Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: coagulation

121 Comparison of Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation for Boron Removal from Synthetic Wastewater Using Aluminium

Authors: Kartikaningsih Danis, Yao-Hui Huang


Various techniques including conventional and advanced have been employed for the boron treatment from water and wastewater. The electrocoagulation involves an electrolytic reactor for coagulation/flotation with aluminium as anode and cathode. There is aluminium as coagulant to be used for removal which may induce secondary pollution in chemical coagulation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the performance between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation on boron removal from synthetic wastewater. The effect of different parameters, such as pH reaction, coagulant dosage, and initial boron concentration were examined. The results show that the boron removal using chemical coagulation was lower. At the optimum condition (e.g. pH 8 and 0.8 mol coagulant dosage), boron removal efficiencies for chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation were 61% and 91%, respectively. In addition, the electrocoagulation needs no chemical reagents and makes the boron treatment easy for application.

Keywords: boron removal, chemical coagulation, aluminum, electro-coagulation

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120 The Effectiveness of Pretreatment Methods on COD and Ammonia Removal from Landfill Leachate

Authors: M. Poveda, S. Lozecznik, J. Oleszkiewicz, Q. Yuan


The goal of this experiment is to evaluate the effectiveness of different leachate pre-treatment options in terms of COD and ammonia removal. This research focused on the evaluation of physical-chemical methods for pre-treatment of leachate that would be effective and rapid in order to satisfy the requirements of the sewer discharge by-laws. The four pre-treatment options evaluated were: air stripping, chemical coagulation, electro-coagulation and advanced oxidation with sodium ferrate. Chemical coagulation reported the best COD removal rate at 43%, compared to 18 % for both air stripping and electro-coagulation, and 20 % for oxidation with sodium ferrate. On the other hand, air stripping was far superior to the other treatment options in terms of ammonia removal with 86 %. Oxidation with sodium ferrate reached only 16 %, while chemical coagulation and electro-coagulation removed less than 10 %. When combined, air stripping and chemical coagulation removed up to 50 % COD and 85 % ammonia.

Keywords: leachate pretreatment, air stripping, chemical coagulation, electro-coagulation, oxidation

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119 Lamb Wave-Based Blood Coagulation Measurement System Using Citrated Plasma

Authors: Hyunjoo Choi, Jeonghun Nam, Chae Seung Lim


Acoustomicrofluidics has gained much attention due to the advantages, such as noninvasiveness and easy integration with other miniaturized systems, for clinical and biological applications. However, a limitation of acoustomicrofluidics is the complicated and costly fabrication process of electrodes. In this study, we propose a low-cost and lithography-free device using Lamb wave for blood analysis. Using a Lamb wave, calcium ion-removed blood plasma and coagulation reagents can be rapidly mixed for blood coagulation test. Due to the coagulation process, the viscosity of the sample increases and the viscosity change can be monitored by internal acoustic streaming of microparticles suspended in the sample droplet. When the acoustic streaming of particles stops by the viscosity increase is defined as the coagulation time. With the addition of calcium ion at 0-25 mM, the coagulation time was measured and compared with the conventional index for blood coagulation analysis, prothrombin time, which showed highly correlated with the correlation coefficient as 0.94. Therefore, our simple and cost-effective Lamb wave-based blood analysis device has the powerful potential to be utilized in clinical settings.

Keywords: acoustomicrofluidics, blood analysis, coagulation, lamb wave

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118 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar


A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology

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117 Encapsulated Rennin Enzyme in Nano and Micro Tubular Cellulose/Starch Gel Composite for Milk Coagulation

Authors: Eleftheria Barouni, Theano Petsi, Argyro Bekatorou, Dionysos Kolliopoulos, Dimitrios Vasileiou, Panayiotis Panas, Maria Kanellaki, Athanasios A. Koutinas


The aim of the present work was the production and use of a composite filter (TC/starch), containing rennin enzyme, in continuous system and in successive fermentation batches (SFB) for milk coagulation in order to compare the operational stability of both systems and cheese production cost. Tubular cellulose (TC) was produced after removal of lignin from lignocellulosic biomass using several procedures, e.g. alkaline treatment [1] and starch gel was added for the reduction of TC tubes dimensions to micro- and nano- range[2]. Four immobilized biocatalysts were prepared using different ways of the enzyme entrapment. 1) TC/ rennin (rennin entrapped in the tubes of TC), 2) TC/SG-rennin (rennin entrapped in the tubes of the composite), 3) TC-SG/rennin (rennin entrapped into the layer of starch gel) and 4) TC/rennin- SG/rennin (rennin is entrapped both in the tubes of the TC and into the layer of starch gel). Firstly these immobilized biocatalysts were examined in ten SFB regarding the coagulation time and their activity All the above immobilized biocatalysts remained active and the coagulation time was ranged from 90 to 480, 120-480, 330-510, and 270-540 min for (1), (2), (3), and (4) respectively. The quality of the cheese was examined through the determination of volatile compounds by SPME GC/MS analysis. These results encouraged us to study a continuous coagulation system of milk. Even though the (1) immobilized biocatalyst gave lower coagulation time, we used the (2) immobilized biocatalyst in the continuous system. The results were promising.

