Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 322

Search results for: ischemic stroke

322 Evaluation of Rehabilitation in Ischemic Stroke

Authors: Amirmohammad Dahouri

Abstract:

Each year, more than 795,000 individuals in the United States grieve a stroke, and by 2030, it is predictable that 4% of the U.S. people will have had a stroke. Ischemic stroke, accounting for about 80% of all strokes, is one of the main causes of disability. The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to help patients return to physical and mental functions and relearn the required aids to living everyday life. This flagging has an adverse effect on patients’ quality of life and affects their daily living activities. In recent years, the rehabilitation of ischemic stroke attractions more attention in the world. A review of the rudimentary perceptions of stroke rehabilitation that are price stressing to all specialists who delicacy patients with stroke. Ideas are made for patients on how to functionally manage daily activities after they have qualified for a stroke. It is vital for home healthcare clinicians to understand the process from acute events to medical equilibrium and rehabilitation to adaptation. Different sources such as Pub Med Google Scholar and science direct have been used and various contemporary articles in this era have been analyzed. The care plan must also foundation actual actions to protect against recurrent stroke, as stroke patients are generally at significant risk for further ischemic or hemorrhagic attacks. Here, we review evidence of rehabilitation in treating post-stroke impairment.

Keywords: rehabilitation, stroke, ischemic, hemorrhagic, brain

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321 Determining of the Performance of Data Mining Algorithm Determining the Influential Factors and Prediction of Ischemic Stroke: A Comparative Study in the Southeast of Iran

Authors: Y. Mehdipour, S. Ebrahimi, A. Jahanpour, F. Seyedzaei, B. Sabayan, A. Karimi, H. Amirifard

Abstract:

Ischemic stroke is one of the common reasons for disability and mortality. The fourth leading cause of death in the world and the third in some other sources. Only 1/3 of the patients with ischemic stroke fully recover, 1/3 of them end in permanent disability and 1/3 face death. Thus, the use of predictive models to predict stroke has a vital role in reducing the complications and costs related to this disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to specify the effective factors and predict ischemic stroke with the help of DM methods. The present study was a descriptive-analytic study. The population was 213 cases from among patients referring to Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) Hospital in Zahedan. Data collection tool was a checklist with the validity and reliability confirmed. This study used DM algorithms of decision tree for modeling. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-19 and SPSS Modeler 14.2. The results of the comparison of algorithms showed that CHAID algorithm with 95.7% accuracy has the best performance. Moreover, based on the model created, factors such as anemia, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, transient ischemic attacks, coronary artery disease, and atherosclerosis are the most effective factors in stroke. Decision tree algorithms, especially CHAID algorithm, have acceptable precision and predictive ability to determine the factors affecting ischemic stroke. Thus, by creating predictive models through this algorithm, will play a significant role in decreasing the mortality and disability caused by ischemic stroke.

Keywords: data mining, ischemic stroke, decision tree, Bayesian network

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320 Ischemic Stroke Detection in Computed Tomography Examinations

Authors: Allan F. F. Alves, Fernando A. Bacchim Neto, Guilherme Giacomini, Marcela de Oliveira, Ana L. M. Pavan, Maria E. D. Rosa, Diana R. Pina

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Stroke is a worldwide concern, only in Brazil it accounts for 10% of all registered deaths. There are 2 stroke types, ischemic (87%) and hemorrhagic (13%). Early diagnosis is essential to avoid irreversible cerebral damage. Non-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) is one of the main diagnostic techniques used due to its wide availability and rapid diagnosis. Detection depends on the size and severity of lesions and the time spent between the first symptoms and examination. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a subjective method that increases the detection rate. The aim of this work was to implement an image segmentation system to enhance ischemic stroke and to quantify the area of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke lesions in CT scans. We evaluated 10 patients with NECT examinations diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Analyzes were performed in two axial slices, one at the level of the thalamus and basal ganglion and one adjacent to the top edge of the ganglionic structures with window width between 80 and 100 Hounsfield Units. We used different image processing techniques such as morphological filters, discrete wavelet transform and Fuzzy C-means clustering. Subjective analyzes were performed by a neuroradiologist according to the ASPECTS scale to quantify ischemic areas in the middle cerebral artery region. These subjective analysis results were compared with objective analyzes performed by the computational algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that the morphological filters actually improve the ischemic areas for subjective evaluations. The comparison in area of the ischemic region contoured by the neuroradiologist and the defined area by computational algorithm showed no deviations greater than 12% in any of the 10 examination tests. Although there is a tendency that the areas contoured by the neuroradiologist are smaller than those obtained by the algorithm. These results show the importance of a computer aided diagnosis software to assist neuroradiology decisions, especially in critical situations as the choice of treatment for ischemic stroke.

Keywords: ischemic stroke, image processing, CT scans, Fuzzy C-means

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319 Assessment of the Neuroprotective Effect of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

Authors: A. Alhusban, M. Alqawasmeh, F. Alfawares

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Introduction: Diabetes is a chronic health problem and a major risk factor of stroke. A number of therapeutic modalities exist for diabetes management. It’s still unknown whether the different oral hypoglycemic agents would ameliorate the detrimental effect of diabetes on stroke severity. The objective of this work is to assess the effect of pretreatment with oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin and their combination on stroke severity at presentation. Patients and Methods: Patients admitted to the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH)-Jordan with ischemic stroke between January 2015 and December 2016 were evaluated and their comorbid diseases, treatment on admission and their neurologic severity was assessed using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were documented. Stroke severity was compared for non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients treated with different antidiabetic agents. Results: Data from 324 patients with acute stroke was documented. The median age of participants was 69 years. Diabetes was documented in about 50% of the patients. Multinomial regression analysis identified diabetes treatment status as an independent predictor of neurological severity of stroke (p=0.032). Patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents had a significantly lower NIHSS as compared to nondiabetic patients and insulin treated patients (p < 0.02). The positive effect of oral hypoglycemic agents was blunted by insulin co-treatment. Insulin did not alter the severity of stroke as compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Oral hypoglycemic agents may reduce the severity of neurologic deficit of ischemic stroke and may have neuroprotective effect.

