Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 184

Search results for: diagnostics

184 Research Design for Developing and Validating Ice-Hockey Team Diagnostics Scale

Authors: Gergely Geczi


In the modern world, ice hockey (and, in a broader sense, team sports) is becoming an increasingly popular field of entertainment. Although the main element is most likely perceived as the show itself, winning is an inevitable part of the successful operation of any sports team. In this paper, the author creates a research design allowing him to develop and validate an ice-hockey team-focused diagnostics scale, which enables researchers and practitioners to identify the problems associated with underperforming teams. The construction of the scale starts with personal interviews with experts of the field, carefully chosen from the sector of Hungarian ice hockey. Based on the interviews, the author is shown to be in the position to create the categories and the relevant items for the scale. When constructed, the next step is the validation process on a Hungarian sample. Data for validation are acquired through reaching the licensed database of the Hungarian Ice-Hockey Federation involving Hungarian ice-hockey coaches and players. The Ice-Hockey Team Diagnostics Scale is to be created to orient practitioners in understanding both effective and underperforming teamwork.

Keywords: diagnostics scale, effective versus underperforming team work, ice-hockey, research design

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183 Photoplethysmography-Based Device Designing for Cardiovascular System Diagnostics

Authors: S. Botman, D. Borchevkin, V. Petrov, E. Bogdanov, M. Patrushev, N. Shusharina


In this paper, we report the development of the device for diagnostics of cardiovascular system state and associated automated workstation for large-scale medical measurement data collection and analysis. It was shown that optimal design for the monitoring device is wristband as it represents engineering trade-off between accuracy and usability. The monitoring device is based on the infrared reflective photoplethysmographic sensor, which allows collecting multiple physiological parameters, such as heart rate and pulsing wave characteristics. Developed device use BLE interface for medical and supplementary data transmission to the coupled mobile phone, which process it and send it to the doctor's automated workstation. Results of this experimental model approbation confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, health monitoring systems, photoplethysmography, pulse wave, remote diagnostics

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182 Analysis of Transformer by Gas and Moisture Sensor during Laboratory Time Monitoring

Authors: Miroslav Gutten, Daniel Korenciak, Milan Simko, Milan Chupac


Ensure the reliable and correct function of transformers is the main essence of on-line non-destructive diagnostic tool, which allows the accurately track of the status parameters. Devices for on-line diagnostics are very costly. However, there are devices, whose price is relatively low and when used correctly, they can be executed a complex diagnostics. One of these devices is sensor HYDRAN M2, which is used to detect the moisture and gas content in the insulation oil. Using the sensor HYDRAN M2 in combination with temperature, load measurement, and physicochemical analysis can be made the economically inexpensive diagnostic system, which use is not restricted to distribution transformers. This system was tested in educational laboratory environment at measured oil transformer 22/0.4 kV. From the conclusions referred in article is possible to determine, which kind of fault was occurred in the transformer and how was an impact on the temperature, evolution of gases and water content.

Keywords: transformer, diagnostics, gas and moisture sensor, monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
181 Pantograph-Catenary Contact Force: Features Evaluation for Catenary Diagnostics

Authors: Mehdi Brahimi, Kamal Medjaher, Noureddine Zerhouni, Mohammed Leouatni


The Prognostics and Health Management is a system engineering discipline which provides solutions and models to the implantation of a predictive maintenance. The approach is based on extracting useful information from monitoring data to assess the “health” state of an industrial equipment or an asset. In this paper, we examine multiple extracted features from Pantograph-Catenary contact force in order to select the most relevant ones to achieve a diagnostics function. The feature extraction methodology is based on simulation data generated thanks to a Pantograph-Catenary simulation software called INPAC and measurement data. The feature extraction method is based on both statistical and signal processing analyses. The feature selection method is based on statistical criteria.

Keywords: catenary/pantograph interaction, diagnostics, Prognostics and Health Management (PHM), quality of current collection

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
180 Diagnostics of Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows

Authors: G. Tanbayeva, Z. Myrzabekov, O. Tagayev, B. Barakhov, M. Tokayeva


Mastitis is widely spread among dairy cows bringing large economic damage resulting in decreased milk yield, deterioration of the milk quality, gastrointestinal tract disorders among young animals, culling of breeding stock, and expenses for sick animal treatment. Up-to-date and accurate diagnostics of subclinical (latent) mastitis in dairy cows has huge practical and economical significance. The aim of the research was to develop a new optimal alternative rapid method for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cows. The study was performed in the laboratory of the Hygiene and Sanitation of Kazakh National Agrarian University. The first stage was to evaluate the different percentages of “Promastit” preparation. It showed that the best diagnostics capacity had 10% dilution. The second stage was to compare “Promastit” with some of the domestic and foreign analogues “Somatic-Test” (Denmark), “MastTest” (Russia), “Mastidin” (Ukraine), “Diagmast” (Kazakhstan). The observation was carried out on 520 dairy cows with subclinical mastitis on farms of Almaty region of Kazakhstan. The effectiveness was checked by milk sedimentation test. Our research tends to show that the diagnostic test "Promastitis" revealed subclinical mastitis in 193 out of 520 lactating cows (37.1% of those examined). At the same time, in the case of using other diagnostic tests, the given index was as follows: 35.5% (mastidin), 34.4% (masttest-AF), 33.8% (somatic-test Ecotest), 30.7% (diagmast).

Keywords: dairy cows, diagnostics, subclinical mastitis, test Promastit

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179 Diagnostics of Existing Steel Structures of Winter Sport Halls

Authors: Marcela Karmazínová, Jindrich Melcher, Lubomír Vítek, Petr Cikrle


The paper deals with the diagnostics of steel roof structure of the winter sports stadiums built in 1970 year. The necessity of the diagnostics has been given by the requirement to the evaluation design of this structure, which has been caused by the new situation in the field of the loadings given by the validity of the European Standards in the Czech Republic from 2010 year. Due to these changes in the normative rules, in practice, existing structures are gradually subjected to the evaluation design and depending on its results to the strengthening or reconstruction, respectively. The steel roof is composed of plane truss main girders, purlins and bracings and the roof structure is supported by two arch main girders with the span of L=84 m. The in situ diagnostics of the roof structure was oriented to the following parts: (i) determination and evaluation of the actual material properties of used steel and (ii) verification of the actual dimensions of the structural members. For the solution, the non-destructive methods have been used for in situ measurement. For the indicative determination of steel strengths the modified method based on the determination of Rockwell’s hardness has been used. For the verification of the member’s dimensions (thickness of hollow sections) the ultrasound method has been used. This paper presents the results obtained using these testing methods and their evaluation, from the viewpoint of the usage for the subsequent static assessment and design evaluation of the existing structure. For the comparison, the examples of the similar evaluations realized for steel structures of the stadiums in Olomouc and Jihlava cities are briefly illustrated, too.

Keywords: actual dimensions, destructive methods, diagnostics, existing steel structure, indirect non-destructive methods, Rockwel’s hardness, sport hall, steel strength, ultrasound method.

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178 Highly-Sensitive Nanopore-Based Sensors for Point-Of-Care Medical Diagnostics

Authors: Leyla Esfandiari


Rapid, sensitive detection of nucleic acid (NA) molecules of specific sequence is of interest for a range of diverse health-related applications such as screening for genetic diseases, detecting pathogenic microbes in food and water, and identifying biological warfare agents in homeland security. Sequence-specific nucleic acid detection platforms rely on base pairing interaction between two complementary single stranded NAs, which can be detected by the optical, mechanical, or electrochemical readout. However, many of the existing platforms require amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent or enzymatic labels, and expensive or bulky instrumentation. In an effort to address these shortcomings, our research is focused on utilizing the cutting edge nanotechnology and microfluidics along with resistive pulse electrical measurements to design and develop a cost-effective, handheld and highly-sensitive nanopore-based sensor for point-of-care medical diagnostics.

Keywords: diagnostics, nanopore, nucleic acids, sensor

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177 Failure Analysis of the Gasoline Engines Injection System

Authors: Jozef Jurcik, Miroslav Gutten, Milan Sebok, Daniel Korenciak, Jerzy Roj


The paper presents the research results of electronic fuel injection system, which can be used for diagnostics of automotive systems. In the paper is described the construction and operation of a typical fuel injection system and analyzed its electronic part. It has also been proposed method for the detection of the injector malfunction, based on the analysis of differential current or voltage characteristics. In order to detect the fault state, it is needed to use self-learning process, by the use of an appropriate self-learning algorithm.

