Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 508

Search results for: alkaline serine protease

508 A Promising Thrombolytic and Anticoagulant Serine Protease Purified from Lug Worms Inhabiting Tidal Flats

Authors: Hye Jin Kim, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Ischemic stroke means the caused brain damage due to neurological defects, occurring occlusion of cerebral vascular resulting in thrombus or embolism. t-PA (tissue Plasminogen Activator) is the only thrombolytic agent passed the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). However, t-PA directly dissolves the thrombus (direct activity) through fibrinolysis, showing side effects such as re-occlusion. In this study, we evaluated the thrombolytic activities of the serine protease extracted from lugworms inhabiting tidal flats. The new serine protease identified as 38 kDa by SDS-PAGE was not toxic to brain endothelial cells line (hCMEC/D3). Also, the plasmin synthesis inhibition activity (indirect activity) of the new serine protease was confirmed through fibrin zymography assay and fibrin plate assay. It was higher than direct activity as compared to u-PA (urokinase Plasminogen Activator). The activities were found to be maintained at a wide range of temperature (4-70 ℃) and pH 7-10 compared to previous thrombolytic agents from the azocasein assay. In addition, the new serine protease has shown anticoagulant activity from fibrinogenolytic activity assay. In conclusion, the serine protease in lug worms inhabiting the tidal flats could be considered a promising thrombolytic candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

Keywords: alkaline serine protease, bifunctional thrombolytic activity, fibrinolytic activity, ischemic stroke, lug worms

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507 Excessive Recruitment of Neutrophils and Elastase Release in Emphysema and COPD; Effect of Natural Protease Inhibitors

Authors: Rachid Kacem

Abstract:

Excessive recruitment of Neutrophils into the lungs is a hallmark of several chronic inflammatory disorders such as emphysema and COPD. The resulting of this recruitment is the pathogenesis of lungs which is characterized by an imbalance between leukocyte serine proteinases mainly neutrophil elastase and the physiological inhibitors. The development of emphysema and remodeling of airway tissue occurred when neutrophil migrate into the lungs with more release of elastase and other proteolytic enzymes. Many reports have demonstrated that the extracts from medicinal plants such as Nigella sativa (L.) seeds extracts have anti-elastase activity; this is mainly due to the enrichment of the extracts with many bioactive molecules mainly phenolic compounds. Neutrophil serine proteases including human neutrophil elastase are involved in many inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. Since the current therapies for these diseases are inadequate and have numerous adverse effects, there is an acute need of potential alternative therapies. The natural protease inhibitors have received increasing attention as useful tools for potential utilization in pharmacology. This work is elucidating the most important natural phenolic substances that have been reported recently for their effectiveness as natural anti-elastase molecules, and hence, to the possibility of their use in the field of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: medicinal plants, phenols, elastase, anti-elastase, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, emphysema

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506 Localized Detection of ᴅ-Serine by Using an Enzymatic Amperometric Biosensor and Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

Authors: David Polcari, Samuel C. Perry, Loredano Pollegioni, Matthias Geissler, Janine Mauzeroll

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ᴅ-serine acts as an endogenous co-agonist for N-methyl-ᴅ-aspartate receptors in neuronal synapses. This makes it a key component in the development and function of a healthy brain, especially given its role in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Despite such clear research motivations, the primary site and mechanism of ᴅ-serine release is still currently unclear. For this reason, we are developing a biosensor for the detection of ᴅ-serine utilizing a microelectrode in combination with a ᴅ-amino acid oxidase enzyme, which produces stoichiometric quantities of hydrogen peroxide in response to ᴅ-serine. For the fabrication of a biosensor with good selectivity, we use a permselective poly(meta-phenylenediamine) film to ensure only the target molecule is reacted, according to the size exclusion principle. In this work, we investigated the effect of the electrodeposition conditions used on the biosensor’s response time and selectivity. Careful optimization of the fabrication process allowed for enhanced biosensor response time. This allowed for the real time sensing of ᴅ-serine in a bulk solution, and also provided in means to map the efflux of ᴅ-serine in real time. This was done using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) with the optimized biosensor to measure localized release of ᴅ-serine from an agar filled glass capillary sealed in an epoxy puck, which acted as a model system. The SECM area scan simultaneously provided information regarding the rate of ᴅ-serine flux from the model substrate, as well as the size of the substrate itself. This SECM methodology, which provides high spatial and temporal resolution, could be useful to investigate the primary site and mechanism of ᴅ-serine release in other biological samples.

Keywords: ᴅ-serine, enzymatic biosensor, microelectrode, scanning electrochemical microscopy

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505 A Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus Involved in Immune Responses

Authors: S. D. N. K. Bathige, G. I. Godahewa, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan, Jehee Lee