Keywords: diabetes, stroke, neuroprotection, oral hypoglycemic agents

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318 A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Routinely Performed Transthoracic Echocardiography in the Setting of Acute Ischemic Stroke

Authors: John Rothrock

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Background: The role of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute ischemic stroke remains controversial. While many stroke subspecialist reserve TTE for selected patients, others consider the procedure obligatory for most or all acute stroke patients. This study was undertaken to assess the cost vs. benefit of 'routine' TTE. Methods: We examined a consecutive series of patients who were admitted to a single institution in 2019 for acute ischemic stroke and underwent TTE. We sought to determine the frequency with which the results of TTE led to a new diagnosis of cardioembolism, redirected therapeutic cerebrovascular management, and at least potentially influenced the short or long-term clinical outcome. We recorded the direct cost associated with TTE. Results: There were 1076 patients in the study group, all of whom underwent TTE. TTE identified an unsuspected source of possible/probable cardioembolism in 62 patients (6%), confirmed an initially suspected source (primarily endocarditis) in an additional 13 (1%) and produced findings that stimulated subsequent testing diagnostic of possible/probable cardioembolism in 7 patients ( < 1%). TTE results potentially influenced the clinical outcome in a total of 48 patients (4%). With a total direct cost of $1.51 million, the mean cost per case wherein TTE results potentially influenced the clinical outcome in a positive manner was $31,375. Diagnostically and therapeutically, TTE was most beneficial in 67 patients under the age of 55 who presented with 'cryptogenic' stroke, identifying patent foramen ovale in 21 (31%); closure was performed in 19. Conclusions: The utility of TTE in the setting of acute ischemic stroke is modest, with its yield greatest in younger patients with cryptogenic stroke. Given the greater sensitivity of transesophageal echocardiography in detecting PFO and evaluating the aortic arch, TTE’s role in stroke diagnosis would appear to be limited.

Keywords: cardioembolic, cost-benefit, stroke, TTE

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317 Modelling Sudden Deaths from Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

Authors: Y. S. Yusoff, G. Streftaris, H. R Waters

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Death within 30 days is an important factor to be looked into, as there is a significant risk of deaths immediately following or soon after, Myocardial Infarction (MI) or stroke. In this paper, we will model the deaths within 30 days following a Myocardial Infarction (MI) or stroke in the UK. We will see how the probabilities of sudden deaths from MI or stroke have changed over the period 1981-2000. We will model the sudden deaths using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM), fitted using the R statistical package, under a Binomial distribution for the number of sudden deaths. We parameterize our model using the extensive and detailed data from the Framingham Heart Study, adjusted to match UK rates. The results show that there is a reduction for the sudden deaths following a MI over time but no significant improvement for sudden deaths following a stroke.

Keywords: sudden deaths, myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemic heart disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
316 Assessment of the Association between Serum Thrombospondin-1 Levels at the Time of Admission and the Severity of Neurological Deficit in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

Authors: A. Alhusban, M. Alqawasmeh, F. Alfawares

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Introduction: Despite improvements in stroke management, it remains the leading cause of disability worldwide. It has been suggested that enhancing brain angiogenesis after stroke will improve stroke outcome. Promoting post stroke angiogenesis requires the upregulation of angiogenic factors with a simultaneous reduction of anti-angiogenic factors. Thrombospondin-1 is the main anti-angiogenic protein in the living cells. Counterintuitively, it has been shown that animals with Thrombospondin-1 knockdown will have better stroke outcome. Data about the clinical significance of Thrombspondin-1 levels at the time of admission is still lacking. The objective of this work is to assess the association between serum Thrombospondin-1 levels measured at the time of admission and baseline neurologic severity after stroke. Patients and Methods: Blood samples were collected from patients admitted to the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) with ischemic stroke at the time of admission and serum Thrombopsondin-1 levels were measured using ELISA. Patients neurologic severity was evaluated using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Results: Samples from 50 patients admitted between January 2016 and December 2016 were collected. The median age of participants was 68 years and the median NIHSS was 3. Multinomial regression identified serum Thrombospondin-1 as an independent predictor of stroke outcome (p=0.003). Baseline serum Thrombsopondin-1 was negatively associated with NIHSS at the time of admission (spearman rho correlation coefficient=0.272, p=0.032). Conclusion: Serum Thrombospondin-1 at the time of admission may be a useful marker of stroke severity that predicts more severe neurologic severity.

Keywords: thrombospondin, stroke, neuroprotection, biomarkers

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315 Chitosan Coated Liposome Incorporated Cyanobacterial Pigment for Nasal Administration in the Brain Stroke

Authors: Kyou Hee Shim, Hwa Sung Shin

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When a thrombolysis agent is administered to treat ischemic stroke, excessive reactive oxygen species are generated due to a sudden provision of oxygen and occurs secondary damage cell necrosis. Thus, it is necessary to administrate adjuvant as well as thrombolysis agent to protect and reduce damaged tissue. As cerebral blood vessels have specific structure called blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is not easy to transfer substances from blood to tissue. Therefore, development of a drug carrier is required to increase drug delivery efficiency to brain tissue. In this study, cyanobacterial pigment from the blue-green algae known for having neuroprotective effect as well as antioxidant effect was nasally administrated for bypassing BBB. In order to deliver cyanobacterial pigment efficiently, the nano-sized liposome was used as a carrier. Liposomes were coated with a positive charge of chitosan since negative residues are present at the nasal mucosa the first gateway of nasal administration. Characteristics of liposome including morphology, size and zeta potential were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zeta analyzer. As a result of cytotoxic test, the liposomes were not harmful. Also, being administered a drug to the ischemic stroke animal model, we could confirm that the pharmacological effect of the pigment delivered by chitosan coated liposome was enhanced compared to that of non-coated liposome. Consequently, chitosan coated liposome could be considered as an optimized drug delivery system for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Keywords: ischemic stroke, cyanobacterial pigment, liposome, chitosan, nasal administration

