Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: pectinase

15 Characterization of Pectinase from Local Microorganisms to Support Industry Based Green Chemistry

Authors: Sasangka Prasetyawan, Anna Roosdiana, Diah Mardiana, Suratmo

Abstract:

Pectinase are enzymes that hydrolyze pectin compounds. The use of this enzyme is primarily to reduce the viscosity of the beverage thus simplifying the purification process. Pectinase activity influenced by microbial sources . Exploration of two types of microbes that Aspergillus spp. and Bacillus spp. pectinase give different performance, but the use of local strain is still not widely studied. The aim of this research is exploration of pectinase from A. niger and B. firmus include production conditions and characterization. Bacillus firmus incubated and shaken at a speed of 200 rpm at pH variation (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10), temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) °C and incubation time (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 ) hours. Media was centrifuged at 3000 rpm, pectinase enzyme activity determined. Enzyme production by A. niger determined to variations in temperature and pH were similar to B. firmus, but the variation of the incubation time was 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours. Pectinase crude extract was further purified by precipitation using ammonium sulfate saturation in fraction 0-20 %, 20-40 %, 40-60 %, 60-80 %, then dialyzed. Determination of optimum conditions pectinase activity performed by measuring the variation of enzyme activity on pH (4, 6, 7, 8, 10), temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) °C, and the incubation time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50) minutes . Determination of kinetic parameters of pectinase enzyme reaction carried out by measuring the rate of enzyme reactions at the optimum conditions, but the variation of the concentration of substrate (pectin 0.1 % , 0.2 % , 0.3 % , 0.4 % , 0.5 % ). The results showed that the optimum conditions of production of pectinase from B. firmus achieved at pH 7-8.0, 40-50 ⁰C temperature and fermentation time 18 hours. Purification of pectinase showed the highest purity in the 40-80 % ammonium sulfate fraction. Character pectinase obtained : the optimum working conditions of A. niger pectinase at pH 5 , while pectinase from B. firmus at pH 7, temperature and optimum incubation time showed the same value, namely the temperature of 50 ⁰C and incubation time of 30 minutes. The presence of metal ions can affect the activity of pectinase , the concentration of Zn 2 + , Pb 2 + , Ca 2 + and K + and 2 mM Mg 2 + above 6 mM inhibit the activity of pectinase .

Keywords: pectinase, Bacillus firmus, Aspergillus niger, green chemistry

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14 Magnetite Nanoparticles Immobilized Pectinase: Preparation, Characterization and Application for the Fruit Juices Clarification

Authors: Leila Mosafa, Majid Moghadam, Mohammad Shahedi

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In this work, pectinase was immobilized on the surface of silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles via covalent attachment. The magnetite-immobilized enzyme was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. Response surface methodology using Minitab Software was applied for statistical designing of operating conditions in order to immobilize pectinase on magnetic nanoparticles. The optimal conditions were obtained at 30°C and pH 5.5 with 42.97 µl pectinase for 2 h. The immobilization yield was 50.6% at optimized conditions. Compared to the free pectinase, the immobilized pectinase was found to exhibit enhanced enzyme activity, better tolerance to the variation of pH and temperature, and improved storage stability. Both free and immobilized samples reduced the viscosity of apple juice from 1.12 to 0.88 and 0.92 mm2s-1, respectively, after 30 min at their optimum temperature. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme could be reused six consecutive cycles and the efficiency loss in viscosity reduction was found to be only 8.16%.

Keywords: magnetite nanoparticles, pectinase enzyme, immobilization, juice clarification, enzyme activity

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13 Pectin Degrading Enzyme: Entrapment of Pectinase Using Different Synthetic and Non-Synthetic Polymers for Continuous Degradation of Pectin Polymer

