Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1021

Search results for: adults

1021 Ageism: What Makes Older Adults Vulnerable to COVID-19

Authors: Jenny Kwon

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Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic globally, another type of pandemic, ageism, appeared on the surface. Ageism, the stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination directed towards others or oneself based on chronological age, has adversely impacted older adults' lives during the pandemic. In the short term, older adults struggled with health issues (e.g., high rate of infection and mortality) and experienced social disconnection (e.g., loneliness and depression). Ultimately, older adults' self-perceptions of aging, self-esteem and intergenerational relationships were negatively influenced. To closely look into the impact of ageism during the pandemic on U.S. older adults' aging process, the current study has three specific purposes. First, the study introduces a theoretical foundation (i.e., stereotype embodiment theory) in the development of ageism research. Second, the study reports on examples of ageism toward U.S. older adults manifested in the context of COVID-19. Finally, collective responsibilities and future research directions are proposed to fight against ageism.

Keywords: ageism, COVID-19, older adults, pandemic, stereotype embodiment

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1020 Optimal Health and Older Adults: The Existential Health Dimension as a Health-Promoting Potential

Authors: Jessica Hemberg, Anna K. Forsman, Johanna Nordmyr

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With a considerable increase in the aging population in the Nordic countries there is a call for a deeper understanding of healthy aging and its underlying mechanisms. The aim of this study is to uncover health and well-being for older adults according to their own views and understand what role the existential dimension play? The study uses a hermeneutical approach. Material was collected through focus group interviews with 18 older adults. The texts were interpreted through hermeneutical reading. The underlying mechanisms of health among older adults are described, illustrating the key prerequisites for health as being in the present. This implies ‘living on the continuums of life and death’ and in this field of forces also ‘living on the continuum of the past and the future’. Important aspects for being in the present was balancing ambivalent emotions, considering existential issues, and being in connectedness. Health for older adults may be understood in the light of the metaphor of taking it one day at a time. Being in the present was emphasized as a health potential for older adults highlighting the existential health dimension. From a societal point of view, this implies that health promotion should focus on highlighting the importance of the existential dimension of health since it holds health-promoting potentials for older adults. Optimal health for older adults requires awareness of one’s attitude to life through being in the present as a basis for a positive and healthy outlook on life.

Keywords: focus group interviews, hermeneutics, life experiences, older adults

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1019 Real, Ideal, or False Self- Presentation among Young Adult and Middle Adult Facebook Users

Authors: Maria Joan Grafil, Hannah Wendam, Christine Joyce Yu

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The use of social networking sites had been a big part of life of most people. One of the most popular among these is Facebook. Users range from young adults to late adults. While it is more popular among emerging and young adults, this social networking site gives people opportunities to express the self. Via Facebook, people have the opportunity to think about what they prefer to show others. This study identified which among the multiple facets of the self (real self, false self or ideal self) is dominantly presented by young adults and middle adults in using the social networking site Facebook. South Metro Manila was the locale of this study where 100 young adult participants (aged 18-25) were students from nearby universities and the 100 middle adult participants (aged 35-45) were working residents within the area. Participants were comprised of 53% females and 47% males. The data was gathered using a self-report questionnaire to determine which online self-presentation (real self-presentation, false self-presentation, or ideal self-presentation) of the participants has greater extent when engaging in the social networking site Facebook. Using means comparison, results showed that both young adults and middle adults engaged primarily in real self-presentation.

Keywords: false self, ideal self, middle adult, real self, self presentation, young adult

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1018 Age-Stereotypes of Emerging Adults within the South African Work Environment

Authors: Bronwyn Bell, Lizelle Brink

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Workplaces of today are populated by employees from different generations; emerging adults being the most recent demographic group entering the workplace. These individuals form part of Generation Y and are between the ages of 18 to 25. Emerging adults bring unique and different characteristics to the workplace. These individuals also differ from other generations with regards to their employment desires and ways of working. Age-stereotypes of emerging adults is, therefore, a common occurrence within workplaces. The general objective of the study was therefore to explore age-related stereotypes experienced regarding emerging adults within the South African work context and to determine the influences thereof. A qualitative research design from the social constructivism paradigm was employed in order to reach the objectives of this research study. A phenomenological approach using a combination of purposive and snowball sampling was employed within this study. A sample of 25 employees (N = 25) from various South African organisations were interviewed for the purpose of this study and formed part of three generations namely Generation Y, Generation X and Baby Boomers. In order to analyse the collected data, the steps of thematic analysis were used. The main findings of this study indicated that emerging adults experience various positive and negative stereotypes within the workplace. Results further indicated that these stereotypes influence emerging adults in a behavioural, cognitive and emotional manner. These stereotypes also influence the way emerging adults are treated by older employees within the workplace. Recommendations based on the results of this study were made for future research and practice. This study creates awareness within organisations regarding age-stereotypes of emerging adults. By being aware, employees can manage the influences thereof within the workplace.

Keywords: age-stereotypes, baby boomers, emerging adults, generation x, generation y, South African work environment, stereotypes

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1017 Positive Impact of Cartoon Movies on Adults

Authors: Yacoub Aljaffery

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As much as we think negatively about social media such as TV and smart phones, there are many positive benefits our society can get from it. Cartoons, for example, are made specifically for children. However, in this paper, we will prove how cartoon videos can have a positive impact on adults, especially college students. Since cartoons are meant to be a good learning tool for children, as well as adults, we will show our audience how they can use cartoon in teaching critical thinking and other language skills.

