Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 555

Search results for: pandemic

555 Impact of Crises on Official Statistics: Environmental Statistics at GCC-STAT during the COVID-19 Pandemic, a Case Study

Authors: Ibtihaj Al-Siyabi


The crisis of COVID-19 posed enormous challenges to the statistical providers. While official statistics were disrupted by the pandemic and related containment measures, there was a growing and pressing need for real-time data and statistics to inform decisions. This paper gives an account of the way the pandemic impacted the operations of the National Statistical Offices (NSOs) in general in terms of data collection and methods used, and the main challenges encountered by them based on international surveys. It highlights the performance of the Statistical Centre for the Cooperation Council for the Arab Countries of the Gulf, GCC-STAT, and its responsiveness to the pandemic placing special emphasis on environmental statistics. The paper concludes by confirming the GCC-STAT’s resilience and success in facing the challenges.

Keywords: NSO, COVID-19, statistics, crisis, pandemic

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554 Smartphones in the (Class) Room in Pandemic and Post-pandemic Times: a Study in an Ecological Perspective

Authors: Junia Braga, Antonio carlos Martins, Marcos Racilan


Drawing on the ecological approach, this paper reports a qualitative study that aims to understand how mobile technologies were integrated during the pandemic in the context of language teaching and the use of these technologies in post-pandemic times. Seventy-six teachers answered a questionnaire about their experiences. The findings show how the network with peers scaffolded this experience and played a crucial role in their appropriation of those technologies. They also suggest that this network may have contributed to the normalisation of digital technology use.

Keywords: ecological perspective, language teaching, mobile technologies, teacher education

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553 Examining First-time Remote Workers’ Perceptions on Work From Home Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Future Potential of Hybrid Work Mode

Authors: Lina Vyas, Stuti Rawat


The COVID-19 outbreak has forced many employees to extensively adopt remote work or, widely known as work from home (WFH) arrangements. During the last two years, both employers and employees have had the opportunity to be increasingly aware of the benefits and drawbacks of WFH. Likewise, it gained the attention of academics from various schools of thought who have been interested in the future of work practices and work-life balance. Additionally, employees might also have various demands regarding their work practices after the pandemic. This study explores the potential of hybrid ways of working in the post-pandemic period by comparing first-timers who (sometimes or always) worked from home during the pandemic with those who did not, in terms of the aspects of work-life balance, work-life interference, job performance and willingness to work from home after the pandemic. The quantitative research approach was adopted. Data were collected via an online questionnaire from employees working from home in Hong Kong during the pandemic. There were one thousand three hundred and twenty-eight responses, but only 1,235 respondents experienced working from home during the pandemic. The findings reveal that 72.2% never had or hardly experienced work from home prior to the pandemic. There were statistically significant differences between first-timers and non-first-timers in work-life balance and work-life interference. The study also found that first-timers who were always working from home during the pandemic would prefer having longer WFH after the pandemic than those who were sometimes working from home. These results would serve as a basis for policy development, enabling policymakers to design appropriate HR policies and amend them to meet the current context of actual employee needs.

Keywords: hybrid working mode, remote working, work from home, work-life balance, workplace

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552 Trauma-Informed Leadership: Educational Leadership Practices in a Global Pandemic

Authors: Kyna Elliott


The COVID-19 global pandemic has changed the shape, design, and delivery of education. As communities continue to fight the pandemic, research suggests the coronavirus is leaving an indelible mark on education which will last long after the pandemic has ended. Faculty and students bring more than their textbooks into the classroom. They bring their lived experiences into the classroom, and it is through these lived experiences that interactions and learning filter through. The COVID-19 pandemic has proved to be a traumatic experience for many. Leaders will need to have the tools and skills to mitigate trauma's impact on faculty and students. This presentation will explore research-based trauma-informed leadership practices, pedagogy, and mitigation strategies within secondary school environments.