Authors: Haneef Ur Rehman, Afsheen Aman, Abdul Hameed Baloch, Shah Ali Ul Qader

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Pectinase is a heterogeneous group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of pectin substances and widely has been used in food and textile industries. In current study, pectinase from B. licheniformis KIBGE-IB21 was immobilized within different polymers (calcium alginate beads, polyacrylamide gel and agar-agar matrix) to enhance its catalytic properties. Polyacrylamide gel was found to be most promising one and gave maximum (89%) immobilization yield. While less immobilization yield was observed in case of calcium alginate beads that only retained 46 % activity. The reaction time for maximum pectinolytic activity was increased from 5.0 to 10 minutes after immobilization. The temperature of pectinase for maximum enzyme activity was increased from 45 °C to 50 °C and 55 °C when it was immobilized within agar-agar and calcium alginate beads, respectively. The optimum pH of pectinase didn’t alter when it was immobilized within polyacrylamide gel and calcium alginate beads, but in case of agar-agar it was changed from pH 10 to pH 9.0. Thermal stability of pectinase was improved after immobilization and immobilized pectinase showed higher toleration against different temperatures as compared to free enzyme. It can be concluded that the entrapment is a simple, single step and promising procedure to immobilized pectinase within different synthetic and non-synthetic polymers and enhanced its catalytic properties.

Keywords: pectinase, characterization immobilization, polyacrylamide, agar-agar, calcium alginate beads

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12 Production and Purification of Pectinase by Aspergillus Niger

Authors: M. Umar Dahot, G. S. Mangrio

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In this study Agro-industrial waste was used as a carbon source, which is a low cost substrate. Along with this, various sugars and molasses of 2.5% and 5% were investigated as substrate/carbon source for the growth of A.niger and Pectinase production. Different nitrogen sources were also used. An overview of results obtained show that 5% sucrose, 5% molasses and 0.4% (NH4)2SO4 were found the best carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of pectinase by A. niger. The maximum production of pectinase (26.87units/ml) was observed at pH 6.0 after 72 hrs incubation. The optimum temperature for the maximum production of pectinase was achieved at 35ºC when maximum production of pectinase was obtained as 28.25Units/ml.Pectinase enzyme was purified with ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialyzed sample was finally applied on gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-100) and Ion Exchange DEAE A-50. The enzyme was purified 2.5 fold by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and Four fractions were obtained, Fraction 1, 2, 4 showed single band while Fraction -3 showed multiple bands on SDS Page electrophoresis. Fraction -3 was pooled, dialyzed and separated on Sephdex A-50 and two fractions 3a and 3b showed single band. The molecular weights of the purified fractions were detected in the range of 33000 ± 2000 and 38000± 2000 Daltons. The purified enzyme was specifically most active with pure pectin, while pectin, Lemon pectin and orange peel given lower activity as compared to (control). The optimum pH and temperature for pectinase activity was found between pH 5.0 and 6.0 and 40°- 50°C, respectively. The enzyme was stable over the pH range 3.0-8.0. The thermostability of was determined and it was observed that the pectinase activity is heat stable and retains activity more than 40% when incubated at 90°C for 10 minutes. The pectinase activity of F3a and F3b was increased with different metal ions. The Pectinase activity was stimulated in the presence of CaCl2 up to 10-30%. ZnSO4, MnSO4 and Mg SO4 showed higher activity in fractions F3a and F3b, which indicates that the pectinase belongs to metalo-enzymes. It is concluded that A. niger is capable to produce pH stable and thermostable pectinase, which can be used for industrial purposes.

Keywords: pectinase, a. niger, production, purification, characterization

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11 Bioconversion of Orange Wastes for Pectinase Production Using Aspergillus niger under Solid State Fermentation

Authors: N. Hachemi, A. Nouani, A. Benchabane

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The influence of cultivation factors such as content of ammonium sulfate, glucose and water in the culture medium and particle size of dry orange waste, on their bioconversion for pectinase production was studied using complete factorial design. a polygalacturonase (PG) was isolated using ion exchange chromatography under gradient elution 0-0,5 m/l NaCl (column equilibrate with acetate buffer pH 4,5), subsequently by sephadex G75 column chromatography was applied and the molecular weight was obtained about 51,28 KDa . Purified PG enzyme exhibits a pH and temperature optima of activity at 5 and 35°C respectively. Treatment of apple juice by purified enzyme extract yielded a clear juice, which was competitive with juice yielded by pure Sigma Aldrich Aspergillus niger enzyme.

