Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: trypsin

37 Encoded Nanospheres for the Fast Ratiometric Detection of Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Iván Castelló, Georgiana Stoica, Emilio Palomares, Fernando Bravo


We present herein two colour encoded silica nanospheres (2nanoSi) for the fluorescence quantitative ratiometric determination of trypsin in humans. The system proved to be a faster (minutes) method, with two times higher sensitivity than the state-of-the-art biomarkers based sensors for cystic fibrosis (CF), allowing the quantification of trypsin concentrations in a wide range (0-350 mg/L). Furthermore, as trypsin is directly related to the development of cystic fibrosis, different human genotypes, i.e. healthy homozygotic (> 80 mg/L), CF homozygotic (< 50 mg/L), and heterozygotic (> 50 mg/L), respectively, can be determined using our 2nanoSi nanospheres.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis, trypsin, quantum dots, biomarker, homozygote, heterozygote

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
36 Condition Optimization for Trypsin and Chymotrypsin Activities in Economic Animals

Authors: Mallika Supa-Aksorn, Buaream Maneewan, Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn


For animals, trypsin and chymotrypsin are the 2 proteases that play the important role in protein digestion and involving in growth rate. In many animals, these two enzymes are indicated as growth parameter by feed. Although enzyme assay at optimal condition is significant for its accuracy activity determination. There is less report of trypsin and chymotrypsin. Therefore, in this study, optimization of pH and temperature for trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (C) in economic species; i.e. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sand goby (Oxyeleotoris marmoratus), giant freshwater prawn (Macrobachium rosenberchii) and native chicken (Gallus gallus) were investigated. Each enzyme of each species was assaying for its specific activity with variation of pH in range of 2-12 and temperature in range of 30-80 °C. It revealed that, for Nile tilapia, T had optimal condition at pH 9 and temperature 50-80 °C, whereas C had optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature 60 °C. For sand goby, T had optimal condition at pH 7 and temperature of 50 °C, while C had optimal condition at pH 11 and temperature of 70-75 °C. For juvenile freshwater prawn, T had optimal condition at pH 10-11 and temperature of 60-65 °C, C had optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature of 70°C. For starter native chicken, T has optimal condition at pH 7 and temperature of 70 °C, whereas C had o optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature of 60°C. This information of optimal conditions will be high valuable in further for, actual enzyme measurement of T and C activities that benefit for growth and feed analysis.

Keywords: trypsin, chymotrypsin, Oreochromis niloticus, Oxyeleotoris marmoratus, Macrobachium rosenberchii, Gallus gallus

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
35 Tetra Butyl Ammonium Cyanate Mediated Selective Synthesis of Sulfonyltriuret and Their Investigation towards Trypsin Protease Modulation

Authors: Amarjyoti Das Mahapatra, Umesh Kumar, Bhaskar Datta


A pseudo peptide can mimic the biological or structural properties of natural peptides. They have become an increasing attention in medicinal chemistry because of their interesting advantages like more bioavailability and less biodegradation than compare to the physiologically active native peptides which increase their therapeutic applications. Many biologically active compounds contain urea as functional groups, and they have improved pharmacokinetic properties because of their bioavailability and metabolic stability. Recently we have reported a single-step synthesis of sulfonyl urea and sulfonyltriuret from sulfonyl chloride and sodium cyanate. But the yield of sulfonyltriuret was less around 40-60% because of the formation of other products like sulfonamide and sulfonylureas. In the present work, we mainly focused on the selective synthesis of sulfonyltriuret using tetrabutylammonium cyanate and sulfonyl chloride. More precisely, we are interested in the controlled synthesis of oligomeric urea mainly sulfonyltriuret as a new class of pseudo peptide and their application as protease modulators. The distinctive architecture of these molecules in the form of their pseudo-peptide backbone offers promise as a potential pharmacophore. The synthesized molecules have been screened on trypsin enzyme, and we observed that these molecules are the efficient modulator of trypsin enzyme.

Keywords: pseudo peptide, pharmacophore, sulfonyltriuret, trypsin

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
34 Diagnostic Performance of Tumor Associated Trypsin Inhibitor in Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus

Authors: Aml M. El-Sharkawy, Hossam M. Darwesh


Abstract— Background/Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often diagnosed at advanced stage where effective therapies are lacking. Identification of new scoring system is needed to discriminate HCC patients from those with chronic liver disease. Based on the link between tumor associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) and HCC progression, we aimed to develop a novel score based on combination of TATI and routine laboratory tests for early prediction of HCC. Methods: TATI was assayed for HCC group (123), liver cirrhosis group (210) and control group (50) by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data from all groups were retrospectively analyzed including α feto protein (AFP), international normalized ratio (INR), albumin and platelet count, transaminases, and age. Areas under ROC curve were used to develop the score. Results: A novel index named hepatocellular carcinoma-vascular endothelial growth factor score (HCC-TATI score) = 3.1 (numerical constant) + 0.09 ×AFP (U L-1) + 0.067 × TATI (ng ml-1) + 0.16 × INR – 1.17 × Albumin (g l-1) – 0.032 × Platelet count × 109 l-1 was developed. HCC-TATI score produce area under ROC curve of 0.98 for discriminating HCC patients from liver cirrhosis with sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 82% at cut-off 6.5 (ie less than 6.5 considered cirrhosis and greater than 4.4 considered HCC). Conclusion: Hepatocellular carcinoma-TATI score could replace AFP in HCC screening and follow up of cirrhotic patients.

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, HCV, diagnosis, TATI

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
33 Anti-Nutritional Factors, In-Vitro Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Peptidase Multi Enzyme Protein Digestibility of Some Melon (Egusi) Seeds and Their Protein Isolates

Authors: Joan O. Ogundele, Aladesanmi A. Oshodi, Adekunle I. Amoo


Abstract In-vitro multi-enzyme protein digestibility (IVMPD) and some anti-nutritional factors (ANF) of five melon (egusi) seed flours (MSF) and their protein isolates (PI) were carried out. Their PI have potentials comparable to that of soya beans. It is important to know the IVMPD and ANF of these protein sources as to ensure their safety when adapted for use as alternate protein sources to substitute for cow milk, which is relatively expensive in Nigeria. Standard methods were used to produce PI of Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus vulgaris, African Wine Kettle gourd (Lageneria siceraria I), Basket Ball gourd (Lagenaria siceraria II) and Bushel Giant Gourd (Lageneria siceraria III) seeds and to determine the ANF and IVMPD of the MSF and PI unheated and at 37oC. Multi-enzymes used were trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. IVMPD of MSF ranged from (70.67±0.70) % (C. vulgaris) to (72.07± 1.79) % (L.siceraria I) while for their PI ranged from 74.33% (C.vulgaris) to 77.55% (L.siceraria III). IVMPD of the PI were higher than those of MSF. Heating increased IVMPD of MSF with average value of 79.40% and those of PI with average of 84.14%. ANF average in MSF are tannin (0.11mg/g), phytate (0.23%). Differences in IVMPD of MSF and their PI at different temperatures may arise from processing conditions that alter the release of amino acids from proteins by enzymatic processes. ANF in MSF were relatively low, but were found to be lower in the PI, therefor making the PI safer for human consumption as an alternate source of protein.

