. The results of this study suggest that SHMP chelated the residual colloidal Ca phosphate content and dispersed CN; the newly formed Ca-phosphate complex remained trapped within the process cheese matrix, probably by cross-linking CN. Increasing the concentration of SHMP helped to improve fat emulsification and CN dispersion during cooking, both of which probably helped to reinforce the structure of process cheese.

Keywords: Iranian processed cheese, emulsifying salt, rheology, texture

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62 Biogenic Amines Production during RAS Cheese Ripening

Authors: Amr Amer

Abstract:

Cheeses are among those high-protein-containing foodstuffs in which enzymatic and microbial activities cause the formation of biogenic amines from amino acids decarboxylation. The amount of biogenic amines in cheese may act as a useful indicator of the hygienic quality of the product. In other words, their presence in cheese is related to its spoilage and safety. Formation of biogenic amines during Ras cheese (Egyptian hard cheese) ripening was investigated for 4 months. Three batches of Ras cheese were manufactured using Egyptian traditional method. From each batch, Samples were collected at 1, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after cheese manufacture. The concentrations of biogenic amines (Tyramine, Histamine, Cadaverine and Tryptamine) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There was a significant increased (P<0.05) in Tyramine levels from 4.34± 0.07 mg|100g in the first day of storage till reached 88.77± 0.14 mg|100g at a 120-day of storage. Also, Histamine and Cadaverine levels had the same increased pattern of Tyramine reaching 64.94± 0.10 and 28.28± 0.08 mg|100g in a 120- day of storage, respectively. While, there was a fluctuation in the concentration of Tryptamine level during ripening period as it decreased from 3.24± 0.06 to 2.66± 0.11 mg|100g at 60-day of storage then reached 5.38±0.08 mg|100g in a 120- day of storage. Biogenic amines can be formed in cheese during production and storage: many variables, as pH, salt concentration, bacterial activity as well as moisture, storage temperature and ripening time, play a relevant role in their formation. Comparing the obtained results with the recommended standard by Food and Drug Administration "FDA" (2001), High levels of biogenic amines in various Ras cheeses consumed in Egypt exceeded the permissible value (10 mg%) which seemed to pose a threat to public health. In this study, presence of high concentrations of biogenic amines (Tyramine, Histamine, cadaverine and Tryptamine) in Egyptian Ras cheeses reflects the bad hygienic conditions under which they produced and stored. Accordingly, the levels of biogenic amines in different cheeses should be come in accordance with the safe permissible limit recommended by FDA to ensure human safety.

Keywords: Ras cheese, biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, cadaverine

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61 Effects of Spray Dryer Atomizer Speed on Casein Micelle Size in Whole Fat Milk Powder and Physicochemical Properties of White Cheese

Authors: Mohammad Goli, Akram Sharifi, Mohammad Yousefi Jozdani, Seyed Ali Mortazavi

Abstract:

An industrial spray dryer was used, and the effects of atomizer speed on the physicochemical properties of milk powder, the textural and sensory characteristics of white cheese made from this milk powder, were evaluated. For this purpose, whole milk was converted into powder by using three different speeds (10,000, 11,000, and 12,000 rpm). Results showed that with increasing atomizer speed in the spray dryer, the average size of casein micelle is significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas no significant effect is observed on the chemical properties of milk powder. White cheese characteristics indicated that with increasing atomizer speed, texture parameters, such as hardness, mastication, and gumminess, were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Sensory evaluation also revealed that cheese samples prepared with dried milk produced at 12,000 rpm were highly accepted by panelists. Overall, the findings suggested that 12,000 rpm is the optimal atomizer speed for milk powder production.