Keywords: social media, TV, teaching, learning, cartoon movies

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1016 Emotions Evoked by Robots - Comparison of Older Adults and Students

Authors: Stephanie Lehmann, Esther Ruf, Sabina Misoch

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Background: Due to demographic change and shortage of skilled nursing staff, assistive robots are built to support older adults at home and nursing staff in care institutions. When assistive robots facilitate tasks that are usually performed by humans, user acceptance is essential. Even though they are an important aspect of acceptance, emotions towards different assistive robots and different situations of robot-use have so far not been examined in detail. The appearance of assistive robots can trigger emotions that affect their acceptance. Acceptance of robots is assumed to be greater when they look more human-like; however, too much human similarity can be counterproductive. Regarding different groups, it is assumed that older adults have a more negative attitude towards robots than younger adults. Within the framework of a simulated robot study, the aim was to investigate emotions of older adults compared to students towards robots with different appearances and in different situations and so contribute to a deeper view of the emotions influencing acceptance. Methods: In a questionnaire study, vignettes were used to assess emotions toward robots in different situations and of different appearance. The vignettes were composed of two situations (service and care) shown by video and four pictures of robots varying in human similarity (machine-like to android). The combination of the vignettes was randomly distributed to the participants. One hundred forty-two older adults and 35 bachelor students of nursing participated. They filled out a questionnaire that surveyed 30 positive and 30 negative emotions. For each group, older adults and students, a sum score of “positive emotions” and a sum score of “negative emotions” was calculated. Mean value, standard deviation, or n for sample size and % for frequencies, according to the scale level, were calculated. For differences in the scores of positive and negative emotions for different situations, t-tests were calculated. Results: Overall, older adults reported significantly more positive emotions than students towards robots in general. Students reported significantly more negative emotions than older adults. Regarding the two different situations, the results were similar for the care situation, with older adults reporting more positive emotions than students and less negative emotions than students. In the service situation, older adults reported significantly more positive emotions; negative emotions did not differ significantly from the students. Regarding the appearance of the robot, there were no significant differences in emotions reported towards the machine-like, the mechanical-human-like and the human-like appearance. Regarding the android robot, students reported significantly more negative emotions than older adults. Conclusion: There were differences in the emotions reported by older adults compared to students. Older adults reported more positive emotions, and students reported more negative emotions towards robots in different situations and with different appearances. It can be assumed that older adults have a different attitude towards the use of robots than younger people, especially young adults in the health sector. Therefore, the use of robots in the service or care sector should not be rejected rashly based on the attitudes of younger persons, without considering the attitudes of older adults equally.

Keywords: emotions, robots, seniors, young adults

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1015 Resistance Training Contribution to the Aerobic Component of the International Physical Activity Guidelines in Adults

Authors: Neha Bharti, Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R. Bouchard

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Mostly attributed to lack of time, only 15% of adults currently reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines, which state that every adult should achieve minimum of 150 minutes of aerobic exercise per week at moderate to vigorous intensity in minimum bouts of 10 minutes each, in addition to two days of resistance training. Recent studies have suggested that any bout of aerobic exercise reaching moderate intensity has potential to improve health. If one could reach moderate intensity while doing resistance training, this could reduce the total weekly time involvement to reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Objectives: 1) To determine whether overweight and older adults can reach a minimum of moderate intensity while doing resistance training compared with young non-overweight adults, 2) To identify if the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity is different in overweight adults and older adults when compared with young non-overweight adults when lifting 70% or 80% of maximal load, 3) To determine variables associated with proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity while doing resistance training. Methods: Sixty participants already doing resistance training were recruited (20 young non-overweight adults, 20 overweight adults, and 20 older adults). Participants visited fitness facility three times, separated by at least 48 hours, and performed eight resistance exercises each time. First visit was to collect baseline measurements and to measure maximal load for each of the eight exercises. Second and third visits were performed wearing a heart rate monitor to record heart rate and to measure exercise intensity. The two exercise sessions were performed at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity. Moderate intensity was defined as 40% of heart rate reserve. Results: The proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity ranged from 51% to 93% among the three groups. No difference was observed between the young group and the overweight adults group in the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity, 82.6% (69.2-94.6) vs 92.5% (73.3-99.1). However, older adults spent lower proportion of time at moderate to vigorous intensity for both sessions 51.5% (22.0-86.6); P < .01. When doing resistance training at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity, the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was 82.3% (56.1-94.7) and 82.0% (59.2-98.0) with no significant difference (P=.83). Conclusion: This study suggests that overweight adults and older adults can reach moderate intensity for at least 51% of the time spent doing resistance training. However, time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was lower for older adults compared to young non-overweight adults. For adults aged 60 or less, three resistance training sessions of 60 minutes weekly could be enough to reach both aerobic and resistance training components of the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Further research is needed to test if resistance training at moderate to vigorous intensity can have the same health benefits compared with adults completing the International Physical Activity Guidelines as currently suggested.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, international physical activity guidelines, moderate to vigorous intensity, resistance training

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1014 The Role of Leisure in Older Adults Transitioning to New Homes