Keywords: Anti-nutrients, Enzymatic protein digestibility, Melon (egusi)., Protein Isolates.

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
32 Bioactive Potentials of Peptides and Lipids from Green Mussel (Perna viridis), Horse Mussel (Modiolus philippinarum) and Charru Mussel (Mytella charruana)

Authors: Sharon N. Nuñal, May Flor S. Muegue, Nizzy Hope N. Cartago, Raymund B. Parcon, Sheina B. Logronio


The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of Perna Viridis, Modiolus philippinarum, and Mytella charruana found in the Philippines were assessed. Mussel protein samples were hydrolyzed using trypsin, maturase, alcalase and pepsin at 1% and 2% concentrations and then fractionated through membrane filtration (<10 kDa and <30 kDa). Antioxidant assays showed that pepsin hydrolysate at 2% enzyme concentration exhibited the maximum activities for both 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Radical Scavenging Activity (155-176 µM TE/mg protein) and 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging (67-68 µM TE/mg protein) assays while trypsin hydrolysate dominated the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) for the three mussel species. Lower molecular weight peptide fractions at <10 kDa exhibited better antioxidant activities than the higher molecular weight fractions. The anti-inflammatory activities of M. philippinarum and M. charruana showed comparable protein denaturation inhibition potentials with the highest in P. Viridis samples (98.93%). The 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory activities of mussel samples showed no significant difference with inhibition exceeding 70%. P. Viridis demonstrated the highest inhibition against Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at 56.19%, while the rest showed comparable activities. This study showed that the three mussel species are potential sources of bioactive peptides and lipids with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, bioactive properties, mussel

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
31 Characterization of New Sources of Maize (Zea mays L.) Resistance to Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Infestation in Stored Maize

Authors: L. C. Nwosu, C. O. Adedire, M. O. Ashamo, E. O. Ogunwolu


The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a notorious pest of stored maize (Zea mays L.). The development of resistant maize varieties to manage weevils is a major breeding objective. The study investigated the parameters and mechanisms that confer resistance on a maize variety to S. zeamais infestation using twenty elite maize varieties. Detailed morphological, physical and chemical studies were conducted on whole-maize grain and the grain pericarp. Resistance was assessed at 33, 56, and 90 days post infestation using weevil mortality rate, weevil survival rate, percent grain damage, percent grain weight loss, weight of grain powder, oviposition rate and index of susceptibility as indices rated on a scale developed by the present study and on Dobie’s modified scale. Linear regression models that can predict maize grain damage in relation to the duration of storage were developed and applied. The resistant varieties identified particularly 2000 SYNEE-WSTR and TZBRELD3C5 with very high degree of resistance should be used singly or best in an integrated pest management system for the control of S. zeamais infestation in stored maize. Though increases in the physical properties of grain hardness, weight, length, and width increased varietal resistance, it was found that the bases of resistance were increased chemical attributes of phenolic acid, trypsin inhibitor and crude fibre while the bases of susceptibility were increased protein, starch, magnesium, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, cobalt and zinc, the role of potassium requiring further investigation. Characters that conferred resistance on the test varieties were found distributed in the pericarp and the endosperm of the grains. Increases in grain phenolic acid, crude fibre, and trypsin inhibitor adversely and significantly affected the bionomics of the weevil on further assessment. The flat side of a maize grain at the point of penetration was significantly preferred by the weevil. Why the south area of the flattened side of a maize grain was significantly preferred by the weevil is clearly unknown, even though grain-face-type seemed to be a contributor in the study. The preference shown to the south area of the grain flat side has implications for seed viability. The study identified antibiosis, preference, antixenosis, and host evasion as the mechanisms of maize post harvest resistance to Sitophilus zeamais infestation.

Keywords: maize weevil, resistant, parameters, mechanisms, preference

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
30 Investigation of Self-Assembling of Maghemite Nanoparticles into Chain–Like Structures Using Birefringence Measurements

Authors: C. R. Stein; K. Skeff Neto, K. L. C. Miranda, P. P. C. Sartoratto, M. E. Xavier, Z. G. M. Lacava, S. M. De Freita, P. C. Morais


In this study, static magnetic birefringence (SMB) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the self-assembling of maghemite nanoparticles suspended as biocompatible magnetic fluid (BMF) while incubated or not with the Black Eyed–Pea Trypsin Chymotripsin Inhibitor–BTCI protein. The stock samples herein studied are dextran coated maghemite nanoparticles (average core diameter of 7.1 nm, diameter dispersion of 0.26, and containing 4.6×1016 particle/mL) and the dextran coated maghemite nanoparticles associated with the BTCI protein. Several samples were prepared by diluting the stock samples with deionized water while following their colloidal stability. The diluted samples were investigated using SMB measurements to assess the average sizes of the self-assembled and suspended mesoscopic structures whereas the TEM micrographs provide the morphology of the as-suspended units. The SMB data were analyzed using a model that includes the particle-particle interaction within the mean field model picture.

Keywords: biocompatible magnetic fluid, maghemite nanoparticles, self-assembling

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
29 Effects of Camel Casein Hydrolysate Addition on Rheological Properties of Yoghurt

Authors: A. A. Al-Saleh, E. A. Ismail, A. A. Metwalli


Effects of camel and cow casein hydrolysates by trypsin enzyme on rheological and sensory properties and growth of starter culture of the yoghurts made from cow milk have been investigated. The hydrolysates strongly decreased the fermentation and coagulation time of the yoghurts. The rate of pH decrease was higher with camel casein hydrolysate in comparison with cow casein hydrolysate at all concentrations used (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5%). Viscosities of the yoghurt made with hydrolysates significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared to control samples. The addition of the hydrolysates significantly (p <0.05) increased the hardness and adhesiveness of the yoghurts. No significant differences in water holding capacity of control and treated samples were obsereved at 0.5 and 1.0% casein hydrolysate addition. However, increasing casein hydrolysate addition to 1.5% decreased water holding capacity of yoghurt samples. The sensory evaluation scores of the yoghurts were significantly (p<0.05) improved with the addition of casein hydrolysates.