Keywords: electronic fuel injector, diagnostics, measurement, testing device

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176 Testing Immunochemical Method for the Bacteriological Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

Authors: Assiya Madenovna Borsynbayeva, Kairat Altynbekovich Turgenbayev, Nikolay Petrovich Ivanov


In this article presents the results of rapid diagnostics of tuberculosis in comparison with classical bacteriological method. The proposed method of rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis than bacteriological method allows shortening the time of diagnosis to 7 days, to visualize the growth of mycobacteria in the semi-liquid medium and differentiate the type of mycobacterium. Fast definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its derivatives in the culture medium is a new and promising direction in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

Keywords: animal diagnosis of tuberculosis, bacteriological diagnostics, antigen, specific antibodies, immunological reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
175 Information System for Early Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnostics Based on Multiscale Texture Gradient Method

Authors: L. S. Godlevsky, N. V. Kresyun, V. P. Martsenyuk, K. S. Shakun, T. V. Tatarchuk, K. O. Prybolovets, L. F. Kalinichenko, M. Karpinski, T. Gancarczyk


Structures of eye bottom were extracted using multiscale texture gradient method and color characteristics of macular zone and vessels were verified in CIELAB scale. The difference of average values of L*, a* and b* coordinates of CIE (International Commision of Illumination) scale in patients with diabetes and healthy volunteers was compared. The average value of L* in diabetic patients exceeded such one in the group of practically healthy persons by 2.71 times (P < 0.05), while the value of a* index was reduced by 3.8 times when compared with control one (P < 0.05). b* index exceeded such one in the control group by 12.4 times (P < 0.05). The integrated index on color difference (ΔE) exceeded control value by 2.87 times (P < 0.05). More pronounced differences with ΔE were followed by a shorter period of MA appearance with a correlation level at -0.56 (P < 0.05). The specificity of diagnostics raised by 2.17 times (P < 0.05) and negative prognostic index exceeded such one determined with the expert method by 2.26 times (P < 0.05).

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, multiscale texture gradient, color spectrum analysis, medical diagnostics

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174 Plasmonic Nanoshells Based Metabolite Detection for in-vitro Metabolic Diagnostics and Therapeutic Evaluation

Authors: Deepanjali Gurav, Kun Qian


In-vitro metabolic diagnosis relies on designed materials-based analytical platforms for detection of selected metabolites in biological samples, which has a key role in disease detection and therapeutic evaluation in clinics. However, the basic challenge deals with developing a simple approach for metabolic analysis in bio-samples with high sample complexity and low molecular abundance. In this work, we report a designer plasmonic nanoshells based platform for direct detection of small metabolites in clinical samples for in-vitro metabolic diagnostics. We first synthesized a series of plasmonic core-shell particles with tunable nanoshell structures. The optimized plasmonic nanoshells as new matrices allowed fast, multiplex, sensitive, and selective LDI MS (Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry) detection of small metabolites in 0.5 μL of bio-fluids without enrichment or purification. Furthermore, coupling with isotopic quantification of selected metabolites, we demonstrated the use of these plasmonic nanoshells for disease detection and therapeutic evaluation in clinics. For disease detection, we identified patients with postoperative brain infection through glucose quantitation and daily monitoring by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. For therapeutic evaluation, we investigated drug distribution in blood and CSF systems and validated the function and permeability of blood-brain/CSF-barriers, during therapeutic treatment of patients with cerebral edema for pharmacokinetic study. Our work sheds light on the design of materials for high-performance metabolic analysis and precision diagnostics in real cases.

Keywords: plasmonic nanoparticles, metabolites, fingerprinting, mass spectrometry, in-vitro diagnostics

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173 Condition Based Assessment of Power Transformer with Modern Techniques

Authors: Piush Verma, Y. R. Sood


This paper provides the information on the diagnostics techniques for condition monitoring of power transformer (PT). This paper deals with the practical importance of the transformer diagnostic in the Electrical Engineering field. The life of the transformer depends upon its insulation i.e paper and oil. The major testing techniques applies on transformer oil and paper i.e dissolved gas analysis, furfural analysis, radio interface, acoustic emission, infra-red emission, frequency response analysis, power factor, polarization spectrum, magnetizing currents, turn and winding ratio. A review has been made on the modern development of this practical technology.

Keywords: temperature, condition monitoring, diagnostics methods, paper analysis techniques, oil analysis techniques

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172 Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/cas9-Based Lateral Flow and Fluorescence Diagnostics for Rapid Pathogen Detection

Authors: Mark Osborn


Clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas) proteins can be designed to bind specified DNA and RNA sequences and hold great promise for the accurate detection of nucleic acids for diagnostics. Commercially available reagents were integrated into a CRISPR/Cas9-based lateral flow assay that can detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequences with single-base specificity. This approach requires minimal equipment and represents a simplified platform for field-based deployment. A rapid, multiplex fluorescence CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease cleavage assay capable of detecting and differentiating SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B, and respiratory syncytial virus in a single reaction was also developed. These findings provide proof of principle for CRISPR/Cas9 point-of-care diagnosis that can detect specific SARS-CoV-2 strain(s). Further, Cas9 cleavage allows for a scalable fluorescent platform for identifying respiratory viral pathogens with overlapping symptomology. Collectively, this approach is a facile platform for diagnostics with broad application to user-defined sequence interrogation and detection.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9, lateral flow assay, SARS-Co-V2, single-nucleotide resolution