Authors: Kristin Prentice, Carri Hand

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As the Canadian population ages and chronic health conditions continue to escalate, older adults will require various types of housing, such as long term care or retirement homes. Moving to a new home may require a change in leisure activities and social networks, which could be challenging to maintain identity and create a sense of home. Leisure has been known to help older adults maintain or increase their quality of life and life satisfaction and may help older adults in moving to new homes. Sense of home and identity within older adults' transitions to new homes are concepts that may also relate to leisure engagement. Literature is scant regarding the role of leisure in older adults moving to new homes and how the sense of home and identity inter-relate. This study aims to explore how leisure may play a role in older adults' transitioning to new homes, including how sense of home and identity inter-relate. An ethnographic approach will be used to understand the culture of older adults transitioning to new homes. This study will involve older adults who have recently relocated to a mid-sized city in Ontario, Canada. The study will focus on the older adult’s interactions with and connections to their home environment through leisure. Data collection will take place via video-conferencing and will include a narrative interview and two other interviews to discuss an activity diary of leisure engagement pre and post move and mental maps to capture spaces where participants engaged in leisure. Participants will be encouraged to share photographs of leisure engagement taken inside and outside their home to help understand the social spaces the participants refer to in their activity diaries and mental maps. Older adults attempt to adjust to their new homes by maintaining their identity, developing a sense of home through creating attachment to place, and maintaining social networks, all of which have been linked to engaging in leisure. This research will provide insight into the role of leisure in this transition process and the extent that the home and community can contribute to aiding their transition to the new home. This research will contribute to existing literature on the inter-relationships of leisure, sense of home, and identity and how they relate to older adults moving to new homes. This research also has potential for influencing policy and practice for meeting the housing needs of older adults.

Keywords: leisure, older adults, transition, identity

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1013 ‘Groupitizing’ – A Key Factor in Math Learning Disabilities

Authors: Michal Wolk, Bat-Sheva Hadad, Orly Rubinsten

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Objective: The visuospatial perception system process that allows us to decompose and recompose small quantities into a whole is often called “groupitizing.” Previous studies have been found that adults use groupitizing processes in quantity estimation tasks and link this ability of subgroups recognition to arithmetic proficiency. This pilot study examined if adults with math difficulties benefit from visuospatial grouping cues when asked to estimate the quantity of a given set. It also compared the tipping point in which a significant improvement occurs in adults with typical development compared to adults with math difficulties. Method: In this pilot research, we recruited adults with low arithmetic abilities and matched controls. Participants were asked to estimate the quantity of a given set. Different grouping cues were displayed (space, color, or none) with different visual configurations (different quantities-different shapes, same quantities- different shapes, same quantities- same shapes). Results: Both groups showed significant performance improvement when grouping cues appeared. However, adults with low arithmetic abilities benefited from the grouping cues already in very small quantities as four. Conclusion: impaired perceptual groupitizing abilities may be a characteristic of low arithmetic abilities.

Keywords: groupitizing, math learning disability, quantity estimation, visual perception system

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1012 Hypertension and Its Association with Oral Health Status in Adults: A Pilot Study in Padusunan Adults Community

Authors: Murniwati, Nurul Khairiyah, Putri Ovieza Maizar

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The association between general and oral health is clearly important, particularly in adults with medical conditions. Many of the medical systemic conditions are either caused or aggravated by poor oral hygiene and vice versa. Hypertension is one of common medical systemic problem which has been a public health concern worldwide due to its known consequences. Those consequences must be related to oral health status as well, whether it may cause or worsen the oral health conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association between hypertension and oral health status in adults. This study was an analytical observational study by using cross-sectional method. A total of 42 adults both male and female in Padusunan Village, Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia were selected as subjects by using purposive sampling. Manual sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure and dental examination was performed to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) scores in order to represent oral health status. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using One Way ANOVA to determine the association between hypertensive adults and their oral health status. The result showed that majority age of the subjects was ranging from 51-70 years (40.5%). Based on blood pressure examination, 57.1% of subjects were classified to prehypertension. Overall, the mean of DMFT score calculated in normal, prehypertension and hypertension group was not considered statistically significant. There was no significant association (p>0.05) between hypertension and oral health status in adults.

Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, DMFT, oral health status

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1011 Obstacles Faced by Female Older Adults with Physical Disabilities in Rural Regions

Authors: Kaycee Bills

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This study examined the mobility experiences faced by female older adults who have physical disabilities and require the use of wheelchairs or other equipment for mobility. Despite the advances in ADA policies that were put in place to accommodate those who have disabilities, the findings of this study suggest that women who are older adults with disabilities face mobility issues in rural regions regarding the steepness of ramps, narrow spaces, and rough terrain on a regular basis), which require additional assistance. Implications for future practice and research are discussed.

Keywords: social work, accessibility, disability, gender equality

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1010 Understanding Risky Borrowing Behavior among Young Consumers: An Empirical Study

Authors: T. Hansen

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Many consumers are uncertain of what financial borrowing behavior may serve their interests in the best way. This is important since consumers’ risky financial decisions may not only negatively affect their short-term liquidity but may haunt them for years after they are made. Obviously, this is especially critical for young adults who often carry large amounts of student loans or credit card debt, which in turn may hinder their future ability to obtain financial healthiness. Even though factors such as financial knowledge, attitudes towards risk, gender, and motivations of borrowing, among others, are known to influence consumer borrowing behavior, no existing model comprehensibly describes the mechanisms behind young adults’ risky borrowing behavior. This is unfortunate since a better understanding of the relationships between such factors and young adults’ risky borrowing behavior may be of value to financial service providers and financial authorities aiming to improve young adults’ borrowing behavior. This research extends prior research by developing a conceptual framework for the purpose of understanding young adults’ risky borrowing behavior. The study is based on two survey samples comprising 488 young adults aged 18-25 who have not obtained a risky loan (sample 1) and 214 young adults aged 18-25 who already have obtained a risky loan (sample 2), respectively. The results suggest several psychological, sociological, and behavioral factors that may influence young adults’ intentional risky borrowing behavior, which in turn is shown to affect actualized risky borrowing behavior. We also found that the relationship between intentional risky borrowing behavior and actualized risky borrowing behavior is negatively moderated by perceived risk – but not by perceived complexity. In particular, the results of this study indicate that public policy makers, banks and financial educators should seek to eliminate less desirable social norms on how to behave financially. In addition, they should seek to enhance young adults’ risky borrowing perceived risk, thereby preventing that intentional risky borrowing behavior translates into actualized risky behavior.