Keywords: tubular cellulose, starch gel, composite biocatalyst, Rennin, milk coagulation

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116 Treatment of Tannery Effluents by the Process of Coagulation

Authors: Gentiana Shegani


Coagulation is a process that sanitizes leather effluents. It aims to reduce pollutants such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), chloride, sulphate, chromium, suspended solids, and other dissolved solids. The current study aimed to evaluate coagulation efficiency of tannery wastewater by analysing the change in organic matter, odor, colour, ammonium ions, nutrients, chloride, H2S, sulphate, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, faecal pollution, and chromium hexavalent before and after treatment. Effluent samples were treated with coagulants Ca(OH)2 and FeSO4 .7H2O. The best advantages of this treatment included the removal of: COD (81.60%); ammonia ions (98.34%); nitrate ions (92%); chromium hexavalent (75.00%); phosphate (70.00%); chloride (69.20%); and H₂S (50%). Results also indicated a high level of efficiency in the reduction of fecal pollution indicators. Unfortunately, only a modest reduction of sulphate (19.00%) and TSS (13.00%) and an increase in TDS (15.60%) was observed.

Keywords: coagulation, effluent, tannery, treatment

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115 Effect of Thermal Energy on Inorganic Coagulation for the Treatment of Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Abhishek Singh, Rajlakshmi Barman, Tanmay Shah


Coagulation is considered to be one of the predominant water treatment processes which improve the cost effectiveness of wastewater. The sole purpose of this experiment on thermal coagulation is to increase the efficiency and the rate of reaction. The process uses renewable sources of energy which comprises of improved and minimized time method in order to eradicate the water scarcity of the regions which are on the brink of depletion. This paper includes the various effects of temperature on the standard coagulation treatment of wastewater and their effect on water quality. In addition, the coagulation is done with the mix of bottom/fly-ash that will act as an adsorbent and removes most of the minor and macro particles by means of adsorption which not only helps to reduce the environmental burden of fly ash but also enhance economic benefit. Also, the method of sand filtration is amalgamated in the process. The sand filter is an environmentally-friendly wastewater treatment method, which is relatively simple and inexpensive. The existing parameters were satisfied with the experimental results obtained in this study and were found satisfactory. The initial turbidity of the wastewater is 162 NTU. The initial temperature of the wastewater is 27 C. The temperature variation of the entire process is 50 C-80 C. The concentration of alum in wastewater is 60mg/L-320mg/L. The turbidity range is 8.31-28.1 NTU after treatment. pH variation is 7.73-8.29. The effective time taken is 10 minutes for thermal mixing and sedimentation. The results indicate that the presence of thermal energy affects the coagulation treatment process. The influence of thermal energy on turbidity is assessed along with renewable energy sources and increase of the rate of reaction of the treatment process.

Keywords: adsorbent, sand filter, temperature, thermal coagulation

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114 Treatment of Rice Industry Waste Water by Flotation-Flocculation Method

Authors: J. K. Kapoor, Shagufta Jabin, H. S. Bhatia


Polyamine flocculants were synthesized by poly-condensation of diphenylamine and epichlorohydrin using 1, 2-diaminoethane as modifying agent. The polyelectrolytes were prepared by taking epichlohydrin-diphenylamine in a molar ratio of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, and 2.5:1. The flocculation performance of these polyelectrolytes was evaluated with rice industry waste water. The polyelectrolytes have been used in conjunction with alum for coagulation- flocculation process. Prior to the coagulation- flocculation process, air flotation technique was used with the aim to remove oil and grease content from waste water. Significant improvement was observed in the removal of oil and grease content after the air flotation technique. It has been able to remove 91.7% oil and grease from rice industry waste water. After coagulation-flocculation method, it has been observed that polyelectrolyte with epichlohydrin-diphenylamine molar ratio of 1.5:1 showed best results for the removal of pollutants from rice industry waste water. The highest efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal with polyelectrolyte has been found to be 97.5% and 98.2%, respectively. Results of these evaluations also reveal 86.8% removal of COD and 87.5% removal of BOD from rice industry waste water. Thus, we demonstrate optimization of coagulation–flocculation technique which is appropriate for waste water treatment.

Keywords: coagulation, flocculation, air flotation technique, polyelectrolyte, turbidity

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113 Fast and Accurate Finite-Difference Method Solving Multicomponent Smoluchowski Coagulation Equation

Authors: Alexander P. Smirnov, Sergey A. Matveev, Dmitry A. Zheltkov, Eugene E. Tyrtyshnikov


We propose a new computational technique for multidimensional (multicomponent) Smoluchowski coagulation equation. Using low-rank approximations in Tensor Train format of both the solution and the coagulation kernel, we accelerate the classical finite-difference Runge-Kutta scheme keeping its level of accuracy. The complexity of the taken finite-difference scheme is reduced from O(N^2d) to O(d^2 N log N ), where N is the number of grid nodes and d is a dimensionality of the problem. The efficiency and the accuracy of the new method are demonstrated on concrete problem with known analytical solution.