Keywords: bioconversion, orange wastes, optimization, pectinase

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10 Extracellular Enzymes from Halophilic Bacteria with Potential in Agricultural Secondary Flow Recovery Products

Authors: Madalin Enache, Simona Neagu, Roxana Cojoc, Ioana Gomoiu, Delia Ionela Dobre, Ancuta Roxana Trifoi

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Various types of halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms able to be cultivated in laboratory on culture media with a wide range of sodium chloride content are isolated from several salted environments. The extracellular enzymes of these microorganisms showed the enzymatic activity in these spectrums of salinity thus being attractive for several biotechnological processes developed at high ionic strength. In present work, a number of amylase, protease, esterase, lipase, cellulase, pectinase, xilanases and innulinase were identified for more than 50th bacterial strains isolated from water samples and sapropelic mud from four saline and hypersaline lakes located in Romanian plain. On the other hand, the cellulase and pectinase activity were also detected in some halotolerant microorganisms isolated from secondary agricultural flow of grapes processing. The preliminary data revealed that from totally tested strains seven harbor proteases activity, eight amylase activity, four for esterase and another four for lipase, three for pectinase and for one strain were identified either cellulase or pectinase activity. There were no identified enzymes able to hydrolase innulin added to culture media. Several strains isolated from sapropelic mud showed multiple extracellular enzymatic activities, namely three strains harbor three activities and another seven harbor two activities. The data revealed that amylase and protease activities were frequently detected if compare with other tested enzymes. In the case of pectinase were investigated, their ability to be used for increasing resveratrol recovery from material resulted after grapes processing. In this way, the resulted material from grapes processing was treated with microbial supernatant for several times (two, four and 24 hours) and the content of resveratrol was detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography method (HPLC). The preliminary data revealed some positive results of this treatment.

Keywords: halophilic microorganisms, enzymes, pectinase, salinity

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9 Soybean Lecithin Based Reverse Micellar Extraction of Pectinase from Synthetic Solution

Authors: Sivananth Murugesan, I. Regupathi, B. Vishwas Prabhu, Ankit Devatwal, Vishnu Sivan Pillai

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Pectinase is an important enzyme which has a wide range of applications including textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, purification of plant viruses, oil extraction etc. Selective separation and purification of pectinase from fermentation broth and recover the enzyme form process stream for reuse are cost consuming process in most of the enzyme based industries. It is difficult to identify a suitable medium to enhance enzyme activity and retain its enzyme characteristics during such processes. The cost effective, selective separation of enzymes through the modified Liquid-liquid extraction is of current research interest worldwide. Reverse micellar extraction, globally acclaimed Liquid-liquid extraction technique is well known for its separation and purification of solutes from the feed which offers higher solute specificity and partitioning, ease of operation and recycling of extractants used. Surfactant concentrations above critical micelle concentration to an apolar solvent form micelles and addition of micellar phase to water in turn forms reverse micelles or water-in-oil emulsions. Since, electrostatic interaction plays a major role in the separation/purification of solutes using reverse micelles. These interaction parameters can be altered with the change in pH, addition of cosolvent, surfactant and electrolyte and non-electrolyte. Even though many chemical based commercial surfactant had been utilized for this purpose, the biosurfactants are more suitable for the purification of enzymes which are used in food application. The present work focused on the partitioning of pectinase from the synthetic aqueous solution within the reverse micelle phase formed by a biosurfactant, Soybean Lecithin dissolved in chloroform. The critical micelle concentration of soybean lecithin/chloroform solution was identified through refractive index and density measurements. Effect of surfactant concentrations above and below the critical micelle concentration was considered to study its effect on enzyme activity, enzyme partitioning within the reverse micelle phase. The effect of pH and electrolyte salts on the partitioning behavior was studied by varying the system pH and concentration of different salts during forward and back extraction steps. It was observed that lower concentrations of soybean lecithin enhanced the enzyme activity within the water core of the reverse micelle with maximizing extraction efficiency. The maximum yield of pectinase of 85% with a partitioning coefficient of 5.7 was achieved at 4.8 pH during forward extraction and 88% yield with a partitioning coefficient of 7.1 was observed during backward extraction at a pH value of 5.0. However, addition of salt decreased the enzyme activity and especially at higher salt concentrations enzyme activity declined drastically during both forward and back extraction steps. The results proved that reverse micelles formed by Soybean Lecithin and chloroform may be used for the extraction of pectinase from aqueous solution. Further, the reverse micelles can be considered as nanoreactors to enhance enzyme activity and maximum utilization of substrate at optimized conditions, which are paving a way to process intensification and scale-down.