Keywords: financial services, risky borrowing behavior, young adults, financial knowledge, social norms, perceived risk, financial trust, public financial policy

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1009 Sociodemographic Predictors of Flourishing among Older Adults in Rural and Urban Mongolia

Authors: Saranchuluun Otgon, Sugarmaa Myagmarjav, Khorolsuren Lkhagvasuren, Fabio Casati

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Background: Flourishing is a eudaimonic dimension of psychological well-being that has been associated with positive social and health-related outcomes. Determining the factors associated with health and well-being is important to the development of evidence-based intervention programs, policies, and action plans targeting the older adult population, especially in low- and middle-income countries, such as Mongolia, where evidence-based research on aging, health, and well-being is still scarce. This study makes important contributions to the study of well-being in later age and also to policy activities for the older population in Mongolia. Methods: We employed multiple regression models to predict the factors of flourishing using data from 304 older adults living in urban and rural Mongolia. Data is collected by the standardized and validated questionnaire adopted by Ed Diener. Results: The median score of the flourishing of urban and rural older adults in Mongolia was significantly different, 53 and 50, respectively. The sex (β = 2.52,p = 0.034), level of education(β = 0.94, p = 0.026), receive help for the activity of daily living (β = 2.16, p = 0.022) determine the flourishing of older adults living in a rural area, while self-reported health (β = 0.94, p = 0.026), the number of social activities, friends network determine to flourish of older adults living urban area. Conclusion: Older adults who live in urban areas have more psychological resources and strengths than those in rural areas. Determinants of flourishing are different in different settings. For instance, individual and family factors determine flourishing in rural areas, and social ties determine flourishing in urban areas.

Keywords: flourishing, predictors, older adults, Mongolia, psychological well-being

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1008 A Systematic Review Emotion Regulation through Music in Children, Adults, and Elderly

Authors: Fabiana Ribeiro, Ana Moreno, Antonio Oliveira, Patricia Oliveira-Silva

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Music is present in our daily lives, and to our knowledge music is often used to change the emotions in the listeners. For this reason, the objective of this study was to explore and synthesize results examining the use and effects of music on emotion regulation in children, adults, and elderly, and clarify if the music is effective across ages to promote emotion regulation. A literature search was conducted using ISI Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Scopus, inclusion criteria comprised children, adolescents, young, and old adults, including health population. Articles applying musical intervention, specifically musical listening, and assessing the emotion regulation directly through reports or neurophysiological measures were included in this review. Results showed age differences in the function of musical listening; initially, adolescents revealed age increments in emotional listening compared to children, and young adults in comparison to older adults, in which the first use music aiming to emotion regulation and social connection, while older adults also utilize music as emotion regulation searching for personal growth. Moreover, some of the studies showed that personal characteristics also would determine the efficiency of the emotion regulation strategy. In conclusion, it was observed that music could beneficiate all ages investigated, however, this review detected a necessity to develop adequate paradigms to explore the use of music for emotion regulation.

Keywords: music, emotion, regulation, musical listening

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1007 Attachment Style, Attachment Figure, and Intimate Relationship among Emerging Adults with Anxiety and Depression

Authors: P. K. Raheemudheen, Vibha Sharma, C. B. Tripathi

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Background and Aim: Intimate relationships are one of the major sources of unhappiness for emerging adults(18-25 years) and the extent of worry from it is higher for them as compared to older adults. This increases their vulnerability to develop anxiety and depression. Current academic literature have highlighted adult attachment have a crucial role in determining the psycho social adjustment and psychopathology in Emerging Adulthood. In this context, present study is an attempt to explore patterns of adult attachment styles, availability of attachment figures and dimensions of intimate relationship among emerging adults. Method: The participants(n=30) were emerging adults diagnosed with anxiety or/and depression seeking treatment from IHBAS, Delhi. Relationship Style Questionnaire was used to assess the adult attachment styles and Multidimensional Relationship Questionnaire was used to assess dimensions of intimate relationship. Results& Discussion: Results showed that majority of the participants have insecure attachment styles. They perceived their attachment figure as insensitive and unavailable. Further, it was found that participants experience multiple difficulties to establish and maintain healthy intimate relationships. These findings highlight Adult attachment insecurities seem to contribute to anxiety and depression among emerging adults. It proved a conceptual foundation for planning interventions to deal with these attachment based correlate of anxiety and depression which may be more amenable to therapeutic change.