Keywords: spray drying, powder technology, atomizer speed, particle size, white cheese physical properties

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60 Influence of Race and Lactation Stage on the Composition of Traditional Cheese Goat Type Kamaria Manufactured by Protease of Original Replacement Goat, Statistical Approach

Authors: Bounmediene Farida, Nouani Abdelouahab, Bellal Mouloud

Abstract:

The present study examined the influence of two production parameters namely genetic factor (race) and physiological factors (stage of lactation) on the composition of the traditional goat cheese made using the enzyme extract of caprine origin and commercial rennet. The results obtained show that the goat cheese of the Alpine race is richer in fat and protein than Saanen and Local breeds. Similar variations were observed depending on the stage of lactation for the third stage. Thus, analysis of the products obtained show that there is no difference in quality between the cheeses obtained with rennet and those obtained with goat coagulase. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) made from individuals (races and stages of lactation) and variables (physicochemical parameters goat cheese) divides people into two groups: The first group includes cheeses races Alpine, Saanen and local third stages of lactation. This group corresponds to samples of the richest cheese in a useful matter. The second group includes cheeses from the three races in the second stage of lactation. This group corresponds to cheeses that have low contents in a useful matter.

Keywords: goat cheese, goat coagulase, rennet, coagulation

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59 Properties Soft Cheese as Diversification of Dangke: A Natural Cheese of South Sulawesi Indonesia

Authors: Ratmawati Malaka, Effendi Abustam, Kusumandari Indah Prahesti, Sudirman Baco

Abstract:

Dangke is natural cheese from Enrekang South Sulawesi, Indonesia produced through aglutination buffalo milk, cow, goat or sheep using the sap of papaya (Carica papaya). Dangke has been widely known in South Sulawesi but this soft cheese product diversification by using passion fruit juice as milk clotting agents has not been used. Passion fruit juice has a high acidity with a pH of around 4 - 4.5 and has a proteolytic enzyme, so that it can be used to agglutinate milk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature Dangke using passion fruit juice as coagulate milk. Dangke made by 10 lt of raw milk by heating at a temperature of 73oC with coagulant passion fruit juice (7.5% and 10%), and added 1% salt. Curd clot and then be formed using a coconut shell, is then pressed until the cheese is compact. The cheese is then observed for 28 days ripening at a temperature of about 5 ° C. Dangke then studied to violence, pH, fat levels and microstructure. Hardness is determined using CD-shear Force, pH is measured using a pH meter Hanna, and fat concentrations were analyzed with methods of proximate. Microstructure viewed using a light microscope with magnification 1000 x. The results showed that the levels of clotting material very significant influence on hardness, pH, and lipid levels. Maturation increase the hardness but lower the pH, the level of fat soft cheese with an average Dangke respectively 21.4% and 30.5% on 7.5% addition of passion fruit juice and 10%. Dangke violence is increasing with the increasing maturation time (1.38 to 3.73 kg / cm), but Dangke pH was decreased by the increase in storage maturation (5.34 to 4.1). Microktrukture cheeses coagulated with 10% of the passion fruit are very firmer and compact with a full globular fat of 7.5%. But the sensory properties of the soft cheese similar in both treatment. The manufacturing process with the addition of coagulant passion fruit juice on making Dangke affect hardness, pH, fat content and microstructure during storage at 5 ° C for 1 d - 28 d.

Keywords: dangke, passion fruits, microstructure, cheese

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58 The Use of Microbiological Methods to Reduce Aflatoxin M1 in Cheese

Authors: Bruna Goncalves, Jennifer Henck, Romulo Uliana, Eliana Kamimura, Carlos Oliveira, Carlos Corassin

Abstract:

Studies have shown evidence of human exposure to aflatoxin M1 due to the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products (mainly cheeses). This poses a great risk to public health, since milk and milk products are frequently consumed by a portion of the population considered immunosuppressed, children and the elderly. Knowledge of the negative impacts of aflatoxins on health and economics has led to investigations of strategies to prevent their formation in food, as well as to eliminate, inactivate or reduce the bioavailability of these toxins in contaminated products This study evaluated the effect of microbiological methods using lactic acid bacteria on aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) reduction in Minas Frescal cheese (typical Brazilian product, being among the most consumed cheeses in Brazil) spiked with 1 µg/L AFM1. Inactivated lactic acid bacteria (0,5%, v/v de L. rhamnosus e L. lactis) were added during the cheese production process. Nine cheeses were produced, divided into three treatments: negative controls (without AFM1 or lactic acid bacteria), positive controls (AFM1 only), and lactic acid bacteria + AFM1. Samples of cheese were collected on days 2, 10, 20 and 30 after the date of production and submitted to composition analyses and determination of AFM1 by high-performance liquid chromatography. The reductions of AFM1 in cheese by lactic acid bacteria at the end of the trial indicate a potential application of inactivated lactic acid bacteria in reducing the bioavailability of AFM1 in Minas frescal cheese without physical-chemical and microbiological modifications during the 30-day experimental period. The authors would like to thank São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP (grants #2017/20081-6 and #2017/19683-1).

Keywords: aflatoxin, milk, minas frescal cheese, decontamination

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57 Development of a Miniature Laboratory Lactic Goat Cheese Model to Study the Expression of Spoilage by Pseudomonas Spp. In Cheeses

Authors: Abirami Baleswaran, Christel Couderc, Loubnah Belahcen, Jean Dayde, Hélène Tormo, Gwénaëlle Jard

Abstract:

Cheeses are often reported to be spoiled by Pseudomonas spp., responsible for defects in appearance, texture, taste, and smell, leading to their non-marketing and even their destruction. Despite preventive actions, problems linked to Pseudomonas spp. are difficult to control by the lack of knowledge and control of these contaminants during the cheese manufacturing. Lactic goat cheese producers are not spared by this problem and are looking for solutions to decrease the number of spoiled cheeses. To explore different hypotheses, experiments are needed. However, cheese-making experiments at the pilot scale are expensive and time consuming. Thus, there is a real need to develop a miniature cheeses model system under controlled conditions. In a previous study, several miniature cheese models corresponding to different type of commercial cheeses have been developed for different purposes. The models were, for example, used to study the influence of milk, starters cultures, pathogen inhibiting additives, enzymatic reactions, microflora, freezing process on cheese. Nevertheless, no miniature model was described on the lactic goat cheese. The aim of this work was to develop a miniature cheese model system under controlled laboratory conditions which resembles commercial lactic goat cheese to study Pseudomonas spp. spoilage during the manufacturing and ripening process. First, a protocol for the preparation of miniature cheeses (3.5 times smaller than a commercial one) was designed based on the cheese factorymanufacturing process. The process was adapted from “Rocamadour” technology and involves maturation of pasteurized milk, coagulation, removal of whey by centrifugation, moulding, and ripening in a little scale cellar. Microbiological (total bacterial count, yeast, molds) and physicochemical (pH, saltinmoisture, moisture in fat-free)analyses were performed on four key stages of the process (before salting, after salting, 1st day of ripening, and end of ripening). Factory and miniature cheeses volatilomewere also obtained after full scan Sift-MS cheese analysis. Then, Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from contaminated cheeses were selected on their origin, their ability to produce pigments, and their enzymatic activities (proteolytic, lecithinasic, and lipolytic). Factory and miniature curds were inoculated by spotting selected strains on the cheese surface. The expression of cheese spoilage was evaluated by counting the level of Pseudomonas spp. during the ripening and by visual observation and under UVlamp. The physicochemical and microbiological compositions of miniature cheeses permitted to assess that miniature process resembles factory process. As expected, differences involatilomes were observed, probably due to the fact that miniature cheeses are made usingpasteurized milk to better control the microbiological conditions and also because the little format of cheese induced probably a difference during the ripening even if the humidity and temperature in the cellar were quite similar. The spoilage expression of Pseudomonas spp. was observed in miniature and factory cheeses. It confirms that the proposed model is suitable for the preparation of miniature cheese specimens in the spoilage study of Pseudomonas spp. in lactic cheeses. This kind of model could be deployed for other applications and other type of cheese.