Keywords: pectinase, reverse micelles, soybean lecithin, selective partitioning

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8 Jamun Juice Extraction Using Commercial Enzymes and Optimization of the Treatment with the Help of Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties

Authors: Payel Ghosh, Rama Chandra Pradhan, Sabyasachi Mishra

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Jamun (Syzygium cuminii L.) is one of the important indigenous minor fruit with high medicinal value. The jamun cultivation is unorganized and there is huge loss of this fruit every year. The perishable nature of the fruit makes its postharvest management further difficult. Due to the strong cell wall structure of pectin-protein bonds and hard seeds, extraction of juice becomes difficult. Enzymatic treatment has been commercially used for improvement of juice quality with high yield. The objective of the study was to optimize the best treatment method for juice extraction. Enzymes (Pectinase and Tannase) from different stains had been used and for each enzyme, best result obtained by using response surface methodology. Optimization had been done on the basis of physicochemical property, nutritional property, sensory quality and cost estimation. According to quality aspect, cost analysis and sensory evaluation, the optimizing enzymatic treatment was obtained by Pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus strain. The optimum condition for the treatment was 44 oC with 80 minute with a concentration of 0.05% (w/w). At these conditions, 75% of yield with turbidity of 32.21NTU, clarity of 74.39%T, polyphenol content of 115.31 mg GAE/g, protein content of 102.43 mg/g have been obtained with a significant difference in overall acceptability.

Keywords: enzymatic treatment, Jamun, optimization, physicochemical property, sensory analysis

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7 Fungal Diversity and Bioprospecting of Termite-Associated Fungi from Nothern-Western Ghats of India

Authors: Gajanan V. Mane, Rashmi More, Mahesh S. Sonawane, Tushar Lodha, Rohit Sharma

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The diversity of fungi isolated from two different termite species viz., Odontoterms assmuthi and O. abesus was investigated by dilution- plate method, combined with morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region. In total, ninety-six fungi were isolated and purified, out of which 69 isolates were obtained from O. assmuthi belonging to 18 genera and 31 species, whereas 27 isolates were obtained from O. abesus belonging to 15 genera and 17 species. The fungal strains were screened for laccase, amylase, cellulase and pectinase enzymes production. Twenty-seven strains were positive for laccase, 59 strains were positive for amylase, 71 strains were positive for cellulase and 72 strains were positive for pectinase enzymes. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated fungi were tested by the dual plate culture method against standard pathogens. Bioactive secondary metabolites were identified by HPLC and LCMS. Four isolates viz., Penicillium goetzii MG 57, Epicoccum sp. MG 39, Penicillium tanzanicum MG 30, Aspergillus polyporicola MG 54, showed positive antimicrobial activity against standard pathogens, Streptococcus pneumonia MCC 2425, Staphylococcus aureus MCC 2408, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC 2080, Escherichia coli MCC 2412, Enterococcus faecalis MCC 2409, Klebsiella pneumonia MCC 2451, Micrococcus luteus MCC 2155 and Candida albicans MCC 1151. In conclusion, the study showed that the insect gut harbor fungal diversity, which is futuristic with biotechnological potential and could be a good source of enzymes and antibiotics.

Keywords: termites, fungi, its, enzyme, antimicrobial activity

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6 Bioconversion of Kitchen Waste to Bio-Ethanol for Energy Security and Solid Waste Management