Keywords: emerging adult, adult attachment, intimate relationship, anxiety

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1006 MR Enterography Findings in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Crohn's Disease

Authors: Karolina Siejka, Monika Piekarska, Monika Zbroja, Weronika Cyranka, Maryla Kuczynska, Magdalena Grzegorczyk, Malgorzata Nowakowska, Agnieszka Brodzisz, Magdalena Maria Wozniak

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Crohn’s disease is one of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. It is increasing in prevalence worldwide, especially with young people. The disease usually occurs in the second to the fourth decade of life. Traditionally is diagnosed by clinical indicates, endoscopic, and histological findings. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) can demonstrate mural and extramural inflammatory signs and complications, which make it a valuable diagnostic modality. The study included 76 adults and 36 children diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Each patient underwent MRE with intravenous administration of a contrast agent. All the studies were performed using Siemens Aera 1.5T scanner according to a local study protocol. Whenever applicable, MR Enterography findings were verified with endoscopy. Forty adults and all 36 children had an active phase of Crohn’s disease; five adults had a chronic phase of the disease; one adult had both chronic and active inflammatory features. Thirty adults have no sings of pathology. In both adult and pediatric groups the most commonly observed manifestation of active disease was thickened edematous ileum wall (26 adults and 36 children). Adults had Bauhin’s valve edema in 58% cases (n=23) and mesenteric changes in 34% cases (n=9). To compare, 32 children had Bauhin’s valve edema (89%) and, in 23 cases, was found inflammatory infiltration of the peri-intestinal fat (64%). The involvement of the large intestine was more common among children (100%). Complications of Crohn’s disease were found commonly in adults (40% of adults, 22% of children). There were observed 18 fistulas (14 adults, four children) and six abscesses (2 adults, four children). MRE is a reliable method in the evaluation of Crohn’s disease activity, especially of its complications. The lack of radiations makes MRE well-tolerated modality, which can be often repeated, particularly in young patients. The disease had different medical sings depending on age – children often had a more active inflammatory process, but there were more complications in the adult group.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, diagnostics, inflammatory bowel disease, magnetic resonance enterography, MRE

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1005 The Psychological and Subjective Well-being of Ethiopian adults: Correlates, Explanations, and Cross-Cultural Constructions

Authors: Kassahun Tilahun

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The purpose of the study was two-fold: to examine the socio-demographic and psychological predictors of well-being and formulate a socio-culturally sound approach explaining the meaning and experience of psychological well-being among Ethiopian adults. Ryan and Deci’s Self-Determination Theory was duly considered as a theoretical framework of the study. The study followed a sequential explanatory mixed method design. Both quantitative and qualitative data were obtained, via scales and open-ended questionnaires, from 438 civil servants working in Addis Ababa. 30 interviews were also conducted to gain further information. An in-depth analysis of the reliability and validity of instruments was made before employing them to the main study. The results showed that adults were better off in both their scores of psychological and subjective well-being. Besides, adults’ well-being was found to be quite a function of their gender, age, marital status, educational level and household income. Males had a healthier psychological well-being status than females, where as females were better in their subjective well-being. A significant difference in psychological well-being was also observed between emerging and young adults, in favor of the young; and between cohabitated and married adults, married being advantageous. A significant difference in subjective well-being measures was also noticed among single, cohabitated and married adults, in favor of the married adults in all measures. The finding revealed that happiness level of adults decrease as their educational status increases while the reverse is true to psychological well-being. Besides, as adults’ household income boosts, so do their psychological well-being and satisfaction in life. The regression analysis also produced significant independent contributions of household income to overall well-being of adults. As such, subjective well-being was significantly predicted by dummy variable of sex and marital status. Likewise, the agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness dimensions of personality were notable significant predictors of adults’ psychological well-being where as extraversion and agreeableness were significant predictors of their subjective well-being. Religiosity was also a significant predictor of adults’ psychological well-being. Besides, adults’ well-being was significantly predicted by the interaction between conscientiousness and religiosity. From goal pursuit dimensions, attainment of extrinsic life goals was a significant predictor of both psychological and subjective well-being. Importance and attainment of intrinsic life goals also significantly predicts adults’ psychological well-being. Finally, the subjective well-being of adults was significantly predicted by environmental mastery, positive relations with others, self-acceptance and overall psychological well-being scores of adults. The thematic analysis identified five major categories of themes, which are essential in explaining the psychological well-being of Ethiopian adults. These were; socio-cultural harmony, social cohesion, security, competence and accomplishment, and the self. Detailed discussion on the rational for including these themes was made and appropriate implications were proposed. Researchers are encouraged to expand the findings of this research and in turn develop a suitable approach taping the psychological well-being of adults living in countries like Ethiopia.

Keywords: psychological well-being, subjective well-being, adulthood, Ethiopia

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1004 Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Well-Being, Health, and Loneliness during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Jessica Hemberg, Amanda Sundqvist, Yulia Korzhina, Lillemor Östman, Sofia Gylfe, Frida Gädda, Lisbet Nyström, Henrik Groundstroem, Pia Nyman-Kurkiala

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Purpose: There are large gaps in the literature on COVID-19 pandemic-related mental health outcomes and after-effects specific to adolescents and young adults. The study's aim was to explore adolescents’ and young adults’ experiences of well-being, health, and loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A qualitative exploratory design with qualitative content analysis was used. Twenty-three participants (aged 19-27; four men and 19 women) were interviewed. Results: Four themes emerged: Changed social networks – fewer and closer contacts, changed mental and physical health, increased physical and social loneliness, well-being, internal growth, and need for support. Conclusion: Adolescents’ and young adults’ experiences of well-being, health, and loneliness are subtle and complex. Participants experienced changed social networks, mental and physical health, and well-being. Also, internal growth, need for support, and increased loneliness were seen. Clear information on how to seek help and support from professionals should be made available.

