Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Shipra Dixit

31 A Viable Approach for Biological Detoxification of Non Edible Oil Seed Cakes and Their Utilization in Food Production Using Aspergillus Niger

Authors: Kshitij Bhardwaj, R.K. Trivedi, Shipra Dixit

Abstract:

We used biological detoxification method that converts toxic residue waste of Jatropha curcas oil seeds (non edible oil seed) into industrial bio-products and animal feed material. Present study describes the complete degradation of phorbol esters by Aspergillus Niger strain during solid state fermentation (SSF) of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake. Phorbol esters were completely degraded in 15 days under the optimized SSF conditions viz deoiled cake 5.0 gm moistened with 5.0 ml distilled water; inoculum 2 ml of overnight grown Aspergillus niger; incubated at 30◦ C, pH 7.0. This method simultaneously induces the production of Protease enzyme by Aspergillus Niger which has high potential to be used in feedstuffs .The maximum Protease activities obtained were 709.16 mg/ml in Jatropha curcas oil seed cake. The protein isolate had small amounts of phorbol esters, phytic acid, and saponin without any lectin. Its minimum and maximum solubility were at pH 4.0&12.0. Water and oil binding capacities were 3.22 g water/g protein and 1.86 ml oil/g protein respectively.Emulsion activity showed high values in a range of basic pH. We concluded that Jatropha Curcas seed cake has a potential to be used as a novel source of functional protein for food or feed applications.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Jatropha curcas, oil seed cake, phorbol ester

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30 Determination of Various Properties of Biodiesel Produced from Different Feedstocks

Authors: Faisal Anwar, Dawar Zaidi, Shubham Dixit, Nafees Ahmedii

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the various properties of biodiesel such as pour point, cloud point, viscosity, calorific value, etc produced from different feedstocks. The aim of the work is to analyze change in these properties after converting feedstocks to biodiesel and then comparring it with ASTM 6751-02 standards to check whether they are suitable for diesel engines or not. The conversion of feedstocks is carried out by a process called transesterification. This conversion is carried out to reduce viscosity, pour point, etc. It has been observed that there is some remarkable change in the properties of oil after conversion.

Keywords: biodiesel, ethyl ester, free fatty acid, production

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29 Identification and Quantification of Phenolic Compounds In Cassia tora Collected from Three Different Locations Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography – Electro Spray Ionization – Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS-MS)

Authors: Shipra Shukla, Gaurav Chaudhary, S. K. Tewari, Mahesh Pal, D. K. Upreti

Abstract:

Cassia tora L. is widely distributed in tropical Asian countries, commonly known as sickle pod. Various parts of the plant are reported for their medicinal value due to presence of anthraquinones, phenolic compounds, emodin, β-sitosterol, and chrysophanol. Therefore a sensitive analytical procedure using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of five phenolic compounds in leaf, stem and root extracts of Cassia tora. Rapid chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved on Acquity UHPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm×2.1 mm id, 1.7µm) column in 2.5 min. Quantification was carried out using negative electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9985) over the concentration range of 0.5-200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions and accuracy were within RSDs ≤ 1.93% and ≤ 1.90%, respectively. The developed method was applied to investigate variation of five phenolic compounds in the three geographical collections. Results indicated significant variation among analyzed samples collected from different locations in India.

Keywords: Cassia tora, phenolic compounds, quantification, UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS

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28 An Analysis of the Need of Training for Indian Textile Manufacturing Sector

Authors: Shipra Sharma, Jagat Jerath

Abstract:

Human resource training is an essential element of talent management in the current era of global competitiveness and dynamic trade in the manufacturing industry. Globally, India is behind only China as the largest textile manufacturer. The major challenges faced by the Indian textile manufacturing Industry are low technology levels, growing skill gaps, unorganized structure, lower efficiencies, etc. indicating the need for constant talent up-gradation. Assessment of training needs from a strategic perspective is an essential step for the formulation of effective training. The paper established the significance of training in the Indian textile industry and to determine the training needs on various parameters as presented. 40 HR personnel/s working in the textile and apparel companies based in the industrial region of Punjab, India, were the respondents for the study. The research tool used in this case was a structured questionnaire as per five-point Likert scale. Statistical analysis through descriptive statistics and chi-square test indicated the increased need for training whenever there were technical changes in the organizations. As per the data presented in this study, most of the HR personnel/s agreed that the variables associated with organizational analysis, task analysis, and individual analysis have a statistically significant role to play in determining the need for training in an organization.

Keywords: Indian textile manufacturing industry, significance of training, training needs analysis, parameters for training needs assessment

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27 Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Fruticose Lichen Roccella montagnei, and It’s in Silico Docking Study against CDK-10

Authors: Tripti Mishra, Shipra Shukla, Sanjeev Meena, , Ruchi Singh, Mahesh Pal, D. K. Upreti, Dipak Datta

Abstract:

Roccella montagnei belongs to lichen family Roccelleceae growing luxuriantly along the coastal regions of India. As Roccella has been shown to be bioactive, we prepared methanolic extract and assessed its anticancer potential. The methanolic extract showed significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines such as Colon (DLD-1, SW-620), Breast (MCF-7), Head and Neck (FaDu). This prompted us to isolate bioactive compounds through column chromatography. Two compounds Roccellic acid and Everninic acid have been isolated, out of which Everninic acid is reported for the first time. Both the compounds have been tested for in vitro cytotoxic activity in which Roccellic acid showed strong anticancer activity as compared to the Everninic acid. CDK-10 (Cyclin-dependent kinase) contributes to proliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers. These kinases, therefore, constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmacological targets for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Therefore both the isolated compounds were tested for in silico molecular docking study against CDK-10 isomer enzyme to support the cytotoxic activity.