Authors: Sanjiv Kumar Soni, Chetna Janveja

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The approach of utilizing zero cost kitchen waste residues for growing suitable strains of fungi for the induction of a cocktail of hydrolytic enzymes and ethanol generation has been validated in the present study with the objective of developing an indigenous biorefinery for low cost bioethanol production with the generation of zero waste. Solid state fermentation has been carried out to evaluate the potential of various steam pretreated kitchen waste residues as substrates for the co-production of multiple carbohydrases including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinase and amylases by a locally isolated strain of Aspergillus niger C-5. Of all the residues, potato peels induced the maximum yields of all the enzyme components corresponding to 64.0±1.92 IU of CMCase, 17.0±0.54 IU of FPase , 42.8±1.28 IU of β-glucosidase, 990.0±28.90 IU of xylanase, 53.2±2.12 IU of mannanase, 126.0±3.72 IU of pectinase, 31500.0±375.78 IU of α-amylase and 488.8±9.82 IU of glucoamylase/g dry substrate respectively. Saccharification of various kitchen refuse residues using inhouse produced crude enzyme cocktail resulted in the release of 610±10.56, 570±8.89, 435±6.54, 475±4.56, 445±4.27, 385±4.49, 370±6.89, 490±10.45 mg of total reducing sugars/g of dried potato peels, orange peels, pineapple peels, mausami peels, onion peels, banana stalks, pea pods and composite mixture respectively revealing carbohydrate conversion efficiencies in the range of 97.0-99.4%. After fermentation of released hexoses by Saccharomyces cerevisae, ethanol yields ranging from 80-262 mL/ kg of dry residues were obtained. The study has successfully evaluated the valorization of kitchen garbage, a highly biodegradable component in Municipal Solid Waste by using it as a substrate for the in-house co-production of multiple carbohydrases and employing the steam treated residues as a feed stock for bioethanol production. Such valorization of kitchen garbage may reduce the level of Municipal Solid Waste going into land-fills thus lowering the emissions of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the solid residue left after the bioconversion may be used as a biofertilizer for improving the fertility of the soils.

Keywords: kitchen waste, bioethanol, solid waste, bioconversion, waste management

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5 Evaluation of Hollocelulase Production for Lignocellulosic Biomass Degradation by Penicillium polonicum

Authors: H. M. Takematsu, B. R. De Camargo, E. F. Noronha

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The use of hydrolyzing enzymes for degradation of lignocellulosic biomass is of great concern for the production of second generation ethanol. Although many hollocelulases have already been described in the literature, much more has to be discovered. Therefore, the aim of this study to evaluate hollocelulase production of P. polonicum grown in liquid media containing sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. From a collection of twenty fungi isolated from Cerrado biome soil, P. polonicum was molecular identified by sequencing of ITS4, βtubulin and Calmodulin genes, and has been chosen to be further investigated regarding its potential production of hydrolyzing enzymes. Spore suspension (1x10-6 ml-1) solution was inoculated in sterilized minimal liquid medium containing 0,5%(w/v) of non-pretreated sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source, and incubated in shaker incubator at 28°C and 120 rpm. The supernatant obtained, was subjected to enzymatic assays to analyze xylanase, mannanase, pectinase and endoglucanase activities. Xylanase activity showed better results (67,36 UI/mg). Xylanases bands were indicated by zymogram and SDS-PAGE, and one of them was partially purified and characterized. It showed maximum activity at 50 °C, was thermostable for 72h at 40°C, and pH5.0 was the optimum observed. This study presents P. polonicum as an interesting source of hollocelulases, especially xylanase, for lignocellulose bio-conversion processes with commercial use.

Keywords: sugarcane bagasse, Cerrado biome , hollocelulase, lignocellulosic biomass

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4 Correlation between Polysaccharides Molecular Weight Changes and Pectinases Gene Expression during Papaya Ripening

Authors: Samira B. R. Prado, Paulo R. Melfi, Beatriz T. Minguzzi, João P. Fabi

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Fruit softening is the main change that occurs during papaya (Carica papaya L.) ripening. It is characterized by the depolymerization of cell wall polysaccharides, especially the pectic fractions, which causes cell wall disassembling. However, it is uncertain how the modification of the two main pectin polysaccharides fractions (water-soluble – WSF, and oxalate-soluble fractions - OSF) accounts for fruit softening. The aim of this work was to correlate molecular weight changes of WSF and OSF with the gene expression of pectin-solubilizing enzymes (pectinases) during papaya ripening. Papaya fruits obtained from a producer were harvest and storage under specific conditions. The fruits were divided in five groups according to days after harvesting. Cell walls from all groups of papaya pulp were isolated and fractionated (WSF and OSF). Expression profiles of pectinase genes were achieved according to the MIQE guidelines (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real-time PCR Experiments). The results showed an increased yield and a decreased molecular weight throughout ripening for WSF and OSF. Gene expression data support that papaya softening is achieved by polygalacturonases (PGs) up-regulation, in which their actions might have been facilitated by the constant action of pectinesterases (PMEs). Moreover, BGAL1 gene was up-regulated during ripening with a simultaneous galactose release, suggesting that galactosidases (GALs) could also account for pulp softening. The data suggest that a solubilization of galacturonans and a depolymerization of cell wall components were caused mainly by the action of PGs and GALs.