Keywords: cheese, miniature, model, pseudomonas spp, spoilage

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56 Microbiological and Physicochemical Evaluation of Traditional Greek Kopanisti Cheese Produced by Different Starter Cultures

Authors: M. Kazou, A. Gavriil, O. Kalagkatsi, T. Paschos, E. Tsakalidou

Abstract:

Kopanisti cheese is a Greek soft Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese made of raw cow, sheep or goat milk, or mixtures of them, with similar organoleptic characteristics to that of Roquefort cheese. Traditional manufacturing of Kopanisti cheese is limited in small-scale dairies, without the addition of starter cultures. Instead, an amount of over-mature Kopanisti cheese, called Mana Kopanisti, is used to initiate ripening. Therefore, the selection of proper starter cultures and the understanding of the contribution of various microbial groups to its overall quality is crucial for the production of a high-quality final product with standardized organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics. Taking the above into account, the aim of the present study was the investigation of Kopanisti cheese microbiota and its role in cheese quality. For this purpose, four different types of Kopanisti were produced in triplicates, all with pasteurized cow milk, with the addition of (A) the typical mesophilic species Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei used as starters in the production of soft spread cheeses, (B) strains of Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Lactobacillus rennini previously isolated from Kopanisti and Mana Kopanisti, (C) all the species from (A) and (B) as inoculum, and finally (D) the species from (A) and Mana Kopanisti. Physicochemical and microbiological analysis was performed for milk and cheese samples during ripening. Enumeration was performed for major groups of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total mesophilic bacteria, yeasts as well as hygiene indicator microorganisms. Bacterial isolates from all the different LAB groups, apart from enterococci, alongside yeasts isolates, were initially grouped using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and then identified at the species level using 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA region sequencing, respectively. Sensory evaluation was also performed for final cheese samples at the end of the ripening period (35 days). Based on the results of the classical microbiological analysis, the average counts of the total mesophilic bacteria and LAB, apart from enterococci, ranged between 7 and 10 log colony forming unit (CFU) g⁻¹, phychrotrophic bacteria, and yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol (YGC) isolates between 4 and 8 log CFU g⁻¹, while coliforms and enterococci up to 2 log CFU g⁻¹ throughout ripening in cheese samples A, C and D. In contrast, in cheese sample B, the average counts of the total mesophilic bacteria and LAB, apart from enterococci, phychrotrophic bacteria, and YGC isolates ranged between 0 and 10 log CFU g⁻¹ and coliforms and enterococci up to 2 log CFU g⁻¹. Although the microbial counts were not that different among samples, identification of the bacterial and yeasts isolates revealed the complex microbial community structure present in each cheese sample. Differences in the physicochemical characteristics among the cheese samples were also observed, with pH ranging from 4.3 to 5.3 and moisture from 49.6 to 58.0 % in the final cheese products. Interestingly, the sensory evaluation also revealed differences among samples, with cheese sample B ranking first based on the total score. Overall, the combination of these analyses highlighted the impact of different starter cultures on the Kopanisti microbiota as well as on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the final product.

Keywords: Kopanisti cheese, microbiota, classical microbiological analysis, physicochemical analysis

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55 The Effects of in vitro Digestion on Cheese Bioactivity; Comparing Adult and Elderly Simulated in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Models

Authors: A. M. Plante, F. O’Halloran, A. L. McCarthy

Abstract:

By 2050 it is projected that 2 billion of the global population will be more than 60 years old. Older adults have unique dietary requirements and aging is associated with physiological changes that affect appetite, sensory perception, metabolism, and digestion. Therefore, it is essential that foods recommended and designed for older adults promote healthy aging. To assess cheese as a functional food for the elderly, a range of commercial cheese products were selected and compared for their antioxidant properties. Cheese from various milk sources (bovine, goats, sheep) with different textures and fat content, including cheddar, feta, goats, brie, roquefort, halloumi, wensleydale and gouda, were initially digested with two different simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) models. One SGID model represented a validated in vitro adult digestion system and the second model, an elderly SGID, was designed to consider the physiological changes associated with aging. The antioxidant potential of all cheese digestates was investigated using in vitro chemical-based antioxidant assays, (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC)). All adult model digestates had high antioxidant activity across both DPPH ( > 70%) and FRAP ( > 700 µM Fe²⁺/kg.fw) assays. Following in vitro digestion using the elderly SGID model, full-fat red cheddar, low-fat white cheddar, roquefort, halloumi, wensleydale, and gouda digestates had significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) DPPH radical scavenging properties compared to the adult model digestates. Full-fat white cheddar had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity following elderly SGID digestion compared to the adult model digestate, but the difference was not significant. All other cheese digestates from the elderly model were comparable to the digestates from the adult model in terms of radical scavenging activity. The FRAP of all elderly digestates were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the adult digestates. Goats cheese was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in FRAP (718 µM Fe²/kg.fw) compared to all other digestates in the elderly model. TPC levels in the soft cheeses (feta, goats) and low-fat cheeses (red cheddar, white cheddar) were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the elderly digestates compared to the adult digestates. There was no significant difference in TPC levels, between the elderly and adult model for full-fat cheddar (red, white), roquefort, wensleydale, gouda, and brie digestates. Halloumi cheese was the only cheese that was significantly higher in TPC levels following elderly digestion compared to adult digestates. Low fat red cheddar had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) TPC levels compared to all other digestates for both adult and elderly digestive systems. Findings from this study demonstrate that aging has an impact on the bioactivity of cheese, as antioxidant activity and TPC levels were lower, following in vitro elderly digestion compared to the adult model. For older adults, soft cheese, particularly goats cheese, was associated with high radical scavenging and reducing power, while roquefort cheese had low antioxidant activity. Also, elderly digestates of halloumi and low-fat red cheddar were associated with high TPC levels. Cheese has potential as a functional food for the elderly, however, bioactivity can vary depending on the cheese matrix. Funding for this research was provided by the RISAM Scholarship Scheme, Cork Institute of Technology, Ireland.

Keywords: antioxidants, cheese, in-vitro digestion, older adults

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54 The Determination of Contamination Rate of Traditional White Cheese in Behbahan Markets to Coliforms and Pathogenic Escherichia Coli

Authors: Sana Mohammad Jafar, Hossaini Seyahi Zohreh

Abstract:

Infections and food intoxication caused by microbial contamination of food is of major issues in different countries, and diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated food included a large percentage of the country's health problems. Since traditional cheese for cultural reasons, good taste and smell in many parts of the area still has the important place in people's food basket, transmission of pathogenic bacteria could be at risk human health through the consumption of this food. In this study selected randomly 100 samples of 250 grams of traditional cheeses supplied in the city Behbahan market and adjacent to the ice was transferred to the laboratory and microbiological tests were performed immediately. According to the results, from 100 samples tested traditional cheese, 94 samples (94% of samples) were contaminated with coliforms, which of this number 75 samples (75% of samples) the contamination rate was higher than the limit (more than 100 cfu/g). Of the total samples, 36 samples (36% of samples) were contaminated with fecal coliform which of this number 30 samples (30% of samples) were contaminated with Escherichia.coli bacteria. Based on the results of agglutination test,no samples was found positive as pathogenic Escherichia.coli.