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, everninic acid, roccellic acid, R. montagnei

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26 Hydrogen Storage in Carbonized Coconut Meat (Kernel)

Authors: Viney Dixit, Rohit R. Shahi, Ashish Bhatnagar, P. Jain, T. P. Yadav, O. N. Srivastava

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Carbons are being widely investigated as hydrogen storage material owing to their light weight, fast hydrogen absorption kinetics and low cost. However, these materials suffer from low hydrogen storage capacity at room temperature. The aim of the present study is to synthesize carbon based material which shows moderate hydrogen storage at room temperature. For this purpose, hydrogenation characteristics of natural precursor coconut kernel is studied in this work. The hydrogen storage measurement reveals that the as-synthesized materials have good hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with fast kinetics. The synthesized material absorbs 8 wt.% of hydrogen at liquid nitrogen temperature and 2.3 wt.% at room temperature. This could be due to the presence of certain elements (KCl, Mg, Ca) which are confirmed by TEM.

Keywords: coconut kernel, carbonization, hydrogenation, KCl, Mg, Ca

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25 Development of a BriMAIN System for Health Monitoring of Railway Bridges

Authors: Prakher Mishra, Dikshant Bodana, Saloni Desai, Sudhanshu Dixit, Sopan Agarwal, Shriraj Patel

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Railways are sometimes lifeline of nations as they consist of huge network of rail lines and bridges. Reportedly many of the bridges are aging, weak, distressed and accident prone. It becomes a really challenging task for Engineers and workers to keep up a regular maintenance schedule for proper functioning which itself is quite a hard hitting job. In this paper we have come up with an innvovative wireless system of maintenance called BriMAIN. In this system we have installed two types of sensors, first one is called a force sensor which will continously analyse the readings of pressure at joints of the bridges and secondly an MPU-6050 triaxial gyroscope+accelerometer which will analyse the deflection of the deck of the bridge. Apart from this a separate database is also being made at the server room so that the data can be visualized by the engineers and a warning can be issued in case reading of the sensors goes above threshold.

Keywords: Accelerometer, B-MAIN, Gyroscope, MPU-6050

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24 Post Growth Annealing Effect on Deep Level Emission and Raman Spectra of Hydrothermally Grown ZnO Nanorods Assisted by KMnO4

Authors: Ashish Kumar, Tejendra Dixit, I. A. Palani, Vipul Singh

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Zinc oxide, with its interesting properties such as large band gap (3.37eV), high exciton binding energy (60 meV) and intense UV absorption has been studied in literature for various applications viz. optoelectronics, biosensors, UV-photodetectors etc. The performance of ZnO devices is highly influenced by morphologies, size, crystallinity of the ZnO active layer and processing conditions. Recently, our group has shown the influence of the in situ addition of KMnO4 in the precursor solution during the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods (NRs) on their near band edge (NBE) emission. In this paper, we have investigated the effect of post-growth annealing on the variations in NBE and deep level (DL) emissions of as grown ZnO nanorods. These observed results have been explained on the basis of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic analysis, which clearly show that improved crystalinity and quantum confinement in ZnO nanorods.

Keywords: ZnO, nanorods, hydrothermal, KMnO4

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23 Smartphone Based Wound Assessment System for Diabetes Patients

Authors: Vaibhav V. Dixit, Shubham Ajay Karwa

Abstract:

Diabetic foot ulcers speak to a critical medical problem. Right now, clinicians and medical caretakers primarily construct their injury evaluation in light of visual examination of wound size and mending status, while the patients themselves rarely have a chance to play a dynamic part. Henceforth, love quantitative and practical examination technique that empowers the patients and their parental figures to take a more dynamic part in every day wound care possibly can quicken wound recuperating, spare travel cost and diminish human services costs. Considering the commonness of cell phones with a high-determination computerized camera, evaluating wounds by breaking down pictures of ceaseless foot ulcers is an alluring choice. In this paper, we propose a novel injury picture examination framework actualized using feature extraction and color segmentation. Here we are using the Normalized minimum distance classifier for classifying the output.

Keywords: diabetic, Gabor wavelet, normalized minimum distance classifier, quantiable parameters

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22 Learning Curve Effect on Materials Procurement Schedule of Multiple Sister Ships

Authors: Vijaya Dixit Aasheesh Dixit

Abstract:

Shipbuilding industry operates in Engineer Procure Construct (EPC) context. Product mix of a shipyard comprises of various types of ships like bulk carriers, tankers, barges, coast guard vessels, sub-marines etc. Each order is unique based on the type of ship and customized requirements, which are engineered into the product right from design stage. Thus, to execute every new project, a shipyard needs to upgrade its production expertise. As a result, over the long run, holistic learning occurs across different types of projects which contributes to the knowledge base of the shipyard. Simultaneously, in the short term, during execution of a project comprising of multiple sister ships, repetition of similar tasks leads to learning at activity level. This research aims to capture above learnings of a shipyard and incorporate learning curve effect in project scheduling and materials procurement to improve project performance. Extant literature provides support for the existence of such learnings in an organization. In shipbuilding, there are sequences of similar activities which are expected to exhibit learning curve behavior. For example, the nearly identical structural sub-blocks which are successively fabricated, erected, and outfitted with piping and electrical systems. Learning curve representation can model not only a decrease in mean completion time of an activity, but also a decrease in uncertainty of activity duration. Sister ships have similar material requirements. The same supplier base supplies materials for all the sister ships within a project. On one hand, this provides an opportunity to reduce transportation cost by batching the order quantities of multiple ships. On the other hand, it increases the inventory holding cost at shipyard and the risk of obsolescence. Further, due to learning curve effect the production scheduled of each consequent ship gets compressed. Thus, the material requirement schedule of every next ship differs from its previous ship. As more and more ships get constructed, compressed production schedules increase the possibility of batching the orders of sister ships. This work aims at integrating materials management with project scheduling of long duration projects for manufacturing of multiple sister ships. It incorporates the learning curve effect on progressively compressing material requirement schedules and addresses the above trade-off of transportation cost and inventory holding and shortage costs while satisfying budget constraints of various stages of the project. The activity durations and lead time of items are not crisp and are available in the form of probabilistic distribution. A Stochastic Mixed Integer Programming (SMIP) model is formulated which is solved using evolutionary algorithm. Its output provides ordering dates of items and degree of order batching for all types of items. Sensitivity analysis determines the threshold number of sister ships required in a project to leverage the advantage of learning curve effect in materials management decisions. This analysis will help materials managers to gain insights about the scenarios: when and to what degree is it beneficial to treat a multiple ship project as an integrated one by batching the order quantities and when and to what degree to practice distinctive procurement for individual ship.

Keywords: learning curve, materials management, shipbuilding, sister ships

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21 Ranking of Performance Measures of GSCM towards Sustainability: Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Dixit Garg, S. Luthra, A. Haleem

Abstract:

During recent years, the natural environment has become a challenging topic that business organizations must consider due to the economic and ecological impacts and increasing awareness of environment protection among society. Organizations are trying to achieve the goals of improvement in environment, low cost, high quality, flexibility and more customer satisfaction. Performance measurement frameworks are very useful to monitor the performance of any organization. The basic goal of this paper is to identify performance measures and ranking of these performance measures of GSCM performance measurement towards sustainability framework. Five perspectives (Environment, Economic, Social, Operational and Cost performances) and nineteen performance measures of GSCM performance towards sustainability have been have been identified from extensive literature review. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique has been utilized for ranking of these performance perspectives and measures. All pair comparisons in AHP have been made on the basis on the experts’ opinions (selected from academia and industry). Ranking of these performance perspectives and measures will help to understand the importance of environmental, economic, social, operational performances, and cost performances in the supply chain.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, green supply chain management, performance measures, sustainability

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20 A Qualitative Exploration of the Strategic Management of Employee Resistance to Organisational Change

Authors: Muneeb Banday, Anukriti Dixit

Abstract:

Change in organizations is viewed as a conversion process of the organizational functioning. One of the crucial elements of this conversion process is the employee resistance to organizational change. The existing literature on change resistance has generally treated resistance as a barrier or an opportunity for successful implementation of change. However, there is little empirical research exploring how resistance to change is managed. This may be partially due to difficulty in getting information on resistance to change. The top management does not divulge such information to avoid negative evaluation whereas employees face huge risk in sharing information related to resistance. The focus of the study is to understand how the organization under study dealt with the employee resistance to change. The conversion process is a story of how the organization went from one stage to another. We used narrative approach to change. Data was collected data through company visits and interviews. The interviews were transcribed, coded, and themes were identified. We focused on the strands that left huge scope for alternative interpretations than the dominant narrative of change prevalent in the organization. The study reveals that the top management strategically uses the legitimacy of leadership, roles of key employees, and rationality of change to manage resistance.

Keywords: employee resistance, legitimacy of leadership, narrative analysis, organisational change

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19 Lc-Ms N-Alkylamide Profiling of an Ethanolic Anacyclus pyrethrum Root Extract

Authors: Vikas Sharma, V. K. Dixit

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The roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC (AP) (Asteraceae) are frequently used in traditional medicine as Vajikarana Rasayana. An ethanolic extract of root of Anacyclus pyrethrum demonstrated its potential to enhance the sexual behaviour of male rats, with a dose dependent effect on sperm count and androgens concentration. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum revealed that it is rich in N-alkylamide. This study therefore sought to assess characterization of ethanolic extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum root. Root extract was performed using a gradient reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography/UV/electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) method on an embedded polar column. MS1 and MS2 fragmentation data were used for identification purposes, while UV was used for quantification. Thirteen N-alkylamides (five N-isobutylamides, three N-methyl isobutylamides, four tyramides, and one 2-phenylethylamide) were detected. Five of them identified as undeca-2E,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid N-methyl isobutylamide, tetradeca-2E,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid tyramide, deca-2E,4E-dienoic acid N-methyl isobutylamide, tetradeca-2E,4E,XE/Z-trienoic acid tyramide and tetradeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenoic isobutylamide are novel compounds, which have never been identified in Anacyclus pyrethrum.