Keywords: tensor train decomposition, multicomponent Smoluchowski equation, runge-kutta scheme, convolution

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112 Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Green Chlorine-free Coagulants

Authors: Huihui Zhang, Zhongzhi Zhang


Coagulation/flocculation is regarded as a simple and effective wastewater treatment technology. Chlorine-containing coagulants may release chloride ions into the water, causing corrosion. A green chlorine-free coagulant of polyaluminum ferric silicate (PSAF) was prepared by the copolymerization method to treat oily refractory wastewaters. Results showed that the highest removal efficiency of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) achieved 97.4% and 93.0% at a dosage of 700 mg/L, respectively. No chlorine atoms were found in Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) spectra results of raw wastewater, which meant there was almost no organic chlorine. After PSAF coagulation, chlorinated organics were still not detected in the effluent, indicating that the use of PSAF coagulants did not lead to an increase in the content of organic chlorine. Meanwhile, the chloride ion concentration was also almost the same as that in the raw wastewater. Thus, the chlorine-free coagulant is highly efficient and does not introduce additional chloride ions into the wastewater, avoiding corrosion.

Keywords: coagulation, chloride-free coagulant, oily refractory wastewater, coagulation performance

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111 Coagulation-Flocculation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent from Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Johor, Malaysia

Authors: A. H. Jagaba, Musa Babayo, Ab Aziz Abdul Latiff, Sule Abubakar, I. M. Lawal, Isa Zubairu, M. A. Nasara


Wastewater containing heavy metals is of extreme importance globally because of its potential threat to both the aquatic ecosystem and the soil environment. Heavy metal is hazardous even at low concentration and thereby causing various forms of diseases. One method which has been tested and found to be effective for heavy metals removal is coagulation-flocculation. For the coagulation process of POME obtained from Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Johor (PPNJ), Oil Palm Mill Company located in Kahang area of Kluang, Johor Darul Takzim, Malaysia, diffèrent coagulants would be used to absorb and then separate the metals from wastewater. The determination of heavy metals concentration in POME was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Results of the study showed that alum coagulant was successful in effectively reducing Cu, Cd, and Mn from 0.840 mg/l, 0.00509 mg/l and 8.191 mg/l to as low as 0.107 mg/l, 0.000270 mg/l and 0.612 mg/l respectively. All were obtained at a dose of 1000 mg/l. 1000 mg/l dose of ferric chloride reduced Pb concentration from 0.0248 mg/l to 0.00151 mg/l. Chitosan was best at reducing Fe and Zn from 62.91 mg/l and 3.616 mg/l to 6.003 mg/l and 0.595 mg/l all at a dose of 400 mg/l.

Keywords: palm oil mill effluent, coagulation, heavy metals, Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Johor, Malaysia

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110 On the Mathematical Modelling of Aggregative Stability of Disperse Systems

Authors: Arnold M. Brener, Lesbek Tashimov, Ablakim S. Muratov


The paper deals with the special model for coagulation kernels which represents new control parameters in the Smoluchowski equation for binary aggregation. On the base of the model the new approach to evaluating aggregative stability of disperse systems has been submitted. With the help of this approach the simple estimates for aggregative stability of various types of hydrophilic nano-suspensions have been obtained.

Keywords: aggregative stability, coagulation kernels, disperse systems, mathematical model

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109 Cheese Production at Low Temperatures Using Probiotic L. casei ATCC 393 and Rennin Enzyme Entrapped in Tubular Cellulose

Authors: Eleftheria Barouni, Antonia Terpou, Maria Kanellaki, Argyro Bekatorou, Athanasios A.Koutinas


The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of cheese using a composite filter of tubular cellulose (TC) with [a] entrapped rennin enzyme and [b] immobilized L.casei and entrapped enzyme. Tubular cellulose from sawdust was prepared after lignin removal with 1% NaOH. The biocatalysts were thermally dried at 38oC and used for milk coagulation. The effect of temperature (5,20,37 oC) of the first dried biocatalyst on the pH kinetics of milk coagulation was examined. The optimum temperature (37oC) of the first biocatalyst was used for milk coagulation with the second biocatalyst prepared by entrapment of both rennin enzyme and probiotic lactic acid bacteria in order to introduce a sour taste in cheeses. This co-biocatalyst was used for milk coagulation. Samples were studied as regards its effect on lactic acid formation and its correlation with taste test results in cheeses. For both biocatalysts samples were analyzed for total acidity and lactic acid formation by HPLC. The quality of the produced cheeses was examined through the determination of volatile compounds by SPME GC/MS analysis. Preliminary taste tests and microbiological analysis were performed and encourage us for further research regarding scale up.