Keywords: determination, traditional cheese, Behbahan, Escherichia coli

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53 Chemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of 'Domiati Cheese' Using Strains Isolated from Algerian Goat's Milk

Authors: A. Cheriguene, F. Chougrani

Abstract:

A total of 120 wild lactic acid bacteria were isolated from goat’s milk collected from different areas in Western Algeria. The strains were screened for production and technological properties such as acid production, aminopeptidase activity, autolytic properties, antimicrobial activity, and exopolysaccharide production. In general most tested isolates showed a good biomass separation when collected by centrifugation; as for the production of the lactic acid, results revealed that our strains are weakly acidifying; nevertheless, lactococci showed a best acidifying activity compared to lactobacilli. Aminopeptidase activity was also weak in most strains; but, it was generally higher for lactobacilli compared to lactococci. Autolytic activity was generally higher for most strains, more particularly lactobacilli. Antimicrobial activity was detected in 50% of the isolates, particularly in lactobacilli where 80% of strains tested were able to inhibit the growth of other strains. The survey of the profile of the texture, the proteolysis as well as the development of the flavor in the Domiati cheese made on the basis of our isolated strains have been led during the ripening. The sensory assessment shows that the cheese salted in milk received the best scores in relation to cheese salted after drainage. Textural characteristics, such as hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness decreased in the two treatments during the 60 days of ripening. Otherwise, it has been noted that adhesiveness and adhesive force increased in the cheese salted in milk.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, technological properties, acidification, exopolysaccharide, bacteriocin, textural properties

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52 Control of the Sustainability of Fresh Cheese in Order to Extend the Shelf-Life of the Product

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

Abstract:

The fresh cheese is in the group of perishable food which cannot be kept a long period of time. The study of sustainability have been done in order to extend the shelf-life of the product which was 15 days. According to the plan of sustainability it was defined that 35 samples had to be stored for 30 days at 2°C−6°C and analyzed every 7th day from the day of reception until 30th day. Shelf life of the cheese has expired during the study of sustainability in the period between 15th and 30th day of analyses. Cheese samples were subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analyzes (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and total plate count) according to Serbian state regulation. All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11 290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Bacillus cereus ISO 7932, Staphylococcus aureus ISO 6888-1, and total plate count ISO 4833. Analyses showed that after fifteen days of storage at a temperature defined by the manufacturers and within the product's shelf life, the cheese did not have any noticeable changes in sensory characteristics. Smell and taste are unaffected there was no separation of whey and there was not presence of strange smell or taste. As far as microbiological analyses are concerned neither one pathogen was detected and total plate count was at level of 103 cfu/g. After expiry of shelf life in a period of 15th and 30th day of storage, the analysis showed that there was a separation of whey on the surface. Along the edge of the container was present a dried part of cheese and sour-milky smell and taste were very weakly expressed. Concerning the microbiological analyses there still were not positive results for pathogen microorganisms but the total plate count was at a level of 106cfu/g. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this product cannot have longer shelf life than shelf life which is already defined because there are a sensory changes that would certainly have influence on decision of customers when purchase of this product is concerned.

Keywords: sustainability, fresh cheese, shelf-life, product

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51 Microbial Assessment of Dairy Byproducts in Albania as a Basis for Consumer Safety

Authors: Klementina Puto, Ermelinda Nexhipi, Evi Llaka

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Dairy by-products are a fairly good environment for microorganisms due to their composition for their growth. Microbial populations have a significant impact in the production of cheese, butter, yogurt, etc. in terms of their organoleptic quality and at the same time some also cause their breakdown. In this paper, the microbiological contamination of soft cheese, butter and yogurt produced in the country (domestic) and imported is assessed, as an indicator of hygiene with impact on public health. The study was extended during September 2018-June 2019 and was divided into three periods, September-December, January-March, and April-June. During this study, a total of 120 samples were analyzed, of which 60 samples of cheese and butter locally produced, and 60 samples of imported soft cheese and butter productions. The microbial indicators analyzed are Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. Analyzes have been conducted at the Food Safety Laboratory (FSIV) in Tirana in accordance with EU Regulation 2073/2005. Sampling was performed according to the specific international standards for these products (ISO 6887 and ISO 8261). Sampling and transport of samples were done under sterile conditions. Also, coding of samples was done to preserve the anonymity of subjects. After the analysis, the country's soft cheese products compared to imports were more contaminated with S. aureus and E. coli. Meanwhile, the imported butter samples that were analyzed, resulted within norms compared to domestic ones. Based on the results, it was concluded that the microbial quality of samples of cheese, butter and yogurt analyzed remains a real problem for hygiene in Albania. The study will also serve business operators in Albania to improve their work to ensure good hygiene on the basis of the HACCP plan and to provide a guarantee of consumer health.