Keywords: COVID-19, compassion fatigue, educational leadership, the science of trauma, trauma-informed leadership, trauma-informed pedagogy

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551 Ageism: What Makes Older Adults Vulnerable to COVID-19

Authors: Jenny Kwon


Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic globally, another type of pandemic, ageism, appeared on the surface. Ageism, the stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination directed towards others or oneself based on chronological age, has adversely impacted older adults' lives during the pandemic. In the short term, older adults struggled with health issues (e.g., high rate of infection and mortality) and experienced social disconnection (e.g., loneliness and depression). Ultimately, older adults' self-perceptions of aging, self-esteem and intergenerational relationships were negatively influenced. To closely look into the impact of ageism during the pandemic on U.S. older adults' aging process, the current study has three specific purposes. First, the study introduces a theoretical foundation (i.e., stereotype embodiment theory) in the development of ageism research. Second, the study reports on examples of ageism toward U.S. older adults manifested in the context of COVID-19. Finally, collective responsibilities and future research directions are proposed to fight against ageism.

Keywords: ageism, COVID-19, older adults, pandemic, stereotype embodiment

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550 Biopolitics and Race in the Age of a Global Pandemic: Interactions and Transformations

Authors: Aistis ZekevicIus


Biopolitical theory, which was first developed by Michel Foucault, takes into consideration the administration of life by implying a style of government based on the regulation of populations as its subject. The intensification of the #BlackLivesMatter movement and popular outcries against racial discrimination in the US health system have prompted us to reconsider the relationship between biopolitics and race in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on works by Foucault, Achille Mbembe and Nicholas Mirzoeff that transcend the boundaries of poststructuralism, critical theory and postcolonial studies, the paper suggests that the global pandemic has highlighted new aspects of the interplay between biopower and race by encouraging the search for scapegoats, deepening the structural racial inequality, and thus producing necropolitical regimes of exclusion.

Keywords: biopolitics, biopower, necropolitics, pandemic, race

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549 Illness Experience Without Illness: A Qualitative Study on the Lived Experience of Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Gemma Postil, Claire Zanin, Michael Halpin, Caroline Ritter


Illness experience research typically focuses on people that are living with a medical condition; however, the broad consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are impacting those without the virus itself, as many experienced extensive lockdowns, social isolation, and distress. Drawing on conceptual work in the illness experience literature, we argue that policy and social changes tied to COVID-19 produce biographical disruptions. In this sense, we argue that the COVID-19 pandemic produces illness experience without illness, as the pandemic comprehensively impacts health and biography. This paper draws on 30 in-depth interviews with young adults living in Prince Edward Island (PEI), which were conducted as part of a larger project to understand how young adults navigate compliance with the COVID-19 pandemic. We then inductively analyzed the interviews with a constructivist grounded theory approach. Specifically, we demonstrate that young adults living in PEI during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced biographical disruptions throughout the pandemic despite not contracting the virus. First, we detail how some participants experience biographical acceleration, with the pandemic accelerating relationships, home buying, and career planning. Second, we demonstrate biographical stagnation, wherein participants report being unable to pursue major life milestones. Lastly, we describe biographical regression, wherein participants feel they are losing ground during the pandemic and are actively falling behind their peers. These findings provide the novel application of illness experience concepts to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, contribute to work on illness experience and ambiguity, and extend Bury’s conceptualization of biographical disruption. In conclusion, we demonstrate that young adults experienced the biographical disruption expected from having COVID-19 without having an illness, highlighting the depth to which the pandemic affected young adults.

Keywords: illness experience, lived experience, biographical disruption, COVID-19, young adults

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548 On the Influence of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Tunisian Stock Market: By Sector Analysis

Authors: Nadia Sghaier


In this paper, we examine the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the performance of the Tunisian stock market and 12 sectors over a recent period from 23 March 2020 to 18 August 2021, including several waves and the introduction of vaccination. The empirical study is conducted using cointegration techniques which allows for long and short-run relationships. The obtained results indicate that both daily growth in confirmed cases and deaths have a negative and significant effect on the stock market returns. In particular, this effect differs across sectors. It seems more pronounced in financial, consumer goods and industrials sectors. These findings have important implications for investors to predict the behavior of the stock market or sectors returns and to implement hedging strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Tunisian stock market, sectors, COVID-19 pandemic, cointegration techniques

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547 Indian Diplomacy in a Post Pandemic World