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314 Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders in Patients with Precuneal Infarcts

Authors: F. Ece Cetin, H. Nezih Ozdemir, Emre Kumral

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Ischemic stroke of the precuneal cortex (PC) alone is extremely rare. This study aims to evaluate the clinical, neurocognitive, and behavioural characteristics of isolated PC infarcts. We assessed neuropsychological and behavioral findings in 12 patients with isolated PC infarct among 3800 patients with ischemic stroke. To determine the most frequently affected brain locus in patients, we first overlapped the ischemic area of patients with specific cognitive disorders and patients without specific cognitive disorders. Secondly, we compared both overlap maps using the 'subtraction plot' function of MRIcroGL. Patients showed various types of cognitive disorders. All patients experienced more than one category of cognitive disorder, except for two patients with only one cognitive disorder. Lesion topographical analysis showed that damage within the anterior precuneal region might lead to consciousness disorders (25%), self-processing impairment (42%), visuospatial disorders (58%), and lesions in the posterior precuneal region caused episodic and semantic memory impairment (33%). The whole precuneus is involved in at least one body awareness disorder. The cause of the stroke was cardioembolism in 5 patients (42%), large artery disease in 3 (25%), and unknown in 4 (33%). This study showed a wide variety of neuropsychological and behavioural disorders in patients with precuneal infarct. Future studies are needed to achieve a proper definition of the function of the precuneus in relation to the extended cortical areas. Precuneal cortex region infarcts have been found to predict a source of embolism from the large arteries or heart.

Keywords: cognition, pericallosal artery, precuneal cortex, ischemic stroke

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313 Haematological Correlates of Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack: Lessons Learned

Authors: Himali Gunasekara, Baddika Jayaratne

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Haematological abnormalities are known to cause Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA). The identification of haematological correlates plays an important role in a management and secondary prevention. The objective of this study was to describe haematological correlates of stroke and their association between stroke profile. The haematological correlates screened were Lupus Anticoagulant, Dysfibroginemia, Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinurea (PNH), Sickle cell disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE) and Myeloploriferative Neoplasms (MPN). A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in a sample of 152 stroke patients referred to haematology department of National Hospital of Sri Lanka for thrombophilia screening. Different tests were performed to assess each hematological correlate. Diluted Russels Viper Venom Test and Kaolin clotting time were done to assess Lupus anticoagulant. Full blood count (FBC), blood picture, Sickling test and High Performance Liquid Chromatography were the tests used for detection of Sickle cell disease. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinurea was assessed by FBC, blood picture, Ham test and Flowcytometry. FBC, blood picture, Janus Kinase 2 (V617F) mutation analysis, erythropoietin level and bone marrow examination were done to look for the Myeloproliferative neoplasms. Dysfibrinogenaemia was assessed by TT, fibrinogen antigen test, clot observation and clauss test. Anti nuclear antibody test was done to look for systemic lupus erythematosis. Among study sample, 134 patients had strokes and only 18 had TIA. The recurrence of stroke/TIA was observed in 13.2% of patients. The majority of patients (94.7%) have had radiological evidence of thrombotic event. One fourth of patients had past thrombotic events while 12.5% had family history of thrombosis. Out of haematological correlates screened, Lupus anticoagulant was the commonest haematological correlate (n=16 ) and dysfibrigonaemia(n=11 ) had the next high prevalence. One patient was diagnosed with Essential thrombocythaemia and one with SLE. None of the patients were positive for screening tests done for sickle cell disease and PNH. The Haematological correlates were identified in 19% of our study sample. Among stroke profile only presence of past thrombotic history was statistically significantly associated with haematological disorders (P= 0.04). Therefore, hematological disorders appear to be an important factor in etiological work-up of stroke patients particularly in patients with past thrombotic events.

Keywords: stroke, transient ischemic attack, hematological correlates, hematological disorders

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312 Lower Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Hormone Therapy Users with Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine

Authors: Shu-Hui Wen, Wei-Chuan Chang, Hsien-Chang Wu

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Background: Little is known about the benefits and risks of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in conditions related to hormone therapy (HT) use on the risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study is to explore the risk of IS in menopausal women treated with HT and CHM. Materials and methods: A total of 32,441 menopausal women without surgical menopause aged 40- 65 years were selected from 2003 to 2010 using the 2-million random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. According to the medication usage of HT and CHM, we divided the current and recent users into two groups: an HT use-only group (n = 4,989) and an HT/CHM group (n = 9,265). Propensity-score matching samples (4,079 pairs) were further created to deal with confounding by indication. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of IS during HT or CHM treatment were estimated by the robust Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The incidence rate of IS in the HT/CHM group was significantly lower than in the HT group (4.5 vs. 12.8 per 1000 person-year, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis results indicated that additional CHM use was significant with a lower risk of IS (HR = 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.43). Further subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses had similar findings. Conclusion: We found that combined use of HT and CHM was associated with a lower risk for IS than HT use only. Further study is needed to examine possible mechanism underlying this association.