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Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KTIs) are identified in various organisms including animals, plants and microbes. These proteins shared single or multiple Kunitz inhibitory domains link together or associated with other types of domains. Characteristic Kunitz type domain composed of around 60 amino acid residues with six conserved cysteine residues to stabilize by three disulfide bridges. KTIs are involved in various physiological processes, such as ion channel blocking, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation. In this study, two Kunitz-type domain containing protein was identified from rock bream database and designated as RbKunitz. The coding sequence of RbKunitz encoded for 507 amino acids with 56.2 kDa theoretical molecular mass and 5.7 isoelectric point (pI). There are several functional domains including MANEC superfamily domain, PKD superfamily domain, and LDLa domain were predicted in addition to the two characteristic Kunitz domain. Moreover, trypsin interaction sites were also identified in Kunitz domain. Homology analysis revealed that RbKunitz shared highest identity (77.6%) with Takifugu rubripes. Completely conserved 28 cysteine residues were recognized, when comparison of RbKunitz with other orthologs from different taxonomical groups. These structural evidences indicate the rigidity of RbKunitz folding structure to achieve the proper function. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining method and exhibited that the KTIs from fish and non-fish has been evolved in separately. Rock bream was clustered with Takifugu rubripes. The SYBR Green qPCR was performed to quantify the RbKunitz transcripts in different tissues and challenged tissues. The mRNA transcripts of RbKunitz were detected in all tissues (muscle, spleen, head kidney, blood, heart, skin, liver, intestine, kidney and gills) analyzed and highest transcripts level was detected in gill tissues. Temporal transcription profile of RbKunitz in rock bream blood tissues was analyzed upon LPS (lipopolysaccharide), Poly I:C (Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid) and Edwardsiella tarda challenge to understand the immune responses of this gene. Compare to the unchallenged control RbKunitz exhibited strong up-regulation at 24 h post injection (p.i.) after LPS and E. tarda injection. Comparatively robust expression of RbKunits was observed at 3 h p.i. upon Poly I:C challenge. Taken together all these data indicate that RbKunitz may involve into to immune responses upon pathogenic stress, in order to protect the rock bream.

Keywords: Kunitz-type, rock bream, immune response, serine protease inhibitor

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504 Effect of Serine/Threonine Kinases on Autophagy Mechanism

Authors: Ozlem Oral, Seval Kilic, Ozlem Yedier, Serap Dokmeci, Devrim Gozuacik

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Autophagy is a degradation pathway, activating under stress conditions. It digests macromolecules, such as abnormal proteins and long-lived organelles by engulfing them and by subsequent delivery of the cargo to lysosomes. The members of the phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine kinases, involved in many signaling pathways, which are necessary for the regulation of cellular metabolic activation. Previous studies implicate that, serine/threonine kinases have crucial roles in the mechanism of many diseases depend on the activated and/or inactivated signaling pathway. Data indicates, the signaling pathways activated by serine/threonine kinases are also involved in activation of autophagy mechanism. However, the information about the effect of serine/threonine kinases on autophagy mechanism and the roles of these effects in disease formation is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of activated serine/threonine kinases on autophagic pathway. We performed a commonly used autophagy technique, GFP-LC3 dot formation and by using microscopy analyses, we evaluated promotion and/or inhibition of autophagy in serine/threonine kinase-overexpressed fibroblasts as well as cancer cells. In addition, we carried out confocal microscopy analyses and examined autophagic flux by utilizing the differential pH sensitivities of RFP and GFP in mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe. Based on the shRNA-library based screening, we identified autophagy-related proteins affected by serine/threonine kinases. We further studied the involvement of serine/threonine kinases on the molecular mechanism of newly identified autophagy proteins and found that, autophagic pathway is indirectly controlled by serine/threonine kinases via specific autophagic proteins. Our data indicate the molecular connection between two critical cellular mechanisms, which have important roles in the formation of many disease pathologies, particularly cancer. This project is supported by TUBITAK-1001-Scientific and Technological Research Projects Funding Program, Project No: 114Z836.

Keywords: autophagy, GFP-LC3 dot formation assay, serine/threonine kinases, shRNA-library screening

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503 The Role of Neuroserpin in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Sevil Arabaci Tamer, Gonul Gurol, Ibrahim Tekeoglu, Halil Harman, Ihsan Hakki Ciftci

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Neuroserpin (NSP) is a serine protease inhibitor and member of the serpin family. It is expressed in developing and adult nervous systems, and acts as an inhibitor of protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and a regulator of neuronal growth and plasticity. Also NSP displays anti-inflammatory activity. But, its role in rheumatoid arthritis had never been studied before. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of neuroserpin in patients with RA. A total of 50 frozen (-20 ºC) serum samples 40 of them belonged to patients with RA, and 10 sample belonged to healthy subjects, were enrolled prospectively. We used DAS-28 to evaluate disease activity. The following clinical data gathered from the original patients' charts. Serum neuroserpin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our preliminary study results demonstrate, for the first time, that NSP levels are significantly different in RA patients relative to healthy subjects (P = 0.014). So, NSP contribute to pathological condition of RA. Thus, we believe that serum NSP levels can be as a marker in patients with RA. However other inflammatory diseases should be further investigated.

Keywords: neuroserpin, rheumatoid arthritis, tPA, tPA inhibitor

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502 Characterization of Bovine SERPIN- Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT)