Keywords: carica papaya, fruit ripening, galactosidases, plant cell wall, polygalacturonases

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3 Anaerobic Fermentation Process for Production of Biohydrogen from Pretreated Fruit Wastes

Authors: A. K. R. Gobinath, He Jianzhong, Kun-Lin Yang

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Fruit waste was used as a feedstock to produce biohydrogen in this study. Fruit waste used in this study was collected from several fruit juice stalls in Singapore. Based on our observation, the fruit waste contained 35-40% orange, 10-20% watermelon, 10-15% apple, 10-15% pineapple, 1-5% mango. They were mixed with water (1:1 ratio based on wet biomass) and blended to attain homogenous mixtures. Later, fruit waste was subjected to one of the following pretreatments: autoclave (121 °C for 20min), microwave (20min) or both. After pretreatment, the total sugar concentration in the hydrolysate was high (>12g/l) when both autoclave and microwave were applied. In contrast, samples without pretreatment measured only less than 2g/l of sugar. While using these hydrolysates as carbon sources, Clostridium strain BOH3 produces 2526-3126 ml/l of hydrogen after 72h of anaerobic fermentation. The hydrogen yield was 295-300 ml/g of sugar which is close to the hydrogen yields from glucose (338 ml/gm) and xylose (330 ml/gm). Our HPLC analysis showed that fruit waste hydrolysate contained oligosugars (25-27%), sucrose (18-23%), fructose (25-30%), glucose (10-15%) and mannose (2-5%). Additionally, pretreatment led to the release of free amino acids (160-512 mg/l), calcium (7.8-12.9 ppm), magnesium (4.32-6.55 ppm), potassium (5.4-65.1 ppm) and sodium (0.4-0.5 ppm) into the hydrolysate. These nutrients were able to support strain-BOH3 to grow and produce high level of hydrogen. Notably, unlike other pretreatment methods (with strong acids and bases), these pretreatment techniques did not generate any inhibitors (e.g. furfural and phenolic acids) to suppress the hydrogen production. Interestingly, strain BOH3 can also ferment pretreated fruit waste slurry and produce hydrogen with a high yield (156-343 ml/gm fruit waste). While fermenting pretreated fruit waste slurry, strain-BOH3 excreted several saccharolytic enzymes majorly xylanase (1.84U/ml), amylase (1.10U/ml), pectinase (0.36U/ml) and cellulase (0.43U/ml). Due to expressions of these enzymes, strain BOH3 was able to directly utilize pretreated fruit waste hydrolysate and produces high-level of hydrogen.

Keywords: autoclave pretreatment, biohydrogen production, clostridial fermentation, fruit waste, and microwave pretreatment

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2 Sensory Acceptability of Novel Sorrel/Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Authors: Tamara Anderson, Neela Badrie

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Plant phenolics which are found in red grape wine, have received considerable attention due to their potential antioxidant activity. Grape by-products contain large amounts of phenolic compounds, mostly flavonoids at high concentrations of 1000-1800 mg/L. Plant phenolics contribute to the flavor, and nutritional value. Sorrel or roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) belongs to the family Malvaceae. The brilliant red pigments in sorrel calyces contain anthocyanins which are the major sources of antioxidant capacity. Consumers are demanding novel beverages that are healthier, convenient and have appealing consumer acceptance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of adding grape polyphenols and the influence of presenting health claims on the sensory acceptability of the wines. Fresh red sorrel calyces were fermented into wines. The total soluble solids of the pectinase-treated sorrel puree were from 4°Brix to 23.8°Brix. Polyphenol in the form of grape pomace extract was added to sorrel wines (w/v) in specified levels to give 0. 25. 50 and 75 ppm. A focus group comprising of 12 panelists was use to select the level of polyphenol to be added to sorrel wines for sensory preference The sensory attributed of the wines which were evaluated were colour, clarity, aroma, flavor, mouth-feel, sweetness, astringency and overall preference. The sorrel wine which was most preferred from focus group evaluation was presented for hedonic rating. In the first stage of hedonic testing, the sorrel wine was served chilled at 7°C for 24 h prior to sensory evaluation. Each panelist was provided with a questionnaire and was asked to rate the wines on colour, aroma, flavor, mouth-feel, sweetness, astringency and overall acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. In the second stage of hedonic testing, the panelist were instructed to read a health abstract on the health benefits of polyphenolic compounds and again to rate sorrel wine with added 25 ppm polyphenol. Paired t-test was used for the analysis of the influence of presenting health information on polyphenols on hedonic scoring of sorrel wines. Focus groups found that the addition of polyphenol addition had no significant effect on sensory color and aroma but affected clarity and flavor. A 25 ppm wine was liked moderately in overall acceptability. The presentation of information on the health benefit of polyphenols in sorrel wines to panelists had no significant influence on the sensory acceptance of wine. More than half of panelists would drink this wine now and then. This wine had color L 19.86±0.68, chroma 2.10±0.12, hue° 16.90 ±3.10 and alcohol content of 13.0%. The sorrel wine was liked moderately in overall acceptability with the added polyphenols.