Authors: Esha Banerji


This paper attempts an assessment of India's behaviour as a foreign policy actor amidst the COVID 19 pandemic by briefly surveying the various introductions and alterations made to India's foreign policy. First, the paper attempts to establish the key strategic pillars of Indian foreign policy after reviewing the existing works. It then proceeds to assess the prominent part played by Health Diplomacy ("Vaccine Maitri") in India's bilateral and multilateral relations during the pandemic and the role of the Indian diaspora in shaping India's foreign policy. This is followed by examining "India's Neighbourhood First policy" and the way it's been employed by the Indian government to extend India’s strategic influence during the pandemic. An empirical assessment will be done to examine the changing dynamics of India's relation with different regional groupings like SAARC, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, etc. The paper also explores the new alliances formed post-pandemic and India's role in them. This paper analyses the contemporary challenges that the largest nation in South Asia faces with the onset of a global pandemic and how Ancient Indian values like "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam" have influenced India's foreign policy, especially during the pandemic. It also attempts to grasp the changes within the negotiation style of the Indian government, and the role played by various stakeholders in shaping India's position in the present geopolitical landscape. The study has been conducted using data collected from government records, External Affairs Ministry database, and other available literature. The paper concludes with an attempt to predict the far-reaching strategic implications that the policy, as mentioned above, may have for India.

Keywords: Indian foreign policy, COVID19, diplomacy, post pandemic world

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546 Impact of Covid-19 on Digital Transformation

Authors: Tebogo Sethibe, Jabulile Mabuza


The COVID-19 pandemic has been commonly referred to as a ‘black swan event’; it has changed the world, from how people live, learn, work and socialise. It is believed that the pandemic has fast-tracked the adoption of technology in many organisations to ensure business continuity and business sustainability; broadly said, the pandemic has fast-tracked digital transformation (DT) in different organisations. This paper aims to study the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on DT in organisations in South Africa by focusing on the changes in IT capabilities in the DT framework. The research design is qualitative. The data collection was through semi-structured interviews with information communication technology (ICT) leaders representing different organisations in South Africa. The data were analysed using the thematic analysis process. The results from the study show that, in terms of ICT in the organisation, the pandemic had a direct and positive impact on ICT strategy and ICT operations. In terms of IT capability transformation, the pandemic resulted in the optimisation and expansion of existing IT capabilities in the organisation and the building of new IT capabilities to meet emerging business needs. In terms of the focus of activities during the pandemic, there seems to be a split in organisations between the primary focus being on ‘digital IT’ or ‘traditional IT’. Overall, the findings of the study show that the pandemic had a positive and significant impact on DT in organisations. However, a definitive conclusion on this would require expanding the scope of the research to all the components of a comprehensive DT framework. This study is significant because it is one of the first studies to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on organisations, on ICT in the organisation, on IT capability transformation and, to a greater extent, DT. The findings from the study show that in response to the pandemic, there is a need for: (i) agility in organisations; (ii) organisations to execute on their existing strategy; (iii) the future-proofing of IT capabilities; (iv) the adoption of a hybrid working model; and for (v) organisations to take risks and embrace new ideas.

Keywords: digital transformation, COVID-19, bimodal-IT, digital transformation framework

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545 Wedding Organizer Strategy In The Era Covid-19 Pandemic In Surabaya, Indonesia

Authors: Rifky Cahya Putra


At this time of corona makes some countries affected difficult. As a result, many traders or companies are difficult to work in this pandemic era. So human activities in some fields must implement a new lifestyle or known as new normal. The transition from the one activity to another certainly requires high adaptation. So that almost in all sectors experience the impact of this phase, on of which is the wedding organizer. This research aims to find out what strategies are used so that the company can run in this pandemic. Techniques in data collection in the form interview to the owner of the wedding organizer and his team. Data analysis qualitative descriptive use interactive model analysis consisting of three main things, namely data reduction, data presentaion, and conclusion. For the result of the interview, the conclusion is that there are three strategies consisting of social media, sponsorship, and promotion.