Authors: Sharique Ahmed, Khushtar Anwar Salman

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Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a major plasma serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN). Hereditary AAT deficiency is one of the common diseases in some part of the world. AAT is mainly produced in the liver and functions to protect the lung against proteolytic damage (e.g., from neutrophil elastase) acting as the major inhibitor for neutrophil elastase. α (1)-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an under recognized genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in 2,000 to 1 in 5,000 individuals and predisposes to liver disease and early-onset emphysema. Not only does α-1-antitrypsin deficiency lead to disabling syndrome of pulmonary emphysema, there are other disorders too which include ANCA (antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody) positive Wegener's granulomatosis, diffuse bronchiectasis, necrotizing panniculitis in α-1-antitrypsin phenotype (S), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and steroid dependent asthma. Augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) from human plasma has been available for specific treatment of emphysema due to AAT deficiency. Apart from this several observations have also suggested a role for endogenous suppressors of HIV-1, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) has been identified to be one of those. In view of its varied important role in humans, serum from a mammalian source was chosen for the isolation and purification. Studies were performed on the homogeneous fraction. This study suggests that the buffalo serum α-1-antritrypsin has characteristics close to ovine, dog, horse and more importantly to human α-1-antritrypsin in terms of its hydrodynamic properties such as molecular weight, carbohydrate content, etc. The similarities in the hydrodynamic properties of buffalo serum α-1-antitrypsin with other sources of mammalian α-1-antitrypsin mean that it can be further studied and be a potential source for "augmentation therapy", as well as a source of AAT replacement therapy to raise serum levels above the protective threshold. Other parameters like the amino acid sequence, the effect of denaturants, and the thermolability or thermostability of the inhibitor will be the interesting basis of future studies on buffalo serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT).

Keywords: α-1-antitrypsin, augmentation therapy , hydrodynamic properties, serine protease inhibitor

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501 Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Properties of Arenga pinnata Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite: Effects of Alkaline Treatment

Authors: Abdul Hakim Abdullah, Mohamad Syafiq Abdul Khadir

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In present investigations, thermal behaviours of Arenga pinnata fibres prior and after alkaline treatment were studied. The alkaline treatments were applied on the Arenga pinnata fibres by immersing in the alkaline solution, 6% sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Using hand lay-out technique, composites were fabricated at 20% and 40% by Arenga pinnata fibres weight contents. The thermal behaviours of both untreated and treated composites were determined by employing Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The results show that the TAP owned better results of Storage Modulus (E’), Loss Modulus (E”) and Tan Delta temperatures ranges from 0°C to 60°C.

Keywords: composites, Arenga pinnata fibre, alkaline treatment, dynamic mechanical properties

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500 Production of Fish Hydrolyzates by Single and Multiple Protease Treatments under Medium High Pressure of 300 MPa

Authors: Namsoo Kim, So-Hee Son, Jin-Soo Maeng, Yong-Jin Cho, Chong-Tai Kim

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It has been reported that some enzymes such as trypsin and Alcalase 2.4L are tolerant to a medium high pressure of 300 MPa and preparation of protein hydrolyzates under 300 MPa was advantageous with regard to hydrolysis rate and thus production yield compared with the counterpart under ambient pressure.1,2) In this study, nine fish comprising halibut, soft shell clam and carp were hydrolyzed using Flavourzyme 500MG only, and the combination of Flavourzyme 500 mg, Alcalase 2.4 L, Marugoto E, and Protamex under 300 MPa. Then, the effects of single and multiple protease treatments were determined with respect to contents of soluble solid (SS) and soluble nitrogen, sensory attributes, electrophoretic profiles, and HPLC peak patterns of the fish hydrolyzates (FHs) from various species. The contents of SS of the FHs were quite species-specific and the hydrolyzates of halibut showed the highest SS contents. At this point, multiple protease treatment increased SS content conspicuously in all fish tested. The contents of total soluble nitrogen and TCA-soluble nitrogen were well correlated with those of SS irrespective of fish species and methods of enzyme treatment. Also, it was noticed that multiple protease treatment improved sensory attributes of the FHs considerably. Electropherograms of the FHs showed fast migrating peptide bands that had the molecular masses mostly lower than 1 kDa and this was confirmed by peptide patterns from HPLC analysis for some FHs that had good sensory quality.

Keywords: production, fish hydrolyzates, protease treatments, high pressure

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499 Evaluation of Serine and Branched Chain Amino Acid Levels in Depression and the Beneficial Effects of Exercise in Rats

Authors: V. A. Doss, R. Sowndarya, K. Juila Rose Mary

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Objective: Amino acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. The objective of the present study was to identify the amino acids as possible metabolite biomarkers for depression using GCMS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) before and after exercise regimen in brain samples of depression induced animal models. Methods: Depression-like behaviour was induced by Chronic Unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Severity of depression was measured by forced swim test (FST) and sucrose consumption test (SCT). Swimming protocol was followed for 4 weeks of exercise treatment. Brain obtained from depressed and exercise treated rats were used for the metabolite analysis by GCMS. Subsequent statistical analysis obtained by ANOVA followed by post hoc test revealed significant metabolic changes. Results: Amino acids such as alanine, glycine, serine, glutamate, homocysteine, proline and branched chain aminoacids (BCAs) Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine were determined in brain samples of control, depressed and exercised groups. Among these amino acids, the levels of D-Serine and branched chain amino acids were found to be decreased in depression induced rats. After four weeks of swimming exercise regimen, there were improvements in the levels of serine and Branched chain amino acids. Conclusion: We suggest that Serine and BCAs may be investigated as potential metabolite markers using GCMS and their beneficial metabolic changes in Exercise.

