Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: seniors

52 Measuring the Likeability of Robots among Seniors: A Field Research

Authors: Balaji Viswanathan, Tim Oates


A number of pilot projects have commenced across the world to use robots for senior care. We aim to measure the likeability of these robots among seniors and help robot designers focus on the features that matter. We built a robot likability score with over 30 parameters and used this to interview 50 seniors in various locations in the United States. This paper presents the results of this field research.

Keywords: HRI, assistive robotics, social robotics, HCI, aging

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51 iPAD as a Communication Tool for Disabled Seniors: A Case Study

Authors: Vojtěch Gybas, Libor Klubal, Kateřina Kostolányová


This case study responds to the current trends in ICT. Mobile Touch iPads can provide very good assistance to disabled seniors. The intuitive tablet environment, the possibility of the formation environment and its portability, has a very positive effect on the use of particular communication. For comparison, using a conventional PC/notebook, word processor, keyboard and computer mouse compared to the iPad and selected applications. The results of this case study show that the use of mobile touch devices iPad for seniors with mental retardation is a great benefit. These devices do not require high demands on graphomotorics like a standard PC devices.

Keywords: ICT, iPad, handicapped seniors, communication, computer/notebook, applications, text editor

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50 Language Processing of Seniors with Alzheimer’s Disease: From the Perspective of Temporal Parameters

Authors: Lai Yi-Hsiu


The present paper aims to examine the language processing of Chinese-speaking seniors with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from the perspective of temporal cues. Twenty healthy adults, 17 healthy seniors, and 13 seniors with AD in Taiwan participated in this study to tell stories based on two sets of pictures. Nine temporal cues were fetched and analyzed. Oral productions in Mandarin Chinese were compared and discussed to examine to what extent and in what way these three groups of participants performed with significant differences. Results indicated that the age effects were significant in filled pauses. The dementia effects were significant in mean duration of pauses, empty pauses, filled pauses, lexical pauses, normalized mean duration of filled pauses and lexical pauses. The findings reported in the current paper help characterize the nature of language processing in seniors with or without AD, and contribute to the interactions between the AD neural mechanism and their temporal parameters.

Keywords: language processing, Alzheimer’s disease, Mandarin Chinese, temporal cues

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49 Online Escape Room for Intergenerational Play

Authors: David Kaufman


Despite the ‘silver Tsunami’ that is occurring worldwide, ageism is still a problem in modern society. As well, families are becoming increasingly separated geographically. This paper will discuss these issues and one potential solution - an online escape room game that is played by two players over the internet while talking to each other. The payers can be two seniors or one senior and one youth, e.g., a grandchild. Each player sees a different view of the game environment and players must collaborate in order to solve the puzzles presented and escape from the three rooms, all connected by a maze. The game was developed by Masters students at the Centre for Digital Media in Vancouver, BC in collaboration with a team of post-doctoral scholar, graduate students and faculty member, as well as 10 seniors who assisted. This paper will describe the game, development process and results of our pilot studies. The research study conducted comprises several stages: 1. several formative evaluation sessions with seniors to obtain feedback to assist further design, and 2. field testing of the game. Preliminary results have been extremely positive and results of our field tests will be presented in this paper.

Keywords: digital game, online escape room, intergenerational play, seniors

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48 A Study on Bilingual Semantic Processing: Category Effects and Age Effects

Authors: Lai Yi-Hsiu


The present study addressed the nature of bilingual semantic processing in Mandarin Chinese and Southern Min and examined category effects and age effects. Nineteen bilingual adults of Mandarin Chinese and Southern Min, nine monolingual seniors of Mandarin Chinese, and ten monolingual seniors of Southern Min in Taiwan individually completed two semantic tasks: Picture naming and category fluency tasks. The instruments for the naming task were sixty black-and-white pictures, including thirty-five object pictures and twenty-five action pictures. The category fluency task also consisted of two semantic categories – objects (or nouns) and actions (or verbs). The reaction time for each picture/question was additionally calculated and analyzed. Oral productions in Mandarin Chinese and in Southern Min were compared and discussed to examine the category effects and age effects. The results of the category fluency task indicated that the content of information of these seniors was comparatively deteriorated, and thus they produced a smaller number of semantic-lexical items. Significant group differences were also found in the reaction time results. Category effects were significant for both adults and seniors in the semantic fluency task. The findings of the present study will help characterize the nature of the bilingual semantic processing of adults and seniors, and contribute to the fields of contrastive and corpus linguistics.

Keywords: bilingual semantic processing, aging, Mandarin Chinese, Southern Min

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47 New Types of Fitness Equipment for Seniors-Based on Beginning Movement Load Training

Authors: Chia-Chi Chen, Tai-Sheng Huang


Ageing society has been spread around the world. The global population is not only ageing but also declining. The structure of population has changed, which has a significant impact on both the economies and industries. Thus, how to be a healthy senior citizen to relieve the burden to the family and society will be a popular issue. Although fitness equipment manufacturing industry has been mature, the ageing population is still increasing. Therefore, this study aims to design an innovative style of fitness equipment for senior citizens, based on BMLT presented by Dr. Koyama Hirofumi. The analysis of current fitness equipment on the market and the future trend will be applied in the study. With the coming of information age, senior citizens in the future are the users of information product for sure, and the new style of fitness equipment will be combined with information technology as well. Through this study, it is believed to design an innovative style of fitness equipment for seniors and help them live heartier and happier lives.