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171 Using Scanning Electron Microscope and Computed Tomography for Concrete Diagnostics of Airfield Pavements

Authors: M. Linek


This article presents the comparison of selected evaluation methods regarding microstructure modification of hardened cement concrete intended for airfield pavements. Basic test results were presented for two pavement quality concrete lots. Analysis included standard concrete used for airfield pavements and modern material solutions based on concrete composite modification. In case of basic grain size distribution of concrete cement CEM I 42,5HSR NA, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate fractions in the form of granite chippings, water and admixtures were considered. In case of grain size distribution of modified concrete, the use of modern modifier as substitute of fine aggregate was suggested. Modification influence on internal concrete structure parameters using scanning electron microscope was defined. Obtained images were compared to the results obtained using computed tomography. Opportunity to use this type of equipment for internal concrete structure diagnostics and an attempt of its parameters evaluation was presented. Obtained test results enabled to reach a conclusion that both methods can be applied for pavement quality concrete diagnostics, with particular purpose of airfield pavements.

Keywords: scanning electron microscope, computed tomography, cement concrete, airfield pavements

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170 Laser Ultrasonic Diagnostics and Acoustic Emission Technique for Examination of Rock Specimens under Uniaxial Compression

Authors: Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Vladimir A. Makarov, Dmitry V. Morozov, Ivan E. Sas


Laboratory studies of the stress-strain behavior of rocks specimens were conducted by using acoustic emission and laser-ultrasonic diagnostics. The sensitivity of the techniques allowed changes in the internal structure of the specimens under uniaxial compressive load to be examined at micro- and macro scales. It was shown that microcracks appear in geologic materials when the stress level reaches about 50% of breaking strength. Also, the characteristic stress of the main crack formation was registered in the process of single-stage compression of rocks. On the base of laser-ultrasonic echoscopy, 2D visualization of the internal structure of rocky soil specimens was realized, and the microcracks arising during uniaxial compression were registered.

Keywords: acoustic emission, geomaterial, laser ultrasound, uniaxial compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
169 An Advanced Automated Brain Tumor Diagnostics Approach

Authors: Berkan Ural, Arif Eser, Sinan Apaydin


Medical image processing is generally become a challenging task nowadays. Indeed, processing of brain MRI images is one of the difficult parts of this area. This study proposes a hybrid well-defined approach which is consisted from tumor detection, extraction and analyzing steps. This approach is mainly consisted from a computer aided diagnostics system for identifying and detecting the tumor formation in any region of the brain and this system is commonly used for early prediction of brain tumor using advanced image processing and probabilistic neural network methods, respectively. For this approach, generally, some advanced noise removal functions, image processing methods such as automatic segmentation and morphological operations are used to detect the brain tumor boundaries and to obtain the important feature parameters of the tumor region. All stages of the approach are done specifically with using MATLAB software. Generally, for this approach, firstly tumor is successfully detected and the tumor area is contoured with a specific colored circle by the computer aided diagnostics program. Then, the tumor is segmented and some morphological processes are achieved to increase the visibility of the tumor area. Moreover, while this process continues, the tumor area and important shape based features are also calculated. Finally, with using the probabilistic neural network method and with using some advanced classification steps, tumor area and the type of the tumor are clearly obtained. Also, the future aim of this study is to detect the severity of lesions through classes of brain tumor which is achieved through advanced multi classification and neural network stages and creating a user friendly environment using GUI in MATLAB. In the experimental part of the study, generally, 100 images are used to train the diagnostics system and 100 out of sample images are also used to test and to check the whole results. The preliminary results demonstrate the high classification accuracy for the neural network structure. Finally, according to the results, this situation also motivates us to extend this framework to detect and localize the tumors in the other organs.

Keywords: image processing algorithms, magnetic resonance imaging, neural network, pattern recognition

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168 Bioengineering System for Prediction and Early Prenosological Diagnostics of Stomach Diseases Based on Energy Characteristics of Bioactive Points with Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Mahdi Alshamasin, Riad Al-Kasasbeh, Nikolay Korenevskiy


We apply mathematical models for the interaction of the internal and biologically active points of meridian structures. Amongst the diseases for which reflex diagnostics are effective are those of the stomach disease. It is shown that use of fuzzy logic decision-making yields good results for the prediction and early diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract diseases, depending on the reaction energy of biologically active points (acupuncture points). It is shown that good results for the prediction and early diagnosis of diseases from the reaction energy of biologically active points (acupuncture points) are obtained by using fuzzy logic decision-making.