Keywords: metabolomics, depression, forced swim test, exercise, amino acid metabolites, GCMS, biomarker

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498 Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Hybrid Alkaline Cements

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, P. Torgal, J. Barroso Aguiar

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Publications on the field of alkali-activated binders, state that this new material is likely to have high potential to become an alternative to Portland cement. Classical alkali-activated cements could be made more eco-efficient if the use of sodium silicate is avoided. Besides, most alkali-activated cements suffer from severe efflorescence originated by the fact that alkaline and/or soluble silicates that are added during processing cannot be totally consumed. This paper presents experimental results on hybrid alkaline cements. Compressive strength results and efflorescence’s observations show that the new mixes already analyzed are promising. SEM results show that no traditional porous ITZ was detected in these binders.

Keywords: hybrid alkaline cements, compressive strength, efflorescence, SEM, ITZ

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497 Isolation and Identification Fibrinolytic Protease Endophytic Fungi from Hibiscus Leaves in Shah Alam

Authors: Mohd Sidek Ahmad, Zainon Mohd Noor, Zaidah Zainal Ariffin

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Fibrin degradation is an important part in prevention or treatment of intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Plasmin like fibrinolytic enzymes has given new hope to patient with cardiovascular diseases by treating fibrin aggregation related diseases with traditional plasminogen activator which have many side effects. Various researches involving wide range of sources for production of fibrinolytic proteases, from bacteria, fungi, insects and fermented foods. But few have looked into endophytic fungi as a potential source. Sixteen (16) endophytic fungi were isolated from Hibiscus sp. leaves from six different locations in Shah Alam, Selangor. Only two endophytic fungi, FH3 and S13 showed positive fibrinolytic protease activities. FH3 produced 5.78cm and S13 produced 4.48cm on Skim Milk Agar after 4 days of incubation at 27°C. Fibrinolytic activity was observed; 3.87cm and 1.82cm diameter clear zone on fibrin plate of FH3 and S13 respectively. 18srRNA was done for identification of the isolated fungi with positive fibrinolytic protease. S13 had the highest similarity (100%) to that of Penicillium citrinum strain TG2 and FH3 had the highest similarity (99%) to that of Fusarium sp. FW2PhC1, Fusarium sp. 13002, Fusarium sp. 08006, Fusarium equiseti strain Salicorn 8 and Fungal sp. FCASAn-2. Media composition variation showed the effects of carbon nitrogen on protein concentration, where the decrement of 50% of media composition caused drastic decrease in protease of FH3 from 1.081 to 0.056 and also S13 from 2.946 to 0.198.

Keywords: isolation, identification, fibrinolytic protease, endophytic fungi, Hibiscus leaves

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496 Enzyme Producing Psyhrophilic Pseudomonas app. Isolated from Poultry Meats

Authors: Ali Aydin, Mert Sudagidan, Aysen Coban, Alparslan Kadir Devrim

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Pseudomonas spp. (specifically, P. fluorescens and P. fragi) are considered the principal spoilage microorganisms of refrigerated poultry meats. The higher the level psychrophilic spoilage Pseudomonas spp. on carcasses at the end of processing lead to decrease the shelf life of the refrigerated product. The aim of the study was the identification of psychrophilic Pseudomonas spp. having proteolytic and lipolytic activities from poultry meats by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, investigation of protease and lipase related genes and determination of proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. In the of isolation procedure, collected chicken meat samples from local markets and slaughterhouses were homogenized and the lysates were incubated on Standard method agar and Skim Milk agar for selection of proteolytic bacteria and tributyrin agar for selection of lipolytic bacteria at +4 °C for 7 days. After detection of proteolytic and lipolytic colonies, the isolates were firstly analyzed by biochemical tests such as Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests. DNA gene sequencing analysis and comparison with GenBank revealed that 126 strong enzyme Pseudomonas spp. were identified as predominantly P. fluorescens (n=55), P. fragi (n=42), Pseudomonas spp. (n=24), P. cedrina (n=2), P. poae (n=1), P. koreensis (n=1), and P. gessardi (n=1). Additionally, protease related aprX gene was screened in the strains and it was detected in 69/126 strains, whereas, lipase related lipA gene was found in 9 Pseudomonas strains. Protease activity was determined using commercially available protease assay kit and 5 strains showed high protease activity. The results showed that psychrophilic Pseudomonas strains were present in chicken meat samples and they can produce important levels of proteases and lipases for food spoilage to decrease food quality and safety.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, chicken meat, protease, lipase

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495 Production of Organic Solvent Tolerant Hydrolytic Enzymes (Amylase and Protease) by Bacteria Isolated from Soil of a Dairy Farm

Authors: Alok Kumar, Hari Ram, Lebin Thomas, Ved Pal Singh

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Organic solvent tolerant amylases and proteases of microbial origin are in great demand for their application in transglycosylation of water-insoluble flavanoids and in peptide synthesizing reaction in organic media. Most of the amylases and proteases are unstable in presence of organic solvent. In the present work two different bacterial strains M-11 and VP-07 were isolated from the soil sample of a dairy farm in Delhi, India, for the efficient production of extracellular amylase and protease through their screening on starch agar (SA) and skimmed milk agar (SMA) plates, respectively. Both the strains (M-11 and VP-07) were identified based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. After analysis through Ez-Taxon software, the strains M-11 and VP-07 were found to have maximum pairwise similarity of 98.63% and 100% with Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum BGSC 3A28 and Bacillus anthracis ATCC 14578 and were therefore identified as Bacillus sp. UKS1 and Bacillus sp. UKS2, respectively. Time course study of enzyme activity and bacterial growth has shown that both strains exhibited typical sigmoid growth behavior and maximum production of amylase (180 U/ml) and protease (78 U/ml) by these strains (UKS1 and UKS2) was commenced during stationary phase of growth at 24 and 20 h, respectively. Thereafter, both amylase and protease were tested for their tolerance towards organic solvents and were found to be active as well stable in p-xylene (130% and 115%), chloroform (110% and 112%), isooctane (119% and 107%), benzene (121% and 104%), n-hexane (116% and 103%) and toluene (112% and 101%, respectively). Owing to such properties, these enzymes can be exploited for their potential application in industries for organic synthesis.