Keywords: consumer, health, dairy, by-products, microbial

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50 Effect of Cuminum Cyminum L. Essential Oil on Staphylococcus Aureus during the Manufacture, Ripening and Storage of White Brined Cheese

Authors: Ali Misaghi, Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Ehsan Sadeghi

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern for clinical infection and food borne illness. Humans and most domesticated animals harbor S. aureus, and so we may expect staphylococci to be present in food products of animal origin or in those handled directly by humans, unless heat processing is applied to destroy them. Cuminum cyminum L. has been allocated the topic of some recent studies in addition to its well-documented traditional usage for treatment of toothache, dyspepsia, diarrhea, epilepsy and jaundice. The air-dried seed of the plant was completely immersed in water and subjected to hydro distillation for 3 h, using a clevenger-type apparatus. In this study, the effect of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil (EO) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus in white brined cheese was evaluated. The experiment included different levels of EO (0, 7.5, 15 and 30 mL/ 100 mL milk) to assess their effects on S. aureus count during the manufacture, ripening and storage of Iranian white brined cheese for up to 75 days. The significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effects of EO (even at its lowest concentration) on this organism were observed. The significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect of the EO on S. aureus shown in this study may improve the scope of the EO function in the food industry.

Keywords: cuminum cyminum L. essential oil, staphylococcus aureus, white brined cheese

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49 Effect of Thistle Ecotype in the Physical-Chemical and Sensorial Properties of Serra da Estrela Cheese

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Marlene I. C. Tenreiro, Ana C. Correia, Paulo Barracosa, Paula M. R. Correia

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Serra da Estrela cheese and compare these results with those of the sensory analysis. For the study were taken six samples of Serra da Estrela cheese produced with 6 different ecotypes of thistle in a dairy situated in Penalva do Castelo. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture content, protein, fat, ash, chloride and pH; the physical properties studied were color and texture; and finally a sensory evaluation was undertaken. The results showed moisture varying in the range 40-48%, protein in the range 15-20%, fat between 41-45%, ash between 3.9-5.0% and chlorides varying from 1.2 to 3.0%. The pH varied from 4.8 to 5.4. The textural properties revealed that the crust hardness is relatively low (maximum 7.3 N), although greater than flesh firmness (maximum 1.7 N), and also that these cheeses are in fact soft paste type, with measurable stickiness and intense adhesiveness. The color analysis showed that the crust is relatively light (L* over 50), and with a predominant yellow coloration (b* around 20 or over) although with a slight greenish tone (a* negative). The results of the sensory analysis did not show great variability for most of the attributes measured, although some differences were found in attributes such as crust thickness, crust uniformity, and creamy flesh.

Keywords: chemical composition, color, sensorial analysis, Serra da Estrela cheese, texture

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48 Papain Immobilized Polyurethane Film as an Antimicrobial Food Package

Authors: M. Cynthya, V. Prabhawathi, D. Mukesh

Abstract:

Food contamination occurs during post process handling. This leads to spoilage and growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the food, thereby reducing its shelf life or spreading of food borne diseases. Several methods are tried and one of which is use of antimicrobial packaging. Here, papain, a protease enzyme, is covalently immobilized with the help of glutarldehyde on polyurethane and used as a food wrap to protect food from microbial contamination. Covalent immobilization of papain was achieved at a pH of 7.4; temperature of 4°C; glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5%; incubation time of 24 h; and 50 mg of papain. The formation of -C=N- observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirmed the immobilization of the enzyme on the polymer. Immobilized enzyme retained higher activity than the native free enzyme. The efficacy of this was studied by wrapping it over S. aureus contaminated cottage cheese (paneer) and cheese and stored at a temperature of 4°C for 7 days. The modified film reduced the bacterial contamination by eight folds when compared to the bare film. FTIR also indicates reduction in lipids, sugars and proteins in the biofilm.

