Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 132

Search results for: stereotypes

132 Stereotypes and Glass Ceiling Barriers for Young Women’s Leadership

Authors: Amna Khaliq

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In this article, the phenomena of common stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers in women’s career advancement in men dominating society are explored. A brief background is provided on the misconception for women as soft, delicate, polite and compassionate at a workplace in the place of strong head and go-getter. Then, the literature review supports that stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers are still in existence for young women’s leadership. Increased encouragement, emotional intelligence, and better communication skills are recommended to parents, educators, and employers to prepare young women for senior leadership roles. Young women need mentorship from other women with no competition.

Keywords: Gender inequality, Glass ceiling, Stereotypes, Leadership

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131 The Processing of Implicit Stereotypes in Everyday Scene Perception

Authors: Magali Mari, Fabrice Clement

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The present study investigated the influence of implicit stereotypes on adults’ visual information processing, using an eye-tracking device. Implicit stereotyping is an automatic and implicit process; it happens relatively quickly, outside of awareness. In the presence of a member of a social group, a set of expectations about the characteristics of this social group appears automatically in people’s minds. The study aimed to shed light on the cognitive processes involved in stereotyping and to further investigate the use of eye movements to measure implicit stereotypes. With an eye-tracking device, the eye movements of participants were analyzed, while they viewed everyday scenes depicting women and men in congruent or incongruent gender role activities (e.g., a woman ironing or a man ironing). The settings of these scenes had to be analyzed to infer the character’s role. Also, participants completed an implicit association test that combined the concept of gender with attributes of occupation (home/work), while measuring reaction times to assess participants’ implicit stereotypes about gender. The results showed that implicit stereotypes do influence people’s visual attention; within a fraction of a second, the number of returns, between stereotypical and counter-stereotypical scenes, differed significantly, meaning that participants interpreted the scene itself as a whole before identifying the character. They predicted that, in such a situation, the character was supposed to be a woman or a man. Also, the study showed that eye movements could be used as a fast and reliable supplement for traditional implicit association tests to measure implicit stereotypes. Altogether, this research provides further understanding of implicit stereotypes processing as well as a natural method to study implicit stereotypes.

Keywords: eye-tracking, implicit stereotypes, social cognition, visual attention

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130 Age-Stereotypes of Emerging Adults within the South African Work Environment

Authors: Bronwyn Bell, Lizelle Brink

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Workplaces of today are populated by employees from different generations; emerging adults being the most recent demographic group entering the workplace. These individuals form part of Generation Y and are between the ages of 18 to 25. Emerging adults bring unique and different characteristics to the workplace. These individuals also differ from other generations with regards to their employment desires and ways of working. Age-stereotypes of emerging adults is, therefore, a common occurrence within workplaces. The general objective of the study was therefore to explore age-related stereotypes experienced regarding emerging adults within the South African work context and to determine the influences thereof. A qualitative research design from the social constructivism paradigm was employed in order to reach the objectives of this research study. A phenomenological approach using a combination of purposive and snowball sampling was employed within this study. A sample of 25 employees (N = 25) from various South African organisations were interviewed for the purpose of this study and formed part of three generations namely Generation Y, Generation X and Baby Boomers. In order to analyse the collected data, the steps of thematic analysis were used. The main findings of this study indicated that emerging adults experience various positive and negative stereotypes within the workplace. Results further indicated that these stereotypes influence emerging adults in a behavioural, cognitive and emotional manner. These stereotypes also influence the way emerging adults are treated by older employees within the workplace. Recommendations based on the results of this study were made for future research and practice. This study creates awareness within organisations regarding age-stereotypes of emerging adults. By being aware, employees can manage the influences thereof within the workplace.

Keywords: age-stereotypes, baby boomers, emerging adults, generation x, generation y, South African work environment, stereotypes

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129 The Processing of Implicit Stereotypes in Contexts of Reading, Using Eye-Tracking and Self-Paced Reading Tasks

Authors: Magali Mari, Misha Muller

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The present study’s objectives were to determine how diverse implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information and linguistic inferential processes, such as presupposition accommodation. When reading a text, one constructs a representation of the described situation, which is then updated, according to new outputs and based on stereotypes inscribed within society. If the new output contradicts stereotypical expectations, the representation must be corrected, resulting in longer reading times. A similar process occurs in cases of linguistic inferential processes like presupposition accommodation. Presupposition accommodation is traditionally regarded as fast, automatic processing of background information (e.g., ‘Mary stopped eating meat’ is quickly processed as Mary used to eat meat). However, very few accounts have investigated if this process is likely to be influenced by domains of social cognition, such as implicit stereotypes. To study the effects of implicit stereotypes on presupposition accommodation, adults were recorded while they read sentences in French, combining two methods, an eye-tracking task and a classic self-paced reading task (where participants read sentence segments at their own pace by pressing a computer key). In one condition, presuppositions were activated with the French definite articles ‘le/la/les,’ whereas in the other condition, the French indefinite articles ‘un/une/des’ was used, triggering no presupposition. Using a definite article presupposes that the object has already been uttered and is thus part of background information, whereas using an indefinite article is understood as the introduction of new information. Two types of stereotypes were under examination in order to enlarge the scope of stereotypes traditionally analyzed. Study 1 investigated gender stereotypes linked to professional occupations to replicate previous findings. Study 2 focused on nationality-related stereotypes (e.g. ‘the French are seducers’ versus ‘the Japanese are seducers’) to determine if the effects of implicit stereotypes on reading are generalizable to other types of implicit stereotypes. The results show that reading is influenced by the two types of implicit stereotypes; in the two studies, the reading pace slowed down when a counter-stereotype was presented. However, presupposition accommodation did not affect participants’ processing of information. Altogether these results show that (a) implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information, regardless of the type of stereotypes presented, and (b) that implicit stereotypes prevail over the superficial linguistic treatment of presuppositions, which suggests faster processing for treating social information compared to linguistic information.

Keywords: eye-tracking, implicit stereotypes, reading, social cognition

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128 Stereotypical Perception as an Influential Factor in the Judicial Decision Making Process for Shoplifting Cases Presided over in the UK

Authors: Mariam Shah

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Stereotypes are not generally considered to be an acceptable influence upon any decision making process, particularly those involving judicial decision making outcomes. Yet, we are confronted with an uncomfortable truth that stereotypes may be operating to influence judicial outcomes. Variances in sentencing outcomes are not easily explained away by criminological, psychological, or sociological theorem, but may be answered via qualitative research produced within the field of phenomenology. This paper will examine the current literature pertaining to the effect of stereotypes on the criminal justice system within the UK, and will also discuss what the implications are for stereotypical influences upon decision making in the criminal justice system. This paper will give particular focus to shoplifting offences dealt with in UK criminal courts, but this research has long reaching implications for the criminal process more generally.

Keywords: decision making, judicial decision making, phenomenology, shoplifting, stereotypes

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127 Cultural Stereotypes in EFL Classrooms and Their Implications on English Language Procedures in Cameroon

Authors: Eric Enongene Ekembe

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Recent calls on EFL teaching posit the centrality of context factors and argue for a correlation between effectiveness in teaching with the learners’ culture in the EFL classroom. Context is not everything; it is defined with indicators of learners’ cultural artifacts and stereotypes in meaningful interactions in the language classroom. In keeping with this, it is difficult to universalise pedagogic procedures given that appropriate procedures are context-sensitive- and contexts differ. It is necessary to investigate what counts as cultural specificities or stereotypes of specific learners to reflect on how different language learning contexts affect or are affected by English language teaching procedures, most especially in under-represented cultures, which have appropriated the English language. This paper investigates cultural stereotypes of EFL learners in the culturally diverse Cameroon to examine how they mediate teaching and learning. Data collected on mixed-method basis from 83 EFL teachers and 1321 learners in Cameroon reveal a strong presence of typical cultural artifacts and stereotypes. Statistical analysis and thematic coding demonstrate that teaching procedures in place were insensitive to the cultural artifacts and stereotypes, resulting in trending tension between teachers and learners. The data equally reveal a serious contradiction between the communicative goals of language teaching and learning: what teachers held as effective teaching was diametrically opposed to success in learning. In keeping with this, the paper argues for a ‘decentred’ teacher preparation in Cameroon that is informed by systemic learners’ feedback. On this basis, applied linguistics has the urgent task of exploring dimensions of what actually counts as contextualized practice in ELT.

Keywords: cultural stereotypes, EFL, implications, procedures

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126 Being Funny is a Serious Business for Feminine Brands

Authors: Mohammed Murtuza Soofi

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Purpose: Marketers and Researchers alike have simultaneously, yet in mutually exclusive instances, promote the use of humour by brands in their communication and gendering of brands, as both enhance brand equity and can generate positive attitudinal responses from customers. However, the gendering of brands comes with associated gendered stereotypical expectations. The current paper consolidates the long standing literature on gender role/stereotype theory and brand gender theories establishing a theoretical framework for understanding how gender-based stereotypes about humour can influence consumers’ attitudinal responses towards brands. Design/methodology/approach: Using parallel constrain satisfaction theory as domain theory to explain the highhandedness of stereotypes and gender stereotype theories (particularly around feminine use of humour), we explain why gender based stereotypes could constrain brand behaviors, and in turn, feminine brands get penalised for using witty, aggressive and self-enhancing humor. Findings: Extension of gender stereotypes to anthropomorphised brands will lead consumers to judge the use of negative humour by a feminine brand as less appropriate, which will trigger the causal chain of reduced sense of communal appropriateness and brand warmth which will result in a negative attitude towards the brand. Originality/value: Brand gendering being susceptible to gender based stereotypes, has very little attention in the literature and hence use of negative humour (stereotypical male behaviour), has never been studied in the context of gendered brands. It also helps understand to what extent stereotypes will impact attitudinal responses to the brand. Our work can help understand when heavily gendered brands can optimise the use of humour and when they can avoid it.

Keywords: brand femininity, brand gender, gender stereotypes, humour

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125 Sociological Approach to the Influence of Gender Stereotypes in Sport Education

Authors: Sara Rozenwajn Acheroy

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This study aims to analyze gender stereotypes’ influence of physical education’s teachers in secondary education and coaches in sports clubs of five sports: swimming, beach-volley, tennis, gymnastics and football. Because sport is a major socializing agent of high symbolic, ideological and economical relevance with an impact in the social values and the construct of identity, in addition, to be an international and global phenomenon, States tend to institutionalize it through education, federations, and clubs, as well as build sports facilities. Research in the field is now needed more than ever, given that sport is still considered as a masculine practice, and that such perspective is spread at school since the age of six in physical education lessons. For all those reasons, and more, it is necessary to study which stereotypes are transmitted in its everyday practice and how it affects young people’s self-perception on their physical and body capacities. This study’s objectives are centered on 4 points: 1) stereotypes and self-perception of students and young people, 2) teachers and coaches’ stereotypes and influence, 3) social status of parents (indicative) and 4) environmental analysis of schools and sport clubs. To that end, triangular methodology has been favored. Quantitative and qualitative data, through semi-structured interviews with coaches and teachers; group interviews with young people; 450 surveys in high schools from Madrid, Barcelona and Canary Islands; and participant observation in clubs. Remarks made at this stage of the study are diverse and not conclusive. For example, physical education teachers have more gender stereotypes than coaches in sport clubs, matching with our hypothesis so far. It also seems that young people at the age of 16-17 still do not have internalized gender stereotypes as deep as their teachers. This among other observations of the current fieldwork will be exposed, hoping to give a better understanding of the need for gender policies and educational programs with gender perspective in all sectors that includes sport’s activities.

Keywords: gender, sport, sexism, gender stereotypes, sport education

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124 Deconstruction of Gender Stereotypes through Fashion

Authors: Nihan Akdemir

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This research aims to investigate the role of fashion in the context of the deconstruction of gender stereotypes. Expectation of society and culture related to the biological structure of the individual corresponds to the gender. At this point there are some unseen rules which are given to person even from his/her childhoods according to the sex and gender, are called stereotypes. With basic example, girls should wear pink, and the boys should wear blue. Or boys do not wear skirt and the woman must behave like a woman. There are also many many stereotypes like them. But the clothing style the individual uses to express his or her gender identity may not match the expectations of the community and society. In the context of big role of the clothing, these stereotypes could be deconstructed because clothes are the visible expression of gender identity of the person. And fashion is a big part of this structure because fashion is a pioneer of what people wear in other words fashion tells to people what should they wear this season. Nowadays fashion has also meant about expressing identity independent of whether you were born male or female. Many fashion brands prepare their collections in the concept of ‘gender fluid’ by deconstructions. It means that fashion is opening the roads for being more free about the gender identity. The representations of gender fluidity through fashion help bring a sense of normality to people who are trying to find the self-confidence to express who they want to be. Maybe the voice of the streets carries this point to the catwalks firstly, and then it becomes a trend. All these items have been explained with visual images and supported by the literature investigations. And the results are showed that the numbers of collections about it are increasing and fashion sector takes this issue into consideration. And this new approach reached to the streets.

Keywords: fashion, gender identity, gender stereotypes, trend

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123 Analyzing the Influence of Gender onto Advertisement

Authors: Tamara Storozhenko

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In the paper, we want to highlight the influence of the advertising field on gender and vice versa. We will show what it was like before and the way it has changed until nowadays. We will also analyze when and how advertisements are used to create gender stereotypes and at which moment gender became a shaping advertisement. In this paper, we work not only with pure advertisements (e.g., videos and printed materials) but also with films that contain ads. Special attention is placed on the separation of goods for the ‘male ones’ and ‘female ones’, specifically if they can be used independently of gender and sex (food items and some kinds of personal supplies). Also, in this paper, we represent the history of several advertising campaigns, including the following reaction of the society that demonstrated that some of the gender stereotypes were finding resonance while some of them were not heard. Moreover, advertisements could be used as a tool for creating new ones or developing stereotypes that had already existed, and it wasn’t always successful. In the final part of the paper, we would like to analyze the current situation in this area and show how the change of understanding gender made advertisement change.

Keywords: advertisement, gender studies, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics

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122 Being an Afghan Woman in Australia; Stereotypes, Gender Roles, and Adaption with New Context

Authors: Rojan Afrouz

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Introduction: The immigration is a complex process of transitioning and transformation. Immigrants are more likely to come from the patriarchal and hierarchical society with traditional gender roles and women’s stereotypes. Changing the perception of women’s gender roles may result in challenges between women and their family and community. In this article, Afghan women’s perspectives on gender roles and stereotypes have been investigated as well as their experience of changes in the new context of Australia. Australian initiatives of challenging gender roles have provided the opportunities for Afghan women to emancipate from the traditional gender roles and pursue the value of gender equality. In this process, they may face many challenges in intersectional levels within their family, community and wider society which is a complex conflate of oppressive factors that may not be addressed easily and straightforward. Methods: This qualitative study has been conducted among Afghan women who have lived in Australia less than ten years. Semi-structured interviews either face to face or by phone have been used to collect data for this study. The interviews have been audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Nvivo software has been used for data analysis. Findings: Many participants mentioned that they had been taught that a good Afghan woman is devoted, obedient and loyal to their family and community. They believed that for many Afghan families, Afghan women's natural place was inside the home as a housewife, mother, daughter involving so many responsibilities and expectation of making sacrifices. Many women stated that their attitudes toward gender roles and their feeling of being a woman had been changed since they came to Australia although the process of change for women was complex and diverse. Some had to deal with conflicts with their stereotypes, traditional gender roles as well as strong disagreement with their family and community. Conclusion: Moving to a different country with more gender equality is an opportunity for Afghan women to change their perceptions of gender roles and stereotypes. However, challenging traditional stereotypes and gender roles in the new context is a complex process comprising intersectional levels.

Keywords: stereotypes, gender role, immigration, Afghan women

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121 Stereotypes in Perception of Otherness in Balkans Literature from the Last Part of 20ᵗʰ Century

Authors: Magdalena Kostova-Panayotova, Neda-Maria Panayotova

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The article is focused on a problem that tends to be extremely characteristic and essential to European literature – the relations between the Balkan Peninsula and Europe and the stereotypes the Balkans evoke – a melting pot, a powder keg, a bridge, a crossroads, along with other negative definitions. The stereotypes and visions are examined as the layered images of a particular nation. The work deals with the Balkan writers’ way of confronting stereotypes by reversing the image of the ‘dark’ Balkans and the ‘bright’ Europe and thus establishing the Balkans as a place of beauty, music, and poetry. In many aspects, the European image of the Balkans (the so-called Balkanism) is comparable to the European attitude to the Orient (the so-called Orientalism). On the basis of the analysis of specific texts by Balkan authors, the article proves that the identity of the person of the late 20th and early 21st century is something individual and much more complicated than a patriotic self-definition because the identity of the contemporary person is multilayered. It is not flattering to be a bridge, a crossroads or a corner. However, a person is a creature of transition. Our idea demonstrates that the state of transition always brings both weakness and strength – it is the Balkans that connect Europe to the world.

Keywords: image, Slavs, Balkans, identity of the modern Balkan person

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120 Addressing Cultural Discrimination in Research Design: The Responsibilities of Ethics Committees

Authors: Elspeth McInnes

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Research design is central to ethical research. Discriminatory research design is a key risk for researchers examining diverse cultural groups without conscious commitment to anti-discrimination values or knowledge of their culture. Culturally discriminatory research design is defined here as research proceeding from negative assumptions about people on the basis of race, colour, ethnicity, nationality or religion. Such discrimination can be direct or indirect. Direct discrimination is the uncritical mobilization of dominant group negative stereotypes of cultural minorities. Indirect discrimination is the examination of policies or programs grounded in dominant culture negative stereotypes that have been uncritically accepted by the researchers. This paper draws on anonymized elements of planned research projects and considers both direct and indirect cultural discrimination in research design and the responsibilities of ethics committees. Human research ethics committees provide a point of scrutiny with responsibility to alert researchers to risks of basing research on negative cultural stereotypes, as well as protecting participants from being subjected to negative discourses about them. This issue has become an increasing concern in a globalizing world of human displacement and migration creating a rise in the presence of minority cultures in host countries. As a nation established through colonization and immigration Australia has a long history of negative cultural stereotypes of Indigenous Australians as well as a legacy of the White Australia policy, which still echoes in attitudes to each wave of non-European immigration. The task of eliminating cultural discrimination in research design is vital to sustaining research integrity and ensuring that research is not used to reinforce or justify cultural discrimination.

Keywords: cultural discrimination, cultural stereotypes, participant risk, research design

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119 The Effect of Unconscious Exposure to Religious Concepts on Mutual Stereotypes of Jews and Muslims in Israel

Authors: Lipaz Shamoa-Nir, Irene Razpurker-Apfeld

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This research examined the impact of subliminal exposure to religious content on the mutual attitudes of majority group members (Jews) and minority group members (Muslims). Participants were subliminally exposed to religious concepts (e.g., Mezuzah, yarmulke or veil) and then they filled questionnaires assessing their stereotypes towards the out-group members. Each participant was primed with either in-group religious concepts, out-group concepts or neutral ones. The findings show that the Muslim participants were not influenced by the religious content to which they were exposed while the Jewish participants perceived the Muslims as less 'hostile' when subliminally exposed to religious concepts, regardless of concept type (out-group/in-group). This research highlights the influence of evoked religious content on out-group attitudes even when the perceiver is unaware of prime content. The power that exposure to content in a non-native language has in activating attitudes towards the out-group is also discussed.

Keywords: intergroup attitudes, stereotypes, majority-minority, religious out-group, implicit content, native language

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118 Socio-Cultural Representations through Lived Religions in Dalrymple’s Nine Lives

Authors: Suman

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In the continuous interaction between the past and the present that historiography is, each time when history gets re/written, a new representation emerges. This new representation is a reflection of the earlier archives and their interpretations, fragmented remembrances of the past, as well as the reactions to the present. Memory, or lack thereof, and stereotyping generally play a major role in this representation. William Dalrymple’s Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India (2009) is one such written account that sets out to narrate the representations of religion and culture of India and contemporary reactions to it. Dalrymple’s nine saints belong to different castes, sects, religions, and regions. By dealing with their religions and expressions of those religions, and through the lived mysticism of these nine individuals, the book engages with some important issues like class, caste and gender in the contexts provided by historical as well as present India. The paper studies the development of religion and accompanied feeling of religiosity in modern as well as historical contexts through a study of these elements in the book. Since, the language used in creation of texts and the literary texts thus produced create a new reality that questions the stereotypes of the past, and in turn often end up creating new stereotypes or stereotypical representations at times, the paper seeks to actively engage with the text in order to identify and study such stereotypes, along with their changing representations. Through a detailed examination of the book, the paper seeks to unravel whether some socio-cultural stereotypes existed earlier, and whether there is development of new stereotypes from Dalrymple’s point of view as an outsider writing on issues that are deeply rooted in the cultural milieu of the country. For this analysis, the paper takes help from the psycho-literary theories of stereotyping and representation.

Keywords: stereotyping, representation, William Dalrymple, religion

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117 Creating Bridges: The Importance of Intergenerational Experiences in the Educational Context

Authors: A. Eiguren-Munitis, N. Berasategi, J. M. Correa

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Changes in family structures, immigration, economic crisis, among others, hinder the connection between different generations. This situation gives rise to a greater lack of social protection of the groups in vulnerable situations, such as the elderly and children. There is a growing need to search for shared spaces where different generations manage to break negative stereotypes and interact with each other. The school environment provides a favourable context in which the approach of different generations can be worked on. The intergenerational experiences that take place within the school context help to introduce the educational ideology for a lifetime. This induces bilateral learning, which encourages citizen participation. For this reason, the general objective of this research is to deepen the impact that intergenerational experiences have on participating students. The research is carried out based on mixed methods. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation included pre-test and post-test questionnaires (n=148) and group interviews (n=43). The results indicate that the intergenerational experiences influence different levels, on the one hand, help to promote school motivation and on the other hand, help to reduce negative stereotypes towards older people thus contributing to greater social cohesion.

Keywords: intergenerational learning, school, stereotypes, social cohesion

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116 Negotiating Across Cultures: The Case of Hungarian Negotiators

Authors: Júlia Szőke

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Negotiating across cultures needs consideration as different cultures have different norms, habits and behavioral patterns. The significance of cross-cultural negotiations lies in the fact that many business relationships have already failed due to the lack of cultural knowledge. Therefore, the paper deals with cross-cultural negotiations in case of Hungarian business negotiators. The aim of the paper is to introduce the findings of a two-phase research conducted among Hungarian business negotiators. In the first phase a qualitative research was conducted to reveal the importance of cultural differences in case of cross-cultural business negotiations from the viewpoint of Hungarian negotiators, whereas in the second phase a quantitative one was conducted to figure out whether cultural stereotypes affect the way how the respondents negotiate with people coming from different cultures. The research found out that in case of Hungarian negotiators it is mostly the lack of cultural knowledge that lurks behind the problems and miscommunication occurring during the negotiations. The research also revealed that stereotypes have an influence on the negotiation styles of Hungarian negotiators. The paper concludes that culture and cultural differences must be taken into consideration in case of cross-cultural negotiations so that problems and misunderstandings could be avoided.

Keywords: business, culture, negotiations, stereotypes

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115 'Typical' Criminals: A Schutzian Influenced Theoretical Framework Exploring Type and Stereotype Formation

Authors: Mariam Shah

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The way the human mind interprets and comprehends the world it occupies has long been a topic of discussion amongst philosophers and phenomenologists. This paper will focus predominantly on the ideologies espoused by the phenomenologist Alfred Schutz and will investigate how we attribute meaning to an event through the process of typification, and the production and usage of ‘types' and ‘stereotypes.' This paper will then discuss how subjective ideologies innate within us result in unique and subjective decision outcomes, based on a phenomenologically influenced theoretical framework which will illustrate how we form ‘types’ in order to ‘typecast’ and form judgements of everything and everyone we experience. The framework used will be founded in theory espoused by Alfred Schutz, and will review the different types of knowledge we rely on innately to inform our judgements, the relevance we attribute to the information which we acquire, and how we consciously and unconsciously apply this framework to everyday situations. An assessment will then be made of the potential impact that these subjective meaning structures can present when dispensing justice in criminal courts. This paper will investigate how these subjective meaning structures can influence our consciousness on both a conscious and unconscious level, and how this could potentially result in bias judicial outcomes due to negative ‘types’ or ‘stereotypes.' This paper will ultimately illustrate that we unconsciously and unreflexively use pre-formed types and stereotypes to inform our judgements and give meaning to what we have just experienced.

Keywords: Alfred Schutz, criminal courts, decision making, judicial decision making, phenomenology, Schutzian stereotypes, types, typification

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114 Studying Together Affects Perceived Social Distance but Not Stereotypes: Nursing Students' Perception of Their Intergroup Relationship

Authors: Michal Alon-Tirosh, Dorit Hadar-Shoval

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Social Psychology theories, such as the intergroup contact theory, content that bringing members of different social groups into contact is a promising approach for improving intergroup relations. The heterogeneous nature of the nursing profession generates encounters between members of different social groups .The social relations that nursing students develop with their peers during their years of study, and the meanings they ascribe to these contacts, may affect the success of their nursing careers. Jewish-Arab relations in Israel are the product of an ongoing conflict and are characterized by stereotyped negative perceptions and mutual suspicions. Nursing education is often the first situation in which Jewish and Arab nursing students have direct and long-term contact with people from the other group. These encounters present a significant challenge. The current study explores whether this contact between Jewish and Arab nursing students during their academic studies improves their perception of their intergroup relationship. The study explores the students' perceptions of the social relations between the two groups. We examine attribution of stereotypes (positive and negative) and willingness to engage in social interactions with individuals from the other group. The study hypothesis is that academic seniority (beginning students, advanced students) will be related to perceptions of the relations between the two groups, as manifested in attributions of positive and negative stereotypes and willingness to reduce the social distance between the two groups. Method: One hundred and eighty Jewish and Arab nursing students (111 Jewish and 69 Arab) completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the social relations between the two groups. The questionnaires were administered at two different points in their studies (beginning students and those at more advanced stages Results: No differences were found between beginning students and advanced students with respect to stereotypes. However, advanced students expressed greater willingness to reduce social distance than did beginning students. Conclusions: The findings indicate that bringing members of different social groups into contact may improve some aspects of intergroup relations. The findings suggest that different aspects of perceptions of social relations are influenced by different contexts: the students' specific context (joint studies and joint work in the future) and the broader general context of relations between the groups. Accordingly, it is recommended that programs aimed at improving relations in a between social groups will focus on willingness to cooperate and reduce social distance rather than on attempts to eliminate stereotypes.

Keywords: nursing education, perceived social relations, social distance, stereotypes

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113 US-ASEAN Counter Terrorism Cooperation: Maintaining International Security and Avoiding Muslim Stereotypes

Authors: Jordan Daud, Satriya Wibawa, Wahyu Wardhana

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The US Global War on Terror has had effect on Southeast Asia as Second Front of Global War on Terror. Since 2001, ASEAN had adopted legal framework to counter the terrorist threat through numerous approach which accommodate various counterterrorism policy of the ten member states. ASEAN have also enhanced multilateral cooperation with US and its allies in Asia Pacific region in addressing terrorist threat, terrorist funding, cyber terrorism and other forms of terrorism. This cooperation is essential to maintain international security and stability and also assure economic development. This work focuses on the US-ASEAN counterterrorism cooperation due to they identified terrorism as a mutual enemy that posed to human security, infrastructure security, and national security. Having in mind that international terrorism usually connected with Muslim community, this paper will also elaborate the concept of Jihad and Islam revivalism in politics to avoid negative image of Islam and Muslim. This paper argues that as region with large Muslim community, Southeast Asia still need to tighten counter terrorism cooperation and also lessening Muslim stereotypes with terrorism through educating public understanding and inter-faith and intra-faith dialogue to create a better world.

Keywords: ASEAN, U.S., counter terrorism, Muslim stereotypes

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112 Gender Stereotype, Leadership Behavior and Job Performance of Sports Council Personnel in Lagos State

Authors: R. A. Moronfolu, I. M. Ndaks, O. E. Ifekoya

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This study investigated Gender Stereotypes in Leadership Behaviour and its consequent effect on Job Performance of Sports Council Personnel in Lagos State. The descriptive research method was adapted in conducting the study, while eighty sports personnel of Lagos State sports council, Lagos, Nigeria were drawn as respondents using the stratified random sampling technique. A self-structured questionnaire titled “ Gender- Leader Performance Questionnaire (GLPQ) ”was used for data collection. The GLPQ was face validated by three experts in sports management and was subjected to a pilot test using the test retest method for reliability. A total of eighty copies of the validated GLPQ were administered on selected respondents and retrieved on the spot. The descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages were used in describing the demographic data collected, while the inferential statistics of Chi-square (X2) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used in drawing inferences at a level of significance of 0.05. It was observed that gender stereotypes and behaviours of leaders in Lagos State Sports Council, significantly differ. In addition, gender stereotypes and leadership behavior were observed to significantly influence the job performance of sports council personnel in Lagos State.

Keywords: gender, leadership, stereotype, performance

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111 Horizontal Gender Inequality and Segregation at Workplace in China: Understanding How Implicit and Unconscious Gender Stereotypes Produce and Reinforce Workplace Gender Inequality in China through Interview-Based Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Yiyan Wu

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In the past several decades, the market transition in China has brought in not only more opportunities for women in the labor market but also more attention to gender inequality in workplace. Although some pieces of literature have mentioned gender inequality and segregation at workplace in China, the paper looks into the variations of gender inequality and segregation: working women have little feeling about 'hierarchical inequalities', which define the status and position of women at the workplace. However, at the same time, they unconsciously reinforced 'horizontal inequalities', which creates gender segregation across occupations and job titles. Using qualitative interviews with women employers and employees of various occupations and job titles in Eastern and Southern China, this paper finds evidence that working women's understandings of the division of labor based on the characteristics and expectations of women and men are not as a result of rationality and efficiency, but instead, are the products of gendered stereotypes and traditions. However, holding positive views of gender equality at workplace, working women are not aware of the existence and influence of such gendered stereotypes and traditions. By distinguishing the concepts of 'horizontal inequality' and 'hierarchical inequality' with a cultural sociological approach, this paper contributes to the understanding of gender inequality and segregation in contemporary Chinese society. Moreover, this paper explains the logic behind the paradox in which gender inequality and segregation at workplace persist while women are feeling equal.

Keywords: gender equality, segregation, hierarchical inequality, horizontal inequality, China

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110 Challenging the Stereotypes: A Critical Study of Chotti Munda, His Arrow, and Sula

Authors: Khushboo Gokani, Renu Josan

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Mahasweta Devi and Toni Morrison are the two stalwarts of the Indian-English and the Afro-American literature respectively. The writings of these two novelists are authentic and powerful records of the lives of the people because much of their personal experiences have gone into the making of their works. Devi, a representative force of the Indian English literature, is also a social activist working with the tribals of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal. Most of her works echo the lives and struggles of the subalterns as is evident in her 'best-beloved book' Chotti Munda and His Arrow. The novelist focuses on the struggle of the tribals against the colonial and the feudal powers to create their identity, thereby, embarking on the ideological project called Setting the Record Straight. The Nobel laureate Toni Morrison, on the other hand, brings to the fore the crucial issues of gender, race, and class in many of her significant works. In one of her representative works, Sula, the protagonist emerges as a non-conformist and directly confronts the notion of a ‘good woman’ nurtured by the community of the Blacks. In addition to this, the struggle of the Blacks against the White domination, also become an important theme of the text. The thrust of the paper lies in making a critical analysis of the portrayal of the heroic attempts of the subaltern protagonist and the artistic endeavor of the novelists in challenging the stereotypes.

Keywords: the struggle of the muted groups, subaltern, center and periphery, challenging the stereotypes

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109 Representation of Women in TV Commercials

Authors: Elmira Fotoohi

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Representation of women in commercials and the place of sex in advertising is a part of communication studies and all of them are subset of advertising sociology. In this context, a lot of national and international studies have been done from different aspects. But in the meantime, and in connection with women issues, researchers in Communication Science and Sociology are interested in two topics “use of pornographic images of women” and “repeated representations of women in traditional roles and gender stereotypes by emphasizing the differences between men and women”, more than any other topics. Considering a number of changes that have occurred in social institutions and at different levels, the main research question currently are, what is the role of women in our TV ads and how are they represented in them? Do the local television ads represent women in the same issues as the researchers on this topic has proposed or new changes have occurred? Many scholars and thinkers in the field of media outlet that, today, media not just focus on women as gender issues or sex objects, but also seeks to strengthen the gender division of labor in the family and emphasize on the traditional muliebrity and masculinity stereotype.

Keywords: women, representation, tv commercials, advertising sociology, gender stereotypes

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108 Impact of Motor Behaviour Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana Zeina

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Cognitive and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASDs and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and motor behavior aspects. Based on these findings we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future research should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, and ritual and routine adherence and use different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: cognitive ability, CANTAB test, behaviour motor aspects, autism spectrum disorders

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107 Complicating Representations of Domestic Violence Perpetration through a Qualitative Content Analysis and Socio-Ecological Approach

Authors: Charlotte Lucke

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This study contributes to the body of literature that analyzes and complicates oversimplified and sensationalized representations of trauma and violence through a close examination and complication of representations of perpetrators of domestic violence in the mass media. This study determines the ways the media frames perpetrators of domestic violence through a qualitative content analysis and socio-ecological approach to the perpetration of violence. While the qualitative analysis has not been carried out, through preliminary research, this study hypothesizes that the media represents perpetrators through tropes such as the 'predator' or 'offender,' or as a demonized 'other.' It is necessary to expose and work through such stereotypes because cultivation theory demonstrates that the mass media determines societal beliefs about and perceptions of the world. Thus, representations of domestic violence in the mass media can lead people to believe that perpetrators of violence are mere animals or criminals and overlook the trauma that many perpetrators experience. When the media represents perpetrators as pure evil, monsters, or absolute 'others,' it leaves out the complexities of what moves people to commit domestic violence. By analyzing and placing media representations of perpetrators into conversation with the socio-ecological approach to violence perpetration, this study complicates domestic violence stereotypes. The socio-ecological model allows researchers to consider the way the interplay between individuals and their families, friends, communities, and cultures can move people to act violently. Using this model, along with psychological and psychoanalytic approaches to the etiology of domestic violence, this paper argues that media stereotypes conceal the way people’s experiences of trauma, along with community and cultural norms, perpetuates the cycle of systemic trauma and violence in the home.

Keywords: domestic violence, media images, representing trauma, theorising trauma

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106 Induced Emotional Empathy and Contextual Factors like Presence of Others Reduce the Negative Stereotypes Towards Persons with Disabilities through Stronger Prosociality

Authors: Shailendra Kumar Mishra

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In this paper, we focus on how contextual factors like the physical presence of other perceivers and then developed induced emotional empathy towards a person with disabilities may reduce the automatic negative stereotypes and then response towards that person. We demonstrated in study 1 that negative attitude based on negative stereotypes assessed on ATDP-test questionnaires on five points Linkert-scale are significantly less negative when participants were tested with a group of perceivers and then tested alone separately by applying 3 (positive, indifferent, and negative attitude levels) X 2 (physical presence condition and alone) factorial design of ANOVA test. In the second study, we demonstrate, by applying regression analysis, in the presence of other perceivers, whether in a small group, participants showed more induced emotional empathy through stronger prosociality towards a high distress target like a person with disabilities in comparison of that of other stigmatized persons such as racial biased or gender-biased people. Thus results show that automatic affective response in the form of induced emotional empathy in perceiver and contextual factors like the presence of other perceivers automatically activate stronger prosocial norms and egalitarian goals towards physically challenged persons in comparison to other stigmatized persons like racial or gender-biased people. This leads to less negative attitudes and behaviour towards a person with disabilities.

Keywords: contextual factors, high distress target, induced emotional empathy, stronger prosociality

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105 Gender Stereotypes in the Media Content as an Obstacle for Elimination of Discrimination against Women in the Republic of Serbia

Authors: Mirjana Dokmanovic

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The main topic of this paper is the analysis of the presence of gender stereotypes in the media content in the Republic of Serbia with respect to the state commitments to eliminate discrimination against women. The research methodology included the analysis of the media content of six daily newspapers and two magazines on the date of 28 December 2015 and the analysis of the reality TV show programs in 2015 from gender perspective. The methods of the research has also included a desk research and a qualitative analysis of the available data, statistics, policy papers, studies, and reports produced by the government, the Ministry of Culture and Information, the Regulatory Body for Electronic Media, the Press Council, the associations of media professionals, the independent human rights bodies, and civil society organizations (CSOs). As a State Signatory to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Republic of Serbia has adopted numerous measures in this field, including the Law on Equality between Sexes and the national gender equality strategies. Special attention has been paid to eliminating gender stereotypes and prejudices in the media content and portraying of women. This practice has been forbidden by the Law on Electronic Media, the Law on Public Information and Media, the Law on Public Service Broadcasting and the Bylaw on the Protection of Human Rights in the Provision of Media Services. Despite these commitments, there has not been achieved progress regarding eliminating gender stereotypes in the media content. The research indicates that the media perpetuate traditional gender roles and patriarchal patterns. Female politicians, entrepreneurs, academics, scientists, and engineers have been very rarely portrayed in the media. On the other side, women are in their focus as celebrities, singers, and actresses. Women are underrepresented in the pages related to politics and economy, while they are mostly present in the cover stories related to show-business, health care, family and household matters. Women are three times more than men identified on the basis of their family status, as mothers, wives, daughters, etc. Hate speech, misogyny, and violence against women are often present in the reality TV shows. The abuse of women and their bodies in advertising is still widely present. The cases of domestic violence are still presented with sensationalism, although there has been achieved progress in portraying victims of domestic violence with respect and dignity. The issues related to gender equality and the position of the vulnerable groups of women, such as Roma women or rural women, are not visible in the media. This research, as well as warnings of women’s CSOs and independent human rights bodies, indicates the necessity to implement legal and policy measures in this field consistently and with due diligence. The aim of the paper is to contribute eliminating gender stereotypes in the media content and advancing gender equality.

Keywords: discrimination against women, gender roles, gender stereotypes, media, misogyny, portraying women in the media, prejudices against women, Republic of Serbia

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104 The Study on How Social Cues in a Scene Modulate Basic Object Recognition Proces

Authors: Shih-Yu Lo

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Stereotypes exist in almost every society, affecting how people interact with each other. However, to our knowledge, the influence of stereotypes was rarely explored in the context of basic perceptual processes. This study aims to explore how the gender stereotype affects object recognition. Participants were presented with a series of scene pictures, followed by a target display with a man or a woman, holding a weapon or a non-weapon object. The task was to identify whether the object in the target display was a weapon or not. Although the gender of the object holder could not predict whether he or she held a weapon, and was irrelevant to the task goal, the participant nevertheless tended to identify the object as a weapon when the object holder was a man than a woman. The analysis based on the signal detection theory showed that the stereotype effect on object recognition mainly resulted from the participant’s bias to make a 'weapon' response when a man was in the scene instead of a woman in the scene. In addition, there was a trend that the participant’s sensitivity to differentiate a weapon from a non-threating object was higher when a woman was in the scene than a man was in the scene. The results of this study suggest that the irrelevant social cues implied in the visual scene can be very powerful that they can modulate the basic object recognition process.

Keywords: gender stereotype, object recognition, signal detection theory, weapon

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103 Journey of Silver Workers Post Retirement in India: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Avani Maniar, Shivani Mehta

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Population aging is one of the most challenging issues of the twenty-first century, facing both developed and developing countries worldwide. In the developed world, there has already been a substantial amount of research on aging and work to help understand the capacity and potential of older people. They attract ever ones attention. Their existence in human society gives rise to variety of responses, reactions and apprehensions, because it connotes on greater part, to some kind of compulsion or willingness that prompt elderly to decide to work after retirement. Work due to social attention and assurance for security both economical and social. In this age, elderly aspire for psychological security with due attention. But the fact remains that despite age related limitations good number of persons in their age of sixty and beyond were hunting for work that would support them and get them some kind of support and in it turns helps them to remain physically and mentally active. Based on the existing diversities in the ageing process, it may be stated that there is a need to pay greater attention to the increasing awareness on the ageing issues and its socio-economic effects and to promote the development of policies and programmes for dealing with an ageing society. Addressing the needs, wants, and well-being of elderly people is essential for maintaining a healthy productive workforce in an aging society. This paper will draw on the results of the study about reasons of elderly working post retirement, problems faced by them and about the future of retirement to ask how widespread negative attitudes and stereotypes among employers are and whether these attitudes influence behavior towards older employees. The aim of research is not only to point out certain stereotypes concerning the elderly labour force, but also to stress that unless preconditions for overcoming these stereotypes are created and employment opportunities are given to this segment of the labour force, full employment as an ultimate goal of global economic policy cannot be achieved.

Keywords: employers, India, inequality, problems, reasons of working, silver workers

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