Keywords: strategy, wedding organizer, pandemic, indonesia

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544 Analyzing e-Leadership Literature in Applying an e-Leadership Model for Community College Leaders of Hybrid Remote Teams

Authors: Lori Timmis


The COVID-19 pandemic precipitated significant organizational change in employee turnover, retirements, and burnout exacerbated by enrollment declines in higher education, especially community colleges. To counter this downturn, community college leaders must thoughtfully examine meaningful work opportunities to retain an engaged and productive workforce. Higher education led fully remote teams during the pandemic, which highlighted the benefits and weaknesses of building and leading remote teams. Hybrid remote teams offer possibility to reimagine community college structures, though leading remote teams requires specific e-leadership competencies. This paper examines the literature of studies on e-leadership conducted during the pandemic and from several higher education studies, pre-pandemic, against an e-leadership competency framework. The e-leadership studies conducted pre-pandemic and from the pandemic complement the e-leadership competency framework, comprising six e-leadership competencies performed via information technology communications, which provides community college (and higher education) leaders to consider hybrid remote team structures and the necessary leadership skills to lead hybrid remote teams.

Keywords: community college, e-leadership, great resignation, hybrid remote teams

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543 The Future of Health Information Behavior after COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Reza Varmazyar


It would not an exaggeration to say that the COVID-19 pandemic is by far one of the most horrifying and Impactful events in the modern history after WWII. Many Scholars, from psychologists to economists and sociologists to practical scientists, claim that the challenges and impacts of this pervasive disaster will possibly last for years. In this regard, future and foresight science could overcome confusion as well as uncertainty and preparedness regarding the possible future pandemics. Admittedly, defining various scenarios has benefits to become as familiar as could be for challenges to come. This paper depicts the scenarios, which is a key tool in futures analysis.

Keywords: health information behavior, future study, scenarios, COVID-19 pandemic, health information literacy

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542 The Effect of Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic on Student Mental

Authors: Adelia Desi Agnesita


The advent of a new disease called covid-19 made many major changes in the world, one of which is the process of learning and teaching. Learning formerly offline but now is done online, which makes students need adaptation to the learning process. The covid-19 pandemic that occurs almost worldwide causes activities that involve many people to be avoided, one of which is learning to teach. In Indonesia, since March 2020, the process of college learning is turning into online/ long-distance learning. It's to prevent the spread of the covid-19. Student online learning presents some of the obstacles to poor signals, many of the tasks, lack of focus, difficulty sleeping, and resulting stress.

Keywords: learning, online, covid-19, pandemic

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541 Prevalence and Inequality of Food Insecurity among U.S. Households During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Julia Yi


Using the Household Pulse Survey conducted by the U.S Census Bureau, this study finds that the pandemic increased the prevalence and inequality of food insecurity among US households. About 28% of households were food secure, which doubled the 2019 level. Hispanic and black, low-income households, households lost income, and households with children were impacted most. Food banks provided most free groceries and meals. This study recommends mobilizing emergency food organizations, improving food assistance programs and supply chains, and creating innovative community support.

Keywords: covid-19 pandemic, food insecurity, US, inequality

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540 Tax Avoidance During The Financial Crisis: Role Of Independent Commissioners And External Auditors

Authors: Yasir Ramadhan


This study aims to investigate tax avoidance practices when a financial crisis occurs due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study also finds out how the influence of independent commissioners and external auditors on tax avoidance practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Tax avoidance practices are measured by the current ETR. The role of the independent board of commissioners is measured by the proportion of independent commissioners in the composition of the board of commissioners, while the external auditor is measured by audit quality. In this study, there were 342 observations of companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2019 to 2020. This study used the difference-in-differences (DiD) method in data analysis. The results of this study indicate that companies do tax avoidance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, independent commissioners and qualified audits are not proven to be able to negate tax avoidance practices during the COVID-19 Pandemic. These results also show that a higher proportion of independent commissioners and audit quality are not sufficient for countries with low levels of auditor litigation and investor protection and weak regulatory frameworks.