Keywords: Anacyclus pyrethrum (Asteraceae), LC-MS plant profiling, N-alkylamides, pellitorine, anacycline

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18 Groundwater Monitoring Using a Community: Science Approach

Authors: Shobha Kumari Yadav, Yubaraj Satyal, Ajaya Dixit

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In addressing groundwater depletion, it is important to develop evidence base so to be used in assessing the state of its degradation. Groundwater data is limited compared to meteorological data, which impedes the groundwater use and management plan. Monitoring of groundwater levels provides information base to assess the condition of aquifers, their responses to water extraction, land-use change, and climatic variability. It is important to maintain a network of spatially distributed, long-term monitoring wells to support groundwater management plan. Monitoring involving local community is a cost effective approach that generates real time data to effectively manage groundwater use. This paper presents the relationship between rainfall and spring flow, which are the main source of freshwater for drinking, household consumptions and agriculture in hills of Nepal. The supply and withdrawal of water from springs depends upon local hydrology and the meteorological characteristics- such as rainfall, evapotranspiration and interflow. The study offers evidence of the use of scientific method and community based initiative for managing groundwater and springshed. The approach presents a method to replicate similar initiative in other parts of the country for maintaining integrity of springs.

Keywords: citizen science, groundwater, water resource management, Nepal

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17 Continuum of Maternal Care in Non Empowered Action Group States of India: Evidence from District Level Household Survey-IV

Authors: Rasikha Ramanand, Priyanka Dixit

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Background: Continuum of maternal care which includes antenatal care, delivery care and postnatal care aids in averting maternal deaths. The objective of this paper is to identify the association between previous experiences of child death on Continuum of Care (CoC) of recent child. Further, the study aimed at understanding where the drop-out rate was high in the continuum. Methods: The study was based on the Nation-wide District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-4) conducted during 2012-13, which provides information on antenatal care, delivery care, percentage of women who received JSY benefits, percentage of women who had any pregnancy, delivery, the place of delivery etc. The sample included women who were selected from the non-EAG states who delivered at least two children. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.Binary Logistic regression was applied to the data in which the Continuum of Care (CoC) was the dependent variable while the independent variables were entered as the covariates. Results: A major finding of the study was the antenatal to delivery care period where the drop-out rates were high. Also, it was found that a large proportion of women did not receive any of the services along the continuum. Conclusions: This study has clearly established the relationship between previous history of child loss and continuum of maternal care.

Keywords: antenatal care, continuum of care, child loss, delivery care, India, maternal health care, postnatal care

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16 Androgenic and Spermatogenic Activity of Alkylamide-Rich Ethanol Solution Extract of Anacyclus Pyrethrum Dc

Authors: Vikas Sharma, V. K. Dixit

Abstract:

Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum) has been used as Vajikaran Rasayana (aphrodisiac) in traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine to treat male sexual dysfunction, including infertility. Aphrodisiac activity may be due to an increase in the production or effect of androgens, so this study sought to evaluate the androgenic and spermatogenic potential of the alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract. Male Wistar strain rats weighing between 150 and 180 g were completely randomized divided into five groups. The ethanol solution extract of A. pyrethrum was administered to groups of rats in 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg doses for a period of 28 days, and the action was compared with control and testosterone-treated rats. Thirteen N-alkylamides were detected in the extract by using HPLC/UV/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. Extract administration at all the doses produced significant increase in body weight, sperm count, motility, and viability along with serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Histoarchitecture of testis revealed increased spermatogenic activities. Seminal fructose content was also significantly increased after 28 days of treatment. Our results suggest that the ethanol solution extract of the roots of A. pyrethrum has androgenic potential and may improve male fertility by enhancing spermatogenesis.

Keywords: N-alkylamides, testosterone, Anacyclus pyrethrum, androgen

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15 Technology Transfer of Indigenous Technologies: Emerging Aid to Indian Health Sector

Authors: Tripta Dixit, Smita Sahu, William Selvamurthy, Sadhana Srivastava

Abstract:

India is battling with the issues of accessibility, affordability and availability of quality health to the masses. Indian medical heritage which dated back to 3000 BC unveils the rich knowledge pool which has undergone a perceptible change over years, such as eradication of many communicable diseases, increasing individual awareness of quality health and import driven medical device market etc. Despite a slew of initiatives the holistic slogan of ‘health for all’ remains elusive and a concern for the nation. The 21st-century projects a myriad of challenges like cultural diversity, large population, demographic dividend and geographical segmentation leading to varied needs of people as per their regional conditions of climate, disease prevalence, nutrition and sanitation. But these challenges are also opportunities for the development of indigenous, low cost and accessible technologies to tackle them. This requires reinforcing the potential of indigenous technologies in coordination with prevailing health issues in various regions of country. This paper emphasis on the strategy for exploring the indigenous technologies with entrusted up-scaling to meet the diverse needs of the people. This review proposes to adopt technology transfer as a strategy to establish a vibrant ecosystem for identifying and up-scaling the indigenous medical technologies with diligent hand-holding for public health.

Keywords: health, indigenous, medical technology, technology transfer

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14 Insect Inducible Methanol Production in Plants for Insect Resistance

Authors: Gourav Jain, Sameer Dixit, Surjeet Kumar Arya, Praveen C. Verma

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Plant cell wall plays a major role in defence mechanism against biotic and abiotic stress as it constitutes the physical barrier between the microenvironment and internal component of the cell. It is a complex structure composed of mostly carbohydrates among which cellulose and hemicelluloses are most abundant that is embedded in a matrix of pectins and proteins. Multiple enzymes have been reported which plays a vital role in cell wall modification, Pectin Methylesterase (PME) is one of them which catalyses the demethylesterification of homogalacturonans component of pectin which releases acidic pectin and methanol. As emitted methanol is toxic to the insect pest, we use PME gene for the better methanol production. In the current study we showed overexpression of PME gene isolated from Withania somnifera under the insect inducible promoter causes enhancement of methanol production at the time of insect feeds to plants, and that provides better insect resistance property. We found that the 85-90% mortality causes by transgenic tobacco in both chewing (Spodoptera litura larvae and Helicoverpa armigera) and sap-sucking (Aphid, mealybug, and whitefly) pest. The methanol content and emission level were also enhanced by 10-15 folds at different inducible time point interval (15min, 30min, 45min, 60min) which would be analysed by Purpald/Alcohol Oxidase method.