Keywords: yoghurt, camel casein hydrolysates, cow casein hydrolysate, sensory evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
28 Solid State Fermentation of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Seed to Produce Food Condiment

Authors: Olufunke O. Ezekiel, Adenike O. Ogunshe, Omotola F. Olagunju, Arinola O. Falola


Studies were conducted on fermentation of tamarind seed for production of food condiment. Fermentation followed the conventional traditional method of fermented locust bean (iru) production and was carried out over a period of three days (72 hours). Samples were withdrawn and analysed for proximate composition, pH, titratable acidity, tannin content, phytic acid content and trypsin inhibitor activity using standard methods. Effects of fermentation on proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors and sensory properties of the seed were evaluated. All data were analysed using ANOVA and means separated using Duncan multiple range test. Microbiological analysis to identify and characterize the microflora responsible for the fermentation of the seed was also carried out. Fermentation had significant effect on the proximate composition on the fermented seeds. As fermentation progressed, there was significant reduction in the anti-nutrient contents. Organisms isolated from the fermenting tamarind seeds were identified as non-pathogenic and common with fermented legumes.

Keywords: condiment, fermentation, legume, tamarind seed

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
27 Investigation of the Effects of Monoamine Oxidase Levels on the 20S Proteasome

Authors: Bhavini Patel, Aslihan Ugun-Klusek, Ellen Billet


The two main contributing factors to familial and idiopathic form of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are oxidative stress and altered proteolysis. Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) plays a significant role in redox homeostasis by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) via deamination of for example, dopamine. The ROS generated induces chemical modification of proteins resulting in altered biological function. The ubiquitin-proteasome system, which consists of three different types or proteolytic activity, namely “chymotrypsin-like” activity (CLA), “trypsin-like” activity (TLA) and “post acidic-like” activity (PLA), is responsible for the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Defects in UPS are known to be strongly correlated to PD. Herein, the effect of ROS generated by MAO-A on proteasome activity and the effects of proteasome inhibition on MAO-A protein levels in WT, mock and MAO-A overexpressed (MAO-A+) SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines were investigated. The data in this study report increased proteolytic activity when MAO-A protein levels are significantly increased, in particular CLA and PLA. Additionally, 20S proteasome inhibition induced a decrease in MAO-A levels in WT and mock cells in comparison to MAO-A+ cells in which 20S proteasome inhibition induced increased MAO-A levels to be further increased at 48 hours of inhibition. This study supports the fact that MAO-A could be a potential pharmaceutical target for neuronal protection as data suggests that endogenous MAO-A levels may be essential for modulating cell death and survival.

Keywords: monoamine oxidase, neurodegeneration, Parkinson's disease, proteasome

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
26 Production of Fish Hydrolyzates by Single and Multiple Protease Treatments under Medium High Pressure of 300 MPa

Authors: Namsoo Kim, So-Hee Son, Jin-Soo Maeng, Yong-Jin Cho, Chong-Tai Kim


It has been reported that some enzymes such as trypsin and Alcalase 2.4L are tolerant to a medium high pressure of 300 MPa and preparation of protein hydrolyzates under 300 MPa was advantageous with regard to hydrolysis rate and thus production yield compared with the counterpart under ambient pressure.1,2) In this study, nine fish comprising halibut, soft shell clam and carp were hydrolyzed using Flavourzyme 500MG only, and the combination of Flavourzyme 500 mg, Alcalase 2.4 L, Marugoto E, and Protamex under 300 MPa. Then, the effects of single and multiple protease treatments were determined with respect to contents of soluble solid (SS) and soluble nitrogen, sensory attributes, electrophoretic profiles, and HPLC peak patterns of the fish hydrolyzates (FHs) from various species. The contents of SS of the FHs were quite species-specific and the hydrolyzates of halibut showed the highest SS contents. At this point, multiple protease treatment increased SS content conspicuously in all fish tested. The contents of total soluble nitrogen and TCA-soluble nitrogen were well correlated with those of SS irrespective of fish species and methods of enzyme treatment. Also, it was noticed that multiple protease treatment improved sensory attributes of the FHs considerably. Electropherograms of the FHs showed fast migrating peptide bands that had the molecular masses mostly lower than 1 kDa and this was confirmed by peptide patterns from HPLC analysis for some FHs that had good sensory quality.

Keywords: production, fish hydrolyzates, protease treatments, high pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
25 Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Enhancing Protein Digestive Enzymes and Growth Performance in Marble Goby (Oxyleotris marmorata) Juvenile

Authors: Jaturong Matidtor, Krisna R. Torrissen, Saengtong Pongjareankit, Sudaporn Tongsiri, Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn


Low survival rate has being particular problem in nursery of marble goby juvenile. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of garlic extract on protein digestive pancreatic enzymes, trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (C). The marble goby were reared with commercial feed mixed garlic extract at concentration of 0 (control), 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% (w/w) for 6 weeks. Analysis of the digestive enzymes at 2 and 6 weeks was performed. Growth parameters; weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE), were identified. For T, C and T/C at 2 weeks, values of T and T/C ratio of 0.3% (w/w) group showed significant difference (p < 0.05) with the highest values of 17685.64± 11981.77 U/mg protein and of 51.64 ± 27.46 U/mg protein, respectively. For C at 2 weeks, 0% (w/w) group showed the highest values of 16191.76± 2225.56 U/mg protein. Whereas value of T, C and T/C ratio at 6 weeks, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). For growth performance, it significantly increased in all garlic extract fed groups (0.3-5.0%, w/w), both at 2 and 6 weeks. At 2 weeks, values of WG and SGR of 0.5% (w/w) group showed the highest values of 71.51 ± 1.60%, and 3.85 ± 0.07%, respectively. For FE, 0.3% (w/w) group showed the highest value of 60.21 ± 6.51%. At 6 weeks, it illustrated that all growth parameters of 5.0% (w/w) group were the highest values; WG = 35.06 ± 5.66%, SGR = 2.14 ± 0.30%, and FE = 5.86 ± 0.68%. We suggested that garlic extract could be available for protein digestive enzyme and growth enhancement in marble goby nursery with artificial feed. This result will be high benefit for commercial aquaculture of marble goby.

Keywords: marble goby, nursery, garlic extract, digestive enzyme, growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
24 The Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria as an Antibacterial of Sub Clinic Mastitis on Dairy Cows

Authors: Nenny Harijani, Dhandy Koesoemo Wardhana


The aim of this study is to know the bacteriocin as antimicrobial activity produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as Antibacterial of Sub Clinic Mastitis on Dairy Cows. The antimicrobial is produced by LAB which isolates from cattle intestine can inhibit the growth Staphylococcus aureus, Steptocococcus agalactiae an Escherichia coli which were caused by dairy cattle subclinical mastitis. The failure of this bacteria growth was indicated by the formation of a clear zone surrounding the colonies on Brain Heart Infusion Agar plate. The bacteriocin was produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as antimicrobial, which could inhibit the growth of indicator bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, S.aglactiae and E.coli. This study was also developed bacteriocin to be used as a therapeutic of subclinical mastitis on dairy cows. The method used in this study was isolation, selection and identification of LAB using Mann Rogosa Sharp Medium, followed by characterization of the bacteriocin produced by LAB. The result of the study showed that bacteriocin isolated from beef cattle’s intestine could inhibit the growth Staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, an Escherichia coli, which was indicated by clear zone surrounding the colonies on Brain Heart Infusion Agar plate. Characteristics of bacteriocin were heat-stable exposed to 80 0C for 30 minutes and 100 ⁰C for 15 minutes and inactivated by proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin. This approach has suggested the development of bacteriocin as a therapeutic agent for subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, bacteriocin, staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, E. coli, sub