Keywords: acupuncture points, fuzzy logic, diagnostically important points (DIP), confidence factors, membership functions, stomach diseases

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167 A Computational Diagnostics for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

Authors: Zainab D. Abd Ali, Thamir H. Khalaf


In this paper, the characteristics of electric discharge in gap between two (parallel-plate) dielectric plates are studies, the gap filled with Argon gas in atm pressure at ambient temperature, the thickness of gap typically less than 1 mm and dielectric may be up 10 cm in diameter. One of dielectric plates a sinusoidal voltage is applied with Rf frequency, the other plates is electrically grounded. The simulation in this work depending on Boltzmann equation solver in first few moments, fluid model and plasma chemistry, in one dimensional modeling. This modeling have insight into characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge through studying properties of breakdown of gas, electric field, electric potential, and calculating electron density, mean electron energy, electron current density ,ion current density, total plasma current density. The investigation also include: 1. The influence of change in thickness of gap between two plates if we doubled or reduced gap to half. 2. The effect of thickness of dielectric plates. 3. The influence of change in type and properties of dielectric material (gass, silicon, Teflon).

Keywords: computational diagnostics, Boltzmann equation, electric discharge, electron density

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166 Automated Process Quality Monitoring and Diagnostics for Large-Scale Measurement Data

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho


Continuous monitoring of industrial plants is one of necessary tasks when it comes to ensuring high-quality final products. In terms of monitoring and diagnosis, it is quite critical and important to detect some incipient abnormal events of manufacturing processes in order to improve safety and reliability of operations involved and to reduce related losses. In this work a new multivariate statistical online diagnostic method is presented using a case study. For building some reference models an empirical discriminant model is constructed based on various past operation runs. When a fault is detected on-line, an on-line diagnostic module is initiated. Finally, the status of the current operating conditions is compared with the reference model to make a diagnostic decision. The performance of the presented framework is evaluated using a dataset from complex industrial processes. It has been shown that the proposed diagnostic method outperforms other techniques especially in terms of incipient detection of any faults occurred.

Keywords: data mining, empirical model, on-line diagnostics, process fault, process monitoring

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165 Analysis of Automotive Sensor for Engine Knock System

Authors: Miroslav Gutten, Jozef Jurcik, Daniel Korenciak, Milan Sebok, Matej Kuceraa


This paper deals with the phenomenon of the undesirable detonation combustion in internal combustion engines. A control unit of the engine monitors these detonations using piezoelectric knock sensors. With the control of these sensors the detonations can be objectively measured just outside the car. If this component provides small amplitude of the output voltage it could happen that there would have been in the areas of the engine ignition combustion. The paper deals with the design of a simple device for the detection of this disorder. A construction of the testing device for the knock sensor suitable for diagnostics of knock combustion in internal combustion engines will be presented. The output signal of presented sensor will be described by Bessel functions. Using the first voltage extremes on the characteristics it is possible to create a reference for the evaluation of the polynomial residue. It should be taken into account that the velocity of sound in air is 330 m/s. This sound impinges on the walls of the combustion chamber and is detected by the sensor. The resonant frequency of the clicking of the motor is usually in the range from 5 kHz to 15 kHz. The sensor worked in the field to 37 kHz, which shall be taken into account on an own sensor resonance.

Keywords: diagnostics, knock sensor, measurement, testing device

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164 Malaria Parasite Detection Using Deep Learning Methods

Authors: Kaustubh Chakradeo, Michael Delves, Sofya Titarenko


Malaria is a serious disease which affects hundreds of millions of people around the world, each year. If not treated in time, it can be fatal. Despite recent developments in malaria diagnostics, the microscopy method to detect malaria remains the most common. Unfortunately, the accuracy of microscopic diagnostics is dependent on the skill of the microscopist and limits the throughput of malaria diagnosis. With the development of Artificial Intelligence tools and Deep Learning techniques in particular, it is possible to lower the cost, while achieving an overall higher accuracy. In this paper, we present a VGG-based model and compare it with previously developed models for identifying infected cells. Our model surpasses most previously developed models in a range of the accuracy metrics. The model has an advantage of being constructed from a relatively small number of layers. This reduces the computer resources and computational time. Moreover, we test our model on two types of datasets and argue that the currently developed deep-learning-based methods cannot efficiently distinguish between infected and contaminated cells. A more precise study of suspicious regions is required.