Keywords: audit, commissioner, tax avoidance, COVID-19 pandemic

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539 Battling against the Great Disruption to Surgical Care in a Pandemic: Experience of Eleven South and Southeast Asian Countries

Authors: Naomi Huang Wenya, Xin Xiaohui, Vijaya Rao, Wong Ting Hway, Chow Kah Hoe Pierce, Tan Hiang Khoon


Background: The majority of the cancelled elective surgeries caused by the COVID-19 pandemic globally were estimated to occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where surgical services had long been in short supply even before the pandemic. Therefore, minimising disruption to existing surgical care in LMICs is of crucial importance during a pandemic. This study aimed to explore contributory factors to the continuity of surgical care in LMICs, in the face of a pandemic. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted over zoom, with surgical leaders of 25 tertiary hospitals from 11 LMICs in South and Southeast Asia, from September to October 2020. Key themes were subsequently identified from the interview transcripts, using Braun and Clarke's method of thematic analysis. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic affected all surgical services of participating institutions but to varying degrees. Overall, elective surgeries suffered the gravest disruption, followed by outpatient surgical care, and finally, emergency surgeries. Keeping healthcare workers safe and striving for continuity of essential surgical care emerged as notable response strategies observed across all participating institutions. Conclusion: This study suggested that four factors are important for the resilience of surgical care against COVID-19: adequate COVID-19 testing capacity and effective institutional infection control measures, designated COVID-19 treatment facilities, a whole-system approach to balancing pandemic response and meeting essential surgical needs, and active community engagement. These findings can inform healthcare institutions in other countries, especially LMICs, in their effort to tread a fine line between preserving healthcare capacity for pandemic response and protecting surgical services against pandemic disruption.

Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, LMICs, continuity of surgical service

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538 Food Insecurity Determinants Amidst the Covid-19 Pandemic: An Insight from Huntsville, Texas

Authors: Peter Temitope Agboola


Food insecurity continues to affect a large number of U.S households during this coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has threatened the livelihoods of people, making them vulnerable to severe hardship and has had an unanticipated impact on the U.S economy. This study attempts to identify the food insecurity status of households and the determinant factors driving household food insecurity. Additionally, it attempts to discover the mitigation measures adopted by households during the pandemic in the city of Huntsville, Texas. A structured online sample survey was used to collect data, with a household expenditures survey used in evaluating the food security status of the household. Most survey respondents disclosed that the COVID-19 pandemic had affected their life and source of income. Furthermore, the main analytical tool used for the study is descriptive statistics and logistic regression modeling. A logistic regression model was used to determine the factors responsible for food insecurity in the study area. The result revealed that most households in the study area are food secure, with the remainder being food insecure.

Keywords: food insecurity, household expenditure survey, COVID-19, coping strategies, food pantry

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537 The Impact of COVID-19 on Childhood Academic Functioning and Anxiety: A Literature Review

Authors: Lindsey Giunta


This review examines the current literature regarding the impact of COVID-19 on academic functioning and anxiety in children and adolescents. The objective was to determine the ways in which the pandemic affected youth mental health and academics, in addition to the extent that these factors were transformed as a result of the worldwide state of affairs. Twenty papers were selected and reviewed, and data showed long term consequences in youth mental health resulting from the current pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated lockdowns led to disrupted childhood education, and data showed that the growth of cognitive executive functions was impacted to varying degrees dependent upon geographic location. The literature recommends supplemental education on the national level, as well as mental health promotion within communities and schools.

Keywords: pandemic, children, adolescents, anxiety, academic functioning

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536 The Role of Parents on Fear Acquisition of Children in COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Begum Serim-Yildiz


The aim of this study is to examine the role of parents' emotional and behavioral reactions on fears of children in the COVID-19 pandemic considering Rachman’s Three Pathways Theory. For this purpose, a phenomenological qualitative study was conducted. Thirteen participants living with their children were utilized through criterion and snowball sampling. In semi-structured interviews parents were asked about their own and their children’s beahavioral and emotional reactions in the COVID-19 pandemic, and they were expected to give detailed information about fears of their children before and in pandemic. Firstly, parents were asked about their behavioral and emotional reactions in the COVID-19 pandemic. As behavioral reactions, precautions taken by parents to protect the rest of the family from negative physical and emotional impact of the pandemic were mentioned, while emotional reactions were defined as acquisition of negative emotions like fear, anxiety, and worry. Secondly, parents were asked about their children’s behavioral and emotional reactions. Some of the parents talked about positive behavioral changes such as gaining self-control, while some others explained negative behavioral changes like increased time spent with technological tools. In the emotional changes section, all of the parents explained at least one negative emotion. All of the parents stated that their children had COVID-19 related fears. According to parents’ expressions, fears of children in pandemic were examined in two dimensions. Fears directly related to COVID-19 were fear of virus/microbes, illness or death of someone in family and death and fears. Fears indirectly related to COVID-19 were fear of going out, sleep alone at night, separation, touching stuff outside the home, and cold. Considering existing literature and based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that children’s modelling experiences have impact on acquisition of negative emotions, especially fear, therefore, preventive interventions involving caregivers should be provided by mental health professionals working with children.