Keywords: Chinese herbal medicine, hormone therapy, ischemic stroke, menopause

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311 A Promising Thrombolytic and Anticoagulant Serine Protease Purified from Lug Worms Inhabiting Tidal Flats

Authors: Hye Jin Kim, Hwa Sung Shin

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Ischemic stroke means the caused brain damage due to neurological defects, occurring occlusion of cerebral vascular resulting in thrombus or embolism. t-PA (tissue Plasminogen Activator) is the only thrombolytic agent passed the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). However, t-PA directly dissolves the thrombus (direct activity) through fibrinolysis, showing side effects such as re-occlusion. In this study, we evaluated the thrombolytic activities of the serine protease extracted from lugworms inhabiting tidal flats. The new serine protease identified as 38 kDa by SDS-PAGE was not toxic to brain endothelial cells line (hCMEC/D3). Also, the plasmin synthesis inhibition activity (indirect activity) of the new serine protease was confirmed through fibrin zymography assay and fibrin plate assay. It was higher than direct activity as compared to u-PA (urokinase Plasminogen Activator). The activities were found to be maintained at a wide range of temperature (4-70 ℃) and pH 7-10 compared to previous thrombolytic agents from the azocasein assay. In addition, the new serine protease has shown anticoagulant activity from fibrinogenolytic activity assay. In conclusion, the serine protease in lug worms inhabiting the tidal flats could be considered a promising thrombolytic candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

Keywords: alkaline serine protease, bifunctional thrombolytic activity, fibrinolytic activity, ischemic stroke, lug worms

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310 Biomarkers in a Post-Stroke Population: Allied to Health Care in Brazil

Authors: Michael Ricardo Lang, AdriéLle Costa, Ivana Iesbik, Karine Haag, Leonardo Trindade Buffara, Oscar Reimann Junior, Chelin Auswaldt Steclan

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Stroke affects not only the individual, but has significant impacts on the social and family context. Therefore, it is necessary to know the peculiarities of each region, in order to contribute to regional public health policies effectively. Thus, the present study discusses biomarkers in a post-stroke population, admitted to a stroke unit (U-stroke) of reference in the southern region of Brazil. Biomarkers were analyzed, such as age, length of stay, mortality rate, survival time, risk factors and family history of stroke in patients after ischemic stroke. In this studied population, comparing men and women, it was identified that men were more affected than women, and the average age of women affected was higher, as they also had the highest mortality rate and the shortest hospital stay. The risk factors identified here were according to the global scenario; with SAH being the most frequent and those associated with sedentary lifestyle in women the most frequent (dyspilipidemia, heart disease and obesity). In view of this, the importance of studies that characterize populations regionally is evident, strengthening the strategic planning of policies in favor of health care.

Keywords: biomarkers, sex, stroke, stroke unit, population

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309 Understanding ASPECTS of Stroke: Interrater Reliability between Emergency Medicine Physician and Radiologist in a Rural Setup

Authors: Vineel Inampudi, Arjun Prakash, Joseph Vinod

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Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the interrater reliability in grading ASPECTS score, between emergency medicine physician at first contact and radiologist among patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 86 acute ischemic stroke cases referred to the Department of Radiodiagnosis during November 2014 to January 2016. The imaging (plain CT scan) was performed using GE Bright Speed Elite 16 Slice CT Scanner. ASPECTS score was calculated separately by an emergency medicine physician and radiologist. Interrater reliability for total and dichotomized ASPECTS (≥ 6 and < 6) scores were assessed using statistical analysis (ICC and Cohen ĸ coefficients) on SPSS software (v17.0). Results: Interrater agreement for total and dichotomized ASPECTS was substantial (ICC 0.79 and Cohen ĸ 0.68) between the emergency physician and radiologist. Mean difference in ASPECTS between the two readers was only 0.15 with standard deviation of 1.58. No proportionality bias was detected. Bland Altman plot was constructed to demonstrate the distribution of ASPECT differences between the two readers. Conclusion: Substantial interrater agreement was noted in grading ASPECTS between emergency medicine physician at first contact and radiologist thereby confirming its robustness even in a rural setting.

Keywords: ASPECTS, computed tomography, MCA territory, stroke

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308 Virtual Reality for Post COVID-19 Stroke: A Case Report

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar

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COVID-19 has been associated with stroke and neurological complications. The patient was a 59-year- old male who presented with sudden left hemiparesis and diplopia due to cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) on 28/03/2020. The COVID-19 test was positive. Multislice CT (MSCT) showed ischemic infarction. He underwent surgical sinectomy 9 days after admission. Physiotherapy began for him in August 2020. Our game-based virtual reality (VR) technology developed for stroke patients was based on upper extremity exercises and function for stroke. After 6 weeks of VR therapy plus conventional physiotherapy exercises (18 sessions, three times per week, 60 minutes each session), there were significant improvements in Brunnstrom Motor Recovery Stage (from “4” to “5”), Fugl-Meyer Scale score of upper extremity section (from 49 to 54), and Modified Barthel Index (from15 to 18). There were no adverse effects. This case with stroke post-COVID-19 due to the CST showed the usefulness of VR therapy used as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy in improving affected upper extremity.

Keywords: COVID-19, stroke, virtual reality, rehabilitation

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307 The Use of Stroke Journey Map in Improving Patients' Perceived Knowledge in Acute Stroke Unit