Keywords: aging society, BMLT (Beginning Movement Load Training), seniors, new style of fitness equipment

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46 The Comparison of Backward and Forward Running Program on Balance Development and Plantar Flexion Force in Pre Seniors: Healthy Approach

Authors: Neda Dekamei, Mostafa Sarabzadeh, Masoumeh Bigdeli


Backward running is commonly used in different sports conditioning, motor learning, and neurological purposes, and even more commonly in physical rehabilitation. The present study evaluated the effects of six weeks backward and forward running methods on balance promotion adaptation in students. 12 male and female preseniors with the age range of 45-60 years participated and were randomly classified into two groups of backward running (n: 6) and forward running (n: 6) training interventions. During six weeks, 3 sessions per week, all subjects underwent stated different models of backward and forward running training on treadmill (65-80 of HR max). Pre and post-tests were performed by force plate and electromyogram, two times before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using by T test. On the basis of obtained data, significant differences were recorded on balance and plantar flexion force in backward running (BR) and no difference for forward running (FR). It seems the training model of backward running can generate more stimulus to achieve better plantar flexion force and strengthening ankle protectors which leads to balance improvement in pre aging period. It can be recommended as an effective method to promote seniors life quality especially in balance neuromuscular parameters.

Keywords: backward running, balance, plantar flexion, pre seniors

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45 Quality of Life of Elderly with Vascular Illness and the Level of Depression in 4 Barangays in Malabon, Philippines

Authors: Marilou P. Angeles


Seniors are a growing number of population all over the world, and they are getting sick with illnesses like diabetes, high blood, and high cholesterol. It is necessary to see the relationship of their physical illness and its effect on their quality of life. Having chronic illnesses also can affect the mood of the elderly; becoming cranky, lonely, not eating, etc. Therefore, there is a need to study the relationship of the quality of life of the elderly and the level of depression. Depression for elderly is known as late onset depression or vascular depression since it is tied to the vascular illnesses they are experiencing, although this is not homogeneous. There is heterogeneity in seniors. The purpose of the study is to determine how keep the satisfaction in life i.e., quality of life of seniors, as long as possible. This study was made in 4 barangays in Longos, Potrero, Tonsuya and Catmon, in Malabon, Metro Manila, Philippines. These Filipino seniors are availing of free medicines for their diabetes, high blood, and high cholesterol ailments in the barangay health centers, given freely by the Department of Health. Two instruments were used; quality of life (CASP-19) and patient health questionnaire(PHQ-19). The quality of life questionnaire was based on the theory of Abraham Maslow, human: beings are motivated to action by needs, starting from the lowest, physiological to the highest self-transcendence. Severity of depression is determined by PHQ-9, and according to the unified model of depression by Aaron Beck and Kurt B. Bredemeier, depression happens when a person cannot cope with life has not able to satisfy his needs as a person. The Pearson R correlation was used to determine the significance of the relationship between quality of life and depression. Finding is there is negative relationship between quality of life and depression. It means that a high value of quality of life lowers or minimizes depression. CASP-19 found that the Filipino elderly were in control, independent, enjoying their lives even if they are poor, and this is shown by the significant results. Self-transcendence, a need to give back to others, is important for Filipino elderly. Although the seniors have difficulty with money and they were affected by their illnesses, they are full of optimism, they are ignoring their physical pain because they are focusing on helping their loved ones (i.e., self-transcendence), their children and grandchildrenothers, and if problems come, they are resilient accepting of the challenges, because they have strong faith in God. They are also having pleasures interacting with their friends and neighbors who, like them, have the same health problems. And these two coping strategies for the elderlies allow them to live a meaningful life, a life high in quality. Thus, where there is high quality of life, there is none or minimal depression. Recommendation for future study is finding the relationship of spirituality to quality of life of seniors.

Keywords: CASP-19, depression, quality of life, PHQ-9, senior citizen

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44 Using the Transtheoretical Model to Investigate Stages of Change in Regular Volunteer Service among Seniors in Community

Authors: Pei-Ti Hsu, I-Ju Chen, Jeu-Jung Chen, Cheng-Fen Chang, Shiu-Yan Yang


Taiwan now is an aging society Research on the elderly should not be confined to caring for seniors, but should also be focused on ways to improve health and the quality of life. Senior citizens who participate in volunteer services could become less lonely, have new growth opportunities, and regain a sense of accomplishment. Thus, the question of how to get the elderly to participate in volunteer service is worth exploring. Apply the Transtheoretical Model to understand stages of change in regular volunteer service and voluntary service behaviour among the seniors. 1525 adults over the age of 65 from the Renai district of Keelung City were interviewed. The research tool was a self-constructed questionnaire and individual interviews were conducted to collect data. Then the data was processed and analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 (Windows version) statistical software program. In the past six months, research subjects averaged 9.92 days of volunteer services. A majority of these elderly individuals had no intention to change their regular volunteer services. We discovered that during the maintenance stage, the self-efficacy for volunteer services was higher than during all other stages, but self-perceived barriers were less during the preparation stage and action stage. Self-perceived benefits were found to have an important predictive power for those with regular volunteer service behaviors in the previous stage, and self-efficacy was found to have an important predictive power for those with regular volunteer service behaviors in later stages. The research results support the conclusion that community nursing staff should group elders based on their regular volunteer services change stages and design appropriate behavioral change strategies.

Keywords: seniors, stages of change in regular volunteer services, volunteer service behavior, self-efficacy, self-perceived benefits

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43 Investigate the Rural Mobility and Accessibility Challenges of Seniors Using the Free Travel Scheme

Authors: Tom Ryan


This paper investigates the rural mobility and accessibility challenges of a specific target group - Seniors. The target group is those over 66 years of age who are entitled to use the Public Transport (PT) Free Travel Scheme in rural Ireland. The paper explores at a high level some of the projected rural PT challenges and requirements over the next 10-15 years, noting that statistical predictions show that there will be a significant population demographic shift within the Senior's age profile. Using the PESTEL framework, the literature review explored existing research concerning mobility, accessibility challenges, and the opportunities Seniors face. Twenty-seven qualitative in-depth interviews with stakeholders within the ecosystem were undertaken. The stakeholders included: rural PT customers, Local-Link managers, NTA senior management, a Minister of State, and a European parliament policymaker. Tier 1 interviewee feedback spotlights that the PT network system does not exist for rural patients to access hospital facilities. There was no evidence from the Tier 2 research findings to show that health policymakers and transport planners are working to deliver a national solution to support patients getting access to hospital appointments. Several research interviewees discussed the theme of isolation and the perceived stigma of senior males utilising PT. The findings indicated that MaaS is potentially revolutionary in the PT arena. Finally, this paper suggests several short-, medium- and long-term recommendations based on the research findings. These recommendations are a potential springboard to ensure that rural PT is suitable for future Irish generations.