Keywords: methanol, Pectin methylesterase, inducible promoters, Purpald/Alcohol oxidase

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13 A Combination of Anisotropic Diffusion and Sobel Operator to Enhance the Performance of the Morphological Component Analysis for Automatic Crack Detection

Authors: Ankur Dixit, Hiroaki Wagatsuma

Abstract:

The crack detection on a concrete bridge is an important and constant task in civil engineering. Chronically, humans are checking the bridge for inspection of cracks to maintain the quality and reliability of bridge. But this process is very long and costly. To overcome such limitations, we have used a drone with a digital camera, which took some images of bridge deck and these images are processed by morphological component analysis (MCA). MCA technique is a very strong application of sparse coding and it explores the possibility of separation of images. In this paper, MCA has been used to decompose the image into coarse and fine components with the effectiveness of two dictionaries namely anisotropic diffusion and wavelet transform. An anisotropic diffusion is an adaptive smoothing process used to adjust diffusion coefficient by finding gray level and gradient as features. These cracks in image are enhanced by subtracting the diffused coarse image into the original image and the results are treated by Sobel edge detector and binary filtering to exhibit the cracks in a fine way. Our results demonstrated that proposed MCA framework using anisotropic diffusion followed by Sobel operator and binary filtering may contribute to an automation of crack detection even in open field sever conditions such as bridge decks.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, coarse component, fine component, MCA, Sobel edge detector and wavelet transform

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12 Elemental and Magnetic Properties of Bed Sediment of Siang River, a Major River of Brahmaputra Basin

Authors: Abhishek Dixit, Sandip S. Sathe, Chandan Mahanta

Abstract:

The Siang river originates in Angsi glacier in southern Tibet (there known as the Yarlung Tsangpo). After traveling through Indus-Tsangpo suture zone and deep gorges near Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a south-ward turn and enters India, where it is known as Siang river and becomes a major tributary of the Brahmaputra in Assam plains. In this study, we have analyzed the bed sediment of the Siang river at two locations (one at extreme upstream near the India-China border and one downstream before Siang Brahmaputra confluence). We have also sampled bed sediment at the remote location of Yammeng river, an eastern tributary of Siang. The magnetic hysteresis properties show the combination of paramagnetic and weak ferromagnetic behavior with a multidomain state. Moreover, curie temperature analysis shows titanomagnetite solid solution series, which is causing the weak ferromagnetic signature. Given that the magnetic mineral was in a multidomain state, the presence of Ti, Fe carrying heave mineral, may be inferred. The Chemical index of alteration shows less weathered sediment. However, the Yammeng river sample being close to source shows fresh grains subjected to physical weathering and least chemically alteration. Enriched Ca and K and depleted Na and Mg with respect to upper continental crust concentration also points toward the less intense chemical weathering along with the dominance of calcite weathering.

Keywords: bed sediment, magnetic properties, Siang, weathering

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11 Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery and Therapy of Alzeheimer's Disease

Authors: Nirupama Dixit, Anyaa Mittal, Neeru Sood

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive form of dementia, contributing to up to 70% of cases, mostly observed in elderly but is not restricted to old age. The pathophysiology of the disease is characterized by specific pathological changes in brain. The changes (i.e. accumulation of metal ions in brain, formation of extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregates and tangle of hyper phosphorylated Tau protein inside neurons) damage the neuronal connections irreversibly. The current issues in improvement of life quality of Alzheimer's patient lies in the fact that the diagnosis is made at a late stage of the disease and the medications do not treat the basic causes of Alzheimer's. The targeted delivery of drug through the blood brain barrier (BBB) poses several limitations via traditional approaches for treatment. To overcome these drug delivery limitation, nanoparticles provide a promising solution. This review focuses on current strategies for efficient targeted drug delivery using nanoparticles and improving the quality of therapy provided to the patient. Nanoparticles can be used to encapsulate drug (which is generally hydrophobic) to ensure its passage to brain; they can be conjugated to metal ion chelators to reduce the metal load in neural tissue thus lowering the harmful effects of oxidative damage; can be conjugated with drug and monoclonal antibodies against BBB endogenous receptors. Finally this review covers how the nanoparticles can play a role in diagnosing the disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, β-amyloid plaques, blood brain barrier, metal chelators, nanoparticles

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10 Ballistics of Main Seat Ejection Cartridges for Aircraft Application

Authors: B. A. Parate, K. D. Deodhar, V. K. Dixit, V. V. Rao

Abstract:

This article outlines the ballistics of main seat ejection cartridges for aircraft application. The ballistics of main seat ejection cartridges plays a vital role during the ejection of the pilot in an emergency. The ballistic parameters such as maximum pressure, time is taken to reach the maximum pressure, and time required to reach half the maximum pressure contributes to the spinal injury of the pilot. Therefore, the evaluations of these parameters are very critical during various stages of development. Elaborate testing was carried out for main seat ejection cartridges on seat ejection tower (SET) at different operating temperatures considering physiological limits. As these trials are cumbersome in nature, a vented vessel (VV) testing facility was devised to lay down the performance parameters at hot and cold temperature conditions. Single base (SB) propellant having hepta-tubular configuration is selected as the main filling. Gun powder plays the role of a booster based on ballistic requirements. The evaluation methodology of various performance parameters of main seat ejection cartridges is explained in this paper. Physiological parameters such as maximum seat ejection velocity, acceleration, and rate of rising of acceleration are also experimentally determined on seat ejection tower. All the parameters are observed well within physiological limits. This paper addresses the internal ballistic of main seat ejection cartridges, propellant selection, its calculation, and evaluation of various performance parameters for an aircraft application.