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
23 Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Stunted Egyptian Children at Risk of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction: An Interventional Study

Authors: Ghada M. El-Kassas, Maged A. El Wakeel, Salwa R. El-Zayat


Background: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. Evidence has suggested that supplementary omega-3 might ameliorate this damage by reducing gastrointestinal inflammation and may also benefit cognitive development. Objective: We tested whether omega-3 supplementation improves intestinal integrity, growth, and cognitive function in stunted children predicted to have EED. Methodology: 100 Egyptian stunted children aged 1-5 years and 100 age and gender-matched normal children as controls. At the primary phase of the study, we assessed anthropometric measures and fecal markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and alpha-1-anti-trypsin (AAT) (as predictors of EED). Cognitive development was assessed (Bayley or Wechsler scores). Oral n-3 (omega-3) LC-PUFA at a dosage of 500 mg/d was supplemented to all cases and followed up for 6 months after which the 2ry phase of the study included the previous clinical, laboratory and cognitive assessment. Results: Fecal inflammatory markers were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. (MPO), (NEO) and (AAT) showed a significant decline in cases at the end of the 2ry phase (P < 0.001 for all). Omega-3 supplementation resulted also in a significant increase in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) (P < 0.01), weight for age z-score, and skinfold thicknesses (P< 0.05 for both). Cases showed significant improvement of cognitive function at phase 2 of the study. Conclusions: Omega-3 supplementation successfully improved intestinal inflammatory state related to EED. Also, some improvement of anthropometric and cognitive parameters showed obvious improvement with omega-3 supplementation.

Keywords: cognitive functions, EED, omega-3, stunting

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
22 Re-Engineering of Traditional Indian Wadi into Ready-to-Use High Protein Quality and Fibre Rich Chunk

Authors: Radhika Jain, Sangeeta Goomer


In the present study an attempt has been made to re-engineer traditional wadi into wholesome ready-to-use cereal-pulse-based chunks rich in protein quality and fibre content. Chunks were made using extrusion-dehydration combination. Two formulations i.e., whole green gram dhal with instant oats and washed green gram dhal with whole oats were formulated. These chunks are versatile in nature as they can be easily incorporated in day-to-day home-made preparations such as pulao, potato curry and kadhi. Cereal-pulse ratio was calculated using NDpCal%. Limiting amino acids such as lysine, tryptophan, methionine, cysteine and threonine were calculated for maximum amino acid profile in cereal-pulse combination. Time-temperature combination for extrusion at 130oC and dehydration at 65oC for 7 hours and 15 minutes were standardized to obtain maximum protein and fibre content. Proximate analysis such as moisture, fat and ash content were analyzed. Protein content of formulation was 62.10% and 68.50% respectively. Fibre content of formulations was 2.99% and 2.45%, respectively. Using a 5-point hedonic scale, consumer preference trials of 102 consumers were conducted and analyzed. Evaluation of chunks prepared in potato curry, kadi and pulao showed preferences for colour 82%, 87%, 86%, texture and consistency 80%, 81%, 88%, flavour and aroma 74%, 82%, 86%, after taste 70%, 75%, 86% and overall acceptability 77%, 75%, 88% respectively. High temperature inactivates antinutritional compounds such as trypsin inhibitors, lectins, saponins etc. Hence, availability of protein content was increased. Developed products were palatable and easy to prepare.

Keywords: extrusion, NDpCal%, protein quality, wadi

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
21 Differential Response of Cellular Antioxidants and Proteome Expression to Salt, Cadmium and Their Combination in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)

Authors: Rita Bagheri, Javed Ahmed, Humayra Bashir, M. Irfan Qureshi


Agriculture lands suffer from a combination of stresses such as salinity and metal contamination including cadmium at the same time. Under such condition of multiple stresses, plant may exhibit unique responses different from the stress occurring individually. Thus, it would be interesting to investigate that how plant respond to combined stress at level of antioxidants and proteome expression, and identifying the proteins which are involved in imparting stress tolerance. With an approach of comparative proteomics and antioxidant analysis, present study investigates the response of Spinacia oleracea to salt (NaCl), cadmium (Cd), and their combination (NaCl+Cd) stress. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used for resolving leaf proteome, and proteins of interest were identified using PDQuest software. A number of proteins expressed differentially, those indicated towards their roles in imparting stress tolerance, were digested by trypsin and analyzed on mass spectrometer for peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). Data signals were then matched with protein databases using MASCOT. Results show that NaCl, Cd and both together (NaCl+Cd) induce oxidative stress which was highest in combined stress of Cd+NaCl. Correspondingly, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants viz., SOD, APX, GR and CAT, and non-enzymatic antioxidants had highest changes under combined stress compares to single stress over their respective controls. Among the identified proteins, several interesting proteins were identified that may be have role in Spinacia oleracia tolerance in individual and combinatorial stress of salt and cadmium. The functional classification of identified proteins indicates the importance and necessity of keeping higher ratio of defence and disease responsive proteins.

Keywords: Spinacia oleracea, Cd, salinity, proteomics, antioxidants, combinatorial stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
20 NeuroBactrus, a Novel, Highly Effective, and Environmentally Friendly Recombinant Baculovirus Insecticide

Authors: Yeon Ho Je


A novel recombinant baculovirus, NeuroBactrus, was constructed to develop an improved baculovirus insecticide with additional beneficial properties, such as a higher insecticidal activity and improved recovery, compared to wild-type baculovirus. For the construction of NeuroBactrus, the Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein gene (here termed cry1-5) was introduced into the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) genome by fusion of the polyhedrin–cry1-5–polyhedrin genes under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. In the opposite direction, an insect-specific neurotoxin gene, AaIT, from Androctonus australis was introduced under the control of an early promoter from Cotesia plutellae bracovirus by fusion of a partial fragment of orf603. The polyhedrin–Cry1-5–polyhedrin fusion protein expressed by the NeuroBactrus was not only occluded into the polyhedra, but it was also activated by treatment with trypsin, resulting in an_65-kDa active toxin. In addition, quantitative PCR revealed that the neurotoxin was expressed from the early phase of infection. NeuroBactrus showed a high level of insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella larvae and a significant reduction in the median lethal time against Spodoptera exigua larvae compared to those of wild-type AcMNPV. Rerecombinant mutants derived from NeuroBactrus in which AaIT and/or cry1-5 were deleted were generated by serial passages in vitro. Expression of the foreign proteins (B. thuringiensis toxin and AaIT) was continuously reduced during the serial passage of the NeuroBactrus. Moreover, polyhedra collected from S. exigua larvae infected with the serially passaged NeuroBactrus showed insecticidal activity similar to that of wild-type AcMNPV. These results suggested that NeuroBactrus could be recovered to wild-type AcMNPV through serial passaging.