Authors: C. S. Chen, F. Y. Hui, B. S. Farhana, J. De Leon

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Introduction: Stroke can lead to long-term disability, affecting one’s quality of life. Providing stroke education to patient and family members is essential to optimize stroke recovery and prevent recurrent stroke. Currently, nurses conduct stroke education by handing out pamphlets and explaining their contents to patients. However, this is not always effective as nurses have varying levels of knowledge and depth of content discussed with the patient may not be consistent. With the advancement of information technology, health education is increasingly being disseminated via electronic software and studies have shown this to have benefitted patients. Hence, a multi-disciplinary team consisting of doctors, nurses and allied health professionals was formed to create the stroke journey map software to deliver consistent and concise stroke education. Research Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of using a stroke journey map software in improving patients’ perceived knowledge in the acute stroke unit during hospitalization. Methods: Patients admitted to the acute stroke unit were given stroke journey map software during patient education. The software consists of 31 interactive slides that are brightly coloured and 4 videos, based on input provided by the multi-disciplinary team. Participants were then assessed with pre-and-post survey questionnaires before and after viewing the software. The questionnaire consists of 10 questions with a 5-point Likert scale which sums up to a total score of 50. The inclusion criteria are patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke and are cognitively alert and oriented. This study was conducted between May 2017 to October 2017. Participation was voluntary. Results: A total of 33 participants participated in the study. The results demonstrated that the use of a stroke journey map as a stroke education medium was effective in improving patients’ perceived knowledge. A comparison of pre- and post-implementation data of stroke journey map revealed an overall mean increase in patients’ perceived knowledge from 24.06 to 40.06. The data is further broken down to evaluate patients’ perceived knowledge in 3 domains: (1) Understanding of disease process; (2) Management and treatment plans; (3) Post-discharge care. Each domain saw an increase in mean score from 10.7 to 16.2, 6.9 to 11.9 and 6.6 to 11.7 respectively. Project Impact: The implementation of stroke journey map has a positive impact in terms of (1) Increasing patient’s perceived knowledge which could contribute to greater empowerment of health; (2) Reducing need for stroke education material printouts making it environmentally friendly; (3) Decreasing time nurses spent on giving education resulting in more time to attend to patients’ needs. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the benefit of using stroke journey map as a platform for stroke education. Overall, it has increased patients’ perceived knowledge in understanding their disease process, the management and treatment plans as well as the discharge process.

Keywords: acute stroke, education, ischemic stroke, knowledge, stroke

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306 Blood Pressure Level, Targeted Blood Pressure Control Rate, and Factors Related to Blood Pressure Control in Post-Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

Authors: Nannapus Saramad, Rewwadee Petsirasan, Jom Suwanno

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Background: This retrospective study design was to describe average blood pressure, blood pressure level, target blood pressure control rate post-stroke BP control in the year following discharge from Sichon hospital, Sichon District, Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The secondary data analysis was employed from the patient’s health records with patient or caregiver interview. A total of 232 eligible post-acute ischemic strokes in the year following discharge (2017-2018) were recruited. Methods: Data analyses were applied to identify the relationship values of single variables were determined through univariate analyses: The Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, the variables found to have a p-value < 0.2 were analyzed by the binary logistic regression Results: Most of the patients in this study were men 61.6%, an average age of 65.4 ± 14.8 years. Systolic blood pressure levels were in the grade 1-2 hypertension and diastolic pressure at optimal and normal at all times during the initial treatment through the present. The results revealed 25% among the groups under the age of 60 achieved BP control; 36.3% for older than 60 years group; and 27.9% for diabetic group. The multivariate analysis revealed the final relationship of four significant variables: 1) receiving calcium-channel blocker (p =.027); 2) medication adherence of antihypertensive (p = .024) 3) medication adherence of antiplatelet ( p = .020); and 4) medication behavior ( p = . 010) . Conclusion: The medical nurse and health care provider should promote their adherence to behavior to improve their blood pressure control.

Keywords: acute ischemic stroke, target blood pressure control, medication adherence, recurrence stroke

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305 Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia

Authors: Ehsan Kaviani, Azin Golmoradizade

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Introduction: Traditionally, tendons are considered to only contain tenocytes that are responsible for the maintenance, repair, and remodeling of tendons. Stem cells, which are termed tendon-derived stem cells, so this study we investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with swallowing training on post-stroke dysphagia. Methods: This review article is about effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on post-stroke dysphagia that were extracted from Science Direct, Pro quest, and Pub med Data Bases. 15 articles had been selected according to inclusion criteria from 2014 to 2019, and 6 of them had been deleted by exclusion criteria. Results: The results of our systematic review suggest that tDCS may represent a promising novel treatment for post-stroke dysphagia. However, to date, little is known about the optimal parameters of tDCS for relieving post-stroke dysphagia. Further studies are warranted to refine this promising intervention by exploring the optimal parameters of tDCS. Conclusion: anodal tDCS over the affected hemisphere may be as effective as cathodal tDCS on the unaffected hemisphere to enhance recovery after subacute ischemic stroke and anodal tdcs applied over the affected pharyngeal motor cortex can enhance the outcome of swallowing training in post-stroke dysphagia.

Keywords: dysphagia, stroke, cortical stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation

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304 Hydroxy Safflower Yellow A (HSYA) Mediated Neuroprotective Effect against Ischemia Reperfusion (I/R) Injury in Cerebral Stroke

Authors: Sruthi Ramagiri, Rajeev T.

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Free radical damage has been entailed as the major culprit in the ischemic stroke contributing for oxidative damage. Recent investigations on Hydroxy Safflower Yellow A (HSYA) suggested its role in cerebral ischemia and various neurodegenerative disorders with unidentified molecular mechanisms. The current study was designed to investigate putative therapeutic role and possible molecular mechanisms of HSYA administration during the onset of reperfusion in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in cerebral stroke. Cerebral stroke was achieved by focal ischemic model. HSYA (10 mg/kg) was injected intravenously via the tail vein 5 minutes before reperfusion. Losses of sensorimotor abilities were evaluated by neurological scoring, spontaneous locomotor activity, and rotarod performance. Extent of oxidative stress was evaluated by biochemical parameters i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione (GSH), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels. The infarct volume of brain was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining technique. Increased cerebral injury (I/R) was evidenced by motor impairment, increased infarct volume and elevation of MDA levels along with significant reduction in antioxidant i.e.,MDA levels along with significant reduction in antioxidant i.e., GSH, SOD and catalase levels when compared to sham control. However, post conditioning with HSYA (10 mg/kg, i.v.) at the onset of reperfusion has significantly ameliorated sensorimotor abilities, attenuated MDA levels and reduced the infarct volume as compared with vehicle treated I/R injury group. Moreover, HSYA treatments improved antioxidant enzyme levels as compared with vehicle treated I/R-injury group. In conclusion, it may be suggested that HSYA post conditioning could be novel therapeutic approach against I/R injury in cerebral stroke possibly through its anti-oxidant mechanism.