Keywords: ballistics of seat ejection, ejection seat, gas generator, gun propulsion, main seat ejection cartridges, maximum pressure, performance parameters, propellant, progressive burning and vented vessel

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9 A Case Study on Indian Translation Ecosystem of Point-Of-Care Solutions

Authors: Tripta Dixit, Smita Sahu, William Selvamurthy, Sadhana Srivastava

Abstract:

The translation of healthcare technologies is an expensive, complex affair, current healthcare challenges in Asian countries and their efforts to meet Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), necessitates continuous technology advancement to save countless lives, improve the quality of life and for socio-economic development. India’s consistently improving global innovation index (57) demonstrates its innovation potential, but access to health care is asymmetric and lacks priority in India. Therefore, there is utmost need of a robust translation system for point-of-care (POC) solutions, inexpensive, low-maintenance, reliable, and easy-to-use diagnostic technologies. Few cases of POC technologies viz. Elisa based diagnostic kits for regional viral disease, a device for detection of cancerous lesions were studied to understand the process and challenges involved in their translation. Accordingly, the entire translation ecosystem was summarized proposing a nexus of various actors such as technology developer, technology transferor technology receiver, funding entities, government/regulatory bodies and their effect on translation of different medical technologies. This study highlights the role and concerns pertaining to these actors for POC such as unsystematic and unvalidated research roadmap, low profit preposition, unfocused approach of up-scaling, low market acceptability and multiple window regulatory framework, etc. This provides an opportunity to devise solutions to overcome problem areas in translation path.

Keywords: healthcare technologies, point-of-care solutions, public health, translation

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8 Anticancer Effect of Isolated from the Methanolic Extract of Triticum Aestivum Straw in Mice

Authors: Savita Dixit

Abstract:

Rutin is the bioactive flavonoid isolated from the straw part of Triticum aestivum and possess various pharmacological applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of rutin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mice model system. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of rutin, it was orally administered at a concentration of (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) continued three times weekly for 16th weeks. The development of skin carcinogenesis was assessed by histopathological analysis. Reductions in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen due to rutin treatment. Average latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen-treated control. Rutin produced a significant decrease in the activity of serum enzyme serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin when compared with the control. They significantly increased the levels of enzyme involved in oxidative stress glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxidase in the control group was significantly inhibited by rutin administration. The results of the present study suggest the chemopreventive effect of rutin in DMBA and croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice and one of the probable reasons would be its antioxidant potential.

Keywords: chemoprevention, papilloma, rutin, skin carcinogenesis

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7 Understanding the Issue of Reproductive Matters among Urban Women: A Study of Four Cities in India from National Family Health Survey-4

Authors: Priyanka Dixit

Abstract:

Reproductive health problem is an important public health issue in most of the developing countries like India. It is a common problem in India for women in the reproductive age group to suffer from reproductive illnesses and not seek care. Existing literatures tell us very little about the several dimensions of reproductive morbidity. In addition the general perception says, metros have better medical infrastructure, so its residents should lead a healthier life. However some of the studies reveal a very different picture. Therefore, the present study is conducted with the specific objectives to find out the prevalence of reproductive health problem and treatment seeking behavior of currently married women in four metro cities in India namely; Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Kolkata. In addition, this paper also examines the effect of socio-economic and demographic factors on self-reported reproductive health problems. Bi-variate and multivariate regression have been applied to achieve the proposed objectives. Study is based on National Family Health Survey 2015-16 data. The analysis shows that the prevalence of any reproductive health problem among women is the highest in Mumbai followed by Delhi, Chennai, and Kolkata. A bulk of women in all four metro cities has reported abdominal pain, itching and burning sensation as the major problems while urinating. However, in spite of the high prevalence of reproductive health problems, a huge proportion of such women in all these cities do not seek any advice or treatment for these problems. This study also investigates determinants that affect the prevalence of reproductive health problem to policy makers plan for proper interventions for improving women’s reproductive health.

Keywords: reproductive health, India, national family health survey-4, city

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6 Genetic Association and Functional Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase-14 Promoter Variants rs1004030 and rs1003349 in Gallbladder Cancer Pathogenesis

Authors: J. Vinay , Kusumbati Besra, Niharika Pattnaik, Shivaram Prasad Singh, Manjusha Dixit

Abstract:

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is rare but highly malignant cancer; its prevalence is more in certain geographical regions and ethnic groups, which include the Northern and Eastern states of India. Previous studies in India have reported genetic predisposition as one of the risk factors in GBC pathogenesis. Although the matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP14) is a well-known modulator of the tumor microenvironment and tumorigenesis and TCGA data also suggests its upregulation yet, its role in the genetic predisposition for GBC is completely unknown. We elucidated the role of MMP14 promoter variants as genetic risk factors and their implications in expression modulation. We screened MMP14 promoter variants association with GBC using Sanger’s sequencing in approximately 300 GBC and 300 control subjects and 26 GBC tissue samples of Indian ethnicity. The immunohistochemistry was used to check the MMP14 protein expression in GBC tissue samples. The role of promoter variants on expression levels was elucidated using a luciferase reporter assay. The variants rs1004030 (p-value = 0.0001) and rs1003349 (p-value = 0.0008) were significantly associated with gallbladder cancer. The luciferase assay in two different cell lines, HEK-293 (p = 0.0006) and TGBC1TKB (p = 0.0036) showed a significant increase in relative luciferase activity in the presence of risk alleles for both the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Similarly, genotype-phenotype correlation in patients samples confirmed that the presence of risk alleles at rs1004030 and rs1003349 increased MMP14 expression. Overall, this study unravels the genetic association of MMP14 promoter variants with gallbladder cancer, which may contribute to pathogenesis by increasing its expression.