Keywords: baculovirus, insecticide, neurotoxin, neurobactrus

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
19 Comparison of Zinc Amino Acid Complex and Zinc Sulfate in Diet for Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer)

Authors: Kanokwan Sansuwan, Orapint Jintasataporn, Srinoy Chumkam


Asian seabass is one of the economically important fish of Thailand and other countries in the Southeast Asia. Zinc is an essential trace metal to fish and vital to various biological processes and function. It is required for normal growth and indispensable in the diet. Therefore, the artificial diets offered to intensively cultivated fish must possess the zinc content required by the animal metabolism for health maintenance and high weight gain rates. However, essential elements must also be in an available form to be utilized by the organism. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the application of different zinc forms, including organic Zinc (zinc amino acid complex) and inorganic Zinc (zinc sulfate), as feed additives in diets for Asian seabass. Three groups with five replicates of fish (mean weight 22.54 ± 0.80 g) were given a basal diet either unsupplemented (control) or supplemented with 50 mg Zn kg−¹ sulfate (ZnSO₄) or Zinc Amino Acid Complex (ZnAA) respectively. Feeding regimen was initially set at 3% of body weight per day, and then the feed amount was adjusted weekly according to the actual feeding performance. The experiment was conducted for 10 weeks. Fish supplemented with ZnAA had the highest values in all studied growth indicators (weight gain, average daily growth and specific growth rate), followed by fish fed the diets with the ZnSO₄, and lowest in fish fed the diets with the control. Lysozyme and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of fish supplemented with ZnAA were significantly higher compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Fish supplemented with ZnSO₄ exhibited significant increase in digestive enzyme activities (protease, pepsin and trypsin) compared with ZnAA and the control (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed for RNA and protein in muscle (P > 0.05). The results of the present work suggest that ZnAA are a better source of trace elements for Asian seabass, based on growth performance and immunity indices examined in this study.

Keywords: Asian seabass, growth performance, zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA), zinc sulfate (ZnSO₄)

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
18 Isolation and Culture of Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts to Develop Artificial Skin Equivalent in Cats

Authors: Lavrentiadou S. N., Angelou V., Chatzimisios K., Papazoglou L.


The aim of this study was the isolation and culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from feline skin to ultimately create an artificial engineered skin (including dermis and epidermis) useful for the effective treatment of large cutaneous deficits in cats. Epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts were freshly isolated from skin biopsies using an 8 mm biopsy punch obtained from 8 healthy cats that had undergone ovariohysterectomy. The owner’s consent was obtained. All cats had a complete blood count and a serum biochemical analysis and were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) preoperatively. The samples were cut into small pieces and incubated with collagenase (2 mg/ml) for 5-6 hours. Following digestion, cutaneous cells were filtered through a 100 μm cell strainer, washed with DMEM, and grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. The undigested epidermis was washed with DMEM and incubated with 0.05% Trypsin/0.02% EDTA (TE) solution. Keratinocytes recovered in the TE solution were filtered through a 100 μm and a 40 μm cell strainer and, following washing, were grown on a collagen type I matrix in DMEM: F12 (3:1) medium supplemented with 10% FΒS, 1 μm hydrocortisone, 1 μm isoproterenol and 0.1 μm insulin. Both fibroblasts and keratinocytes were grown in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2 at 37oC. The medium was changed twice a week and cells were cultured up to passage 4. Cells were grown to 70-85% confluency, at which point they were trypsinized and subcultured in a 1:4 dilution. The majority of the cells in each passage were transferred to a freezing medium and stored at -80oC. Fibroblasts were frozen in DMEM supplemented with 30% FBS and 10% DMSO, whereas keratinocytes were frozen in a complete keratinocyte growth medium supplemented with 10% DMSO. Both cell types were thawed and successfully grown as described above. Therefore, we can create a bank of fibroblasts and keratinocytes, from which we can recover cells for further culture and use for the generation of skin equivalent in vitro. In conclusion, cutaneous cell isolation and cell culture and expansion were successfully developed. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first study reporting isolation and culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from feline skin. However, these are preliminary results and thus, the development of autologous-engineered feline skin is still in process.

Keywords: cat, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, skin equivalent, wound

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
17 Effect of Papaverine on Developmental Neurotoxicity: Neurosphere as in vitro Model

Authors: Mohammed Y. Elsherbeny, Mohamed Salama, Ahmed Lotfy, Hossam Fareed, Nora Mohammed


Background: Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) entails the toxic effects imparted by various chemicals on brain during the early childhood when human brains are vulnerable during this period. DNT study in vivo cannot determine the effect of the neurotoxins, as it is not applicable, so using the neurosphere cells of lab animals as an alternative is applicable and time saving. Methods: Cell culture: Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from rat embryos’ brain. The cortices were aseptically dissected out and the tissues were triturated. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle. The supernatant was then transferred to a fresh tube and centrifuged. The pellet was placed in Hank’s balanced salt solution and cultured as free-floating neurospheres in proliferation medium. Differentiation was initiated by growth factor withdrawal in differentiation medium and plating onto a poly-d-lysine/ laminin matrix. Chemical Exposure: Neurospheres were treated for 2 weeks with papaverine in proliferation medium. Proliferation analyses: Spheres were cultured. After 0, 4, 5, 11 and 14 days, sphere size was determined by software analyses (CellProfiler, version 2.1; Broad Institute). Diameter of each neurosphere was measured and exported to excel file further to statistical analysis. Viability test: Trypsin-EDTA solution was added to neurospheres to dissociate neurospheres into single cells suspension, then viability evaluated by the Trypan Blue exclusion test. Result: As regards proliferation analysis and percentage of viable cells of papaverin treated groups: There was no significant change in cells proliferation compared to control at 0, 4, 5, 11 and 14 days with concentrations 1, 5 and 10 µM of papaverine, but there is a significant change in cell viability compared to control after 1 week and 2 weeks with the same concentrations of papaverine. Conclusion: Papaverine has toxic effect on viability of neural cell, not on their proliferation, so it may produce focal neural lesions not growth morphological changes.