Keywords: children’s fears, COVID-19 pandemic, modelling experiences, parents’ reactions

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535 Impact of the Pandemic on China's Digital Creative Industries: Mechanisms and Manifestations

Authors: Li Qiaoming


The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in early 2020 brought new opportunities to the development of the digital creative industry in China. Based on the realistic foundation of the development of the digital creative industry in China, an analysis was conducted on the mechanism of action of the pandemic on this industry from both sides of supply and demand by sorting out its concept, connotation, and related theories. To be specific, the demand side experienced changes due to the changes in the consumption habits of residents, the sharp increase in gross domestic time (GDT), the satisfaction of the psychological needs of users, search for substitutes for offline consumption, and other factors. An analysis was carried out on the mechanism of action of the pandemic on the digital creative industry from the production link, supply subjects, product characteristics, and transmission link of the supply side. Then, a detailed discussion was held on the manifestation forms of the impact of the pandemic from the dimensions of time and space. Finally, this paper discussed the main development focuses of the digital creative industry in the post-pandemic era from the aspects of the government, industries, and enterprises.

Keywords: COVID-19, demand and supply relationship, digital creative industries, industry shocks

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534 Transformation of Health Communication Literacy in Information Technology during Pandemic in 2019-2022

Authors: K. Y. S. Putri, Heri Fathurahman, Yuki Surisita, Widi Sagita, Kiki Dwi Arviani


Society needs the assistance of academics in understanding and being skilled in health communication literacy. Information technology runs very fast while health communication literacy skills in getting health communication information during the pandemic are not as fast as the development of information technology. The research question is whether there is an influence of health communication on information technology in health information during the pandemic in Indonesia. The purpose of the study is to find out the influence of health communication on information technology in health information during the pandemic in Indonesia. The concepts of health communication literacy and information technology are used this study. Previous research is in support of this study. Quantitative research methods by disseminating questionnaires in this study. The validity and reliability test of this study is positive, so it can proceed to the next statistical analysis. Descriptive results of variable health communication literacy are of positive value in all dimensions. All dimensions of information technology are of positive value. Statistical tests of the influence of health communication literacy on information technology are of great value. Discussion of both variables in the influence of health communication literacy and high-value information technology because health communication literacy has a high effect in information technology. Respondents to this study have high information technology skills. So that health communication literacy in obtaining health information during the 2019-2022 pandemic is needed. Research advice is that academics are still very much needed by the community in the development of society during the pandemic.

Keywords: health information, health information needs, literacy health communication, information technology

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533 The Effect of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Foreign Students Studying in Hungary – What Changed?

Authors: Anita Kéri


Satisfying foreign student needs has been in the center of research interest in the past several years. Higher education institutions have been exploring factors influencing foreign student satisfactionto stay competitive on the educational market. Even though foreign student satisfaction and loyalty are topics investigated deeply in the literature, the academic years of 2020 and 2021 have revealed challenges never experienced before. With the COVID-19 pandemic, new factors have emerged that might influence foreign student satisfaction and loyalty in higher education. The aim of the current research is to shed lights on what factors influence foreign student satisfaction and loyalty in the post-pandemic educational era and to reveal if the effects of factors influencing satisfaction and loyalty have changed compared to previous findings. Initial results show that students are less willing to participate in online surveys during and after the pandemic. The return rate of the survey instrument is below 5%. Results also reveal that there is a slight difference in what factors have significant effects on school-related and non-school-related satisfaction and overall loyalty, measured pre- and post-pandemic times. The results of the current study help us determine what factors higher education institutions need to consider when planning the future service affordances for their foreign students that might influence their satisfaction and loyalty.