Keywords: tubular cellulose, Lactobacillus casei, rennin enzyme, cheese production

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108 Performance Assessment of Recycled Alum Sludge in the Treatment of Textile Industry Effluent in South Africa

Authors: Tony Ngoy Mbodi, Christophe Muanda


Textile industry is considered as one of the most polluting sectors in terms of effluent volume of discharge and wastewater composition, such as dye, which represents an environmental hazard when discharged without any proper treatment. A study was conducted to investigate the capability of the use of recycled alum sludge (RAS) as an alternative treatment for the reduction of colour, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH adjustment from dye based synthetic textile industry wastewater. The coagulation/flocculation process was studied for coagulants of Alum:RAS ratio of, 1:1, 2:1, 1:2 and 0:1. Experiments on treating the synthetic wastewater using membrane filtration and adsorption with corn cobs were also conducted. Results from the coagulation experiment were compared to those from adsorption with corn cobs and membrane filtration experiments conducted on the same synthetic wastewater. The results of the RAS experiments were also evaluated against standard guidelines for industrial effluents treated for discharge purposes in order to establish its level of compliance. Based on current results, it can be concluded that reusing the alum sludge as a low-cost material pretreatment method into the coagulation/flocculation process can offer some advantages such as high removal efficiency for disperse dye and economic savings on overall treatment of the industry wastewater.

Keywords: alum, coagulation/flocculation, dye, recycled alum sludge, textile wastewater

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107 Valorisation of a Bioflocculant and Hydroxyapatites as Coagulation-Flocculation Adjuvants in Wastewater Treatment of the Steppe in the Wilaya of Saida

Authors: Fatima Zohra Choumane, Belkacem Benguella, Bouhana Maachou, Nacera Saadi


Pollution caused by wastewater is a serious problem in Algeria. This pollution has certainly harmful effects on the environment. In order to reduce the bad effects of these pollutants, many wastewater treatment processes, mainly physicochemical, are implemented. This study consists in using two flocculants; the first one is a biodegradable natural bioflocculant, i.e. Cactaceaeou ficus-indica cactus juice, and the second is the synthetic hydroxyapatite, in a physico-chemical process through coagulation-flocculation, using two coagulants, i.e. ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, to treat wastewater collected at the entrance of the treatment plant, in the town of Saida. The influence of various experimental parameters, such as the amounts of coagulants and flocculants used, pH, turbidity, COD and BOD5, was investigated. The coagulation - flocculation jar tests of wastewater reveal that ferric chloride, containing a mass of 0.3 g – hydroxyapatite, treated for 1 hour through calcination, is the most effective adjuvant in clarifying the wastewater, with turbidity equal to 98.16 %. In the presence of the two bioflocculants, Cactaceae juice and aluminum sulphate, with a dose of 0.2 g, flocculation is good, with turbidity equal to 95.61 %. Examination of the key reaction parameters, following the flocculation tests of wastewater, shows that the degree of pollution decreases. This is confirmed by the COD and turbidity values obtained. Examination of these results suggests the use of these flocculants in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater, cactus ficus-indica, hydroxyapatite, coagulation - flocculation

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106 Efficiency and Limits of Physicochemical Treatment of Dairy Wastewater: A Case Study of Dairy Industry in Western Algeria

Authors: Khedidja Benouis


Environmental issues in the food industry are related to the water because it consumes water and release large volumes of wastewater. The treatment of such discharges techniques can be adapted to different situations encountered. For dairy effluents, it is necessary and very effective to use a treatment that eliminates much of the pollutant load,thus, to drastically reduce the organic loading rate. This study aims to evaluate the Efficiency and limitations of physicochemical treatment by coagulation - flocculation of liquid effluent from this type of food industry in Algeria, to give an example of the type and the degree of pollution generated by this sector and in order to reduce pollution and minimize its environmental issues. Coagulation - flocculation-sedimentation was carried out using lime without addition of additive (flocculant), the processing efficiency is indicated by the concentration of pollutants in treated water. The results show that treatment is not sufficient to remove organic pollution, but it has significantly reduced the Total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphate (PO4-P).

Keywords: Algeria, coagulation-flocculation, dairy effluent, treatment

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105 Electrochemical Coagulation of Synthetic Textile Dye Wastewater

Authors: H. B. Rekha, Usha N. Murthy, Prashanth, Ashoka


Dyes are manufactured to have high chemical resistance because they are normally species, very difficult to degrade (reactive dyes). It damages flora and fauna. Furthermore, coloured components are highly hazardous. So removal of dyes becomes a challenge for both textile industry and water treatment facility. Dyeing wastewater is usually treated by conventional methods such as biological oxidation and adsorption but nowadays them becoming in-adequate because of large variability of composition of waste water. In the present investigation, mild steel electrodes of varying surface area were used for treatment of synthetic textile dye. It appears that electro-chemical coagulation could be very effective in removing coloured from wastewater; it could also be used to remove other parameters like chlorides, COD, and solids to some extent. In the present study, coloured removal up to 99% was obtained for surface area of mild steel electrode of 80 cm2 and 96% of surface area of mild steel electrode of 50 cm2. The findings from this study could be used to improve the design of electro-chemical treatment systems and modify existing systems to improve efficiency.