Keywords: convolution neural network, deep learning, malaria, thin blood smears

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163 Electrohydrodynamic Patterning for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering for Point-of-Care Diagnostics

Authors: J. J. Rickard, A. Belli, P. Goldberg Oppenheimer


Medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, homeland security and forensics increasingly demand specific and field-deployable analytical technologies for quick point-of-care diagnostics. Although technological advancements have made optical methods well-suited for miniaturization, a highly-sensitive detection technique for minute sample volumes is required. Raman spectroscopy is a well-known analytical tool, but has very weak signals and hence is unsuitable for trace level analysis. Enhancement via localized optical fields (surface plasmons resonances) on nanoscale metallic materials generates huge signals in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), enabling single molecule detection. This enhancement can be tuned by manipulation of the surface roughness and architecture at the sub-micron level. Nevertheless, the development and application of SERS has been inhibited by the irreproducibility and complexity of fabrication routes. The ability to generate straightforward, cost-effective, multiplex-able and addressable SERS substrates with high enhancements is of profound interest for SERS-based sensing devices. While most SERS substrates are manufactured by conventional lithographic methods, the development of a cost-effective approach to create nanostructured surfaces is a much sought-after goal in the SERS community. Here, a method is established to create controlled, self-organized, hierarchical nanostructures using electrohydrodynamic (HEHD) instabilities. The created structures are readily fine-tuned, which is an important requirement for optimizing SERS to obtain the highest enhancements. HEHD pattern formation enables the fabrication of multiscale 3D structured arrays as SERS-active platforms. Importantly, each of the HEHD-patterned individual structural units yield a considerable SERS enhancement. This enables each single unit to function as an isolated sensor. Each of the formed structures can be effectively tuned and tailored to provide high SERS enhancement, while arising from different HEHD morphologies. The HEHD fabrication of sub-micrometer architectures is straightforward and robust, providing an elegant route for high-throughput biological and chemical sensing. The superior detection properties and the ability to fabricate SERS substrates on the miniaturized scale, will facilitate the development of advanced and novel opto-fluidic devices, such as portable detection systems, and will offer numerous applications in biomedical diagnostics, forensics, ecological warfare and homeland security.

Keywords: hierarchical electrohydrodynamic patterning, medical diagnostics, point-of care devices, SERS

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
162 The Importance of Development in Laboratory Diagnosis at the Intersection

Authors: Agus Sahri, Cahya Putra Dinata, Faishal Andhi Rokhman


Intersection is a critical area on a highway which is a place of conflict points and congestion due to the meeting of two or more roads. Conflicts that occur at the intersection include diverging, merging, weaving, and crossing. To deal with these conflicts, a crossing control system is needed, at a plot of intersection there are two control systems namely signal intersections and non-signalized intersections. The control system at a plot of intersection can affect the intersection performance. In Indonesia there are still many intersections with poor intersection performance. In analyzing the parameters to measure the performance of a plot of intersection in Indonesia, it is guided by the 1997 Indonesian Road Capacity Manual. For this reason, this study aims to develop laboratory diagnostics at plot intersections to analyze parameters that can affect the performance of an intersection. The research method used is research and development. The laboratory diagnosis includes anamnesis, differential diagnosis, inspection, diagnosis, prognosis, specimens, analysis and sample data analysts. It is expected that this research can encourage the development and application of laboratory diagnostics at a plot of intersection in Indonesia so that intersections can function optimally.

Keywords: intersection, the laboratory diagnostic, control systems, Indonesia

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161 Building Atmospheric Moisture Diagnostics: Environmental Monitoring and Data Collection

Authors: Paula Lopez-Arce, Hector Altamirano, Dimitrios Rovas, James Berry, Bryan Hindle, Steven Hodgson


Efficient mould remediation and accurate moisture diagnostics leading to condensation and mould growth in dwellings are largely untapped. Number of factors are contributing to the rising trend of excessive moisture in homes mainly linked with modern living, increased levels of occupation and rising fuel costs, as well as making homes more energy efficient. Environmental monitoring by means of data collection though loggers sensors and survey forms has been performed in a range of buildings from different UK regions. Air and surface temperature and relative humidity values of residential areas affected by condensation and/or mould issues were recorded. Additional measurements were taken through different trials changing type, location, and position of loggers. In some instances, IR thermal images and ventilation rates have also been acquired. Results have been interpreted together with environmental key parameters by processing and connecting data from loggers and survey questionnaires, both in buildings with and without moisture issues. Monitoring exercises carried out during Winter and Spring time show the importance of developing and following accurate protocols for guidance to obtain consistent, repeatable and comparable results and to improve the performance of environmental monitoring. A model and a protocol are being developed to build a diagnostic tool with the goal of performing a simple but precise residential atmospheric moisture diagnostics to distinguish the cause entailing condensation and mould generation, i.e., ventilation, insulation or heating systems issue. This research shows the relevance of monitoring and processing environmental data to assign moisture risk levels and determine the origin of condensation or mould when dealing with a building atmospheric moisture excess.