Keywords: developmental neurotoxicity, neurotoxin, papaverine, neuroshperes

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
16 Testing Serum Proteome between Elite Sprinters and Long-Distance Runners

Authors: Hung-Chieh Chen, Kuo-Hui Wang, Tsu-Lin Yeh


Proteomics represent the performance of genomic complement proteins and the protein level on functional genomics. This study adopted proteomic strategies for comparing serum proteins among three groups: elite sprinter (sprint runner group, SR), long-distance runners (long-distance runner group, LDR), and the untrained control group (control group, CON). Purposes: This study aims to identify elite sprinters and long-distance runners’ serum protein and to provide a comparison of their serum proteome’ composition. Methods: Serum protein fractionations that separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analyzed by a quantitative nano-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic profiling. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe post hoc comparison (α= 0.05) was used to determine whether there is any significant difference in each protein level among the three groups. Results: (1) After analyzing the 307 identified proteins, there were 26 unique proteins in the SR group, and 18 unique proteins in the LDR group. (2) For the LDR group, 7 coagulation function-associated proteins’ expression levels were investigated: vitronectin, serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, fibulin-1, complement C3, vitamin K-dependent protein, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3 and von Willebrand factor, and the findings show the seven coagulation function-associated proteins were significantly lower than the group of SR. (3) Comparing to the group of SR, this study found that the LDR group’s expression levels of the 2 antioxidant proteins (afamin and glutathione peroxidase 3) were also significantly lower. (4) The LDR group’s expression levels of seven immune function-related proteins (Ig gamma-3 chain C region, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5, clusterin, complement C1s subcomponent, complement factor B, complement C4-A, complement C1q subcomponent subunit A) were also significantly lower than the group of SR. Conclusion: This study identified the potential serum protein markers for elite sprinters and long-distance runners. The changes in the regulation of coagulation, antioxidant, or immune function-specific proteins may also provide further clinical applications for these two different track athletes.

Keywords: biomarkers, coagulation, immune response, oxidative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
15 Synthesis and Characterization of pH-Responsive Nanocarriers Based on POEOMA-b-PDPA Block Copolymers for RNA Delivery

Authors: Bruno Baptista, Andreia S. R. Oliveira, Patricia V. Mendonca, Jorge F. J. Coelho, Fani Sousa


Drug delivery systems are designed to allow adequate protection and controlled delivery of drugs to specific locations. These systems aim to reduce side effects and control the biodistribution profile of drugs, thus improving therapeutic efficacy. This study involved the synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles, based on amphiphilic diblock copolymers, comprising a biocompatible, poly (oligo (ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate (POEOMA) as hydrophilic segment and a pH-sensitive block, the poly (2-diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDPA). The objective of this work was the development of polymeric pH-responsive nanoparticles to encapsulate and carry small RNAs as a model to further develop non-coding RNAs delivery systems with therapeutic value. The responsiveness of PDPA to pH allows the electrostatic interaction of these copolymers with nucleic acids at acidic pH, as a result of the protonation of the tertiary amine groups of this polymer at pH values below its pKa (around 6.2). Initially, the molecular weight parameters and chemical structure of the block copolymers were determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. Then, the complexation with small RNAs was verified, generating polyplexes with sizes ranging from 300 to 600 nm and with encapsulation efficiencies around 80%, depending on the molecular weight of the polymers, their composition, and concentration used. The effect of pH on the morphology of nanoparticles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) being verified that at higher pH values, particles tend to lose their spherical shape. Since this work aims to develop systems for the delivery of non-coding RNAs, studies on RNA protection (contact with RNase, FBS, and Trypsin) and cell viability were also carried out. It was found that they induce some protection against constituents of the cellular environment and have no cellular toxicity. In summary, this research work contributes to the development of pH-sensitive polymers, capable of protecting and encapsulating RNA, in a relatively simple and efficient manner, to further be applied on drug delivery to specific sites where pH may have a critical role, as it can occur in several cancer environments.

Keywords: drug delivery systems, pH-responsive polymers, POEOMA-b-PDPA, small RNAs

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
14 Epoxomicin Affects Proliferating Neural Progenitor Cells of Rat

Authors: Bahaa Eldin A. Fouda, Khaled N. Yossef, Mohamed Elhosseny, Ahmed Lotfy, Mohamed Salama, Mohamed Sobh


Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) entails the toxic effects imparted by various chemicals on the brain during the early childhood period. As human brains are vulnerable during this period, various chemicals would have their maximum effects on brains during early childhood. Some toxicants have been confirmed to induce developmental toxic effects on CNS e.g. lead, however; most of the agents cannot be identified with certainty due the defective nature of predictive toxicology models used. A novel alternative method that can overcome most of the limitations of conventional techniques is the use of 3D neurospheres system. This in-vitro system can recapitulate most of the changes during the period of brain development making it an ideal model for predicting neurotoxic effects. In the present study, we verified the possible DNT of epoxomicin which is a naturally occurring selective proteasome inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity. Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from rat embryos (E14) extracted from placental tissue. The cortices were aseptically dissected out from the brains of the fetuses and the tissues were triturated by repeated passage through a fire-polished constricted Pasteur pipette. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle for 3 min. The supernatant was, then, transferred to a fresh tube and centrifuged at 1,000 g for 5 min. The pellet was placed in Hank’s balanced salt solution cultured as free-floating neurospheres in proliferation medium. Two doses of epoxomicin (1µM and 10µM) were used in cultured neuropsheres for a period of 14 days. For proliferation analysis, spheres were cultured in proliferation medium. After 0, 4, 5, 11, and 14 days, sphere size was determined by software analyses. The diameter of each neurosphere was measured and exported to excel file further to statistical analysis. For viability analysis, trypsin-EDTA solution were added to neurospheres for 3 min to dissociate them into single cells suspension, then viability evaluated by the Trypan Blue exclusion test. Epoxomicin was found to affect proliferation and viability of neuropsheres, these effects were positively correlated to doses and progress of time. This study confirms the DNT effects of epoxomicin on 3D neurospheres model. The effects on proliferation suggest possible gross morphologic changes while the decrease in viability propose possible focal lesion on exposure to epoxomicin during early childhood.

Keywords: neural progentor cells, epoxomicin, neurosphere, medical and health sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
13 Role of Zinc Adminstration in Improvement of Faltering Growth in Egyption Children at Risk of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction

Authors: Ghada Mahmoud El Kassas, Maged Atta El Wakeel


Background: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is impending trouble that flared up in the last decades to be pervasive in infants and children. EED is asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. Evidence has suggested that supplementary zinc might ameliorate this damage by reducing gastrointestinal inflammation and may also benefit cognitive development. Objective: We tested whether zinc supplementation improves intestinal integrity, growth, and cognitive function in stunted children predicted to have EED. Methodology: This case–control prospective interventional study was conducted on 120 Egyptian Stunted children aged 1-10 years who recruited from the Nutrition clinic, the National research center, and 100 age and gender-matched healthy children as controls. At the primary phase of the study, Full history taking, clinical examination, and anthropometric measurements were done. Standard deviation score (SDS) for all measurements were calculated. Serum markers as Zonulin, Endotoxin core antibody (EndoCab), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and fecal markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and alpha-1-anti-trypsin (AAT) (as predictors of EED) were measured. Cognitive development was assessed (Bayley or Wechsler scores). Oral zinc at a dosage of 20 mg/d was supplemented to all cases and followed up for 6 months, after which the 2ry phase of the study included the previous clinical, laboratory, and cognitive assessment. Results: Serum and fecal inflammatory markers were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Zonulin (P < 0.01), (EndoCab) (P < 0.001) and (AGP) (P < 0.03) markedly decreased in cases at the end of 2ry phase. Also (MPO), (NEO), and (AAT) showed a significant decline in cases at the end of the study (P < 0.001 for all). A significant increase in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) (P < 0.01), weight for age z-score, and skinfold thicknesses (P< 0.05 for both) was detected at end of the study, while height was not significantly affected. Cases also showed significant improvement of cognitive function at phase 2 of the study. Conclusion: Intestinal inflammatory state related to EED showed marked recovery after zinc supplementation. As a result, anthropometric and cognitive parameters showed obvious improvement with zinc supplementation.