Keywords: electrochemical coagulation, mild steel, colour, environmental engineering

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104 Application of Moringa Oleifer Seed in Removing Colloids from Turbid Wastewater

Authors: Zemmouri Hassiba, Lounici Hakim, Mameri Nabil


Dried crushed seeds of Moringa oleifera contain an effective soluble protein; a natural cationic polyelectrolyte which causes coagulation. The present study aims to investigate the performance of Moringa oleifera seed extract as natural coagulant in clarification of secondary wastewater treatment highly charged in colloidal. A series of Jar tests was undertaken using raw wastewater providing from secondary decanter of Reghaia municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) located in East of Algiers, Algeria. Coagulation flocculation performance of Moringa oleifera was evaluated through supernatant residual turbidity. Various influence parameters namely Moringa oleifera dosage and pH have been considered. Tests on Reghaia wastewater, having 129 NTU of initial turbidity, showed a removal of 69.45% of residual turbidity with only 1.5 mg/l of Moringa oleifera. This sufficient removal capability encourages the use of this bioflocculant for treatment of turbid waters. Based on this result, the coagulant seed extract of Moringa oleifera is better suited to clarify municipal wastewater by removing turbidity. Indeed, Moringa oleifera which is a natural resource available locally (South of Algeria) coupled to the non-toxicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability, may be a very interesting alternative to the conventional coagulants used so far.

Keywords: coagulation flocculation, colloids, moringa oleifera, secondary wastewater

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103 Assessing the Efficiency of Pre-Hospital Scoring System with Conventional Coagulation Tests Based Definition of Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy

Authors: Venencia Albert, Arulselvi Subramanian, Hara Prasad Pati, Asok K. Mukhophadhyay


Acute traumatic coagulopathy in an endogenous dysregulation of the intrinsic coagulation system in response to the injury, associated with three-fold risk of poor outcome, and is more amenable to corrective interventions, subsequent to early identification and management. Multiple definitions for stratification of the patients' risk for early acute coagulopathy have been proposed, with considerable variations in the defining criteria, including several trauma-scoring systems based on prehospital data. We aimed to develop a clinically relevant definition for acute coagulopathy of trauma based on conventional coagulation assays and to assess its efficacy in comparison to recently established prehospital prediction models. Methodology: Retrospective data of all trauma patients (n = 490) presented to our level I trauma center, in 2014, was extracted. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was done to establish cut-offs for conventional coagulation assays for identification of patients with acute traumatic coagulopathy was done. Prospectively data of (n = 100) adult trauma patients was collected and cohort was stratified by the established definition and classified as "coagulopathic" or "non-coagulopathic" and correlated with the Prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score and Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy Clinical Score for identifying trauma coagulopathy and subsequent risk for mortality. Results: Data of 490 trauma patients (average age 31.85±9.04; 86.7% males) was extracted. 53.3% had head injury, 26.6% had fractures, 7.5% had chest and abdominal injury. Acute traumatic coagulopathy was defined as international normalized ratio ≥ 1.19; prothrombin time ≥ 15.5 s; activated partial thromboplastin time ≥ 29 s. Of the 100 adult trauma patients (average age 36.5±14.2; 94% males), 63% had early coagulopathy based on our conventional coagulation assay definition. Overall prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score was 118.7±58.5 and trauma-induced coagulopathy clinical score was 3(0-8). Both the scores were higher in coagulopathic than non-coagulopathic patients (prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score 123.2±8.3 vs. 110.9±6.8, p-value = 0.31; trauma-induced coagulopathy clinical score 4(3-8) vs. 3(0-8), p-value = 0.89), but not statistically significant. Overall mortality was 41%. Mortality rate was significantly higher in coagulopathic than non-coagulopathic patients (75.5% vs. 54.2%, p-value = 0.04). High prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score also significantly associated with mortality (134.2±9.95 vs. 107.8±6.82, p-value = 0.02), whereas trauma-induced coagulopathy clinical score did not vary be survivors and non-survivors. Conclusion: Early coagulopathy was seen in 63% of trauma patients, which was significantly associated with mortality. Acute traumatic coagulopathy defined by conventional coagulation assays (international normalized ratio ≥ 1.19; prothrombin time ≥ 15.5 s; activated partial thromboplastin time ≥ 29 s) demonstrated good ability to identify coagulopathy and subsequent mortality, in comparison to the prehospital parameter-based scoring systems. Prediction of acute coagulopathy of trauma score may be more suited for predicting mortality rather than early coagulopathy. In emergency trauma situations, where immediate corrective measures need to be taken, complex multivariable scoring algorithms may cause delay, whereas coagulation parameters and conventional coagulation tests will give highly specific results.

Keywords: trauma, coagulopathy, prediction, model

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102 Addition of Phosphates on Stability of Sterilized Goat Milk in Different Seasons

Authors: Mei-Jen Lin, Yuan-Yuan Yu


Low heat stability of goat milk limited the application of ultra-high temperature (UHT) sterilization on producing sterilized goat milk in order to keep excess goat milk in summer for producing goat dairy products in winter in Taiwan. Therefore, this study aimed to add stabilizers in goat milk to increase the heat stability for producing UHT sterilized goat milk preserved for making goat dairy products in winter. The amounts of 0.05-0.11% blend of sodium phosphates (Na) and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates (Sp) were added in raw goat milk at different seasons a night before autoclaved sterilization at 135°C 4 sec. The coagulation, ion calcium concentration and ethanol stability of sterilized goat milk were analyzed. Results showed that there were seasonal differences on choosing the optimal stabilizers and the addition levels. Addition of 0.05% and 0.22% of both Na and Sp salts in Spring goat milk, 0.10-0.11% of both Na and Sp salts in Summer goat milk, and 0.05%Na Sp group in Autumn goat milk were coagulated after autoclaved, respectively. There was no coagulation found with the addition of 0.08-0.09% both Na and Sp salts in goat milk; furthermore, the ionic calcium concentration were lower than 2.00 mM and ethanol stability higher than 70% in both 0.08-0.09% Na and Sp salts added goat milk. Therefore, the optimal addition level of blend of sodium phosphates and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates were 0.08-0.09% for producing sterilized goat milk at different seasons in Taiwan.