Keywords: environmental monitoring, atmospheric moisture, protocols, mould

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160 Developing Manufacturing Process for the Graphene Sensors

Authors: Abdullah Faqihi, John Hedley


Biosensors play a significant role in the healthcare sectors, scientific and technological progress. Developing electrodes that are easy to manufacture and deliver better electrochemical performance is advantageous for diagnostics and biosensing. They can be implemented extensively in various analytical tasks such as drug discovery, food safety, medical diagnostics, process controls, security and defence, in addition to environmental monitoring. Development of biosensors aims to create high-performance electrochemical electrodes for diagnostics and biosensing. A biosensor is a device that inspects the biological and chemical reactions generated by the biological sample. A biosensor carries out biological detection via a linked transducer and transmits the biological response into an electrical signal; stability, selectivity, and sensitivity are the dynamic and static characteristics that affect and dictate the quality and performance of biosensors. In this research, a developed experimental study for laser scribing technique for graphene oxide inside a vacuum chamber for processing of graphene oxide is presented. The processing of graphene oxide (GO) was achieved using the laser scribing technique. The effect of the laser scribing on the reduction of GO was investigated under two conditions: atmosphere and vacuum. GO solvent was coated onto a LightScribe DVD. The laser scribing technique was applied to reduce GO layers to generate rGO. The micro-details for the morphological structures of rGO and GO were visualised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy so that they could be examined. The first electrode was a traditional graphene-based electrode model, made under normal atmospheric conditions, whereas the second model was a developed graphene electrode fabricated under a vacuum state using a vacuum chamber. The purpose was to control the vacuum conditions, such as the air pressure and the temperature during the fabrication process. The parameters to be assessed include the layer thickness and the continuous environment. Results presented show high accuracy and repeatability achieving low cost productivity.

Keywords: laser scribing, lightscribe DVD, graphene oxide, scanning electron microscopy

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159 Metabolomics Profile Recognition for Cancer Diagnostics

Authors: Valentina L. Kouznetsova, Jonathan W. Wang, Igor F. Tsigelny


Metabolomics has become a rising field of research for various diseases, particularly cancer. Increases or decreases in metabolite concentrations in the human body are indicative of various cancers. Further elucidation of metabolic pathways and their significance in cancer research may greatly spur medicinal discovery. We analyzed the metabolomics profiles of lung cancer. Thirty-three metabolites were selected as significant. These metabolites are involved in 37 metabolic pathways delivered by MetaboAnalyst software. The top pathways are glyoxylate and dicarboxylate pathway (its hubs are formic acid and glyoxylic acid) along with Citrate cycle pathway followed by Taurine and hypotaurine pathway (the hubs in the latter are taurine and sulfoacetaldehyde) and Glycine, serine, and threonine pathway (the hubs are glycine and L-serine). We studied interactions of the metabolites with the proteins involved in cancer-related signaling networks, and developed an approach to metabolomics biomarker use in cancer diagnostics. Our analysis showed that a significant part of lung-cancer-related metabolites interacts with main cancer-related signaling pathways present in this network: PI3K–mTOR–AKT pathway, RAS–RAF–ERK1/2 pathway, and NFKB pathway. These results can be employed for use of metabolomics profiles in elucidation of the related cancer proteins signaling networks.

Keywords: cancer, metabolites, metabolic pathway, signaling pathway

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158 Noninvasive Disease Diagnosis through Breath Analysis Using DNA-functionalized SWNT Sensor Array

Authors: W. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Du, M. L. Wang


Noninvasive diagnostics of diseases via breath analysis has attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest for many years and become more and more promising with the rapid advancement in nanotechnology and biotechnology. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, which are mainly blood borne, particularly provide highly valuable information about individuals’ physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Additionally, breath analysis is noninvasive, real-time, painless and agreeable to patients. We have developed a wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) for the detection of a number of physiological indicators in breath. Eight DNA sequences were used to functionalize SWNT sensors to detect trace amount of methanol, benzene, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, acetone and ethanol, which are indicators of heavy smoking, excessive drinking, and diseases such as lung cancer, breast cancer, cirrhosis and diabetes. Our tests indicated that DNA functionalized SWNT sensors exhibit great selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and repeatability. Furthermore, different molecules can be distinguished through pattern recognition enabled by this sensor array. Thus, the DNA-SWNT sensor array has great potential to be applied in chemical or bimolecular detection for the noninvasive diagnostics of diseases and health monitoring.