Keywords: cheese, papain, polyurethane, Staphylococcus aureus

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47 Sensory Evaluation and Microbiological Properties of Gouda Cheese Affected by Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Essential Oil

Authors: N. Noori, P. Taherkhani, A. Akhondzadeh Basti, H. Gandomi, M. Alimohammadi

Abstract:

Research on natural antimicrobial agents, especially of plant origin, highly noticed in recent years and evaluation of antimicrobial effects of native plants such as Bunium persicum Boiss. is especially important. In the present study, sensory characteristics and microbiological properties of Gouda cheese affected by different concentrations of Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil were investigated. Extraction of the essential oil was performed by hydro distillation. The oil was analyzed by GC using flame ionization (FID) and GC/ MS for detection. The antimicrobial effects were determined against various microbial groups (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, enterococci, mesophilic lactobacilli, enterobacteriaceae, lactococcus and yeasts). Microbial groups were counted during ripening period using plate count on specific culture media. Organoleptic evaluation including teture, flavor, odor, color and total acceptability were determined at the end of aging. According to results, the essential oil yield was 4/1 % ( W/ W). Twenty- six compounds were identified in the oil that concluded 99.7 % of the total oil. The major components of Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil were γ- terpinene- 7- al (26.9 %) and cuminaldehyde (23.3 %). Generally, the increase of Black Cumin essential oil concentration led to reduction in microbial counts in different groups. The maximum antimicrobial effect was seen in yeast that reduced by 2 log compared to the control group at EO concentration of 4µl/ ml at day 90.The minimum reduction was observed in enterobacteriaceae that showed only 0.75 log decreese compared to the control at the same concentration of EO. Addition of EO improved organoleptic properties of Gouda cheese especially in the case of flavor and odor characteristic. However, no significant differences were observed in texture and color between treatment and control groups. Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil could be used as preservative material and flavoring agent in some kinds of food such as cheese and also could be provided consumers health.

Keywords: Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil, Microbiological properties, sensory evaluation, gouda cheese

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46 Effect of Whey Based Film Coatings on Various Properties of Kashar Cheese

Authors: Hawbash Jalil

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of whey protein based films on various properties of kashar cheese were examined. In the study, edible film solutions based on whey protein isolate, whey protein isolate + transglutaminase enzyme and whey protein isolate + chitosan were produced and Kashar cheese samples were coated with these films by dipping method and stored at +4 ºC for 60 days. Chemical, microbiological and textural analyzes were carried out on samples at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage. As a result of the study, the highest dry matter and total nitrogen values were obtained from uncoated control samples This is an indication that the coatings limit water vapor permeability. The highest acidity and pH values obtained from the samples as storage results were 3.33% and 5.86%, respectively, in the control group samples. Both acidity and pH rise in these groups, is a consequence of the buffering of pH changes of hydrolsis products which are as a result of proteolysis occurring in the sample. Nitrogen changes and lipolysis values, which are indicative of the degree of hydrolysis of proteins and triglycerides in kashar cheese, were generally higher in the control group This result is due to limiting the micro organism reproduction by limiting the gas passage of the coatings. Hardness and chewiness values of the textural properties of the samples were significantly reduced in uncoated control samples compared to the coated samples due to maturation. The chitosan film coatings used in the study limited the development of mold yeast until the 30th day but after that did not yield successful results in this respect.

Keywords: chitosan, edible film, transglutaminase, whey protein

Procedia PDF Downloads 120