Keywords: coagulation, goat milk, phosphates, stability

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101 Review on Optimization of Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz


In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and, in consequence, optimize the of the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, optimization, turbidity removal, water treatment

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100 Acute Hepatotoxicity of Nano and Micro-Sized Iron Particles in Adult Albino Rats

Authors: Ghada Hasabo, Mahmoud Saber Elbasiouny, Mervat Abdelsalam, Sherin Ghaleb, Niveen Eldessouky


In the near future, nanotechnology is envisaged for large scale use. Hence health and safety issues of nanoparticles should be promptly addressed. In the present study the acute hepatoxicity assessment due to high single oral dose of nano iron and micro iron particles were studied. The normal daily activities, biochemical alterations, blood coagulation, histopathological changes in Wister rats were the aspect of the toxicological assessment.This work found that significant alterations in biochemical enzymes (serum iron level, liver enzymes, albumin, and bilirubin levels), blood coagulation (PT, PC, INR), and histopathological changes occurred more prominently in the nano iron particle treated group.

Keywords: nanobiotechnology, nanosystems, nanomaterials, nanotechnology

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99 A Comparative Study of Simple and Pre-polymerized Fe Coagulants for Surface Water Treatment

Authors: Petros Gkotsis, Giorgos Stratidis, Manassis Mitrakas, Anastasios Zouboulis


This study investigates the use of original and pre-polymerized iron (Fe) reagents compared to the commonly applied polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant for surface water treatment. Applicable coagulants included both ferric chloride (FeCl₃) and ferric sulfate (Fe₂(SO₄)₃) and their pre-polymerized Fe reagents, such as polyferric sulfate (PFS) and polyferric chloride (PFCl). The efficiency of coagulants was evaluated by the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and suspended solids (SS), which were determined in terms of reducing the UV absorption at 254 nm and turbidity, respectively. The residual metal concentration (Fe and Al) was also measured. Coagulants were added at five concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg/L) and three pH values (7.0, 7.3 and 7.6). Experiments were conducted in a jar-test device, with two types of synthetic surface water (i.e., of high and low organic strength) which consisted of humic acid (HA) and kaolin at different concentrations (5 mg/L and 50 mg/L). After the coagulation/flocculation process, clean water was separated with filters of pore size 0.45 μm. Filtration was also conducted before the addition of coagulants in order to compare the ‘net’ effect of the coagulation/flocculation process on the examined parameters (UV at 254 nm, turbidity, and residual metal concentration). Results showed that the use of PACl resulted in the highest removal of humics for both types of surface water. For the surface water of high organic strength (humic acid-kaolin, 50 mg/L-50 mg/L), the highest removal of humics was observed at the highest coagulant dosage of 5 mg/L and at pH=7. On the contrary, turbidity was not significantly affected by the coagulant dosage. However, the use of PACl decreased turbidity the most, especially when the surface water of high organic strength was employed. As expected, the application of coagulation/flocculation prior to filtration improved NOM removal but slightly affected turbidity. Finally, the residual Fe concentration (0.01-0.1 mg/L) was much lower than the residual Al concentration (0.1-0.25 mg/L).

Keywords: coagulation/flocculation, iron and aluminum coagulants, metal salts, pre-polymerized coagulants, surface water treatment

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98 Preparation and Removal Properties of Hollow Fiber Membranes for Drinking Water

Authors: Seung Moon Woo, Youn Suk Chung, Sang Yong Nam


In the present time, we need advanced water treatment technology for separation of virus and bacteria in effluent which occur epidemic and waterborne diseases. Water purification system is mainly divided into two categorizations like reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF). Membrane used in these systems requires higher durability because of operating in harsh condition. Of these, the membrane using in UF system has many advantages like higher efficiency and lower energy consume for water treatment compared with RO system. In many kinds of membrane, hollow fiber type membrane is possible to make easily and to get optimized property by control of various spinning conditions such as temperature of coagulation bath, concentration of polymer, addition of additive, air gap and internal coagulation. In this study, polysulfone hollow fiber membrane was successfully prepared by phase inversion method for separation of virus and bacteria. When we prepare the hollow fiber membrane, we controlled various factors such as the polymer concentration, air gap and internal coagulation to investigate effect to membrane property. Morphology of surface and cross section of membrane were measured by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Water flux of membrane was measured using test modules. Mean pore diameter of membrane was calculated using rejection of polystyrene (PS) latex beads for separation of virus and bacteria. Flux and mean flow pore diameter of prepared membrane show 1.5 LPM, 0.03 μm at 1.0 kgf/cm2. The bacteria and virus removal performance of prepared UF membranes were over 6 logs.