Keywords: accessibility, active ageing, car dependence, isolation, seniors health issues, behavioural changes, environmental challenges, internet of things, demand responsive, mobility as a service

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42 Semantic Processing in Chinese: Category Effects, Task Effects and Age Effects

Authors: Yi-Hsiu Lai


The present study aimed to elucidate the nature of semantic processing in Chinese. Language and cognition related to the issue of aging are examined from the perspective of picture naming and category fluency tasks. Twenty Chinese-speaking adults (ranging from 25 to 45 years old) and twenty Chinese-speaking seniors (ranging from 65 to 75 years old) in Taiwan participated in this study. Each of them individually completed two tasks: a picture naming task and a category fluency task. Instruments for the naming task were sixty black-and-white pictures: thirty-five object and twenty-five action pictures. Category fluency task also consisted of two semantic categories – objects (or nouns) and actions (or verbs). Participants were asked to report as many items within a category as possible in one minute. Scores of action fluency and of object fluency were a summation of correct responses in these two categories. Category effects (actions vs. objects) and age effects were examined in these tasks. Objects were further divided into two major types: living objects and non-living objects. Actions were also categorized into two major types: action verbs and process verbs. Reaction time to each picture/question was additionally calculated and analyzed. Results of the category fluency task indicated that the content of information in Chinese seniors was comparatively deteriorated, thus producing smaller number of semantic-lexical items. Significant group difference was also found in the results of reaction time. Category Effect was significant for both Chinese adults and seniors in the semantic fluency task. Findings in the present study helped characterize the nature of semantic processing in Chinese-speaking adults and seniors and contributed to the issue of language and aging.

Keywords: semantic processing, aging, Chinese, category effects

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41 Health Professions Students' Knowledge of and Attitude toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Authors: Peter R. Reuter


Health professionals play important roles in helping patients use Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) practices safely and accurately. Consequently, it is important for future health professionals to learn about CAM practices during their time in undergraduate and graduate programs. To satisfy this need for education, teaching CAM in nursing and medical schools and other health professions programs is becoming more prevalent. Our study was the first to look specifically at the knowledge of, and attitude toward CAM of undergraduate health professions students at a university in the U.S. Students were invited to participate in one of two anonymous online surveys depending on whether they were pre-health professions students or graduating health professions seniors. Of the 763 responses analyzed, 71.7% were from pre-health professions students, and 28.3% came from graduating seniors. The overall attitude of participants toward and interest in learning about CAM practices was generally fairly positive with graduating seniors being more positive than pre-health professions students. Yoga, meditation, massage therapy, aromatherapy, and chiropractic care were the practices most respondents had personal experience with. Massage therapy, yoga, chiropractic care, meditation, music therapy, and diet-based therapy received the highest ratings from respondents. Three-quarters of respondents planned on including aspects of holistic medicine in their future career as a health professional. The top five practices named were yoga, meditation, massage therapy, diet-based therapy, and music therapy. The study confirms the need to educate health professions students about CAM practices to give them the background information they need to select or recommend the best practices for their patients' needs.

Keywords: CAM education, health professions, health professions students, pre-health professions students

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40 Bio-Psycho-Social Consequences and Effects in Fall-Efficacy Scale in Seniors Using Exercise Intervention of Motor Learning According to Yoga Techniques

Authors: Milada Krejci, Martin Hill, Vaclav Hosek, Dobroslava Jandova, Jiri Kajzar, Pavel Blaha


The paper declares effects of exercise intervention of the research project “Basic research of balance changes in seniors”, granted by the Czech Science Foundation. The objective of the presented study is to define predictors, which influence bio-psycho-social consequences and effects of balance ability in senior 65 years old and above. We focused on the Fall-Efficacy Scale changes evaluation in seniors. Comprehensive hypothesis of the project declares, that motion uncertainty (dyskinesia) can negatively affect the well-being of a senior in bio-psycho-social context. In total, random selection and testing of 100 seniors (30 males, 70 females) from Prague and Central Bohemian region was provided. The sample was divided by stratified random selection into experimental and control groups, who underwent input and output testing. For diagnostics the methods of Medical Anamnesis, Functional anthropological examinations, Tinetti Balance Assessment Tool, SF-36 Health Survey, Anamnestic comparative self-assessment scale were used. Intervention method called "Life in Balance" based on yoga techniques was applied in four-week cycle. Results of multivariate regression were verified by repeated measures ANOVA: subject factor, phase of intervention (between-subject factor), body fluid (within-subject factor) and phase of intervention × body fluid interaction). ANOVA was performed with a repetition involving the factors of subjects, experimental/control group, phase of intervention (independent variable), and x phase interaction followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison assays with a test strength of at least 0.8 on the probability level p < 0.05. In the paper results of the first-year investigation of the three years running project are analysed. Results of balance tests confirmed no significant difference between females and males in pre-test. Significant improvements in balance and walking ability were observed in experimental group in females comparing to males (F = 128.4, p < 0.001). In the females control group, there was no significant change in post- test, while in the female experimental group positive changes in posture and spine flexibility in post-tests were found. It seems that females even in senior age react better to incentives of intervention in balance and spine flexibility. On the base of results analyses, we can declare the significant improvement in social balance markers after intervention in the experimental group (F = 10.5, p < 0.001). In average, seniors are used to take four drugs daily. Number of drugs can contribute to allergy symptoms and balance problems. It can be concluded that static balance and walking ability of seniors according Tinetti Balance scale correlate significantly with psychic and social monitored markers.