Keywords: adolescents, COVID-19 pandemic, health, interviews, loneliness, qualitative, well-being, young adults

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1003 A Systematic Review of Quality of Life in Older Adults with Sensory Impairments

Authors: Ya-Chuan Tseng, Hsin-Yi Liu, Meei-Fang Lou, Guey-Shiun Huang

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Purpose: Sensory impairments are common in older adults. Hearing and visual impairments affect their physical and mental health and quality of life (QOL) adversely. However, systematic reviews of the relationship between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life are scarce. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life. Methods: Searches of EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Airiti Library were conducted between January 2006 and December 2017 using the keywords ‘quality of life,’ ‘life satisfaction,’ ‘well-being,’ ‘hearing impairment’ and ‘visual impairment’ Two authors independently assessed methodologic quality using a modified Downs and Black tool. Data were extracted by the first author and then cross-checked by the second author. Results: Twenty-three studies consisting mostly of community-dwelling older adults were included in our review. Sensory impairment was found to be in significant association with quality of life, with an increase in hearing impairment or visual impairment severity resulting in a lower quality of life. Quality of life for dual sensory impairment was worse than for hearing impairment or visual impairment individually. Conclusions: A significant association was confirmed between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life. Our review can be used to enhance health care personnel’s understanding of sensory impairment in older adults and enable healthcare personnel to actively assess older adults’ sensory functions so that they can help alleviate the negative impact of sensory impairments on QOL in older adults.

Keywords: nursing, older adults, quality of life, systematic review, hearing impairment, visual impairment

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1002 Neighbourhood Design for Independent Living of Adults with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Cate MacMillan, Nicholas J. Stevens, Johanna Rosier, Steven Boyd

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Choosing where to live is an important decision for anybody, however, this decision is more complex if you are an adult with intellectual disability. Our research asked adults with intellectual disability, parents and carers and disability, housing and built environment decision makers what they considered important in deciding where to live. If medical advances continue to improve the longevity of adults with intellectual disability, many of these adults will outlive their parents. With appropriate community support, and in appropriately designed neighbourhoods, many will be able to live independently. Our research suggests that the key to achieving independent living as an adult with intellectual disability is not so much about the house but the type of neighbourhood and its design. This paper presents the results of interviews and details a practical approach which will better inform urban development decision-makers in establishing safe, inclusive and accessible neighbourhood design.

Keywords: inclusion, independent living, intellectual disability, neighbourhoods, systems thinking, urban design and planning

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1001 Importance of Flexibility Training for Older Adults: A Narrative Review

Authors: Andrej Kocjan

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Introduction: Mobility has been shown to play an important role of health and quality of life among older adults. Falls, which are often related to decreased mobility, as well as to neuromuscular deficits, represent the most common injury among older adults. Fall risk has been shown to increase with reduced lower extremity flexibility. The aim of the paper is to assess the importance of flexibility training on joint range of motion and functional performance among elderly population. Methods: We performed literature research on PubMed and evaluated articles published until 2000. The articles found in the search strategy were also added. The population of interest included older adults (≥ 65 years of age). Results: Flexibility training programs still represent an important part of several rehabilitation programs. Static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation are the most frequently used techniques to improve the length of the muscle-tendon complex. Although the effectiveness of type of stretching seems to be related to age and gender, static stretching is a more appropriate technique to enhance shoulder, hip, and ankle range of motion in older adults. Stretching should be performed in multiple sets with holds of more than 60 seconds for a single muscle group. Conclusion: The literature suggests that flexibility training is an effective method to increase joint range of motion in older adults. In the light of increased functional outcome, activities such as strengthening, balance, and aerobic exercises should be incorporated into a training program for older people. Due to relatively little published literature, it is still not possible to prescribe detailed recommendations regarding flexibility training for older adults.

Keywords: elderly, exercise, flexibility, falls

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1000 Attachment and Emotion Regulation among Adults with versus without Somatic Symptom Disorder

Authors: Natalia Constantinescu

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This cross-sectional study aims to explore the differences among adults with somatic symptom disorder (SSD) versus adults without SSD in terms of attachment and emotion regulation strategies. A total sample of 80 participants (40 people with SSD and 40 healthy controls), aged 20-57 years old (M = 31.69, SD = 10.55), were recruited from institutions and online groups. They completed the Romanian version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale – Short Form (ECR-S), Regulation of Emotion Systems Survey (RESS), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) and Somatic Symptom Disorder – B Criteria Scale (SSD-12). The results indicate significant differences between the two groups in terms of attachment and emotion regulation strategies. Adults with SSD have a higher level of attachment anxiety and avoidance compared to the nonclinical group. Moreover, people with SSD are more prone to use rumination and suppression and less prone to use reevaluation compared to healthy people. Implications for SSD prevention and treatment are discussed.