Keywords: stunting, cognitive function, environmental enteric dysfunction, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
12 A Report of 5-Months-Old Baby with Balanced Chromosomal Rearrangements along with Phenotypic Abnormalities

Authors: Mohit Kumar, Beklashwar Salona, Shiv Murti, Mukesh Singh


We report here a case of five-months old male baby, born as second child of non-consanguineous parents with no considerable history of genetic abnormality which was referred to our cytogenetic laboratory for chromosomal analysis. Physical dysmorphic facial features including mongoloid face, cleft palate, simian crease, and developmental delay were observed. We present this case with unique balanced autosomal translocation of t(3;10)(p21;p13). The risk of phenotypic abnormalities based on de novo balanced translocation was estimated to be 7%. The association of balanced chromosomal rearrangement with Down syndrome features such as multiple congenital anomalies, facial dysmorphism and congenital heart anomalies are very rare in a 5-months old male child. Trisomy-21 is not uncommon in chromosomal abnormality with the birth defect and balanced translocations are frequently observed in patients with secondary infertility or recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Two ml heparinized peripheral blood cells cultured in RPMI-1640 for 72 hours supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum, phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and antibiotics were used for chromosomal analysis. A total 30 metaphases images were captured using Olympus-BX51 microscope and analyzed using Bio-view karyotyping software through GTG-banding (G bands by trypsin and Giemsa) according to International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature 2016. The results showed balanced translocation between short arm of chromosome # 3 and short arm of chromosome # 10. The karyotype of the child was found to be 46,XY,t(3;10)(p21; p13). Chromosomal abnormalities are one of the major causes of birth defect in new born babies. Also, balanced translocations are frequently observed in patients with secondary infertility or recurrent spontaneous abortion. The index case presented with dysmorphic facial features and had a balanced translocation 46,XY,t(3;10)(p21;p13). This translocation with break points at (p21; p13) has not been reported in the literature in a child with facial dysmorphism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of novel balanced translocation t(3;10) with break points in a child with dysmorphic features. We found balanced chromosomal translocation instead of any trisomy or unbalanced aberrations along with some phenotypic abnormalities. Therefore, we suggest that such novel balanced translocation with abnormal phenotype should be reported in order to enable the pathologist, pediatrician, and gynecologist to have a better insight into the intricacies of chromosomal abnormalities and their associated phenotypic features. We hypothesized that dysmorphic features as seen in this case may be the result of change in the pattern of genes located at the breakpoint area in balanced translocations or may be due to deletion or mutation of genes located on the p-arm of chromosome # 3 and p-arm of chromosome # 10.

Keywords: balanced translocation, karyotyping, phenotypic abnormalities, facial dimorphisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
11 Oxidative Damage to Lipids, Proteins, and DNA during Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord into Biologically Active Hepatocytes

Authors: Abdolamir Allameh, Shahnaz Esmaeili, Mina Allameh, Safoura Khajeniazi


Stem cells with therapeutic applications can be isolated from human placenta/umblical cord blood (UCB) as well as the cord tissue (UC). Stem cells in culture are vulnerable to oxidative stress, particularly when subjected to differentiation process. The aim of this study was to examine the chnages in the rate of oxidation that occurs to cellular macromolecules during hepatic differentiation of mononuclear cells (MSCs). In addition, the impact of the hepatic differentiation process of MSC on cellular and biological activity of the cells will be undertaken. For this purpose, first mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from human UCB which was obtained from a healthy full-term infant. The cells were cultured at a density of 3×10⁵ cells/cm² in DMEM- low-glucose culture media supplemented with 20% FBS, 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 μg/ml streptomycin and 100 U/ml penicillin. Cell cultures were then incubated at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO₂ incubator. After removing non-adherent cells by replacing culture medium, fibroblast-like adherent cells were resuspended in 0.25% trypsin-EDTA and plated in 25 cm² flasks (1×10⁴/ml). Characterization of the MSCs was routinely done by observing their morphology and growth curve. MSCs were subjected to a 2-step hepatocyte differentiation protocol in presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), dexamethazone (DEX) and oncostatin M (OSM). The hepatocyte-like cells derived from MSCs were checked every week for 3 weeks for changes in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation and DNA oxidation i.e., 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) assay. During the 3-week differentiation process of MSCs to hepatocyte-like cells we found that expression liver-specific markers such as albumin, was associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation. Whereas, undifferentiated MSCs has relatively low levels of lipid peroxidation products. There was a significant increase ( p < 0.05) in lipid peroxidation products in hepatocytes on days 7, 14, and 21 of differentiation. Likewise, the level of protein carbonyls in the cells was elevated during the differentiation. The level of protein carbonyls measured in hepatocyte-like cells obtained 3 weeks after differentiation induction was estimated to be ~6 fold higher compared to cells recovered on day 7 of differentiation. On the contrary, there was a small but significant decrease in DNA damage marker (8-OH-dG) in hepatocytes recovered 3 weeks after differentiation onset. The level of 8-OHdG which was in consistent with formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, this data suggest that despite the elevation in oxidation of lipid and protein molecules during hepatocyte development, the cells were normal in terms of DNA integrity, morphology, and biologically activity.

Keywords: adult stem cells, DNA integrity, free radicals, hepatic differentiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
10 In vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetic and Nutritional Properties of Breynia retusa