Keywords: breath analysis, diagnosis, DNA-SWNT sensor array, noninvasive

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157 Out of Pocket Costs for Patients with Tuberculosis in Colombia: Evidence from Three Metropolitan Areas

Authors: Jose Hernandez, Lina Martínez, Gustavo Gonzalez, Carlos Lázaro, Diana Castrillon, Jonathan Cardona, Laura Mejía, Yina Sanchez, Luisa Ochoa, Evert Jimenez


Objectives: Economic analyses of tuberculosis control interventions are usually focused on the payer’s perspective. To assess the overall economic impact of the disease, out-of-pocket and indirect costs are also required. This research is aimed to estimate overall economic impact under DOTS-strategy (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course). Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 91 adult tuberculosis patients in treatment for at least two months was conducted from the society perspective. A standardized questionnaire was used in three different cities of Colombia: Medellin (poverty is 17.7%), Monteria (poverty is 36.9%) and Quibdó (poverty is 51.2%). Costs were converted to 2013 USD and categorized into two periods: diagnostics phase and treatment. Results: The median cost during diagnostics was 13$ (±SD 9.5). The median monthly patient out-of-pocket costs during treatment were 32$ (±SD 6.8), equivalent to 17% of patient’s median monthly income, estimated in 186$ (±SD 23). Costs recorded in Medellin were 47$ in Monteria was 18$ and in Quibdó was 13$. Conclusion: Patient costs under DOTS strategy are high even when services are provided free of charge. The creation or strengthening of community-based treatment supervisors could greatly impact costs of tuberculosis and lower drop-outs.

Keywords: tuberculosis, costs and cost analysis, health promotion, Colombia

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156 Laboratory Diagnostic Testing of Peste des Petits Ruminants in Georgia

Authors: Nino G. Vepkhvadze, Tea Enukidze


Every year the number of countries around the world face the risk of the spread of infectious diseases that bring significant ecological and social-economic damage. Hence, the importance of food product safety is emphasized that is the issue of interest for many countries. To solve them, it’s necessary to conduct preventive measures against the diseases, have accurate diagnostic results, leadership, and management. The Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease is caused by a morbillivirus closely related to the rinderpest virus. PPR is a transboundary disease as it emerges and evolves, considered as one of the top most damaging animal diseases. The disease imposed a serious threat to sheep-breeding when the farms of sheep, goats are significantly growing within the country. In January 2016, PPR was detected in Georgia. Up to present the origin of the virus, the age relationship of affected ruminants and the distribution of PPRV in Georgia remains unclear. Due to the nature of PPR, and breeding practices in the country, reemerging of the disease in Georgia is highly likely. The purpose of the studies is to provide laboratories with efficient tools allowing the early detection of PPR emergence and re-emergences. This study is being accomplished under the Biological Threat Reduction Program project with the support of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The purpose of the studies is to investigate the samples and identify areas at high risk of the disease. Georgia has a high density of small ruminant herds bred as free-ranging, close to international borders. Kakheti region, Eastern Georgia, will be considered as area of high priority for PPR surveillance. For this reason, in 2019, in Kakheti region investigated n=484 sheep and goat serum and blood samples from the same animals, utilized serology and molecular biology methods. All samples were negative by RT-PCR, and n=6 sheep samples were seropositive by ELISA-Ab. Future efforts will be concentrated in areas where the risk of PPR might be high such as international bordering regions of Georgia. For diagnostics, it is important to integrate the PPRV knowledge with epidemiological data. Based on these diagnostics, the relevant agencies will be able to control the disease surveillance.

Keywords: animal disease, especially dangerous pathogen, laboratory diagnostics, virus

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155 Study of the Protection of Induction Motors

Authors: Bencheikh Abdellah


In this paper, we present a mathematical model dedicated to the simulation breaks bars in a three-phase cage induction motor. This model is based on a mesh circuit representing the rotor cage. The tested simulation allowed us to demonstrate the effectiveness of this model to describe the behavior of the machine in a healthy state, failure.

Keywords: AC motors, squirrel cage, diagnostics, MATLAB, SIMULINK

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