Keywords: adult attachment, emotion regulation strategies, psychosomatic disorders, somatic symptom disorder

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999 Glycemic Control on Self-Efficacy and Self-Care Behaviors among Omani Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Melba Sheila D'Souza, Anandhi Amirtharaj, Shreedevi Balachandran

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Background: Type 2 diabetes has a significant impact on individuals’ health and well-being. Glycemic control may influence self-efficacy and self-care behaviors, and reduce the risk of complications among adults with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has substantial morbidity and mortality and 60% of adults’ poor self-care. Glycemic control is associated with reported self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Adults with type 2 diabetes with less information were less likely to take diabetes self-care. Aim: To examine the relationship between glycemic control, demographic factors, clinical factors on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors among Omani adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A correlational, descriptive study was used. Omani adults with type 2 diabetes (n=140) were recruited from a public hospital in Oman. The data were collected during January-March 2015. Ethical approval was given by the college research and ethics committee, College of Nursing, and the Hospital, Sultan Qaboos University Data was collected on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors and glycemic control. The study was approved by the Institution Ethics and Research Committee. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Most adults had a fasting blood glucose >7.2mmol/L (90.7%), with the majority demonstrating ‘uncontrolled or poor HbA1c of > 8%’ (65%). Variance of self-care behavior (20.6%) and 31.3% of the variance of the self-efficacy was explained by the age, duration of diabetes, medication, HbA1c and prevention of activities of living. Adults with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control were more likely to have poor self-efficacy and poor self-care behaviors. Conclusion: This study confirms that self-efficacy model on outcome predicts self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Higher understanding of diabetes, prevention of normal daily activities, higher ability to fit diabetes life in a positive manner and high patient-physician communication were significant with self-efficacy and self-care behaviors. Hence, glycemic control has a high effect on improving self-care behaviors like diet, exercise, medication, foot care and self-efficacy among type 2 diabetes. Implications: Using these findings to improve self-efficacy, individualized self-care management is recommended for better self-efficacy and self-care behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: self-efficacy, self-care behaviors, self-care management, glycemic control, type 2 diabetes, nurse

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998 Language Use in Computer-Mediated Communication and Users’ Social Identity

Authors: Miramar Damanhouri

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This study examines the relationship between language use in computer-mediated communication and the social identity of the user. The data were collected by surveying 298 Saudi bilingual speakers who are familiar with Arabizi, a blend of Latin characters and Arabic numerals to transliterate Arabic sounds, and then analyzed quantitatively by running tests for statistical confidence in order to determine differences in perceptions between young adults (ages 15-25 years) and middle-aged adults (ages 26-50 years). According to the findings of this study, English is the dominant language among most of the young adults surveyed, and when they do use Arabic, they use Arabizi because of its flexibility, compatibility with modern technology, and its acceptance among people of their age and sociocultural backgrounds. On the other hand, most middle-aged adults surveyed here tend to use Arabic, as they believe that they should show their loyalty to their origin. The results of the study demonstrate a mutual relationship between language use in computer-mediated communication and the user’s social identity, as language is used both to reflect and construct that identity.

Keywords: Arabizi, computer mediated communication, digital communication, language use

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997 A Dialectical Behavioral Therapy Adaptation in Reducing Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Harm in Older Adults

Authors: Valerie Alexander, Amanda Gutierrez, Veronica Campbell, Dara Schwartz, B. Charles Tatum

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It has long been assumed that personality disorders (PD) originate in adolescence or early adulthood and that the maladaptive behaviors significantly attenuate over time. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 supports early onset of PD and views the pattern of behaviors as enduring and stable. The premise of this study is that PD may not always begin early in life, that behaviors may change over the lifespan, and that current treatment modalities may be beneficial in seniors. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) exhibited earlier in life may, in older adults, be manifested in less overt high-risk behaviors but by refusal to take medication and get necessary medical treatment. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is a well-known treatment modality for teaching emotional regulation and distress tolerance and thus reducing self-injurious behaviors yet very little has been studied about SIB and treatment in older adults. The population for this study was older adults, with a history of SIB, a PD, and depression and/or anxiety. Participants learned an adapted version of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) as developed by DBT trained therapists. The results provided clinical potentials for the efficacy of DBT to reduce SIB, decrease depression and anxiety in the older adult population.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, dialectical behavioral therapy, personality disorders, self-harm behavior, treatment in older adults

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996 Assessment of Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Needs for Older Adults Living with Hypertension

Authors: P. Sutipan, U. Intarakamhang

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The purpose of this study was to assess and prioritize the order of needs with regard to the healthy lifestyle behaviors for older adults living with hypertension. The participants involved 400 hypertensive elderly individuals in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The research instrument was a 26-item needs-assessment questionnaire in a dual response format on a four-level rating scale. The data was analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics and the needs were ranked using the Modified Priority Needs Index (PNIModified). The results indicated that the three priorities of healthy lifestyle behavior were healthy eating (PNImodified = 0.36), exercise (PNImodified = 0.35), and social contribution (PNImodified = 0.34), respectively. The implications of the findings for planning the intervention phase of the project are of particular interest.

Keywords: needs assessment, the modified priority needs index (PNIModified), healthy lifestyle behavior, older adults

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995 Illness Experience Without Illness: A Qualitative Study on the Lived Experience of Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Gemma Postil, Claire Zanin, Michael Halpin, Caroline Ritter

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Illness experience research typically focuses on people that are living with a medical condition; however, the broad consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are impacting those without the virus itself, as many experienced extensive lockdowns, social isolation, and distress. Drawing on conceptual work in the illness experience literature, we argue that policy and social changes tied to COVID-19 produce biographical disruptions. In this sense, we argue that the COVID-19 pandemic produces illness experience without illness, as the pandemic comprehensively impacts health and biography. This paper draws on 30 in-depth interviews with young adults living in Prince Edward Island (PEI), which were conducted as part of a larger project to understand how young adults navigate compliance with the COVID-19 pandemic. We then inductively analyzed the interviews with a constructivist grounded theory approach. Specifically, we demonstrate that young adults living in PEI during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced biographical disruptions throughout the pandemic despite not contracting the virus. First, we detail how some participants experience biographical acceleration, with the pandemic accelerating relationships, home buying, and career planning. Second, we demonstrate biographical stagnation, wherein participants report being unable to pursue major life milestones. Lastly, we describe biographical regression, wherein participants feel they are losing ground during the pandemic and are actively falling behind their peers. These findings provide the novel application of illness experience concepts to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, contribute to work on illness experience and ambiguity, and extend Bury’s conceptualization of biographical disruption. In conclusion, we demonstrate that young adults experienced the biographical disruption expected from having COVID-19 without having an illness, highlighting the depth to which the pandemic affected young adults.