Keywords: sorrel wines, Roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa L, novel wine, polyphenols, health benefits, physicochemical properties

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1 Selective Immobilization of Fructosyltransferase onto Glutaraldehyde Modified Support and Its Application in the Production of Fructo-oligosaccharides

Authors: Milica B. Veljković, Milica B. Simović, Marija M. Ćorović, Ana D. Milivojević, Anja I. Petrov, Katarina M. Banjanac, Dejan I. Bezbradica

Abstract:

In recent decades, the scientific community has recognized the growing importance of prebiotics, and therefore, numerous studies are focused on their economical production due to their low presence in natural resources. It has been confirmed that prebiotics are a source of energy for probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and enable their proliferation, consequently leading to the normal functioning of the intestinal microbiota. Also, products of their fermentation are short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which play a key role in maintaining and improving the health not only of the GIT but also of the whole organism. Among several confirmed prebiotics, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are considered interesting candidates for use in a wide range of products in the food industry. They are characterized as low-calorie and non-cariogenic substances that represent an adequate sugar substitute and can be considered suitable for use in products intended for diabetics. The subject of this research will be the production of FOS by transforming sucrose using a fructosyltransferase (FTase) present in commercial preparation Pectinex® Ultra SP-L, with special emphasis on the development of adequate FTase immobilization method that would enable selective isolation of the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of FOS from the complex enzymatic mixture. This would lead to considerable enzyme purification and allow its direct incorporation into different sucrose-based products, without the fear that action of the other hydrolytic enzymes may adversely affect the products functional characteristics. Accordingly, the possibility of selective immobilization of the enzyme using support with primary amino groups, Purolite® A109, which was previously activated and modified using glutaraldehyde (GA), was investigated. In the initial phase of the research, the effects of individual immobilization parameters such as pH, enzyme concentration, and immobilization time were investigated to optimize the process using support chemically activated with 15% and 0.5% GA to form dimers and monomers, respectively. It was determined that highly active immobilized preparations (371.8 IU/g of support - dimer and 213.8 IU/g of support – monomer) were achieved under acidic conditions (pH 4) provided that an enzyme concentration was 50 mg/g of support after 7 h and 3 h, respectively. Bearing in mind the obtained results of the expressed activity, it is noticeable that the formation of dimers showed higher reactivity compared to the form of monomers. Also, in the case of support modification using 15% GA, the value of the ratio of FTase and pectinase (as dominant enzyme mixture component) activity immobilization yields was 16.45, indicating the high feasibility of selective immobilization of FTase on modified polystyrene resin. After obtaining immobilized preparations of satisfactory features, they were tested in a reaction of FOS synthesis under determined optimal conditions. The maximum FOS yields of approximately 50% of total carbohydrates in the reaction mixture were recorded after 21 h. Finally, it can be concluded that the examined immobilization method yielded highly active, stable, and more importantly refined enzyme preparation that can be further utilized on a larger scale for development of continual processes for FOS synthesis, as well as for modification of different sucrose-based mediums.

Keywords: chemical modification, fructo-oligosaccharides, glutaraldehyde, immobilization of fructosyltransferase

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