Keywords: amylase, enzyme activity, industrial applications, organic solvent tolerant, protease

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494 Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Some Amino Acids by Peroxodisulphate

Authors: Abdelmahmod Saad

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In this study two amino acids were chosen (DL.alanine,DL.serine) to determine their effect on dissociation of S2O8-2 ino. As the reaction was very slow, Ag+ ino was used as a catalyst. The kinetics measurement showed that the reactions in both cases were found in the first order with respect to S2O8-2, half order with respect to Ag+ and zero order with respect to substrates. Mechanisms were proposed for these reactions according to the determined orders. The energy of activation (AE) was determined for each reaction, and was found to by 30.50 k JmoI-1 in case of DL. Serine and 24.40 k JmoI-1 in case of DL.alanine.

Keywords: mechanism, oxidation, amino acids, peroxodisulphate

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493 Rice Serine/Threonine Kinase 1 Is Required for the Stimulation of OsNug2 GTPase Activity

Authors: Jae Bok Heo, Yun Mi Lee, Hee Rang Yun

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Several GTPases are required for ribosome biogenesis and assembly. We recently characterized rice (Oryza sativa) nuclear/nucleolar GTPase 2 (OsNug2), belonging to the YlqF/YawG family of GTPases, as playing a role in pre-60S ribosomal subunit maturation. To investigate the potential factors involved in regulating the function of OsNug2, yeast two-hybrid screens were carried out using OsNug2 as bait. Rice serine/threonine kinase 1 (OsSTK1) was identified as a potential interacting protein candidate. In vitro pull down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed the interaction between OsNug2 and OsSTK1, and like green fluorescent protein-tagged OsNug2, green fluorescent protein-tagged OsSTK1 was targeted to the nucleus of Arabidopsis protoplasts. OsSTK1 was not found to affect the GTP-binding activity of OsNug2; however, when recombinant OsSTK1 was included in OsNug2 assay reaction mixtures, OsSTK1 increased the GTPase activity of OsNug2. To test whether OsSTK1 phosphorylates OsNug2 in vitro, a kinase assay was performed. OsSTK1 was found to have weak autophosphorylation activity and strongly phosphorylated serine 209 of OsNug2. Yeast complementation testing resulted in a GAL::OsNug2(S209N) mutant-harboring yeast strain exhibiting a growth-defective phenotype on galactose medium at 39°C, divergent from that of a yeast strain harboring GAL::OsNug2. The intrinsic GTPase activity of mutant OsNug2(S209N) was found to be similar to that of OsNug2, was not fully enhanced upon weak binding of OsSTK1. Our findings reported here indicate that OsSTK1 functions as a positive regulator protein of OsNug2 by enhancing the GTPase activity of OsNug2, and that the phosphorylation of serine 209 of OsNug2 is essential for the complete function of OsNug2 in ribosome biogenesis.

Keywords: OsSTK1, OsNug2, GTPase activity, GTP binding activity, phosphorylation

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492 Lentil Protein Fortification in Cranberry Squash

Authors: Sandhya Devi A

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The protein content of the cranberry squash (protein: 0g) may be increased by extracting protein from the lentils (9 g), which is particularly linked to a lower risk of developing heart disease. Using the technique of alkaline extraction from the lentils flour, protein may be extracted. Alkaline extraction of protein from lentil flour was optimized utilizing response surface approach in order to maximize both protein content and yield. Cranberry squash may be taken if a protein fortification syrup is prepared and processed into the squash.

Keywords: alkaline extraction, cranberry squash, protein fortification, response surface methodology

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491 One-Pot Facile Synthesis of N-Doped Graphene Synthesized from Paraphenylenediamine as Metal-Free Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Used for Alkaline Fuel Cells

Authors: Leila Samiee, Amir Yadegari, Saeedeh Tasharrofi

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In the work presented here, nitrogen-doped graphene materials were synthesized and used as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline conditions. Paraphenylenediamine was used as N precursor. The N-doped graphene was synthesized under hydrothermal treatment at 200°C. All the materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, for electrochemical evaluation of samples, Rotating Disk electrode (RDE) and Cyclic Voltammetry techniques (CV) were employed. The resulting material exhibits an outstanding catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as excellent resistance towards methanol crossover effects, indicating their promising potential as ORR electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells.