Keywords: hollow fiber membrane, drinking water, ultrafiltration, bacteria

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97 Testing Serum Proteome between Elite Sprinters and Long-Distance Runners

Authors: Hung-Chieh Chen, Kuo-Hui Wang, Tsu-Lin Yeh


Proteomics represent the performance of genomic complement proteins and the protein level on functional genomics. This study adopted proteomic strategies for comparing serum proteins among three groups: elite sprinter (sprint runner group, SR), long-distance runners (long-distance runner group, LDR), and the untrained control group (control group, CON). Purposes: This study aims to identify elite sprinters and long-distance runners’ serum protein and to provide a comparison of their serum proteome’ composition. Methods: Serum protein fractionations that separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analyzed by a quantitative nano-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic profiling. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe post hoc comparison (α= 0.05) was used to determine whether there is any significant difference in each protein level among the three groups. Results: (1) After analyzing the 307 identified proteins, there were 26 unique proteins in the SR group, and 18 unique proteins in the LDR group. (2) For the LDR group, 7 coagulation function-associated proteins’ expression levels were investigated: vitronectin, serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, fibulin-1, complement C3, vitamin K-dependent protein, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3 and von Willebrand factor, and the findings show the seven coagulation function-associated proteins were significantly lower than the group of SR. (3) Comparing to the group of SR, this study found that the LDR group’s expression levels of the 2 antioxidant proteins (afamin and glutathione peroxidase 3) were also significantly lower. (4) The LDR group’s expression levels of seven immune function-related proteins (Ig gamma-3 chain C region, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5, clusterin, complement C1s subcomponent, complement factor B, complement C4-A, complement C1q subcomponent subunit A) were also significantly lower than the group of SR. Conclusion: This study identified the potential serum protein markers for elite sprinters and long-distance runners. The changes in the regulation of coagulation, antioxidant, or immune function-specific proteins may also provide further clinical applications for these two different track athletes.

Keywords: biomarkers, coagulation, immune response, oxidative stress

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96 Treatment of Cutting Oily-Wastewater by Sono-Fenton Process: Experimental Approach and Combined Process

Authors: Pisut Painmanakul, Thawatchai Chintateerachai, Supanid Lertlapwasin, Nusara Rojvilavan, Tanun Chalermsinsuwan, Nattawin Chawaloesphonsiya, Onanong Larpparisudthi


Conventional coagulation, advance oxidation process (AOPs), and the combined process were evaluated and compared for its suitability to treat the stabilized cutting-oil wastewater. The 90% efficiency was obtained from the coagulation at Al2(SO4)3 dosage of 150 mg/L and pH 7. On the other hands, efficiencies of AOPs for 30 minutes oxidation time were 10% for acoustic oxidation, 12% for acoustic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, 76% for Fenton, and 92% sono-Fenton processes. The highest efficiency for effective oil removal of AOPs required large amount of chemical. Therefore, AOPs were studied as a post-treatment after conventional separation process. The efficiency was considerable as the effluent COD can pass the standard required for industrial wastewater discharge with less chemical and energy consumption.

Keywords: cutting oily-wastewater, advance oxidation process, sono-fenton, combined process

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95 Effects of the Coagulation Bath and Reduction Process on SO2 Adsorption Capacity of Graphene Oxide Fiber

Authors: Özge Alptoğa, Nuray Uçar, Nilgün Karatepe Yavuz, Ayşen Önen


Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a very toxic air pollutant gas and it causes the greenhouse effect, photochemical smog, and acid rain, which threaten human health severely. Thus, the capture of SO2 gas is very important for the environment. Graphene which is two-dimensional material has excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal properties, and many application areas such as energy storage devices, gas adsorption, sensing devices, and optical electronics. Further, graphene oxide (GO) is examined as a good adsorbent because of its important features such as functional groups (epoxy, carboxyl and hydroxyl) on the surface and layered structure. The SO2 adsorption properties of the fibers are usually investigated on carbon fibers. In this study, potential adsorption capacity of GO fibers was researched. GO dispersion was first obtained with Hummers’ method from graphite, and then GO fibers were obtained via wet spinning process. These fibers were converted into a disc shape, dried, and then subjected to SO2 gas adsorption test. The SO2 gas adsorption capacity of GO fiber discs was investigated in the fields of utilization of different coagulation baths and reduction by hydrazine hydrate. As coagulation baths, single and triple baths were used. In single bath, only ethanol and CaCl2 (calcium chloride) salt were added. In triple bath, each bath has a different concentration of water/ethanol and CaCl2 salt, and the disc obtained from triple bath has been called as reference disk. The fibers which were produced with single bath were flexible and rough, and the analyses show that they had higher SO2 adsorption capacity than triple bath fibers (reference disk). However, the reduction process did not increase the adsorption capacity, because the SEM images showed that the layers and uniform structure in the fiber form were damaged, and reduction decreased the functional groups which SO2 will be attached. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyzes were performed on the fibers and discs, and the effects on the results were interpreted. In the future applications of the study, it is aimed that subjects such as pH and additives will be examined.

Keywords: coagulation bath, graphene oxide fiber, reduction, SO2 gas adsorption

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94 Utility of Thromboelastography to Reduce Coagulation-Related Mortality and Blood Component Rate in Neurosurgery ICU

Authors: Renu Saini, Deepak Agrawal


Background: Patients with head and spinal cord injury frequently have deranged coagulation profiles and require blood products transfusion perioperatively. Thromboelastography (TEG) is a ‘bedside’ global test of coagulation which may have role in deciding the need of transfusion in such patients. Aim: To assess the usefulness of TEG in department of neurosurgery in decreasing transfusion rates and coagulation-related mortality in traumatic head and spinal cord injury. Method and Methodology: A retrospective comparative study was carried out in the department of neurosurgery over a period of 1 year. There are two groups in this study. ‘Control’ group constitutes the patients in whom data was collected over 6 months (1/6/2009-31/12/2009) prior to installation of TEG machine. ‘Test’ group includes patients in whom data was collected over 6months (1/1/2013-30/6/2013) post TEG installation. Total no. of platelet, FFP, and cryoprecipitate transfusions were noted in both groups along with in hospital mortality and length of stay. Result: Both groups were matched in age and sex of patients, number of head and spinal cord injury cases, number of patients with thrombocytopenia and number of patients who underwent operation. Total 178 patients (135 head injury and 43 spinal cord injury patents) were admitted in neurosurgery department during time period June 2009 to December 2009 i.e. prior to TEG installation and after TEG installation a total of 243 patients(197 head injury and 46 spinal cord injury patents) were admitted. After TEG introduction platelet transfusion significantly reduced (p=0.000) compare to control group (67 units to 34 units). Mortality rate was found significantly reduced after installation (77 patients to 57 patients, P=0.000). Length of stay was reduced significantly (Prior installation 1-211days and after installation 1-115days, p=0.02). Conclusion: Bedside TEG can dramatically reduce platelet transfusion components requirement in department of neurosurgery. TEG also lead to a drastic decrease in mortality rate and length of stay in patients with traumatic head and spinal cord injuries. We recommend its use as a standard of care in the patients with traumatic head and spinal cord injuries.

Keywords: blood component transfusion, mortality, neurosurgery ICU, thromboelastography

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93 Dynamical Characteristics of Interaction between Water Droplet and Aerosol Particle in Dedusting Technology

Authors: Ding Jue, Li Jiahua, Lei Zhidi, Weng Peifen, Li Xiaowei


With the rapid development of national modern industry, people begin to pay attention to environmental pollution and harm caused by industrial dust. Based on above, a numerical study on the dedusting technology of industrial environment was conducted. The dynamic models of multicomponent particles collision and coagulation, breakage and deposition are developed, and the interaction of water droplet and aerosol particle in 2-Dimension flow field was researched by Eulerian-Lagrangian method and Multi-Monte Carlo method. The effects of the droplet scale, movement speed of droplet and the flow field structure on scavenging efficiency were analyzed. The results show that under the certain condition, 30μm of droplet has the best scavenging efficiency. At the initial speed 1m/s of droplets, droplets and aerosol particles have more time to interact, so it has a better scavenging efficiency for the particle.

Keywords: water droplet, aerosol particle, collision and coagulation, multi-monte carlo method

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92 Coagulation-flocculation Process with Metal Salts, Synthetic Polymers and Biopolymers for the Removal of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) from Wastewater

Authors: Andrew Hargreaves, Peter Vale, Jonathan Whelan, Carlos Constantino, Gabriela Dotro, Pablo Campo


As a consequence of their potential to cause harm, there are strong regulatory drivers that require metals to be removed as part of the wastewater treatment process. Bioavailability-based standards have recently been specified for copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) and are expected to reduce acceptable metal concentrations. In order to comply with these standards, wastewater treatment works may require new treatment types to enhance metal removal and it is, therefore, important to examine potential treatment options. A substantial proportion of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in effluent is adsorbed to and/or complexed with macromolecules (eg. proteins, polysaccharides, aminosugars etc.) that are present in the colloidal size fraction. Therefore, technologies such as coagulation-flocculation (CF) that are capable of removing colloidal particles have good potential to enhance metals removal from wastewater. The present study investigated the effectiveness of CF at removing trace metals from humus effluent using the following coagulants; ferric chloride (FeCl3), the synthetic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI), and the biopolymers chitosan and Tanfloc. Effluent samples were collected from a trickling filter treatment works operating in the UK. Using jar tests, the influence of coagulant dosage and the velocity and time of the slow mixing stage were studied. Chitosan and PEI had a limited effect on the removal of trace metals (<35%). FeCl3 removed 48% Cu, 56% Pb and 41% Zn at the recommended dose of 0.10 mg/L. At the recommended dose of 0.25 mg/L Tanfloc removed 77% Cu, 68% Pb, 18% Ni and 42% Zn. The dominant mechanism for particle removal by FeCl3 was enmeshment in the precipitates (i.e. sweep flocculation) whereas, for Tanfloc, inter-particle bridging was the dominant removal mechanism. Overall, FeCl3 and Tanfloc were found to be most effective at removing trace metals from wastewater.

Keywords: coagulation-flocculation, jar test, trace metals, wastewater

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