Keywords: gallbladder cancer, matrix metalloproteinase-14, single nucleotide polymorphism, case control study, genetic association study

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5 Effects of Test Environment on the Sliding Wear Behaviour of Cast Iron, Zinc-Aluminium Alloy and Its Composite

Authors: Mohammad M. Khan, Gajendra Dixit

Abstract:

Partially lubricated sliding wear behaviour of a zinc-based alloy reinforced with 10wt% SiC particles has been studied as a function of applied load and solid lubricant particle size and has been compared with that of matrix alloy and conventionally used grey cast iron. The wear tests were conducted at the sliding velocities of 2.1m/sec in various partial lubricated conditions using pin on disc machine as per ASTM G-99-05. Base oil (SAE 20W-40) or mixture of the base oil with 5wt% graphite of particle sizes (7-10 µm) and (100 µm) were used for creating lubricated conditions. The matrix alloy revealed primary dendrites of a and eutectoid a + h and Î phases in the Inter dendritic regions. Similar microstructure has been depicted by the composite with an additional presence of the dispersoid SiC particles. In the case of cast iron, flakes of graphite were observed in the matrix; the latter comprised of (majority of) pearlite and (limited quantity of) ferrite. Results show a large improvement in wear resistance of the zinc-based alloy after reinforcement with SiC particles. The cast iron shows intermediate response between the matrix alloy and composite. The solid lubrication improved the wear resistance and friction behaviour of both the reinforced and base alloy. Moreover, minimum wear rate is obtained in oil+ 5wt % graphite (7-10 µm) lubricated environment for the matrix alloy and composite while for cast iron addition of solid lubricant increases the wear rate and minimum wear rate is obtained in case of oil lubricated environment. The cast iron experienced higher frictional heating than the matrix alloy and composite in all the cases especially at higher load condition. As far as friction coefficient is concerned, a mixed trend of behaviour was noted. The wear rate and frictional heating increased with load while friction coefficient was affected in an opposite manner. Test duration influenced the frictional heating and friction coefficient of the samples in a mixed manner.

Keywords: solid lubricant, sliding wear, grey cast iron, zinc based metal matrix composites

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4 Effects of AG1 and AG2 QTLs on Rice Seedling Growth and Physiological Processes during Germination in Flooded Soils

Authors: Satyen Mondal, Frederickson Entila, Shalabh Dixit, Pompe C. Sta. Cruz, Abdelbagi M. Ismail

Abstract:

Anaerobic condition caused by flooding during germination in direct seeded rice systems, known as anaerobic germination (AG), severely reduces crop establishment in both rainfed and irrigated areas. Seeds germinating in flooded soils could encounter hypoxia or even anoxia in severe cases, and this hinders germination and seedling growth. This study was conducted to quantify the effects of incorporating two major QTLs, AG1 and AG2, associated with tolerance of flooding during germination and to assess their interactive effects on enhancing crop establishment. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baňos, Philippines, using elite lines incorporating AG1, AG2 and AG1+AG2 in the background of the popular varieties PSBRc82 (PSBRc82-AG1, PSBRc82-AG2, PSBRc82-AG1+AG2) and Ciherang-Sub1 (Ciherang-Sub1-AG1, Ciherang-Sub1-AG2, Ciherang-Sub1-AG1+AG2), along with the donors Kho Hlan On (for AG1) and Ma-Zhan Red (AG2) and the recipients PSBRc82 and Ciherang-Sub1. The experiment was conducted using concrete tanks in an RCBD with three replications. Dry seeds were sown in seedling trays then flooded with 10 cm water depth. Seedling survival, root and shoot growth and relative growth rate were measured. The germinating seedlings were used for assaying nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and ascorbate concentrations, lipid peroxidation, total phenolic concentration, reactive oxygen species and total amylase enzyme activity. Flooding reduced overall survival, though survival of AG1+AG2 introgression lines was greater than other genotypes. Soluble sugars increased, while starch concentration decreased gradually under flooding especially in the tolerant checks and AG1+AG2 introgression lines. Less lipid peroxidation and higher amylase activity, reduced-ascorbate (RAsA) and total phenolic contents (TPC) were observed in the tolerant checks and in AG1+AG2 introgression lines. Lipid peroxidation correlated negatively with ascorbate and total phenolic concentrations and with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Introgression of AG1+AG2 QTLs upregulated total amylase activity causing rapid starch degradation and increase in ascorbate and total phenolic concentrations resulting in higher germination and seedling growth in flooded soils.