Keywords: HSYA, Ischemia reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, stroke

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303 Is the Addition of Computed Tomography with Angiography Superior to a Non-Contrast Neuroimaging Only Strategy for Patients with Suspected Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Presenting to the Emergency Department?

Authors: Alisha M. Ebrahim, Bijoy K. Menon, Eddy Lang, Shelagh B. Coutts, Katie Lin

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Introduction: Frontline emergency physicians require clear and evidence-based approaches to guide neuroimaging investigations for patients presenting with suspected acute stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Various forms of computed tomography (CT) are currently available for initial investigation, including non-contrast CT (NCCT), CT angiography head and neck (CTA), and CT perfusion (CTP). However, there is uncertainty around optimal imaging choice for cost-effectiveness, particularly for minor or resolved neurological symptoms. In addition to the cost of CTA and CTP testing, there is also a concern for increased incidental findings, which may contribute to the burden of overdiagnosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, analysis was conducted on 586 anonymized triage and diagnostic imaging (DI) reports for neuroimaging orders completed on patients presenting to adult emergency departments (EDs) with a suspected stroke or TIA from January-December 2019. The primary outcome of interest is the diagnostic yield of NCCT+CTA compared to NCCT alone for patients presenting to urban academic EDs with Canadian Emergency Department Information System (CEDIS) complaints of “symptoms of stroke” (specifically acute stroke and TIA indications). DI reports were coded into 4 pre-specified categories (endorsed by a panel of stroke experts): no abnormalities, clinically significant findings (requiring immediate or follow-up clinical action), incidental findings (not meeting prespecified criteria for clinical significance), and both significant and incidental findings. Standard descriptive statistics were performed. A two-sided p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: 75% of patients received NCCT+CTA imaging, 21% received NCCT alone, and 4% received NCCT+CTA+CTP. The diagnostic yield of NCCT+CTA imaging for prespecified clinically significant findings was 24%, compared to only 9% in those who received NCCT alone. The proportion of incidental findings was 30% in the NCCT only group and 32% in the NCCT+CTA group. CTP did not significantly increase the yield of significant or incidental findings. Conclusion: In this cohort of patients presenting with suspected stroke or TIA, an NCCT+CTA neuroimaging strategy had a higher diagnostic yield for clinically significant findings than NCCT alone without significantly increasing the number of incidental findings identified.

Keywords: stroke, diagnostic yield, neuroimaging, emergency department, CT

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302 Relationship of Mean Platelets Volume with Ischemic Cerebrovascular Stroke

Authors: Pritam Kitey

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Platelets play a key role in the development of atherothrombosis, a major contributor of cardiovascular evevts. The contributor of platelets to cardiovascular events has been noted for decades. Mean paltelets volume [MPV] is a marker of platelets size that is easily determined on routine automated haemograms and routinely available at low cost. Subjects with higher MPV have larger platelets that are metabolically and enzamatically more active and have greater prothombotic potential than smaller platelets. In fact several studies have demonstrated a significant association between higher MPV and an increased incidence of cerebrovascular events and all-cause mortality.

Keywords: mean paltelets volume (MPV), platelets, cerebrovascular stroke, cardiovascular events

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301 Possible Neuroprotective Mechanism of Remote Limb Ischemic Post Conditioning against Global Cerebral Ischemic Injury

Authors: Sruthi Ramagiri, Rajeev Taliyan

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Background and purpose: Recent investigations on ischemia and reperfusion injury postulate that transient ischemia of remote organs after a prolonged ischemic insult confers neuroprotection. However, the molecular mechanisms of the remote limb ischemic post-conditioning (RIPOC) are yet to be elucidated. The current study was designed to investigate the protective mechanism of RIPOC against cerebral ischemic injury using global model of stroke. Materials and methods: Global ischemic reperfusion injury (IR) was achieved by 30 minutes ischemia of cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Induction of global ischemia was followed by 4 brief episodes (30 seconds each) of ischemia and reperfusion of femoral artery to accomplish RIPOC. 5-Hydroxy Decanoic acid (5-HD), a KATP channel blocker (20 mg/kg) was administered after induction of global ischemia and RIPOC intervention. Results: IR injury ensue significant behavioural deficits as manifested by rotarod performance and spontaneous locomotor activity when compared to sham control. Furthermore, IR injury significantly increased oxidonitrative stress and infarct volume as evidenced by biochemical parameters (MDA, GSH, Nitrite, SOD) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining respectively. Moreover, RIPOC intervention ameliorated the behavioural performance, attenuated the oxidative stress and infarct volume when compared to IR injury group. However, administration of 5-HD increased the oxidative stress and infarct size while deteriorating the behavioural parameters when compared to RIPOC group. Conclusions: In a nutshell, cerebral IR injury has significantly induced the neuronal damage, whereas RIPOC intervention decreased the neuronal injury. Moreover, 5-HD abolished the neuroprotection offered by RIPOC indicating the putative role of KATP channel opening in RIPOC against cerebral ischemic injury.