Keywords: pandemic, COVID-19, satisfacion, loyalty, service quality, higher education

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532 COVID-19 Pandemic and Disruptions in Nigeria’s Domestic Economic Activities: A Pre-post Empirical Investigation

Authors: Amaefule, Leonard Ifeanyi


The study evaluated the disruptions in Nigeria’s domestic economic activities occasioned by the COVID-19 pandemic: a pre and post-pandemic investigation approach. Domestic economic activities were measured with composite manufacturing purchasing managers index (PMI) and composite non-manufacturing PMI. Production and employment levels indices were proxies for composite manufacturing PMI, while business activities and employment level indices were proxies for non-manufacturing PMI. Data for these indices were sourced from monthly and quarterly publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria for periods covering fifteen (15) months before and 15 months after the outbreak of the virus in Nigeria. Test of equality of means was employed in establishing the significance of the difference of means between the pre and post-pandemic domestic economic activities. Results from the analysis indicated that a significant negative difference exists in each of the measures of domestic economic activities between the pre and post-pandemic periods. These findings, therefore, offer empirical evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted domestic economic activities in Nigeria; thus, it exerts a negative influence on the measures of the nation’s domestic economic activities. The study thus recommended (among other things) that the Nigerian government should focus on policies that would enhance domestic production, employment and enhance business activities.

Keywords: COVID-19, domestic economic activities, composite manufacturing indices, composite non-manufacturing indices

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531 Managing Virtual Teams in a Pandemic

Authors: M. Jafari Toosy, A. Zamani


This article, considering the result of pandemics at the international level and all activities and projects performed virtually and the need for resource management and virtual teams in this period identifies the components of virtual management after searching the available resources. Exploration of virtual management in the pandemic era is explored in 10 international articles. The results of research with this method and according to the tasks and topics related to management knowledge and definition of virtual teams can be divided into topics such as planning, decision making, control, organization, leadership, attention to growth and capability, resources and facilities, Communication, creativity, innovation and security. In order to explain the nature of virtual management, a definition of virtual management was provided.

Keywords: management, virtual, virtual team management, pandemic, team

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530 Parallelism between COVID-19 Pandemic and Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague

Authors: Tiziana Lentini


This paper aims to study the pandemic question as part of a phenomenon rooted in that set of imagined ideas, practices, orientations, values, and so on that binds a society together, better known as social imaginary. Through the analysis of one of Jack London’s masterpieces, The Scarlet Plague, it would be possible to draw a clear outline of the characteristic elements related to the perception of contamination-related phenomena. Mary Douglas, in her work ‘Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo’ sustains that the fear of contamination tends to be amplified in a stressed social context, and this is what actually happened to the contemporary society during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through the study of The Scarlet Plague, which offers a detailed analysis of this phenomenon, it will be possible to better understand the dynamics behind this mass hysteria and its implication with the topic of contamination. The aesthetic dimension, typical of the literary field, finds its specificity within an overall theory of knowledge based on the internalization of reality. Jack London’s prediction about the contemporary civilization’s future seems to be not so far from nowadays reality; the parallelism between the recent COVID-19 pandemic and The Scarlet Plague will help us to understand better the dynamics behind the social crisis and the real risk of the disintegration of the moral community.

Keywords: pandemic, contamination, moral community, literature

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529 Analyzing the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Clinicians’ Perceptions of Resuscitation and Escalation Decision-Making Processes: Cross-Sectional Survey of Hospital Clinicians in the United Kingdom

Authors: Michelle Hartanto, Risheka Suthantirakumar


Introduction Staff redeployment, increased numbers of acutely unwell patients requiring resuscitation decision-making conversations, visiting restrictions, and varying guidance regarding resuscitation for patients with COVID-19 disrupted clinicians’ management of resuscitation and escalation decision-making processes. While it was generally accepted that the COVID-19 pandemic disturbed numerous aspects of the Recommended Summary Plan for Emergency Care and Treatment (ReSPECT) process in the United Kingdom, a process which establishes a patient’s CPR status and treatment escalation plans, the impact of the pandemic on clinicians’ attitudes towards these resuscitation and decision-making conversations was unknown. This was the first study to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinicians’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards the ReSPECT process. Methods A cross-sectional survey of clinicians at one acute teaching hospital in the UK was conducted. A questionnaire with a defined five-point Likert scale was distributed and clinicians were asked to recall their pre-pandemic views on ReSPECT and report their current views at the time of survey distribution (May 2020, end of the first COVID-19 wave in the UK). Responses were received from 171 clinicians, and self-reported views before and during the pandemic were compared. Results Clinicians reported they found managing ReSPECT conversations more challenging during the pandemic, especially when conducted over the telephone with relatives, and they experienced an increase in negative emotions before, during, and after conducting ReSPECT conversations. Our findings identified that due to the pandemic there was now a need for clinicians to receive training and support in conducting resuscitation and escalation decision-making conversations over the telephone with relatives and managing these processes.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, COVID-19 pandemic, DNACPR discussion, education, recommended summary plan for emergency care and treatment, resuscitation order