Keywords: amylase, anaerobic germination, ascorbate, direct-seeded rice, flooding, lipid peroxidation

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3 Material Handling Equipment Selection Using Fuzzy AHP Approach

Authors: Priyanka Verma, Vijaya Dixit, Rishabh Bajpai

Abstract:

This research paper is aimed at selecting appropriate material handling equipment among the given choices so that the automation level in material handling can be enhanced. This work is a practical case scenario of material handling systems in consumer electronic appliances manufacturing organization. The choices of material handling equipment among which the decision has to be made are Automated Guided Vehicle’s (AGV), Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMR), Overhead Conveyer’s (OC) and Battery Operated Trucks/Vehicle’s (BOT). There is a need of attaining a certain level of automation in order to reduce human interventions in the organization. This requirement of achieving certain degree of automation can be attained by material handling equipment’s mentioned above. The main motive for selecting above equipment’s for study was solely based on corporate financial strategy of investment and return obtained through that investment made in stipulated time framework. Since the low cost automation with respect to material handling devices has to be achieved hence these equipment’s were selected. Investment to be done on each unit of this equipment is less than 20 lakh rupees (INR) and the recovery period is less than that of five years. Fuzzy analytic hierarchic process (FAHP) is applied here for selecting equipment where the four choices are evaluated on basis of four major criteria’s and 13 sub criteria’s, and are prioritized on the basis of weight obtained. The FAHP used here make use of triangular fuzzy numbers (TFN). The inability of the traditional AHP in order to deal with the subjectiveness and impreciseness in the pair-wise comparison process has been improved in the FAHP. The range of values for general rating purposes for all decision making parameters is kept between 0 and 1 on the basis of expert opinions captured on shop floor. These experts were familiar with operating environment and shop floor activity control. Instead of generating exact value the FAHP generates the ranges of values to accommodate the uncertainty in decision-making process. The four major criteria’s selected for the evaluation of choices of material handling equipment’s available are materials, technical capabilities, cost and other features. The thirteen sub criteria’s listed under these following four major criteria’s are weighing capacity, load per hour, material compatibility, capital cost, operating cost and maintenance cost, speed, distance moved, space required, frequency of trips, control required, safety and reliability issues. The key finding shows that among the four major criteria selected, cost is emerged as the most important criteria and is one of the key decision making aspect on the basis of which material equipment selection is based on. While further evaluating the choices of equipment available for each sub criteria it is found that AGV scores the highest weight in most of the sub-criteria’s. On carrying out complete analysis the research shows that AGV is the best material handling equipment suiting all decision criteria’s selected in FAHP and therefore it is beneficial for the organization to carry out automated material handling in the facility using AGV’s.

Keywords: fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), material handling equipment, subjectiveness, triangular fuzzy number (TFN)

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2 Correlation between Defect Suppression and Biosensing Capability of Hydrothermally Grown ZnO Nanorods

Authors: Mayoorika Shukla, Pramila Jakhar, Tejendra Dixit, I. A. Palani, Vipul Singh

Abstract:

Biosensors are analytical devices with wide range of applications in biological, chemical, environmental and clinical analysis. It comprises of bio-recognition layer which has biomolecules (enzymes, antibodies, DNA, etc.) immobilized over it for detection of analyte and transducer which converts the biological signal into the electrical signal. The performance of biosensor primarily the depends on the bio-recognition layer and therefore it has to be chosen wisely. In this regard, nanostructures of metal oxides such as ZnO, SnO2, V2O5, and TiO2, etc. have been explored extensively as bio-recognition layer. Recently, ZnO has the attracted attention of researchers due to its unique properties like high iso-electric point, biocompatibility, stability, high electron mobility and high electron binding energy, etc. Although there have been many reports on usage of ZnO as bio-recognition layer but to the authors’ knowledge, none has ever observed correlation between optical properties like defect suppression and biosensing capability of the sensor. Here, ZnO nanorods (ZNR) have been synthesized by a low cost, simple and low-temperature hydrothermal growth process, over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate. The ZNR have been synthesized in two steps viz. initially a seed layer was coated over substrate (Pt coated glass) followed by immersion of it into nutrient solution of Zinc nitrate and Hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) with in situ addition of KMnO4. The addition of KMnO4 was observed to have a profound effect over the growth rate anisotropy of ZnO nanostructures. Clustered and powdery growth of ZnO was observed without addition of KMnO4, although by addition of it during the growth, uniform and crystalline ZNR were found to be grown over the substrate. Moreover, the same has resulted in suppression of defects as observed by Normalized Photoluminescence (PL) spectra since KMnO4 is a strong oxidizing agent which provides an oxygen rich growth environment. Further, to explore the correlation between defect suppression and biosensing capability of the ZNR Glucose oxidase (Gox) was immobilized over it, using physical adsorption technique followed by drop casting of nafion. Here the main objective of the work was to analyze effect of defect suppression over biosensing capability, and therefore Gox has been chosen as model enzyme, and electrochemical amperometric glucose detection was performed. The incorporation of KMnO4 during growth has resulted in variation of optical and charge transfer properties of ZNR which in turn were observed to have deep impact on biosensor figure of merits. The sensitivity of biosensor was found to increase by 12-18 times, due to variations introduced by addition of KMnO4 during growth. The amperometric detection of glucose in continuously stirred buffer solution was performed. Interestingly, defect suppression has been observed to contribute towards the improvement of biosensor performance. The detailed mechanism of growth of ZNR along with the overall influence of defect suppression on the sensing capabilities of the resulting enzymatic electrochemical biosensor and different figure of merits of the biosensor (Glass/Pt/ZNR/Gox/Nafion) will be discussed during the conference.

Keywords: biosensors, defects, KMnO4, ZnO nanorods

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