Authors: Parimelazhagan Thangaraj


Natural products serves human kind as a source of all drugs and higher plants provide most of these therapeutic agents. These products are widely recognized in the pharmaceutical industry for their broad structural diversity as well as their wide range of pharmacological activities. Euphorbiaceae is one of the important families with significant pharmacological activities, of which many species has been used traditionally for the treatment of various ailments. Breynia retusa belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae is used to cure ailments like body pain, skin inflammation, hyperglycaemia, diarrhoea, dysentery and toothache. Flowers and young leaves of B. retusa are cooked and eaten, roots are used for meningitis. The juice of the stem is used in conjunctivtis and leaves as poultice to hasten suppuration. Based on the strong evidences of traditional uses of Breynia retusa, the present study was focused on neutraceuticals evaluation of the species with special reference to oxidative stress and diabetes. Both leaves and stem of B. retusa were extracted with different solvents and analyzed for radical scavenging ability wherein ABTS.+ (8396.95±1529.01 µM TEAC/g extract), phosphomolybdenum (17.34±0.08 g AAE/100 g extract) and FRAP (6075.66±414.28 µM Fe (II) E/mg extract) assays showed good radical scavenging activity in stem. Furthermore, leaf extracts showed good radical inhibition in DPPH (2.4 µg/mL), metal ion (27.44±0.09 mg EDTAE/g extract) scavenging methods. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors are currently used for diabetic treatment as oral hypoglycemic agents. The inhibitory effects of the B. retusa leaf and stem ethyl acetate extracts showed good inhibition on α-amylase (96.25% and 95.69 respectively) and α-glucosidase (54.50% and 50.87% respectively) enzymes compared to standard acarbose. The proximate composition analysis of B. retusa leaves contains higher amount of total carbohydrates (14.08 g Glucose equivalents/100 g sample), ash (19.04 %) and crude fibre (0.52 %). The examination of mineral profile explored that the leaves was rich in calcium (1891 ppm), sulphur (1406 ppm), copper (2600 ppm) and magnesium (778 ppm). Leaves sample revealed very minimal amount of anti-nutrient contents like trypsin (14.08±0.03 TIU/mg protein) and tannin (0.011±0.001 mg TAE/g sample). The low anti nutritional factors may not pose any serious nutritional problems when these leaves are consumed. In conclusion, it is very clear that dietary compounds from B. retusa are suitable and promising for the development of safe food products and natural additives. Based on the studies, it may be concluded that nutritional composition, antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities this species can be used as future therapeutic medicine.

Keywords: Breynia retusa, nutraceuticals, antioxidant, anti diabetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
9 A Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus Involved in Immune Responses

Authors: S. D. N. K. Bathige, G. I. Godahewa, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan, Jehee Lee


Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KTIs) are identified in various organisms including animals, plants and microbes. These proteins shared single or multiple Kunitz inhibitory domains link together or associated with other types of domains. Characteristic Kunitz type domain composed of around 60 amino acid residues with six conserved cysteine residues to stabilize by three disulfide bridges. KTIs are involved in various physiological processes, such as ion channel blocking, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation. In this study, two Kunitz-type domain containing protein was identified from rock bream database and designated as RbKunitz. The coding sequence of RbKunitz encoded for 507 amino acids with 56.2 kDa theoretical molecular mass and 5.7 isoelectric point (pI). There are several functional domains including MANEC superfamily domain, PKD superfamily domain, and LDLa domain were predicted in addition to the two characteristic Kunitz domain. Moreover, trypsin interaction sites were also identified in Kunitz domain. Homology analysis revealed that RbKunitz shared highest identity (77.6%) with Takifugu rubripes. Completely conserved 28 cysteine residues were recognized, when comparison of RbKunitz with other orthologs from different taxonomical groups. These structural evidences indicate the rigidity of RbKunitz folding structure to achieve the proper function. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining method and exhibited that the KTIs from fish and non-fish has been evolved in separately. Rock bream was clustered with Takifugu rubripes. The SYBR Green qPCR was performed to quantify the RbKunitz transcripts in different tissues and challenged tissues. The mRNA transcripts of RbKunitz were detected in all tissues (muscle, spleen, head kidney, blood, heart, skin, liver, intestine, kidney and gills) analyzed and highest transcripts level was detected in gill tissues. Temporal transcription profile of RbKunitz in rock bream blood tissues was analyzed upon LPS (lipopolysaccharide), Poly I:C (Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid) and Edwardsiella tarda challenge to understand the immune responses of this gene. Compare to the unchallenged control RbKunitz exhibited strong up-regulation at 24 h post injection (p.i.) after LPS and E. tarda injection. Comparatively robust expression of RbKunits was observed at 3 h p.i. upon Poly I:C challenge. Taken together all these data indicate that RbKunitz may involve into to immune responses upon pathogenic stress, in order to protect the rock bream.

Keywords: Kunitz-type, rock bream, immune response, serine protease inhibitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
8 Evidence for Replication of an Unusual G8P[14] Human Rotavirus Strain in the Feces of an Alpine Goat: Zoonotic Transmission from Caprine Species

Authors: Amine Alaoui Sanae, Tagjdid Reda, Loutfi Chafiqa, Melloul Merouane, Laloui Aziz, Touil Nadia, El Fahim, E. Mostafa


Background: Rotavirus group A (RVA) strains with G8P[14] specificities are usually detected in calves and goats. However, these strains have been reported globally in humans and have often been characterized as originating from zoonotic transmissions, particularly in area where ruminants and humans live side-by-side. Whether human P[14] genotypes are two-way and can be transmitted to animal species remains to be established. Here we describe VP4 deduced amino-acid relationships of three Moroccan P[14] genotypes originating from different species and the receptiveness of an alpine goat to a human G8P[14] through an experimental infection. Material/methods: the human MA31 RVA strain was originally identified in a four years old girl presenting an acute gastroenteritis hospitalized at the pediatric care unit in Rabat Hospital in 2011. The virus was isolated and propagated in MA104 cells in the presence of trypsin. Ch_10S and 8045_S animal RVA strains were identified in fecal samples of a 2-week-old native goat and 3-week-old calf with diarrhea in 2011 in Bouaarfa and My Bousselham respectively. Genomic RNAs of all strains were subjected to a two-step RT-PCR and sequenced using the consensus primers VP4. The phylogenetic tree for MA31, Ch_10S and 8045_S VP4 and a set of published P[14] genotypes was constructed using MEGA6 software. The receptivity of MA31 strain by an eight month-old alpine goat was assayed. The animal was orally and intraperitonally inoculated with a dose of 8.5 TCID50 of virus stock at passage level 3. The shedding of the virus was tested by a real time RT-PCR assay. Results: The phylogenetic tree showed that the three Moroccan strains MA31, Ch_10S and 8045_S VP4 were highly related to each other (100% similar at the nucleotide level). They were clustered together with the B10925, Sp813, PA77 and P169 strains isolated in Belgium, Spain and Italy respectively. The Belgian strain B10925 was the most closely related to the Moroccan strains. In contrast, the 8045_S and Ch_10S strains were clustered distantly from the Tunisian calf strain B137 and the goat strain cap455 isolated in South Africa respectively. The human MA31 RVA strain was able to induce bloody diarrhea at 2 days post infection (dpi) in the alpine goat kid. RVA virus shedding started by 2 dpi (Ct value of 28) and continued until 5 dpi (Ct value of 25) with a concomitant elevation in the body temperature. Conclusions: Our study while limited to one animal, is the first study proving experimentally that a human P[14] genotype causes diarrhea and virus shedding in the goat. This result reinforce the potential role of inter- species transmission in generating novel and rare rotavirus strains such G8P[14] which infect humans.

Keywords: interspecies transmission, rotavirus, goat, human

Procedia PDF Downloads 206