Keywords: illness experience, lived experience, biographical disruption, COVID-19, young adults

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994 Classification of Health Risk Factors to Predict the Risk of Falling in Older Adults

Authors: L. Lindsay, S. A. Coleman, D. Kerr, B. J. Taylor, A. Moorhead

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Cognitive decline and frailty is apparent in older adults leading to an increased likelihood of the risk of falling. Currently health care professionals have to make professional decisions regarding such risks, and hence make difficult decisions regarding the future welfare of the ageing population. This study uses health data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), focusing on adults over the age of 50 years, in order to analyse health risk factors and predict the likelihood of falls. This prediction is based on the use of machine learning algorithms whereby health risk factors are used as inputs to predict the likelihood of falling. Initial results show that health risk factors such as long-term health issues contribute to the number of falls. The identification of such health risk factors has the potential to inform health and social care professionals, older people and their family members in order to mitigate daily living risks.

Keywords: classification, falls, health risk factors, machine learning, older adults

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993 Mapping the Adoption Process of Communication Technology to Maintain Contact between Older Adults with Intellectual Disability in Out-of-home Residence and Their Families: A Multiple-Case Study Research

Authors: Carmit Noa Shpigelman, Michal Isaacson

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Over the last decades, the improvement in welfare and health services and the increase in awareness of the needs of people with intellectual disability has led to an increase in their life expectancy, and many of them enter into old age. Furthermore, many older adults with intellectual disability live in out-of-home residence. This situation, in addition to the parents' aging process as the main caregivers, may lead to a reduction in contact with the family and, as a result, decreased level of the residents' (older adults with intellectual disability) well-being. A plausible solution for this condition may be using communication technologies. Previous studies indicate that using communication technologies among older adults contributes to maintaining the relationship with others, decreasing the older adult's sense of loneliness, and increasing their level of well-being. Using communication technologies may be especially valuable for older adults in the current global pandemic of COVID-19 and the associated restrictions of social distancing. However, to date, research on using communication technologies among people with intellectual disability has focused on younger cohorts. Moreover, research on the adoption of technologies among older adults with intellectual disability has focused more on assistive technologies and less on communication technologies. To address these practice and research gaps, the present study focuses on the adoption process of communication technology among older adults with intellectual disability (over the age of 45 years) who live in supported accommodation. Fifteen residents participated in an intervention program where they received a tablet with a video communication application and through which they were able to contact their families. A multiple-case study methodology was applied to capture the experiences, including barriers and needs, of the residents from three perspectives: the resident, the family member, and a staff member from the residential setting. The data was collected via quantitative and qualitative measures at different time points over the intervention. The findings demonstrate the contribution of using communication technology for the well-being of older adults with intellectual disability in supported accommodation. The findings also map the adoption process among this population, including pitfalls. The present study contributes to developing best practices on how to accommodate communication technologies to older adults with intellectual disability for maintaining contact with others.

Keywords: adoption, aging, communication, intellectual disability, technology

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992 Optimising Participation in Physical Activity Research for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Yetunde M. Dairo, Johnny Collett, Helen Dawes

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Background and Aim: Engagement with physical activity (PA) research is poor among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), particularly in those from residential homes. This study explored why, by asking managers of residential homes, adults with ID and their carers. Methods: Participants: A convenient sample of 23 individuals from two UK local authorities, including a group of ID residential home managers, adults with ID and their support staff. Procedures: A) Residential home managers (n=6) were asked questions about their willingness to allow their residents to participate in PA research; B) eleven adults with ID and their support workers (n=6) were asked questions about their willingness to accept 7-day accelerometer monitoring and/or the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version (IPAQ-s) as PA measures. The IPAQ-s was administered by the researcher and they were each provided with samples of accelerometers to try on. Results: A) Five out of six managers said that the burden of wearing the accelerometer for seven days would be too high for the people they support, the majority of whom might be unable to express their wishes. They also said they would be unwilling to act as proxy respondents for the same reason. Additionally, they cited time pressure, understaffing, and reluctance to spend time on the research paperwork as further reasons for non-participation. B) All 11 individuals with ID completed the IPAQ-s while only three accepted the accelerometer, one of whom was deemed inappropriate to wear it. Reasons for rejecting accelerometers included statements from participants of: ‘too expensive’, ‘too heavy’, ‘uncomfortable’, and two people said they would not want to wear it for more than one day. All adults with ID (11) and their support workers (6) provided information about their physical activity levels through the IPAQ-s. Conclusions: Care home managers are a barrier to research participation. However, adults with ID would be happy for the IPAQ-s as a PA measure, but less so for the 7-day accelerometer monitoring. In order to improve participation in this population, the choice of PA measure is considered important. Moreover, there is a need for studies exploring how best to engage ID residential home managers in PA research.

Keywords: intellectual disability, physical activity measurement, research engagement, research participation

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