Keywords: RIPOC, cerebral injury, KATP channel, neuroprotection

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300 Evaluation of Neuroprotective Potential of Olea europaea and Malus domestica in Experimentally Induced Stroke Rat Model

Authors: Humaira M. Khan, Kanwal Asif

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Ischemic stroke is a neurological disorder with a complex pathophysiology associated with motor, sensory and cognitive deficits. Major approaches developed to treat acute ischemic stroke fall into two categories, thrombolysis and neuroprotection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the neuroprotective and anti-thrombolytic effects of Olea europaea (olive oil) and Malus domestica (apple cider vinegar) and their combination in rat stroke model. Furthermore, histopathological analysis was also performed to assess the severity of ischemia among treated and reference groups. Male albino rats (12 months age) weighing 300- 350gm were acclimatized and subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion method for stroke induction. Olea europaea and Malus domestica was administered orally in dose of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg and combination was administered at dose of 0.375ml/kg and 1.5ml/kg prophylactically for consecutive 21 days. Negative control group was dosed with normal saline whereas piracetam (250mg/kg) was administered as reference. Neuroprotective activity of standard piracetam, Olea europaea, Malus domestica and their combination was evaluated by performing functional outcome tests i.e. Cylinder, pasta, ladder run, pole and water maize tests. Rats were subjected to surgery after 21 days of treatment for analysis from stroke recovery. Olea europaea and Malus domestica in individual doses of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively showed neuroprotection by significant improvement in ladder run test (121.6± 0.92;128.2 ± 0.73) as compare to reference (125.4 ± 0.74). Both test doses showed significant neuroprotection as compare to reference (9.60 ± 0.50) in pasta test (8.40 ± 0.24;9.80 ± 0.37) whereas with cylinder test, experimental groups showed significant increase in movements (6.60 ± 0.24; 8.40 ± 0.24) in contrast to reference (7.80 ± 0.37).There was a decrease in percentage time taken f to reach the hidden maize in water maize test (56.80 ± 0.58;61.80 ± 0.66) at doses 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively as compare to piracetam (59.40 ± 1.07). Olea europaea and Malus domestica individually showed significant reduction in duration of mobility (127.0 ± 0.44; 123.0 ± 0.44) in pole test as compare to piracetam (124.0 ± 0.70). Histopathological analysis revealed the significant extent of protection from ischemia after prophylactic treatments. Hence it is concluded that Olea europaea and Malus domestica are effective neuroprotective agents alone as compare to their combination.

Keywords: ischemia, Malus domestica, neuroprotection, Olea europaea

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299 A Multilevel Approach for Stroke Prediction Combining Risk Factors and Retinal Images

Authors: Jeena R. S., Sukesh Kumar A.

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Stroke is one of the major reasons of adult disability and morbidity in many of the developing countries like India. Early diagnosis of stroke is essential for timely prevention and cure. Various conventional statistical methods and computational intelligent models have been developed for predicting the risk and outcome of stroke. This research work focuses on a multilevel approach for predicting the occurrence of stroke based on various risk factors and invasive techniques like retinal imaging. This risk prediction model can aid in clinical decision making and help patients to have an improved and reliable risk prediction.

Keywords: prediction, retinal imaging, risk factors, stroke

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298 Corticomotor Excitability after Two Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocols in Ischemic Stroke Patients

Authors: Asrarul Fikri Abu Hassan, Muhammad Hafiz bin Hanafi, Jafri Malin Abdullah

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This study is to compare the motor evoked potential (MEP) changes using different settings of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the post-haemorrhagic stroke patient which treated conservatively. The goal of the study is to determine changes in corticomotor excitability and functional outcome after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) therapy regime. 20 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were studied due to haemorrhagic stroke. One of the three settings; (I) Inhibitory setting, or (II) facilitatory setting, or (III) control group, no excitatory or inhibitory setting have been applied randomly during the first meeting. The motor evoked potential (MEP) were recorded before and after application of the rTMS setting. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the Barthel index score. We found pre-treatment MEP values of the lesional side were lower compared to post-treatment values in both settings. In contrast, we found that the pre-treatment MEP values of the non-lesional side were higher compared to post-treatment values in both settings. Interestingly, patients with treatment, either facilitatory setting and inhibitory setting have faster motor recovery compared to the control group. Our data showed both settings might improve the MEP of the upper extremity and functional outcomes in the haemorrhagic stroke patient.

Keywords: Barthel index, corticomotor excitability, motor evoked potential, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, stroke

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297 Influence of Glenohumeral Joint Approximation Technique on the Cardiovascular System in the Acute Phase after Stroke

Authors: Iva Hereitova, Miroslav Svatek, Vit Novacek

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Background and Aim: Autonomic imbalance is one of the complications for immobilized patients in the acute stage after a stroke. The predominance of sympathetic activity significantly increases cardiac activity. The technique of glenohumeral joint approximation may contribute in a non-pharmacological way to the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate in patients in this risk group. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of glenohumeral joint approximation on the change in heart rate and blood pressure in immobilized patients in the acute phase after a stroke. Methods: The experimental study bilaterally evaluated heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressure values before and after glenohumeral joint approximation in 40 immobilized participants (72.6 ± 10.2 years) in the acute phase after stroke. The experimental group was compared with 40 healthy participants in the control group (68.6 ± 14.2 years). An SpO2 vital signs monitor and a validated Microlife WatchBP Office blood pressure monitor were used for evaluation. Statistical processing and evaluation were performed in MATLAB R2019 (The Math Works®, Inc., Natick, MA, USA). Results: Approximation of the glenohumeral joint resulted in a statistically significant decrease in systolic and diastolic pressure. An average decrease in systolic pressure for individual groups ranged from 8.2 to 11.3 mmHg (p <0.001). For diastolic pressure, the average decrease ranged from 5.0 - 14.2 mmHg (p <0.001). There was a statistically significant reduction in heart rate (p <0.01) only in patients after ischemic stroke in the inferior cerebral artery. There was the average decrease in heart rate of 3.9 beats per minute (median 4 beats per minute). Conclusion: Approximation of the glenohumeral joint leads to a statistically significant decrease in systolic and diastolic pressure in immobilized patients in the acute phase after stroke.