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528 COVID-19 Impact: How the Pandemic Changed the Fashion Industry

Authors: Akshata Patel, Reenu Singh


This paper focuses on current and upcoming fashion trends and global impact on the fashion industry due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has had a major impact on the fashion industry worldwide. At the same time, the fashion market also faces challenges in consumer demand. As the supply chain and distribution channels are interconnected, this outbreak has a global impact due to travel restrictions and raw materials shortages. Given that this particular period represents an unprecedented market situation with almost no prior research on how the industry will recover from such a crisis and mold back to its original form, this research aims to propose new possibilities by evaluating the framework of specific segments. Based on the analysis and extensive literature review, the study develops a conceptual model that will illustrate the various connections among the different segments of the fashion industry. The findings provide actionable considerations for fashion industry pupils when implementing appropriate strategies to prevent unfavourable outcomes during times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 outbreak.

Keywords: COVID-19, fashion industry, global impact, new possibilities, pandemic

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527 Assessing the Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Waste Management Workers in Ghana

Authors: Mensah-Akoto Julius, Kenichi Matsui


This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on waste management workers in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 60 waste management workers in Accra metropolis, the capital region of Ghana, to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on waste generation, workers’ safety in collecting solid waste, and service delivery. To find out correlations between the pandemic and safety of waste management workers, a regression analysis was used. Regarding waste generation, the results show the pandemic led to the highest annual per capita solid waste generation, or 3,390 tons, in 2020. Regarding the safety of workers, the regression analysis shows a significant and inverse association between COVID-19 and waste management services. This means that contaminated wastes may infect field workers with COVID-19 due to their direct exposure. A rise in new infection cases would have a negative impact on the safety and service delivery of the workers. The result also shows that an increase in economic activities negatively impacts waste management workers. The analysis, however, finds no statistical relationship between workers’ service deliveries and employees’ salaries. The study then discusses how municipal waste management authorities can ensure safe and effective waste collection during the pandemic.

Keywords: Covid-19, waste management worker, waste collection, Ghana

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526 Evaluation of Orthodontic Patients’ Dental Visits and Problems During Covid-19 Pandemic in Sari Dental School in 2021

Authors: Mobina Bagherianlemraski, Parastoo Namdar


Background: The ongoing coronavirus disease has affected most countries. This virus has high transmission power. Due to the closure of most dental clinics, millions of orthodontic patients missed their appointments during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and sent to patients receiving orthodontic treatment at a public or private clinic. Results: A total of 200 responses were analyzed: These included 153 women (76.5%) and 47 men (23.5%). The mean and standard deviation of their age was 18.92±7.23 years, with an age range of 8 to 40 years. One hundred eighty-nine patients (94.5%) had fixed appliances, and 11 patients (5.5%) had removable appliances. Of all participants, 35% (70) missed their appointments. The highest and lowest reasons for stopping appointments were concerned about the spread of COVID-19 with 28 cases (40%) and the closure of the clinic with 15 cases (21.4%). Of the 53 patients who contacted their orthodontists, 86.8 % (46) communicated via office phone and 5.7% (3) through social media. Conclusion: This study determined that the coronavirus pandemic and quarantine have had an important impact on orthodontic treatments. The greatest concern of orthodontic patients was increasing in treatment duration. Patients who used fixed appliances reported missing dental appointments more than others. Therefore, during COVID 19 Pandemic, orthodontists should prepare patients to solve their problems linked to orthodontic appliances when possible.

Keywords: orthodontic patients, coronavirus pandemic, appointments, COVID-19

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