Keywords: alkaline fuel cell, graphene, metal-free catalyst, paraphenylen diamine

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490 Analgesic Efficacy of Opiorphin and Its Analogue

Authors: Preet Singh, Kavitha Kongara, Dave Harding, Neil Ward, Paul Chambers

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The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of opiorphin and its analogue with a mu-receptor agonist; morphine. Opiorphins (Gln-Arg-Phe-Ser-Arg) belong to the family of endogenous enkephalinase inhibitors, found in saliva of humans. They are inhibitors of two Zinc metal ectopeptidases (Neutral endopeptidase NEP, and amino-peptidase APN) which are responsible for the inactivation of the endogenous opioids; endorphins and enkephalins. Morphine and butorphanol exerts their analgesic effects by mimicking the actions of endorphins and enkephalins. The opiorphin analogue was synthesized based on the structure activity relationship of the amino acid sequence of opiorphin. The pharmacological profile of the analogue was tested by replacing Serine at position 4 with Proline. The hot plate and tail flick test were used to demonstrate the analgesic efficacy. There was a significant increase in the time for the tail flick response after an injection of opiorphin, which was similar to the morphine effect. There was no increase in time in the hot plate test after an injection of opiorphin. The results suggest that opiorphin works at spinal level only rather than both spinal and supraspinal. Further work is required to confirm our results. We did not find analgesic activity of the opiorphin analogue. Thus, Serine at position 4 is also important for its pharmacological action. Further work is required to illustrate the role of serine at position 4 in opiorphin.

Keywords: analgesic peptides, endogenous opioids, morphine, opiorphin

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489 Human LACE1 Functions Pro-Apoptotic and Interacts with Mitochondrial YME1L Protease

Authors: Lukas Stiburek, Jana Cesnekova, Josef Houstek, Jiri Zeman

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Cellular function depends on mitochondrial function and integrity that is therefore maintained by several classes of proteins possessing chaperone and/or proteolytic activities. In this work, we focused on characterization of LACE1 (lactation elevated 1) function in mitochondrial protein homeostasis maintenance. LACE1 is the human homologue of yeast mitochondrial Afg1 ATPase, a member of SEC18-NSF, PAS1, CDC48-VCP, TBP family. Yeast Afg1 was shown to be involved in mitochondrial complex IV biogenesis, and based on its similarity with CDC48 (p97/VCP) it was suggested to facilitate extraction of polytopic membrane proteins. Here we show that LACE1, which is a mitochondrial integral membrane protein, exists as part of three complexes of approx. 140, 400 and 500 kDa and is essential for maintenance of fused mitochondrial reticulum and lamellar cristae morphology. Using affinity purification of LACE1-FLAG expressed in LACE1 knockdown background we show that the protein physically interacts with mitochondrial inner membrane protease YME1L. We further show that human LACE1 exhibits significant pro-apoptotic activity and that the protein is required for normal function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Thus, our work establishes LACE1 as a novel factor with the crucial role in mitochondrial homeostasis maintenance.

Keywords: LACE1, mitochondria, apoptosis, protease

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488 Interaction between Kazal-Type Serine Proteinase Inhibitor SPIPm2 and Cyclophilin A from the Black Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon

Authors: Sirikwan Ponprateep, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanitchayakit

Abstract:

A Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, SPIPm2, was abundantly expressed in the hemocytes and secreted into shrimp plasma has anti-viral property against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To discover the molecular mechanism of antiviral activity, the binding assay showed that SPIPm2 bind to the components of viral particle and shrimp hemocyte. From our previous report, viral target protein of SPIPm2 was identified, namely WSV477 using yeast two-hybrid screening. WSV477 is an early gene product of WSSV and involved in viral propagation. In this study, the co-immunoprecipitation technique and Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify the target protein of SPIPm2 from shrimp hemocyte. The target protein of SPIPm2 was cyclophilin A. In vertebrate, cyclophilin A or peptidylprolyl isomerase A was reported to be the immune suppressor interacted with cyclosporin A involved in immune defense response. The recombinant cyclophilin A from Penaeus monodon (rPmCypA) was produced in E.coli system and purified using Ni-NTA column to confirm the protein-protein interaction. In vitro pull-down assay showed the interaction between rSPIPm2 and rPmCypA. To study the biological function of these proteins, the expression analysis of immune gene in shrimp defense pathways will be investigated after rPmCypA administration.

Keywords: cyclophilin A, protein-protein interaction, Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, Penaeus monodon

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487 Improving the Quality of Casava Peel-Leaf Mixture through Fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas Poultry Ration

Authors: Mirnawati, G. Ciptaan, Ferawati

Abstract:

This study aims to improve the quality of the cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) through fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas poultry ration. This research is an experimental study using a completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus. The treatments were a combination of cassava peel and leaves with the ratio of; A (9:1), B (8:2), C (7:3), and D (6:4). The observed variables were protease enzyme activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and metabolic energy. The results of the diversity analysis showed that there was a very significant (p < 0.01) effect on protease activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and energy metabolism of fermented CPLM. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that CPLM (6:4) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus gave the best results seen from protease activity 7,25 U/ml, 21.23% crude protein, 19.80% crude fiber, 59.65% nitrogen retention, 62.99% crude fiber digestibility and metabolic energy 2671 Kcal/kg.