Keywords: Aproximation technique, Cardiovaskular system, Glenohumeral joint, Stroke

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296 Epidemiology, Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among Patients of Stroke

Authors: Vijay nandmer, Ajay Nandmer

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Stigmatized psycho-social perception poses a serious challenge and source of discrimination which impedes stroke patients from attaining a satisfactory quality of life. The present study was aimed to obtain information on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of stroke patients in the institute. We included 1000 people in our random sampling survey. Demographic details and responses to a questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices were recorded. Although the majority of the patients belonged to low socioeconomic strata, the literacy rate was reasonably high (96.3%). A large majority (91.3%) of people had heard about stroke and (85.2%) knew that stroke can be treated with modern drugs. However, a negative attitude was reflected in the belief that stroke happens due to supernatural powers (hawa lagne se) (50.6%). Analysis of the data revealed regional differences in KAP which could be attributed to local Factors, such as literacy, awareness about stroke, and practice of different systems of medicine. Some of the differences can also be attributed to a category of study population whether it included patients or non-stroke individuals since the former are likely to have less negative attitudes than the public. There is a need to create awareness about stroke on a nation-wide basis to dispel the misconceptions and stigma through effective and robust programs with the aim to lessen the disease burden.

Keywords: epidemiology, sroke, literacy, stroke

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295 Effects of Virtual Reality on the Upper Extremity Spasticity and Motor Function in Patients with Stroke: A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar, S. Hossein Hosseini, Omid Seyed Esmaeili, Rouzbeh Kezemi, Noushin Mehrbod, Nazanin Vahed, Tahereh Hajiahmad, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari

Abstract:

Background: Stroke is a disabling neurological disease. Rehabilitative therapies are important treatment methods. This clinical trial was done to compare the effects of VR beside conventional rehabilitation versus conventional rehabilitation alone on spasticity and motor function in stroke patients. Materials and Methods: In this open-label randomized controlled clinical trial, 40 consecutive patients with stable first-ever ischemic stroke in the past three to 12 months that were referred to a rehabilitation clinic in Tehran, Iran, in 2020 were enrolled. After signing the informed written consent form, subjects were randomly assigned by block randomization of five in each block as cases with 1:1 into two groups of 20 cases; conventional plus VR therapy group: 45-minute conventional therapy session plus 15-minute VR therapy, and conventional group: 60-minute conventional therapy session. VR rehabilitation is designed and developed with different stages. Outcomes were modified Ashworth scale, recovery stage score for motor function, range of motion (ROM) of shoulder abduction/wrist extension, and patients’ satisfaction rate. Data were compared after study termination. Results: The satisfaction rate among the patients was significantly better in the combination group (P=0.003). Only wrist extension was varied between groups and was better in the combination group. The variables generally had a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Virtual reality plus conventional rehabilitation therapy is superior versus conventional rehabilitation alone on the wrist and elbow spasticity and motor function in patients with stroke.

Keywords: stroke, virtual therapy, rehabilitation, treatment

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294 Prevalence of Depression among Post Stroke Survivors in South Asian Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Roseminu Varghese, Laveena Anitha Barboza, Jyothi Chakrabarty, Ravishankar

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Depression among post-stroke survivors is prevalent, but it is unidentified. The purpose of this review was to determine the pooled prevalence of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian region from all published health sciences research articles. The review also aimed to analyze the disparities in the prevalence of depression among the post-stroke survivors from different study locations. Data search to identify the relevant research articles published from 2005 to 2016 was done by using mesh terms and keywords in Web of Science, PubMed Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, J gate, IndMED databases. The final analysis comprised of 9 studies, including a population of 1,520 men and women. Meta-analysis was performed in STATA version 13.0. The overall pooled post-stroke depression prevalence was 0.46, 95% (CI), (0.3- 0.62). The prevalence rate in this systematic review is evident of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian Region. Identifying the prevalence of post-stroke depression at an early stage is important to improve outcomes of the rehabilitative process of stroke survivors and for its early intervention.

Keywords: depression, post stroke survivors, prevalence, systematic review

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293 Role of Onion Extract for Neuro-Protection in Experimental Stroke Model

Authors: Richa Shri, Varinder Singh, Kundan Singh Bora, Abhishek Bhanot, Rahul Kumar, Amit Kumar, Ravinder Kaur

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The term ‘neuroprotection’ means preserving/salvaging function and structure of neurons. Neuroprotection is an adjunctive treatment option for neurodegenerative disorders. Oxidative stress is considered a major culprit in neurodegenerative disorders; hence, management strategies include use of antioxidants. Our search for a neuroprotective agent began with Allium cepa L. or onions, (family Amaryllidaceae) - a potent antioxidant. We have investigated the neuroprotective potential of onions in experimental models of ischemic stroke, diabetic neuropathy, neuropathic pain, and dementia. In pre and post-ischemic stroke model, the methanol extract of outer scales of onion bulbs (MEOS) prevented memory loss and motor in-coordination; reduced oxidative stress and cerebral infarct size. This also prevented and ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in mice. The MEOS was fractionated to yield a flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) that successfully reversed ischemia-reperfusion induced neuronal damage, thereby demonstrating that the flavonoids are responsible for the activity. The FRF effectively ameliorated chronic constriction induced neuropathic pain in rats. The FRF was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionated. It was seen that FRF is more effective as compared to the isolated components probably due to synergism among the constituents (i.e., quercetin and quercetin glucosides) in the FRF. The outer scales of onion bulbs have great potential for prevention as well as for treatment of neuronal disorders. Red onions, with higher amounts of flavonoids as compared to the white onions, produced more significant neuroprotection. Thus, the standardized FRF from the waste material of a commonly used vegetable, especially the red variety, may be developed as a valuable neuroprotective agent.

Keywords: Allium cepa, antioxidant activity, flavonoid rich fraction, neuroprotection

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