Keywords: exercises, balance, seniors 65+, health, mental and social balance

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39 Counseling Ethics in Turkish Counseling Programs

Authors: Umut Arslan, John Sommers Flanagan


The purpose of this study was to investigate qualifications of ethics training in counselor education programs in Turkey. The survey data were collected from 251 Turkish counseling students to examine differences in ethical judgments between freshmen and seniors. Chi-square analysis was used to analyze the data from an ethical practice and belief survey. This survey was used to assess counselor candidates’ ethical judgments regarding Turkish counseling ethical codes and sources of ethics information. Statistically significant differences were found between university seniors and freshmen on items that are related to confidentiality, dual relationships, and professional relationships. Furthermore, patterns based on demographic information showed significant differences as a result of gender, economic status, and parents’ educational level. Participants gave the highest rating of information sources to Turkish counseling ethical codes.

Keywords: ethics, training, Turkey, counselor, education

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38 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Physical Therapist's Seniors versus Internship Students

Authors: A. H. Bekhet, N. Helmy


Background: Physical therapists are knowledgeable in treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries; however, they have occupational musculoskeletal injuries because Physical therapy profession requires effort that may lead to work-related musculoskeletal disorders. No previous studies among physical therapists have been reported in Egypt. We aim to assess the prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among physical therapist’s seniors versus internship students. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study in faculty of physical therapy Cairo university Prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries were assessed using self-administered questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Seniors therapist was defined as a physical therapist with more than 5 years of work experience. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 for Windows. Results: The study included 106 physical therapists (Junior = 72; senior = 34), the mean age of senior therapists was 30.1 (SD 6.3) years and junior therapists were 22.8 (SD 2.4). Female subjects constituted 83.9% of the studied sample. The mean hours of contact with patients was higher among junior therapists 6.4 (SD 2.6) vs. 5.7 (SD 2.1) among senior therapists. The prevalence of a musculoskeletal injury, once or more in their lifetime, was significantly higher among senior therapists (86% vs. 66.7%; p = 0.04). The highest risk factor in increasing the symptoms of the injury among junior therapists was maintaining a position for a prolonged period of time at 28% while performing manual therapy techniques was the highest risk factor among senior therapists at 32%. 53% of senior therapists have limited their patient contact time as a result of their injury in comparison to 25% of junior therapists (p = 0.09). Conclusion: the presented study shows that the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries, once or more in their lifetime, is significantly higher among senior therapists.

Keywords: musculoskeletal injuries, occupational injuries, physical therapists, work related disorders

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37 Regional Treatment Trends in Canada Derived from Pharmacy Records

Authors: John Chau, Tzvi Aviv


Cardiometabolic conditions (hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia) are major public health concerns. Analysis of all prescription records from about 10 million patients at the largest network of pharmacies in Canada reveals small year-over-year increases in the treatment prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Cardiometabolic treatment rates increase with age and are higher in males than females. Hypertension treatment rates were 24% in males and 19% in females in 2021. Diabetes treatment rates were 10% in males and 7% in females in 2021. Geospatial analysis using patient addresses reveals interesting differences among provinces and neighborhoods in Canada. Using digital surveys distributed among 8,504 Canadian adults, an increase in hypertension awareness with age and female gender was observed. However, 7% of seniors and 6% of middle-aged Canadians reported uncontrolled blood pressure (>140/90 mmHg). In addition, elevated blood pressure (130-139/80-89 mmHg) was reported by 20% of seniors and 14% of middle-aged Canadians.

Keywords: cardiometabolic conditions, diabetes, hypertension, precision public health

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36 Cognitive Performance and Everyday Functionality in Healthy Greek Seniors

Authors: George Pavlidis, Ana Vivas


The demographic change into an aging population has stimulated the examination of seniors’ mental health and ability to live independently. The corresponding literature depicts the relation between cognitive decline and everyday functionality with aging, focusing largely in individuals that are reaching or have bridged the threshold of various forms of neuropathology and disability. In this context, recent meta-analysis depicts a moderate relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality in AD sufferers. However, there has not been an analogous effort for the examination of this relation in the healthy spectrum of aging (i.e, in samples that are not challenged from a neurodegenerative disease). There is a consensus that the assessment tools designed to detect neuropathology with those that assess cognitive performance in healthy adults are distinct, thus their universal use in cognitively challenged and in healthy adults is not always valid. The same accounts for the assessment of everyday functionality. In addition, it is argued that everyday functionality should be examined with cultural adjusted assessment tools, since many vital everyday tasks are heterotypical among distinct cultures. Therefore, this study was set out to examine the relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality a) in the healthy spectrum of aging and b) by adjusting the everyday functionality tools EPT and OTDL-R in the Greek cultural context. In Greece, 107 cognitively healthy seniors ( Mage = 62.24) completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and everyday functionality tests. Both were carefully chosen to be sensitive in fluctuations of performance in the healthy spectrum of cognitive performance and everyday functionality. The everyday functionality assessment tools were modified to reflect the local cultural context (i.e., EPT-G and OTDL-G). The results depicted that performance in all everyday functionality measures decline with age (.197 < r > .509). Statistically significant correlations emerged between cognitive performance and everyday functionality assessments that range from r =0.202 to r=0.510. A series of independent regression analysis including the scores of cognitive assessments has yield statistical significant models that explained 20.9 < AR2 > 32.4 of the variance in everyday functionality scored indexes. All everyday functionality measures were independently predicted by the TMT B-A index, and indicator of executive function. Stepwise regression analyses depicted that TMT B-A and age were statistically significant independent predictors of EPT-G and OTDL-G. It was concluded that everyday functionality is declining with age and that cognitive performance and everyday functional may be related in the healthy spectrum of aging. Age seems not to be the sole contributing factor in everyday functionality decline, rather executive control as well. Moreover, it was concluded that the EPT-G and OTDL-G are valuable tools to assess everyday functionality in Greek seniors that are not cognitively challenged, especially for research purposes. Future research should examine the contributing factors of a better cognitive vitality especially in executive control, as vital for the maintenance of independent living capacity with aging.

Keywords: cognition, everyday functionality, aging, cognitive decline, healthy aging, Greece

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35 A Comparative Analysis of Vocabulary Learning Strategies among EFL Freshmen and Senior Medical Sciences Students across Different Fields of Study

Authors: M. Hadavi, Z. Hashemi


Learning strategies play an important role in the development of language skills. Vocabulary learning strategies as the backbone of these strategies have become a major part of English language teaching. This study is a comparative analysis of Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS) use and preference among freshmen and senior EFL medical sciences students with different fields of study. 449 students (236 freshman and 213 seniors) participated in the study. 64.6% were female and 35.4% were male. The instrument utilized in this research was a questionnaire consisting of 41 items related to the students’ approach to vocabulary learning. The items were classified under eight sections as dictionary strategies, guessing strategies, study preferences, memory strategies, autonomy, note- taking strategies, selective attention, and social strategies. The participants were asked to answer each item with a 5-point Likert-style frequency scale as follows:1) I never or almost never do this, 2) I don’t usually do this, 3) I sometimes do this, 4) I usually do this, and 5)I always or almost always do this. The results indicated that freshmen students and particularly surgical technology students used more strategies compared to the seniors. Overall guessing and dictionary strategies were the most frequently used strategies among all the learners (p=0/000). The mean and standard deviation of using VLS in the students who had no previous history of participating in the private English language classes was less than the students who had attended these type of classes (p=0/000). Female students tended to use social and study preference strategies whereas male students used mostly guessing and dictionary strategies. It can be concluded that the senior students under instruction from the university have learned to rely on themselves and choose the autonomous strategies more, while freshmen students use more strategies that are related to the study preferences.

Keywords: vocabulary leaning strategies, medical sciences, students, linguistics

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34 The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Pain Relief in the Elderly: An Investigational Analysis of Seniors Residing in an Independent/Assisted Seniors’ Living Facility

Authors: Carol Cameletti


The goal of this study was to perform a pilot survey to assess pain frequency and intensity in an elderly population and to assess treatment options for chronic pain that include complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). Ten participants were recruited from an independent and supportive living housing facility in Northern Ontario and asked to complete two questionnaires: 1) a self-assessment on pain, and 2) the use of CAM for pain. Results from our study show that 80% of the participants experienced pains other than the regular everyday pains such as minor headaches, sprains or toothaches. Although participants stated that on average the highest level of pain they experienced within the past 24 hours had a score of 6.5 (0=no pain, 10=worst pain imaginable) the level of pain they experienced moderately interfered with their daily activities. Unfortunately, participants stated that they were only able to attain minimal levels of pain relief using treatments or medications causing some of the participants to seek alternative therapies or self-help practices. The most commonly used CAMs were vitamins/minerals, herbs and supplements, and self-help practices such as meditation, prayer, visualization and relaxation techniques. Although some of the participants stated that they had received complementary treatments directly from their physician, four of the nine participants said that they had not disclosed CAM use to their physician thereby indicating a need to open the lines of communication between healthcare providers and patients with regards to CAM use. It is our hope that the data generated from this study will serve as the platform for a pain management clinic that is client-centered, consumer-driven and truly integrative and tailored in order to meet the unique needs of older adults in Great Sudbury, Ontario.

Keywords: alternative, complementary, elderly, medicine

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33 Relationship between Prolonged Timed up and Go Test and Worse Cardiometabolic Diseases Risk Factors Profile in a Population Aged 60-65 Years

Authors: Bartłomiej K. Sołtysik, Agnieszka Guligowska, Łukasz Kroc, Małgorzata Pigłowska, Elizavetta Fife, Tomasz Kostka


Introduction: Functional capacity is one of the basic determinants of health in older age. Functional capacity may be influenced by multiple disorders, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Nevertheless, there is relatively little evidence regarding the association of functional status and cardiometabolic risk factors. Aim: The aim of this research is to check possible association between functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factor in a group of younger seniors. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 300 participants aged 60-65 years (50% were women). Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), glucose, uric acid, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and blood pressure were measured. Smoking status and physical activity level (by Seven Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire ) were analysed. Functional status was assessed with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test. The data were compared according to gender, and then separately for both sexes regarding prolonged TUG score (>7 s). The limit of significance was set at p≤0.05 for all analyses. Results: Women presented with higher serum lipids and longer TUG. Men had higher blood pressure, glucose, uric acid, the prevalence of hypertension and history of heart infarct. In women group, those with prolonged TUG displayed significantly higher obesity rate (BMI, WHTR), uric acid, hypertension and ischemic heart disease (IHD), but lower physical activity level, TC or LDL-C. Men with prolonged TUG were heavier smokers, had higher TG, lower HDL and presented with higher prevalence of diabetes and IHD. Discussion: This study shows association between functional status and risk profile of cardiometabolic disorders. In women, the relationship of lower functional status to cardiometabolic diseases may be mediated by overweight/obesity. In men, locomotor problems may be related to smoking. Higher education level may be considered as a protective factor regardless of gender.

Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, functional capacity, TUG test, seniors

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32 Testing of Canadian Integrated Healthcare and Social Services Initiatives with an Evidence-Based Case Definition for Healthcare and Social Services Integrations

Authors: S. Cheng, C. Catallo


Introduction: Canada's healthcare and social services systems are failing high risk, vulnerable older adults. Care for vulnerable older Canadians (65 and older) is not optimal in Canada. It does not address the care needs of vulnerable, high risk adults using a holistic approach. Given the growing aging population, and the care needs for seniors with complex conditions is one of the highest in Canada's health care system, there is a sense of urgency to optimize care. Integration of health and social services is an emerging trend in Canada when compared to European countries. There is no common and universal understanding of healthcare and social services integration within the country. Consequently, a clear understanding and definition of integrated health and social services are absent in Canada. Objectives: A study was undertaken to develop a case definition for integrated health and social care initiatives that serve older adults, which was then tested against three Canadian integrated initiatives. Methodology: A limited literature review was undertaken to identify common characteristics of integrated health and social care initiatives that serve older adults, and comprised both scientific and grey literature, in order to develop a case definition. Three Canadian integrated initiatives that are located in the province of Ontario, were identified using an online search and a screening process. They were surveyed to determine if the literature-based integration definition applied to them. Results: The literature showed that there were 24 common healthcare and social services integration characteristics that could be categorized into ten themes: 1) patient-care approach; 2) program goals; 3) measurement; 4) service and care quality; 5) accountability and responsibility; 6) information sharing; 7) Decision-making and problem-solving; 8) culture; 9) leadership; and 10) staff and professional interaction. The three initiatives showed agreement on all the integration characteristics except for those characteristics associated with healthcare and social care professional interaction, collaborative leadership and shared culture. This disagreement may be due to several reasons, including the existing governance divide between the healthcare and social services sectors within the province of Ontario that has created a ripple effect in how professions in the two different sectors interact. In addition, the three initiatives may be at maturing levels of integration, which may explain disagreement on the characteristics associated with leadership and culture. Conclusions: The development of a case definition for healthcare and social services integration that incorporates common integration characteristics can act as a useful instrument in identifying integrated healthcare and social services, particularly given the emerging and evolutionary state of this phenomenon within Canada.

Keywords: Canada, case definition, healthcare and social services integration, integration, seniors health, services delivery

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31 Prevalence of Nutrient Deficiencies in Older Adults: Results from the Japan National Health and Nutrition Survey 2014

Authors: Ye Sun, Han-Youl Lee, Kathy Musa-Veloso, Nabil Bosco


Japan has been experiencing global ageing of population with the World’s leading life expectancy (80.8 y for men and 86.9 y for women) and among the lowest birth rate. Preventive nutrition-based approaches have been identified by the health authorities as one of the strategies to increase the healthy life expectancy and reduce the healthcare costs. However, the nutritional needs and status of the senior population have not been well characterized to provide targeted solutions. This study aims to describe the age- and gender-specific prevalence of inadequacy of macro- and micronutrients intake based on the latest Japan National Health and Nutrition Survey (JNHNS) 2014. JNHNS collected data on the consumption of foods and beverages using 1-day semi-weight household dietary record. Nutrient intake levels were then calculated using the Japanese standard tables of food composition. Where applicable, Japanese population-specific estimated average requirements (EAR) were used as a benchmark to determine the prevalence of potential nutrient intake inadequacy, and adequate intake (AI) were used for nutrients with no available EARs. In all, 3403 senior adults aged 60 y and above and 3324 young adults aged 19 to 59 y were included in the 2014 JNHNS. Age- and gender-specific differences were observed in the mean nutrient intakes as well as the prevalence of inadequacy. Among the 22 nutrients examined, the prevalence of inadequacy for iron, vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, and folic acid in the senior adults was significantly lower than young adults, suggesting potentially healthier dietary choices by the seniors. However, there was still a considerable proportion of seniors who did not meet the requirement for key nutrients like vitamin B1 (67%), calcium (57%), vitamin A (48%), magnesium (47%), vitamin E (44%), and vitamin B6 (41%). Inadequate nutrient intake is generally more prevalent among elderly males than females for many nutrients, with the exception of iron (prevalence of inadequacy: 21% versus 42%) which could partly be explained by the higher intake recommendations for the females. In conclusion, high prevalence of nutrient inadequacy exists in older adults, with a potentially worsened picture for men. Such inadequacies could have multiple health implications including physical frailty and mental health. Further study is warranted to investigate the food consumption patterns that could explain the observed nutrient inadequacies, and to eventually develop nutrition-based solutions tailored to the needs of specific subgroups of the population.

Keywords: ageing, national health and nutrition survey, nutrients, nutrition

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30 A Study of Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Stress among First and Second Year Medical Students in South India

Authors: Nitin Joseph


Objectives: This study was done to assess emotional intelligence levels and to find out its association with socio demographic variables and perceived stress among medical students. Material and Methods: This study was done among first and second year medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Emotional intelligence scores was found to significantly increase with age of the participants (F=2.377, P < 0.05). Perceived stress was found to be significantly more among first year (t=1.997, P=0.05). Perceived stress was found to significantly decrease with increasing emotional intelligence scores (r = – 0.226, P < 0.001). Conclusion: First year students were found to be more vulnerable to stress than their seniors probably due to lesser emotional intelligence. As both these parameters are related, ample measures to improve emotional intelligence needs to be supported in the training curriculum of beginners so as to make them more stress free during early student life.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, medical students, perceived stress, socio demographic variables

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29 The Study of Elders’ Needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the Options of Health Tourism

Authors: Chantouch Wannathanom


Research The study of elders’ needs in Bangkok metropolis for the options of health tourism. The objective is to study of elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism. The research her collected data using a questionnaire. The samples used in this research is elderly people living in the Dusit area. Of 400 people found the majority were female than male. Accounted for18 percent aged between 50-55 years, mostly undergraduate degree. Moreover, most seniors do not have underlying disease. The study found that 1. Elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism; 2. Tourism activity patterns that fit elderly was divided into 5 categories, including massage, massage, and herbal sauna. Practicing meditation and ascetic. The results showed that selection of elderly tourist activities by choosing healthy eating are the first. The hypothesis testing period: Elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism is different. The level of statistical significance .05 level.

Keywords: needs, elder, health tourism, Bangkok

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28 Design of the Intelligent Virtual Learning Coach. A Contextual Learning Approach to Digital Literacy of Senior Learners in the Context of Electronic Health Record (EHR)

Authors: Ilona Buchem, Carolin Gellner


The call for the support of senior learners in the development of digital literacy has become prevalent in recent years, especially in view of the aging societies paired with advances in digitalization in all spheres of life, including e-health. The goal has been to create opportunities for learning that incorporate the use of context in a reflective and dialogical way. Contextual learning has focused on developing skills through the application of authentic problems. While major research efforts in supporting senior learners in developing digital literacy have been invested so far in e-learning, focusing on knowledge acquisition and cognitive tasks, little research exists in reflective mentoring and coaching with the help of pedagogical agents and addressing the contextual dimensions of learning. This paper describes an approach to creating opportunities for senior learners to improve their digital literacy in the authentic context of the electronic health record (EHR) with the support of an intelligent virtual learning coach. The paper focuses on the design of the virtual coach as part of an e-learning system, which was developed in the EPA-Coach project founded by the German Ministry of Education and Research. The paper starts with the theoretical underpinnings of contextual learning and the related design considerations for a virtual learning coach based on previous studies. Since previous research in the area was mostly designed to cater to the needs of younger audiences, the results had to be adapted to the specific needs of senior learners. Next, the paper outlines the stages in the design of the virtual coach, which included the adaptation of the design requirements, the iterative development of the prototypes, the results of the two evaluation studies and how these results were used to improve the design of the virtual coach. The paper then presents the four prototypes of a senior-friendly virtual learning coach, which were designed to represent different preferences related to the visual appearance, the communication and social interaction styles, and the pedagogical roles. The first evaluation of the virtual coach design was an exploratory, qualitative study, which was carried out in October 2020 with eight seniors aged 64 to 78 and included a range of questions about the preferences of senior learners related to the visual design, gender, age, communication and role. Based on the results of the first evaluation, the design was adapted to the preferences of the senior learners and the new versions of prototypes were created to represent two male and two female options of the virtual coach. The second evaluation followed a quantitative approach with an online questionnaire and was conducted in May 2021 with 41 seniors aged 66 to 93 years. Following three research questions, the survey asked about (1) the intention to use, (2) the perceived characteristics, and (3) the preferred communication/interaction style of the virtual coach, i. e. task-oriented, relationship-oriented, or a mix. This paper follows with the discussion of the results of the design process and ends with conclusions and next steps in the development of the virtual coach including recommendations for further research.

Keywords: virtual learning coach, virtual mentor, pedagogical agent, senior learners, digital literacy, electronic health records

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27 The Senior Traveler Market as a Competitive Advantage for the Luxury Hotel Sector in the UK Post-Pandemic

Authors: Feyi Olorunshola


Over the last few years, the senior travel market has been noted for its potential in the wider tourism industry. The tourism sector includes the hotel and hospitality, travel, transportation, and several other subdivisions to make it economically viable. In particular, the hotel attracts a substantial part of the expenditure in tourism activities as when people plan to travel, suitable accommodation for relaxation, dining, entertainment and so on is paramount to their decision-making. The global retail value of the hotel as of 2018 was significant for tourism. But, despite indications of the hotel to the tourism industry at large, very few empirical studies are available to establish how this sector can leverage on the senior demographic to achieve competitive advantage. Predominantly, studies on the mature market have focused on destination tourism, with a limited investigation on the hotel which makes a significant contribution to tourism. Also, several scholarly studies have demonstrated the importance of the senior travel market to the hotel, yet there is very little empirical research in the field which has explored the driving factors that will become the accepted new normal for this niche segment post-pandemic. Giving that the hotel already operates in a highly saturated business environment, and on top of this pre-existing challenge, the ongoing global health outbreak has further put the sector in a vulnerable position. Therefore, the hotel especially the full-service luxury category must evolve rapidly for it to survive in the current business environment. The hotel can no longer rely on corporate travelers to generate higher revenue since the unprecedented wake of the pandemic in 2020 many organizations have invented a different approach of conducting their businesses online, therefore, the hotel needs to anticipate a significant drop in business travellers. However, the rooms and the rest of the facilities must be occupied to keep their business operating. The way forward for the hotel lies in the leisure sector, but the question now is to focus on the potential demographics of travelers, in this case, the seniors who have been repeatedly recognized as the lucrative market because of increase discretionary income, availability of time and the global population trends. To achieve the study objectives, a mixed-method approach will be utilized drawing on both qualitative (netnography) and quantitative (survey) methods, cognitive and decision-making theories (means-end chain) and competitive theories to identify the salient drivers explaining senior hotel choice and its influence on their decision-making. The target population are repeated seniors’ age 65 years and over who are UK resident, and from the top tourist market to the UK (USA, Germany, and France). Structural equation modelling will be employed to analyze the datasets. The theoretical implication is the development of new concepts using a robust research design, and as well as advancing existing framework to hotel study. Practically, it will provide the hotel management with the latest information to design a competitive marketing strategy and activities to target the mature market post-pandemic and over a long period.

Keywords: competitive advantage, covid-19, full-service hotel, five-star, luxury hotels

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26 Using the Technology Acceptance Model to Examine Seniors’ Attitudes toward Facebook

Authors: Chien-Jen Liu, Shu Ching Yang


Using the technology acceptance model (TAM), this study examined the external variables of technological complexity (TC) to acquire a better understanding of the factors that influence the acceptance of computer application courses by learners at Active Aging Universities. After the learners in this study had completed a 27-hour Facebook course, 44 learners responded to a modified TAM survey. Data were collected to examine the path relationships among the variables that influence the acceptance of Facebook-mediated community learning. The partial least squares (PLS) method was used to test the measurement and the structural model. The study results demonstrated that attitudes toward Facebook use directly influence behavioral intentions (BI) with respect to Facebook use, evincing a high prediction rate of 58.3%. In addition to the perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU) measures that are proposed in the TAM, other external variables, such as TC, also indirectly influence BI. These four variables can explain 88% of the variance in BI and demonstrate a high level of predictive ability. Finally, limitations of this investigation and implications for further research are discussed.

Keywords: technology acceptance model (TAM), technological complexity, partial least squares (PLS), perceived usefulness

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25 Elderly Home Care the Need of an Hour In India

Authors: Varsha Reddy Jayar


Background: Our elderly family members deserve our best care. It's our responsibility to ensure they're healthy and safe. The population of India is increasing rapidly. People are literally being born in the streets, and there is a high growth on taxes and healthcare costs. Indian families are challenged with taking care of everyone. When you have elderly parents and a demanding job, it can be difficult to take care of them. You might not have enough time to care for them when you're already working or dealing with emotional difficulties. Living alone in old age can cause older individuals to face many health risks. Many seniors find living and caring for themselves challenging when they live by themselves. This study explored the factors that affect whether or not elderly people choose to live in old age homes. Methods: This study was carried out on 123 elderly people living in different old age homes in Karnataka, India. The reason for their residence at the home was explored using an interview. Results: It was found that the most common reason for living in an old age home is due to abuse from children and grandchildren; the majority reported were Daughter in law issues in the family specific to the adjustment and understanding amongst them. Conclusion: More and more elderly people in India are choosing to stay in old age homes as they get older. The government and voluntary agencies must have some sort of arrangements for institutional support.

Keywords: old age home, elderly, Aging, challenges of aging

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24 Enabling and Ageing-Friendly Neighbourhoods: An Eye-Tracking Study of Multi-Sensory Experience of Senior Citizens in Singapore

Authors: Zdravko Trivic, Kelvin E. Y. Low, Darko Radovic, Raymond Lucas


Our understanding and experience of the built environment are primarily shaped by multi‐sensory, emotional and symbolic modes of exchange with spaces. Associated sensory and cognitive declines that come with ageing substantially affect the overall quality of life of the elderly citizens and the ways they perceive and use urban environment. Reduced mobility and increased risk of falls, problems with spatial orientation and communication, lower confidence and independence levels, decreased willingness to go out and social withdrawal are some of the major consequences of sensory declines that challenge almost all segments of the seniors’ everyday living. However, contemporary urban environments are often either sensory overwhelming or depleting, resulting in physical, mental and emotional stress. Moreover, the design and planning of housing neighbourhoods hardly go beyond the passive 'do-no-harm' and universal design principles, and the limited provision of often non-integrated eldercare and inter-generational facilities. This paper explores and discusses the largely neglected relationships between the 'hard' and 'soft' aspects of housing neighbourhoods and urban experience, focusing on seniors’ perception and multi-sensory experience as vehicles for design and planning of high-density housing neighbourhoods that are inclusive and empathetic yet build senior residents’ physical and mental abilities at different stages of ageing. The paper outlines methods and key findings from research conducted in two high-density housing neighbourhoods in Singapore with aims to capture and evaluate multi-sensorial qualities of two neighbourhoods from the perspective of senior residents. Research methods employed included: on-site sensory recordings of 'objective' quantitative sensory data (air temperature and humidity, sound level and luminance) using multi-function environment meter, spatial mapping of patterns of elderly users’ transient and stationary activity, socio-sensory perception surveys and sensorial journeys with local residents using eye-tracking glasses, and supplemented by walk-along or post-walk interviews. The paper develops a multi-sensory framework to synthetize, cross-reference, and visualise the activity and spatio-sensory rhythms and patterns and distill key issues pertinent to ageing-friendly and health-supportive neighbourhood design. Key findings show senior residents’ concerns with walkability, safety, and wayfinding, overall aesthetic qualities, cleanliness, smell, noise, and crowdedness in their neighbourhoods, as well as the lack of design support for all-day use in the context of Singaporean tropical climate and for inter-generational social interaction. The (ongoing) analysis of eye-tracking data reveals the spatial elements of senior residents’ look at and interact with the most frequently, with the visual range often directed towards the ground. With capacities to meaningfully combine quantitative and qualitative, measured and experienced sensory data, multi-sensory framework shows to be fruitful for distilling key design opportunities based on often ignored aspects of subjective and often taken-for-granted interactions with the familiar outdoor environment. It offers an alternative way of leveraging the potentials of housing neighbourhoods to take a more active role in enabling healthful living at all stages of ageing.

Keywords: ageing-friendly neighbourhoods, eye-tracking, high-density environment, multi-sensory approach, perception

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23 A Dialectical Behavioral Therapy Adaptation in Reducing Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Harm in Older Adults

Authors: Valerie Alexander, Amanda Gutierrez, Veronica Campbell, Dara Schwartz, B. Charles Tatum


It has long been assumed that personality disorders (PD) originate in adolescence or early adulthood and that the maladaptive behaviors significantly attenuate over time. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 supports early onset of PD and views the pattern of behaviors as enduring and stable. The premise of this study is that PD may not always begin early in life, that behaviors may change over the lifespan, and that current treatment modalities may be beneficial in seniors. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) exhibited earlier in life may, in older adults, be manifested in less overt high-risk behaviors but by refusal to take medication and get necessary medical treatment. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is a well-known treatment modality for teaching emotional regulation and distress tolerance and thus reducing self-injurious behaviors yet very little has been studied about SIB and treatment in older adults. The population for this study was older adults, with a history of SIB, a PD, and depression and/or anxiety. Participants learned an adapted version of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) as developed by DBT trained therapists. The results provided clinical potentials for the efficacy of DBT to reduce SIB, decrease depression and anxiety in the older adult population.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, dialectical behavioral therapy, personality disorders, self-harm behavior, treatment in older adults

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