Keywords: quality, Casava peel-leaf mixture, fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus

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486 Effect on Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Yellow Alkaline Noodles Substituted with Different Levels of Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) Pericarp Powder

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Nurain Abdul Karim, Nur Shazrinna Sazali

Abstract:

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp is considered as agricultural waste and not fully utilized in food products. It is widely reported that mangosteen pericarp contains high antioxidant properties. The objective of this study is to develop novel yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) substituted with different levels of mangosteen pericarp powder (MPP). YAN formulation was substituted with different levels of MPP (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on nutritional and antioxidant properties were evaluated. Higher substitution levels of MPP resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) of ash, fibre, specific mineral elements, and antioxidant properties (total phenolic, total flavonoid, anthocyanin and DPPH) than control sample.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, Mangosteen pericarp, proximate composition, yellow alkaline noodle

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485 Experimental Study on Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation of Industrial By-Products

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan

Abstract:

Utilising waste materials, such as fly ash (FA) and slag (S) stockpiled in landfills, has drawn the attention of researchers and engineers in the recent years. There is a great potential for usage of these wastes in ground improvement projects, especially where deep deposits of soft compressible soils exist. This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activated FA and S, termed as geopolymer binder, to use in deep soil mixing technology. The strength improvement and the changes in the microstructure of the mixtures have been studied. The results show that using FA and S-based geopolymers can increases the strength significantly. Furthermore, utilising FA and S in ground improvement projects, where large amounts of binders are required, can be a solution to the disposal of these wastes.

Keywords: alkaline activation, fly ash, geopolymer, slag, strength development

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484 Candida antarctica Lipase-B Catalyzed Alkaline-Hydrolysis of Some Aryl-Alkyl Acetate in Non-Aqueous Media

Authors: M. Merabet-Khelassi, Z. Houiene, L. Aribi-Zouioueche, O. Riant

Abstract:

Lipases (EC.3.1.1.3) are efficient biotools widely used for their remarkable chemo-, regio- and enantio-selectivity, especially, in kinetic resolution of racemates. They offer access to a large panel of enantiopure building blocks, such as secondary benzylic alcohols, commonly used as synthetic intermediates in pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Due to the stability of lipases in both water and organic solvents poor in water, they are able to catalyze both transesterifications of arylalkylcarbinols and hydrolysis of their corresponding acetates. The use of enzymatic hydrolysis in aqueous media still limited. In this presentation, we expose a practical methodology for the preparation of optically enriched acetates using a Candida antarctica lipase B-catalyzed hydrolysis in non-aqueous media in the presence of alkaline carbonate salts. The influence of several parameters which can intervene on the enzymatic efficiency such as the impact of the introduction of the carbonates salts, its amount and the nature of the alkaline earth metal are discussed. The obtained results show that the use of sodium carbonate with CAL-B enhances drastically both reactivity and selectivity of this immobilized lipase. In all cases, the resulting alcohols and remaining acetates are obtained in high ee values (up to > 99 %), and the selectivities reach (E > 500).

Keywords: alkaline-hydrolysis, enzymatic kinetic resolution, lipases, arylalkylcarbinol, non-aqueous media

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483 An Investigation of Passivation Technology in Stainless Steel Alloy

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Rick Wang, Yan-Cong Liao

Abstract:

Passivation is a kind of surface treatment for material to reinforce the corrosion resistance specially the stainless alloy. Passive film, is to getting more potential compared to their status before passivation. An oxidation film can be formed on the surface of stainless steel, which has a strong corrosion resistance ability after passivation treatment. In this research, a new passivation technology is proposed for a special stainless alloy which contains a 12-14% Chromium. This method includes the A-A-A (alkaline-acid-alkaline) process basically, which was developed by Carpenter that can neutralize trapped acid. Besides, a corrosion resistant coating layer was obtained by immersing the parts in a water bath of mineral oil at high temperature. Salt spray test ASTM B368 was conducted to investigated performance of corrosion resistant of the passivated stainless steel alloy parts. Results show much better corrosion resistant that followed a coating process after A-A-A Passivation process, than only using A-A-A process. The passivation time is with more than 380 hours of salt spray test ASTM B368, which is equal to 3000 hours of Salt spray test ASTM B117. Proposed passivation method of stainless steel can be completed in about 3 hours.

Keywords: passivation, alkaline-acid-alkaline, stainless steel, salt spray test

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482 Extracellular Hydrolase-Producing Bacteria Isolated from Chilca Salterns in Peru

Authors: Carol N. Flores-Fernández, Guadalupe Espilco, Cynthia Esquerre, Amparo I. Zavaleta

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Saline environments represent a valuable source of enzymes with novel properties and particular features for application in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industry. This study focuses on the isolation and screening of hydrolase-producing bacteria from Chilca salterns and the evaluation of their biotechnological potential. Soil samples were collected from Chilca salterns in Peru. For the isolation, medium containing 0.2 % of yeast extract, 5 % of NaCl and 10 % of the soil sample was used. After 72 h of incubation at 37 °C, serial dilutions were made up to 10−12 dilutions, spread on agar plates with 0.5 % of yeast extract and 5 % of NaCl, and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. Screening of hydrolase-producing bacteria was carried out for cellulases, amylases, lipases, DNase, and proteases on specific media. Moreover, protease-producing bacteria were tested using protein extracted from the following legumes as substrate: Glycine max, Lupinus mutabilis, Pisum sativum, Erythrina edulis, Cicer arietinum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba. A total of 16 strains were isolated from soil samples. On the screening media; 75, 44, 81 and 50 % were cellulase, amylase, DNase and protease producers, respectively. Also, 19 % of the isolates produced all the hydrolytic enzymes above mentioned. Lipase producers were not found. The 37 % and 12 % of the strains grew at 20 % and 30 % of salt concentration, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the strains grew at pH range between 5 and 10. From the total of protease-producing bacteria, 100 % hydrolyzed Glycine max, Lupinus mutabilis, and Pisum sativum protein, while 87 % hydrolyzed Erythrina edulis and Cicer arietinum protein. Finally, 75 % and 50 % of the strains hydrolyzed Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba protein, respectively. Hydrolase-producing bacteria isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru grew at high salt concentrations and wide range of pH. In addition, protease-producing bacteria hydrolyzed protein from different sources such as leguminous. These enzymes have great biotechnological potential and could be used for different industrial processes and applications.

