Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 538

Search results for: dietary

538 Interaction of Dietary Protein and Vitamin E Supplementation on Gastrointestinal Nematode (Gnt) