Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1216

Search results for: adult attachment

1216 A Study on Adult Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationship Quality among Young Adults

Authors: Kaliammah Kumaran, Thilaagheswary Thangadurai

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This study examined the relationship between anxious attachment and avoidant attachment among young adult romantic relationship quality. Our survey was administered to 300 young adult participants (126 males and 174 females) aged 18-24 years old (M= 20.85, SD=1.89), accomplished the English version of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) used to measure adult attachment and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). All the participants were tertiary level students. Findings of our study indicated that young adults experienced anxious attachment style is negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality as well as young adult from avoidant attachment also negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality among young adults. The results showed that insecure adult attachment styles which are anxious and avoidance adult attachment styles links with reduced quality of romantic relationship.

Keywords: adult attachment style, anxious attachment style, avoidant attachment style, romantic relationship quality

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1215 Attachment Style, Attachment Figure, and Intimate Relationship among Emerging Adults with Anxiety and Depression

Authors: P. K. Raheemudheen, Vibha Sharma, C. B. Tripathi

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Background and Aim: Intimate relationships are one of the major sources of unhappiness for emerging adults(18-25 years) and the extent of worry from it is higher for them as compared to older adults. This increases their vulnerability to develop anxiety and depression. Current academic literature have highlighted adult attachment have a crucial role in determining the psycho social adjustment and psychopathology in Emerging Adulthood. In this context, present study is an attempt to explore patterns of adult attachment styles, availability of attachment figures and dimensions of intimate relationship among emerging adults. Method: The participants(n=30) were emerging adults diagnosed with anxiety or/and depression seeking treatment from IHBAS, Delhi. Relationship Style Questionnaire was used to assess the adult attachment styles and Multidimensional Relationship Questionnaire was used to assess dimensions of intimate relationship. Results& Discussion: Results showed that majority of the participants have insecure attachment styles. They perceived their attachment figure as insensitive and unavailable. Further, it was found that participants experience multiple difficulties to establish and maintain healthy intimate relationships. These findings highlight Adult attachment insecurities seem to contribute to anxiety and depression among emerging adults. It proved a conceptual foundation for planning interventions to deal with these attachment based correlate of anxiety and depression which may be more amenable to therapeutic change.

Keywords: emerging adult, adult attachment, intimate relationship, anxiety

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1214 Lifetime Attachment: Adult Daughters Attachment to Their Old Mothers

Authors: Meltem Anafarta Şendağ, Funda Kutlu

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Attachment theory has some major postulates that direct attention of psychologists from many different domains. First, the theory suggests that attachment is a lifetime process. This means that every human being from cradle to grave needs someone stronger to depend on in times of stress. Second, the attachment is a dynamic process and as one goes through developmental stages it is being transferred from one figure to another (friends, romantic partners). Third, the quality of attachment relationships later in time directly affected by the earliest attachment relationship established between the mother and the infant. Depending on these postulates, attachment literature focuses mostly on mother – child attachment during childhood and romantic relationship during adulthood. However, although romantic partners are important attachment figures in adults’ life, parents are not dropped out from the attachment hierarchy but they keep being important attachment figures. Despite the fact that parents could still be an important figure in adults’ life, adult – parent attachment is overlooked in the literature. Accordingly, this study focuses on adult daughters’ current attachment to their old mothers in relation with early parental bonding and current attachment to husbands. Participants of the study were 383 adult women (Average age = 40, ranging between 23 and 70) whose mothers were still alive and who were married at the time of the study. Participants were completed Adult Attachment Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Experiences in Close Relationship – II together with demographic questionnaire. Results revealed that daughters’ attachment to their mothers weakens as they get older, have more children, and have longer marriages. Stronger attachment to mothers was found positively correlated with current satisfaction with the relationship, perception of maternal care before the age of 12 and negatively correlated with perception of controlling behavior before the age 12. Considering the relationship between current parental attachment and romantic attachment, it was found that as the current attachment to mother strengthens attachment avoidance towards husband decreases. Results revealed that although attachment between the adult daughters and old mothers weakens, the relationship is still critical in daughters’ lives. The strength of current attachment with the mother is related both with the early relationship with the mother and current attachment with the husband. The current study is thought to contribute to attachment theory emphasizing the attachment as a lifetime construct.

Keywords: adult daughter, attachment, old mothers, parental bonding

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1213 The Relationship between Dispositional Mindfulness, Adult Attachment Orientations, and Emotion Regulation

Authors: Jodie Stevenson, Lisa-Marie Emerson, Abigail Millings

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Mindfulness has been conceptualized as a dispositional trait, which is different across individuals. Previous research has independently identified both adult attachment orientations and emotion regulation abilities as correlates of dispositional mindfulness. Research has also presented a two-factor model of the relationship between these three constructs. The present study aimed to further develop this model and investigated theses relationships in a sample of 186 participants. Participants completed the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire Short Form (FFMQ-SF), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale for global attachment (ECR), the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERC), and the Adult Disorganized Attachment scale (ADA). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor solution accounting for 59% of the variance across scores on these measures. The first factor accounted for 32% of the variance and loaded highly on attachment and mindfulness subscales. The second factor accounted for 15% of the variance with strong loadings on emotion regulation subscales. The third factor accounted for 12% of the variance with strong loadings on disorganized attachment, and the mindfulness observes subscale. The results further confirm the relationship between attachment, mindfulness, and emotion regulation along with the unique addition of disorganized attachment. The extracted factors will then be used to predict well-being outcomes for an undergraduate student population.

Keywords: adult attachment, emotion regulation, mindfulness, well-being

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1212 Adult Attachment Security as a Predictor of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy among College Students in the United States

Authors: Mai Kaneda, Sarah Feeney

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This study examined the association between adult attachment security and career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) among college students in the United States. Previous studies show that attachment security is associated with levels of CDMSE among college students. Given that a majority of studies examining career development variables have used parental attachment measures, this study adds to understanding of this phenomenon by utilizing a broader measure of attachment. The participants included 269 college students (76% female) between the ages of 19-29. An anonymous survey was distributed online via social media as well as in hard copy format in classrooms. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and CDMSE. Results revealed anxious attachment was a significant predictor of CDMSE (B = -.13, p = .01), such that greater anxiety in attachment was associated with lower levels of CDMSE. When accounting for anxious attachment, avoidant attachment was no longer significant as a predictor of CDMSE (B = -.12, p = .10). The variance in college CDMSE explained by the model was 7%, F(2,267) = 9.51, p < .001. Results for anxious attachment are consistent with existing literature that finds insecure attachment to be related to lower levels of CDMSE, however the non-significant results for avoidant attachment as a predictor of CDMSE suggest not all types of attachment insecurity are equally related to CDMSE. Future research is needed to explore the nature of the relationship between different dimensions of attachment insecurity and CDMSE.

Keywords: attachment, career decision-making, college students, self-efficacy

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1211 Influence of Instrumental Playing on Attachment Type of Musicians and Music Students Using Adult Attachment Scale-R

Authors: Sofia Serra-Dawa

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Adult relationships accrue on a variety of past social experiences, intentions, and emotions that might predispose and influence the approach to and construction of subsequent relationships. The Adult Attachment Theory (AAT) proposes four types of adult attachment, where attachment is built over two dimensions of anxiety and avoidance: secure, anxious-preoccupied, dismissive-avoidant, and fearful-avoidant. The AAT has been studied in multiple settings such as personal and therapeutic relationships, educational settings, sexual orientation, health, and religion. In music scholarship, the AAT has been used to frame class learning of student singers and study the relational behavior between voice teachers and students. Building on this study, the present inquiry studies how attachment types might characterize learning relationships of music students (in the Western Conservatory tradition), and whether particular instrumental experiences might correlate to given attachment styles. Given certain behavioral cohesive features of established traditions of instrumental playing and performance modes, it is hypothesized that student musicians will display specific characteristics correlated to instrumental traditions, demonstrating clear tendency of attachment style, which in turn has implications on subsequent professional interactions. This study is informed by the methodological framework of Adult Attachment Scale-R (Collins and Read, 1990), which was particularly chosen given its non-invasive questions and classificatory validation. It is further hypothesized that the analytical comparison of musicians’ profiles has the potential to serve as the baseline for other comparative behavioral observation studies [this component is expected to be verified and completed well before the conference meeting]. This research may have implications for practitioners concerned with matching and improving musical teaching and learning relationships and in (professional and amateur) long-term musical settings.

Keywords: adult attachment, music education, musicians attachment profile, musicians relationships

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1210 The Role of Attachment and Dyadic Coping in Shaping Relational Intimacy

Authors: Anna Wendolowska, Dorota Czyzowska

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An intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences romantic partners’ well-being. In the face of stress, avoidant partners often employ a defense-against-intimacy strategy, leading to reduced relationship satisfaction, intimacy, interdependence, and longevity. Dyadic coping can buffer the negative effects of stress on relational satisfaction. Emotional competence mediates the relationship between insecure attachment and intimacy. In the current study, the link between attachment, different forms of dyadic coping, and various aspects of relationship satisfaction was examined. Both partners completed the attachment style questionnaire, the well matching couple questionnaire, and the dyadic coping inventory. The data was analyzed using the actor–partner interdependence model. The results highlighted a negative association between insecure-avoidant attachment style and intimacy. The actor effects of avoidant attachment on relational intimacy for women and for men were significant, whilst the partner effects for both spouses were not significant. The emotion-focused common dyadic coping moderated the relationship between avoidance of attachment and the partner's sense of intimacy. After controlling for the emotion-focused common dyadic coping, the actor effect of attachment on intimacy for men was slightly weaker, and the actor effect for women turned out to be insignificant. The emotion-focused common dyadic coping weakened the negative association between insecure attachment and relational intimacy. The impact of adult attachment and dyadic coping significantly contributes to subjective relational well-being.

Keywords: adult attachment, dyadic coping, relational intimacy, relationship satisfaction

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1209 The Child Attachment Interview: A Psychometric Longitudinal Validation Study in a German Sample

Authors: Jorn Meyer, Stefan Sturmer

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The assessment of attachment patterns in toddlers and adults has been well researched, and valid diagnostic methods (e.g., Strange Situation Test, Adult Attachment Interview) are applicable. For middle and late childhood, on the other hand, there are only few validated methods available so far. For the Child Attachment Interview (CAI) promising validation studies from English-speaking countries are available, but so far a comprehensive study on the validity of a German sample is lacking. Within the scope of a longitudinal project, the results of the first point of measurement are reported in this study. A German-language version of the CAI was carried out with 111 primary school children (56% female; age: M = 8.34, SD = 0.49). In relation to psychometric quality criteria, parameters on interrater reliability, construct validity and discriminant, and convergent validity are reported. Analyses of the correlations between attachment patterns and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from parent and teacher reports are presented. The implications for the German-language assessment of attachment in middle and late childhood in research and individual case diagnostics, e.g., in the context of conducting expert evaluation reports for family courts, are discussed.

Keywords: attachment, attachment assessment, developmental psychology, longitudinal study

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1208 Friendship Love Orientation as Predictor of Attachment Style: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Maria Sana Amin, Anum Atiq, Haya Fatimah

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Secure attachment in childhood creates a healthy love attitude in the adulthood. Child secure attachment develops a positive relation attitude in their adulthood, similarly, anxiety-avoidant attachment develops negative attitude toward relations. The aim of this paper is twofold: 1) We investigate the relationship between Friendship Attitude and Attachment Styles; and 2) explore the impact of gender on Love Attitudes and Attachment styles. Data was collected by convincing sampling among the students of University of Management and Technology age group 18- 25. The sample consists 60 young adults (Male=36, Female =54). The Love Attitudes Scales subscale Storage was used to measure attitudes towards friendship love and The Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire was used to measure Adult Attachment Style. The result of Independent T-Test analysis shows that there was no significant difference in anxiety for female and male conditions; t (58) =-.768, p=.446 and avoidance for female and male conditions; t (58) =1.63, p=.108. Moreover, also there was no significant difference in friendship love for female (M=27.37, SD=6.371) and male (M=26.08, SD=5.709) conditions; t (58) =-.820, p=.416. Pearson correlation analysis shows significantly negative correlation between love attitude-friendship and attachment style- avoidance, (r=-.433, p=.008) among male and love attitude-friendship and attachment style- avoidance (r=-.438, p=.032) among female. There are no gender differences in attachment styles i.e. anxiety, avoidance and their relationship with friendship love attitude. People have avoidant attachment find it hard to fall in love and develop intimacy, and they tend to search for independence.

Keywords: avoidance attachment style, anxiety attachment style, friendship love attitude, gender difference/similarity

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1207 City versus Suburb: The Effects of Neighborhood on Place Attachment and Residential Satisfaction

Authors: Elif Aksel, Çagrı Imamoglu

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This ongoing study aims to investigate the effects of neighborhood location on place attachment and residential satisfaction. Place attachment will be examined by comparing place of residence in different areas of the city. Furthermore, the relationship between neighborhood and residential satisfaction will be investigated in terms of physical and social aspects of the places influencing residential satisfaction. This study will be carried out in two different districts of Ankara which are Çankaya, located in the city center, and Sincan, a suburb. Two-hundred adult respondents will participate in this research; 100 men and 100 women aged between 18-65 years with different socio-economic status using snowball sampling. A place attachment scale and a questionnaire related with residential satisfaction, including open-ended questions and 7-point Likert type scale, will be used as instruments. Apart from these, demographic information of the participants such as gender, age, education, the length of residence will be collected. The findings of the study are expected to demonstrate that neighborhood is seen to be influential on place attachment by affecting the intensity of attachment. The level of place attachment is expected to be greater in areas far from the city compared to areas in the center of the city. Apart from this, the neighborhood is also effective in residential satisfaction. The residents living in these neighborhoods having strong physical and social opportunities will be expected to have higher residential satisfaction.

Keywords: neighborhood, neighborhood satisfaction, place attachment, residential satisfaction

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1206 A Case Study on Parent-Child Relationship, Attachment Styles, and Romantic Relationship Quality of Illegitimate Emerging Adults

Authors: Pierre Nicole Patriarca

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This study examined the attachment styles, parent-child relationship, and romantic relationship quality of five illegitimate emerging adults aged 18 to 23 years old. The researcher used self-report measures, inventory of parent and peer attachment, attachment style questionnaire, and network of relationship – relationship quality version in obtaining data. A semi-structured interview was also used to acquire qualitative data about the detailed perception and experiences on the attachment styles and parent-child relationship. Common themes of each variable were identified through thematic analysis. Results showed that four out of five participants depicted positive relationship to their fathers, while all of them reported to have positive relationship to their mothers. It was also found that four participants have preoccupied attachment style, while the other one has fearful attachment style. Common themes in describing their relationship with their mother include being close, influential to participants’ life, unbounded communication, favorable reason of trusting, and sometimes being inattentive. On the other hand, having distant relationship, limited communication about romantic relationship, uninfluential to participant’s life, and favorable reason of trusting were the common themes in describing relationship with father. Lastly, less trusting, being dependent, and emphasis on valuing intimacy were the common themes in describing their style of attachment.

Keywords: illegitimate, emerging adult, attachment, parent-child relationship, relationship quality

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1205 Language Use in Autobiographical Memory Transcripts as a Window into Attachment Style and Personality

Authors: McKenzie S. Braley, Lesley Jessiman

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If language reveals internal psychological processing, then it is also likely that language use in autobiographical memory transcripts may be used as a window into attachment style and related personality features. The current study, therefore, examined the possible associations between attachment style, negative affectivity, social inhibition, and linguistic features extracted from autobiographical memory transcripts. Young adult participants (n = 61) filled out attachment and personality questionnaires, and orally reported a relationship-related memory. Memories were audio-recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Using a computerized linguistic extraction tool, positive affect words, negative affect words, and cognition words were extracted. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients revealed that attachment anxiety was negatively correlated with cognition words (r2 = -0.26, p = 0.047) and that negative affectivity was negatively correlated with positive affect words (r2 = -0.32, p = 0.012). The findings suggest that attachment style and personality are associated with speech styles indicative of both emotionality and depth of processing. Because attachment styles, negative affectivity, and social inhibition are associated with poor mental health outcomes, analyses of key linguistics features in autobiographical memory narratives may provide reliable screening tools for mental wellbeing.

Keywords: attachment style, autobiographical memory, language, negative affectivity, social inhibition

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1204 Attachment and Emotion Regulation among Adults with versus without Somatic Symptom Disorder

Authors: Natalia Constantinescu

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This cross-sectional study aims to explore the differences among adults with somatic symptom disorder (SSD) versus adults without SSD in terms of attachment and emotion regulation strategies. A total sample of 80 participants (40 people with SSD and 40 healthy controls), aged 20-57 years old (M = 31.69, SD = 10.55), were recruited from institutions and online groups. They completed the Romanian version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale – Short Form (ECR-S), Regulation of Emotion Systems Survey (RESS), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) and Somatic Symptom Disorder – B Criteria Scale (SSD-12). The results indicate significant differences between the two groups in terms of attachment and emotion regulation strategies. Adults with SSD have a higher level of attachment anxiety and avoidance compared to the nonclinical group. Moreover, people with SSD are more prone to use rumination and suppression and less prone to use reevaluation compared to healthy people. Implications for SSD prevention and treatment are discussed.

Keywords: adult attachment, emotion regulation strategies, psychosomatic disorders, somatic symptom disorder

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1203 Attachment as a Predictor for Cognitive Rigidity

Authors: Barbara Gawda

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Attachment model formed in childhood has an important impact on emotional development, personality, and social relationships. Attachment is also thought to have an impact on construction of affective-cognitive schemas and cognitive functioning. The aim of the current study was to verify whether there is an association between attachment and cognitive rigidity defined as dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. The analysis of 180 participants (persons of a similar age and education level, number of men and women was equal) was conducted. To test the attachment styles, the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory (ECR-R) was used. To examine cognitive rigidity, the Rokeach and Budner questionnaires were used. A multiple regression model was employed to examine whether attachment styles are predictors for dogmatism. The results confirmed that fearful-ambivalent attachment is the main predictor for dogmatism but not for intolerance of ambiguity.

Keywords: attachment styles, cognitive rigidity, dogmatism, intolerance of ambiguity

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1202 Attachment Patterns in a Sample of South African Children at Risk in Middle Childhood

Authors: Renate Gericke, Carol Long

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Despite the robust empirical support of attachment, advancement in the description and conceptualization of attachment has been slow and has not significantly advanced beyond the identification of attachment security or type (namely, secure, avoidant, ambivalent and disorganized). This has continued despite papers arguing for theoretical refinement in the classification of attachment presentations. For thinking and practice to advance, it is critically important that these categories and their assessment be interrogated in different contexts and across developmental age. To achieve this, a quantitative design was used with descriptive and inferential statistics, and general linear models were employed to analyze the data. The Attachment Story Completion Test (ASCT) was administered to 105 children between the ages of eight and twelve from socio-economically deprived contexts with high exposure to trauma. A staggering 93% of the children had insecure attachments (specifically, avoidant 37%, disorganized 34% and ambivalent 22%) and attachment was more complex than currently conceptualized in the attachment literature. Primary attachment did not only present as one of four discreet categories, but 70% of the sample had a complex attachment with more than one type of maternal attachment style. Attachment intensity also varied along a continuum (between 1 and 5). The findings have implications for a) research that has not considered the potential complexity of attachment or attachment intensity, b) policy to more actively support mother-infant dyads, particularly in high-risk contexts and c) question the applicability of a western conceptualization of a primary maternal attachment figure in non-western collectivist societies.

Keywords: attachment, children at risk, middle childhood, non-western context

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1201 The Association between Attachment Styles, Satisfaction of Life, Alexithymia, and Psychological Resilience: The Mediational Role of Self-Esteem

Authors: Zahide Tepeli Temiz, Itir Tari Comert

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Attachment patterns based on early emotional interactions between infant and primary caregiver continue to be influential in adult life, in terms of mental health and behaviors of individuals. Several studies reveal that infant-caregiver relationships have impressed the affect regulation, coping with stressful and negative situations, general satisfaction of life, and self image in adulthood, besides the attachment styles. The present study aims to examine the relationships between university students’ attachment style and their self-esteem, alexithymic features, satisfaction of life, and level of resilience. In line with this aim, the hypothesis of the prediction of attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) over life satisfaction, self-esteem, alexithymia, and psychological resilience was tested. Additionally, in this study Structural Equational Modeling was conducted to investigate the mediational role of self-esteem in the relationship between attachment styles and alexithymia, life satisfaction, and resilience. This model was examined with path analysis. The sample of the research consists of 425 university students who take education from several region of Turkey. The participants who sign the informed consent completed the Demographic Information Form, Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, The Satisfaction with Life Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Resilience Scale for Adults. According to results, anxious, and avoidant dimensions of insecure attachment predicted the self-esteem score and alexithymia in positive direction. On the other hand, these dimensions of attachment predicted life satisfaction in negative direction. The results of linear regression analysis indicated that anxious and avoidant attachment styles didn’t predict the resilience. This result doesn’t support the theory and research indicating the relationship between attachment style and psychological resilience. The results of path analysis revealed the mediational role self esteem in the relation between anxious, and avoidant attachment styles and life satisfaction. In addition, SEM analysis indicated the indirect effect of attachment styles over alexithymia and resilience besides their direct effect. These findings support the hypothesis of this research relation to mediating role of self-esteem. Attachment theorists suggest that early attachment experiences, including supportive and responsive family interactions, have an effect on resilience to harmful situations in adult life, ability to identify, describe, and regulate emotions and also general satisfaction with life. Several studies examining the relationship between attachment styles and life satisfaction, alexithymia, and psychological resilience draw attention to mediational role of self-esteem. Results of this study support the theory of attachment patterns with the mediation of self-image influence the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation of person throughout the adulthood. Therefore, it is thought that any intervention intended for recovery in attachment relationship will increase the self-esteem, life satisfaction, and resilience level, on the one side, decrease the alexithymic features, on the other side.

Keywords: alexithymia, anxious attachment, avoidant attachment, life satisfaction, path analysis, resilience, self-esteem, structural equation

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1200 Exploring 'Attachment Theory' in the Context of Early Childhood Education

Authors: Wendy Lee

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From the mid-twentieth century onward, the notion of ‘attachment’ has been used to define the optimum relationship between young children and their carers; first applied to parents and young children and more recently with early childhood educators and children in their care. However, it is seldom, if ever, asked whether the notion of ‘attachment’ and more especially so-called Attachment Theory, as propounded by John Bowlby and others, provides a sound basis for conceptualising child-adult relationships in early years. Even if appropriate in the context of family, the use of the term raises a number of questions when used in early childhood education. Research has shown that our youngest children (infants) in early childhood centre based care settings, are given the utmost priority to build 'attachments' with their educators. But exactly when, how and why does this priority diminish - and should it (for preschoolers)? This presentation will elaborate on such issues and will argue that there is a need to reconceptualise and redefine how 'quality relationships' should be measured and implemented in the daily practices and pedagogical methods adopted by early childhood educators. Moreover, this presentation will include data collected from the empirical study conducted, that observed various early childhood educators and children in Australian early childhood centres. Lastly, the thoughts, feelings and desires of parents of children in early childhood centre-based care, regarding the term 'attachment' and 'quality relationships' will be shared in the hope that we can take one step closer in bridging the needs of families, children, early childhood centres, educators, and the wider community.

Keywords: attachment, early childhood education, pedagogy, relationships

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1199 Mother-Child Attachment and Anxiety Symptoms in Middle Childhood: Differences in Levels of Attachment Security

Authors: Simran Sharda

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There is increasing evidence that leads psychologists today to believe that the attachment formed between a mother and child plays a much more profound role in later-life outcomes than previously expected. Particularly, the fact that a link may exist between maternal attachment and the development in addition to the severity of social anxiety in middle childhood seems to be gaining ground. This research will examine and address a myriad of major issues related to the impact of mother-child attachment: behaviors of children with different levels of secure attachment, various aspects of anxiety in relation to attachment security as well as other styles of mother-child attachments, especially avoidant attachment and over-attachment. This analysis serves to compile previous literature on the subject and touch light upon a logical extension of the research. Moreover, researchers have identified links between attachment and the externalization of problem behaviors: these behaviors may later manifest as social anxiety as well as increased severity and likelihood of PTSD diagnosis (an anxiety disorder). Furthermore, secure attachment has been linked to increased health benefits, cognitive skills, emotive socialization, and developmental psychopathology.

Keywords: child development, anxiety, cognition, developmental psychopathology, mother-child relationships, maternal, cognitive development

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1198 The Effects of Self- and Partner Reported Attachment Orientations and Mate Retention Behaviors: Actor and Partner Effects in Romantic Couples

Authors: Jasna Hudek-Knezevic, Igor Kardum, Nada Krapic, Martina Jurcic

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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of self- and partner reported attachment orientations on self-reported mate retention behaviors in romantic couples using the actor-partner interdependence model. The study was carried out on 187 heterosexual couples aged from 18 to 35 years, with an average relationship length of 4.5 years. Participants were asked to complete the revised scale of adult attachment and short form of mate retention inventory. Actor and partner effects of self- and partner reported anxious and avoidant attachment orientations on mate retention categories (direct guarding, intersexual negative inducements, positive inducements, public signals of possession and intrasexual negative inducements) and domains (cost-inflicting and benefit-provisioning), as well on overall mate retention were examined. Actor effects for women estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their own mate retention behaviors, whereas men’s actor effects estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their own mate retention behaviors. Women’s partner effects estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their partner’s mate retention behaviors, whereas men’s partner effects estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their partner’s mate retention behaviors. The use of two data sources, self- and partner reports, allow the control of the effects of common method variance when exploring actor and partner effects. Positive actor and partner effects of anxious attachment, as well as negative actor and partner effects of avoidant attachment on mate retention, were expected. In other words, it was expected that more anxiously attached individuals themselves, as well as their partners, will use mate retention behaviors more frequently. On the other hand, more avoidantly attached individuals themselves, as well as their partners, will use mate retention behaviors less frequently. These hypotheses were partially confirmed. The results showed that the strongest and most consistent effects across both data sources were men’s actor effects on the cost-inflicting mate retention domain, and especially on two mate retention categories, direct guarding, and intersexual negative inducements. Additionally, a consistent positive partner effect of men’s anxious attachment orientations on direct guarding was also obtained. Avoidant attachment orientation exerted few and inconsistent actor and partner effects on mate retention domains and categories. The results are explained by theoretical propositions addressing the effects of attachment orientations on an interpersonal romantic relationship in early adulthood.

Keywords: actor and partner effects, attachment orientations, dyadic analysis, mate retention behavior

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1197 A Mixed-Methods Design and Implementation Study of ‘the Attach Project’: An Attachment-Based Educational Intervention for Looked after Children in Northern Ireland

Authors: Hannah M. Russell

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‘The Attach Project’ (TAP), is an educational intervention aimed at improving educational and socio-emotional outcomes for children who are looked after. TAP is underpinned by Attachment Theory and is adapted from Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy (DDP), which is a treatment for children and young people impacted by complex trauma and disorders of attachment. TAP has been implemented in primary schools in Northern Ireland throughout the 2018/19 academic year. During this time, a design and implementation study has been conducted to assess the promise of effectiveness for the future dissemination and ‘scaling-up’ of the programme for a larger, randomised control trial. TAP has been designed specifically for implementation in a school setting and is comprised of a whole school element and a more individualised Key Adult-Key Child pairing. This design and implementation study utilises a mixed-methods research design consisting of quantitative, qualitative, and observational measures with stakeholder input and involvement being considered an integral component. The use of quantitative measures, such as self-report questionnaires prior to and eight months following the implementation of TAP, enabled the analysis of the strengths and direction of relations between the various components of the programme, as well as the influence of implementation factors. The use of qualitative measures, incorporating semi-structured interviews and focus groups, enabled the assessment of implementation factors, identification of implementation barriers, and potential methods of addressing these issues. Observational measures facilitated the continual development and improvement of ‘TAP training’ for school staff. Preliminary findings have provided evidence of promise for the effectiveness of TAP and indicate the potential benefits of introducing this type of attachment-based intervention across other educational settings. This type of intervention could benefit not only children who are looked after but all children who may be impacted by complex trauma or disorders of attachment. Furthermore, findings from this study demonstrate that it is possible for children to form a secondary attachment relationship with a significant adult in school. However, various implementation factors which should be addressed were identified throughout the study, such as the necessity of protected time being introduced to facilitate the development of a positive Key Adult- Key Child relationship. Furthermore, additional ‘re-cap’ training is required in future dissemination of the programme, to maximise ‘attachment friendly practice’ in the whole staff team. Qualitative findings have also indicated that there is a general opinion across school staff that this type of Key Adult- Key Child pairing could be more effective if it was introduced as soon as children begin primary school. This research has provided ample evidence for the need to introduce relationally based interventions in schools, to help to ensure that children who are looked after, or who are impacted by complex trauma or disorders of attachment, can thrive in the school environment. In addition, this research has facilitated the identification of important implementation factors and barriers to implementation, which can be addressed prior to the ‘scaling-up’ of TAP for a robust, randomised controlled trial.

Keywords: attachment, complex trauma, educational interventions, implementation

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1196 Investigating the Relationship between Place Attachment and Sustainable Development of Urban Spaces

Authors: Hamid Reza Zeraatpisheh, Ali Akbar Heidari, Soleiman Mohammadi Doust

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This study has examined the relationship between place attachment and sustainable development of urban spaces. To perform this, the components of place identity, emotional attachment, place attachment and social bonding which totally constitute the output of place attachment, by means of the standardized questionnaire measure place attachment in three domains of (cognitive) the place identity, (affective) emotional attachment and (behavioral) place attachment and social bonding. To measure sustainable development, three components of sustainable development, including society, economy and environment has been considered. The study is descriptive. The assessment instrument is the standard questionnaire of Safarnia which has been used to measure the variable of place attachment and to measure the variable of sustainable development, a questionnaire has been made by the researcher and been based on the combined theoretical framework. The statistical population of this research has been the city of Shiraz. The statistical sample has been Hafeziyeh. SPSS software has been used to analyze the data and examined the results of both descriptive and inferential statistics. In inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient has been used to examine the hypotheses. In this study, the variable of place attachment is high and sustainable development is also in a high level. These results suggest a positive relationship between attachment to place and sustainable development.

Keywords: place attachment, sustainable development, economy-society-environment, Hafez's tomb

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1195 Emotion Regulation in Young Adult Relationships in Relation to Parenting Styles

Authors: Taylor Brown

Abstract:

The parent-child attachment bond begins early, often before the birth of the child. Both father and mother begin to form a bond with their child by selecting a name, preparing for the birth, etc. The biological mother carries the child and often breastfeeds the infant after birth. While fathers play an important role in caring for the child as well, the mother is traditionally seen as the caregiver with the primary role of caring for her baby. These core ideas could include how to form bonds, how to communicate emotions, and even how to create and maintain relationships. Mothers tend to shape their children’s minds based on their own. Studies have even shown that when mothers stroke their children’s bodies with their fingers, the child does calm down more than most other methods. The bond between mother and child is one that happens immediately and strengthens over time. This attachment affects the child’s overall development. The mother-child attachment style is directly linked to a multitude of patterns in adolescents, and later on, adults. The researcher believes that the subsequent patterns of communication in romantic relationships are included in the multitude. Awareness of these patterns and their effects could improve experiences in romantic relationships during young adulthood.

Keywords: emotion regulation, parenting, maternal, attachment, romantic

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1194 A ‘Just and Loving Gaze’ on Sexuality and Attachment: Why I Think (Not) All Homosexual Relationships are Borne Out of an Abandonment and Attachment Crisis

Authors: Victor Counted

Abstract:

John Bowlby's Attachment theory is often a framework used by many researchers to understand human relationship experiences with close 'others'. In this short brief on sexuality, I tried to discuss homosexual relationships from three attachment positions, or if you like, conditions, in relation to the compensation and correspondence hypothesis used to understand an individual's attachment orientation with an attachment figure who is seen as a secure base, safe haven, and some kind of target for proximity seeking. Drawing from the springs of virtue and hope in light of Murdock’s ‘just and love gaze’ model, I allowed myself to see the homosexual cases cited in positive terms, as I related to the situations and experiences of our homosexual ‘others’ from the guiding herald of Moltmann's theology of hope. This approach allowed me to conclusively convince readers to engage sexuality from a tolerating tendency of hope in our thinking and thoughts towards the actions and conditions of our dynamic world which is always plunging toward the future.

Keywords: attachment, wellbeing, sexuality, homosexuality, abandonment, tolerance of hope, wise fool

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
1193 Pubertal Development among 10-Year-Olds: The Role of Parent's Attachment Style

Authors: Hanit Ohana, Anat Scher

Abstract:

For decades, attachment research examined how mothers’ attachment styles shape parenting and specific aspects of child development. Only limited research addressed pubertal development from the perspective of attachment relationships. The current study focused on pubertal development at 10 years of age, as defined by Tanner (PDS), and examined the associations with both mothers’ and fathers’ attachment styles (ECR-S). Sixty-nine parents and their children from a medium SES participated in the study. It was found that whereas mothers’ attachment was not related to the child’s puberty development, fathers’ attachment was associated with their daughter’s pubertal development. Specifically, in girls, but not boys, advanced pubertal development was positively correlated with fathers’ avoidance (r = .37, p = 0.05), and negatively correlated with anxiety scores (r = -.36, p = 0.05). This result raises the possibility that for girls, a relationship with fathers may serve as a psychological stressor, and in turn, induce concerns regarding resources and availability of interpersonal support. Such processes may contribute to different reproductive timing and strategies, including delayed and accelerated pubertal development. As more data are collected, we will be able to address with more power the role of parent’s attachment in shaping the pubertal development of their young adolescents. Expanding the understanding of aspects of pubertal development –an important milestone of human development- and the possible linkages with parental attachment is important for researchers and clinicians.

Keywords: attachment style, children, gender, parents, puberty

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1192 Comparison of the Emotion Seeking and Attachment Styles of the Runaway and Normal Girls in Iran

Authors: Hassan Gharibi

Abstract:

This research aims to comparing the emotion seeking and attachment styles between runaway and normal girls. The statistical population consisted of 80 (13-25 year-old) girls were selected among runaway girls and normal girls(40 runaway girls +40 normal girls). Normal girls were matched with the runaway girls in demographic features and selected by simple random method. Measuring tools in this research include the 1993 Shaver and Hazan attachment style scale and the Arent emotion seeking scale. Data analyzed by independent t test. Findings showed that there is no significant difference between two groups of girls in ambivalent and avoidant attachment styles. Secure attachment style rate in normal girls is more than runaway girls. Findings showed significant difference of insecure attachment style (avoidant and ambivalent styles together) between the two groups bout in variable of emotion seeking there is no significant difference.

Keywords: attachment styles, emotion seeking, runaway, girls

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1191 Adult Education for Transformation and Security Challenges in Nigeria

Authors: Asmau Zarma Gogaram

Abstract:

The paper examines adult education and how it can be employed as a strategy for transformation and security challenges in Nigeria. It defines the meaning of adult education and its objectives.The issue of the necessity of employing adult education as a strategy for transformation and security challenges was also examined in the paper.In doing this it discussed the different types of adult education programmes, i.e.continuing education, literacy education, retirement and pre-retirement education and civic education. The paper concluded by stating that if the programmes stated are internalizes and applied they can help to raise awareness. Finally the paper proffered some recommendations one of which was that government should at all levels increase their efforts or promoting acquisition of adult education.

Keywords: adult education, transformation and security challenges, Nigeria, education and human development

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
1190 Exploring Mothers' Knowledge and Experiences of Attachment in the First 1000 Days of Their Child's Life

Authors: Athena Pedro, Zandile Batweni, Laura Bradfield, Michael Dare, Ashley Nyman

Abstract:

The rapid growth and development of an infant in the first 1000 days of life means that this time period provides the greatest opportunity for a positive developmental impact on a child’s life socially, emotionally, cognitively and physically. Current research is being focused on children in the first 1000 days, but there is a lack of research and understanding of mothers and their experiences during this crucial time period. Thus, it is imperative that more research is done to help better understand the experiences of mothers during the first 1000 days of their child’s life, as well as gain more insight into mothers’ knowledge regarding this time period. The first 1000 days of life, from conception to two years, is a critical period, and the child’s attachment to his or her mother or primary caregiver during this period is crucial for a multitude of future outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ understanding and experience of the first 1000 days of their child’s life, specifically looking at attachment in the context of Bowlby and Ainsworths’ attachment theory. Using a qualitative methodological framework, data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 12 first-time mothers from low-income communities in Cape Town. Thematic analysis of the data revealed that mothers articulated the importance of attachment within the first 1000 days of life and shared experiences of how they bond and form attachment with their babies. Furthermore, these mothers expressed their belief in the long-term effects of early attachment of responsive positive parenting as well as the lasting effects of poor attachment and non-responsive parenting. This study has implications for new mothers and healthcare staff working with mothers of new-born babies, as well as for future contextual research. By gaining insight into the mothers’ experiences, policies and intervention efforts can be formulated in order to assist mothers during this time, which ultimately promote the healthy development of the nation’s children and future adult generation. If researchers are also able to understand the extent of mothers’ general knowledge regarding the first 1000 days and attachment, then there will be a better understanding of where there may be gaps in knowledge and thus, recommendations for effective and relevant intervention efforts may be provided. These interventions may increase knowledge and awareness of new mothers and health care workers at clinics and other service providers, creating a high impact on positive outcome. Thus, improving the developmental trajectory for many young babies allows them the opportunity to pursue optimal development by reaching their full potential.

Keywords: attachment, experience, first 1000 days, knowledge, mothers

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1189 Attachment and Self Esteem among Adolescents of Separated Parents

Authors: Aswathy Sampath

Abstract:

The study examined the levels of self esteem and attachment among adolescents of divorced and non-divorced parents. Adolescent is a period which is most prodigious yet stressful period of development in a human’s life hence it is important to study the effects on them. The study was conducted on total 60 adolescents, 30 in each group, from the area of Trivandrum, Kerala as it is the top rated in the number of divorce cases in India. The data was collected using Rosenberg’s self esteem scale and IPPA (father, mother and peer) The results of this study were analyzed using t test and found that there is no significance difference in the level of self esteem and attachment (father, mother and peer). This is due to the cultural elements that give support to the individual and also the type of family as it is much different from the west. Although, there was no significant result, there were higher mean scores in the attachment towards peer for children who are from separated family background or in other words adolescents whose parents were divorced. This tells us the essence of social support.

Keywords: adolescent, attachment, self esteem, separation

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1188 The Relationship among Attachment Styles, Humor Styles and Communication Patterns in Female Married Students

Authors: Elham Fathi, Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh, Abolfazl Hatami Varzane

Abstract:

The present study aimed to determine predict capacity of the relationship among attachment styles, humor styles and communication patterns in female married students. Statistical population consisted of female married students from Allameh Tabataba’i University. The research sample consisted of 104 married students selected through convenience sampling. They responded to study instruments that consisted of attachment styles, humor styles and Communication patterns questionnaires. Data was analyzed by means of correlation method. The results indicated significant positive relationship between secure attachment styles with adaptive humor styles, and anxious attachment styles with maladaptive humor styles. Also a negative relationship between avoidant attachment with affiliative humor, and anxious attachment with self-enhancing humor was found. Furthermore, a negative relationship between self- enhancing humor styles with demand – withdraw communication pattern, and between affiliative humor with mutual avoidant communication pattern and a positive relationship between affiliative humor with mutual constructive communication pattern was observed. The relationship between secure attachment with mutual constructive communication pattern was positive, while relationship between avoidant attachment to mutual constructive communication pattern was negative and significant and its relation with mutual avoidant communication pattern was significantly positive. The result of regression analysis indicated that affliative humor style and secure attachment style, positively predicted mutual constructive communication pattern. Avoidant attachment style positively and affliative humor style negatively predicted the mutual avoidant communication pattern. And self-enhancing humor style negatively predicted the demand – withdraw communication pattern style.

Keywords: attachment styles, communication patterns, humor styles, female married students

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1187 Israel versus Palestine: Politological and Depth-Psychological Aspects

Authors: Harald Haas, Andrea Plaschke

Abstract:

Many of the contemporary major conflicts on this earth could not be solved so far, they either are perpetuated, or they are reflated again and again. Efforts of purely political conflict management or -resolution aim merely at the symptoms of conflict, not its roots. These roots are, in almost every case, also psychological ones. Thus, this contribution aims to shed light on the roots of one of the best known and longest-lasting conflicts: the Palestinian-Israeli one. Methodologies used were the compilation of existing scientific resources, field research in Palestine and Israel, as well as tests conducted with the Adult Attachment Projective in Palestine and Israel. Findings show that the majority of Palestinian, as well as Israeli test participants, show a disorganised attachment pattern which, in connection with the assumption of collective traumatization, seem to be a major obstacle to a lasting and peaceful conflict-resolution between these two peoples. There appears to be no short-term solution for this conflict, especially not within the range of usual Western legislative periods. Both sides ought to be provided with a kind of 'safe haven' over a long period of time, accompanied by a framework of various arrangements of coping with trauma, building lasting and secure relationships, as well as raising and educating present and future generations of Palestinians and Israelis for peace and co-operation with each other.

Keywords: conflict-management, trauma, political psychology, attachment theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 102