Keywords: bacteria, extracellular, hydrolases, Peru, salterns

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481 Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activation of fly ash (FA) to use in deep soil mixing (DSM) technology. The content of FA was 20% by dry mass of soil, and the alkaline activator was sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). Samples were cured for 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days to evaluate the effect of curing time on strength development. To study the effect of adding slag (S) to the mixture on the strength development, 5% S was replaced with FA. In addition, the effect of the initial unit weight of samples on strength development was studied by preparing specimens with two different static compaction stresses. This was to replicate the field conditions where during implementing the DSM technique, the pressure on the soil while being mixed, increases with depth. Unconfined compression strength (UCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) tests were conducted on the specimens. The results show that adding S to the FA based geopolymer activated by Na2SiO3 decreases the strength. Furthermore, samples prepared at a higher unit weight demonstrate greater strengths. Moreover, samples prepared at lower unit weight reached their final strength at about 14 days of curing, whereas the strength development continues to 56 days for specimens prepared at a higher unit weight.

Keywords: alkaline activation, curing time, fly ash, geopolymer, slag

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
480 Effect of the pH on the Degradation Kinetics of Biodegradable Mg-0.8Ca Orthopedic Implants

Authors: A. Mohamed, A. El-Aziz

Abstract:

The pH of the body plays a great role in the degradation kinetics of biodegradable Mg-Ca orthopedic implants. At the location of fracture, the pH of the body becomes no longer neutral which draws the attention towards studying a range of different pH values of the body fluid. In this study, the pH of Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) was modified by phosphate buffers into an aggressive acidic pH 1.8, a slightly acidic pH 5.3 and an alkaline pH 8.1. The biodegradation of Mg-0.8Ca implant was tested in those three different media using immersion test and electrochemical polarization means. It was proposed that the degradation rate has increased with decreasing the pH of HBSS. The immersion test revealed weight gain for all the samples followed by weight loss as the immersion time increased. The highest weight gain was pronounced for the acidic pH 1.8 and the least weight gain was observed for the alkaline pH 8.1. This was in agreement with the electrochemical polarization test results where the degradation rate was found to be high (7.29 ± 2.2 mm/year) in the aggressive acidic solution of pH 1.8 and relatively minimum (0.31 ± 0.06 mm/year) in the alkaline medium of pH 8.1. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the pH of HBSS has reached a steady state of an alkaline pH (~pH 11) at the end of the two-month immersion period regardless of the initial pH of the solution. Finally, the corrosion products formed on the samples’ surface were investigated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses that revealed the formation of magnesium and calcium phosphates with different morphologies according to the pH.

Keywords: biodegradable, electrochemical polarization means, orthopedics, immersion test, simulated body fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
479 Surface Display of Lipase on Yarrowia lipolytica Cells

Authors: Evgeniya Y. Yuzbasheva, Tigran V. Yuzbashev, Natalia I. Perkovskaya, Elizaveta B. Mostova

Abstract:

Cell-surface display of lipase is of great interest as it has many applications in the field of biotechnology owing to its unique advantages: simplified product purification, and cost-effective downstream processing. One promising area of application for whole-cell biocatalysts with surface displayed lipase is biodiesel synthesis. Biodiesel is biodegradable, renewable, and nontoxic alternative fuel for diesel engines. Although the alkaline catalysis method has been widely used for biodiesel production, it has a number of limitations, such as rigorous feedstock specifications, complicated downstream processes, including removal of inorganic salts from the product, recovery of the salt-containing by-product glycerol, and treatment of alkaline wastewater. Enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel can overcome these drawbacks. In this study, Lip2p lipase was displayed on Yarrowia lipolytica cells via C- and N-terminal fusion variant. The active site of lipase is located near the C-terminus, therefore to prevent the activity loosing the insertion of glycine-serine linker between Lip2p and C-domains was performed. The hydrolytic activity of the displayed lipase reached 12,000–18,000 U/g of dry weight. However, leakage of enzyme from the cell wall was observed. In case of C-terminal fusion variant, the leakage was occurred due to the proteolytic cleavage within the linker peptide. In case of N-terminal fusion variant, the leaking enzyme was presented as three proteins, one of which corresponded to the whole hybrid protein. The calculated number of recombinant enzyme displayed on the cell surface is approximately 6–9 × 105 molecules per cell, which is close to the theoretical maximum (2 × 106 molecules/cell). Thus, we attribute the enzyme leakage to the limited space available on the cell surface. Nevertheless, cell-bound lipase exhibited greater stability to short-term and long-term temperature treatment than the native enzyme. It retained 74% of original activity at 60°C for 5 min of incubation, and 83% of original activity after incubation at 50°C during 5 h. Cell-bound lipase had also higher stability in organic solvents and detergents. The developed whole-cell biocatalyst was used for recycling biodiesel synthesis. Two repeated cycles of methanolysis yielded 84.1–% and 71.0–% methyl esters after 33–h and 45–h reactions, respectively.

Keywords: biodiesel, cell-surface display, lipase, whole-cell biocatalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 418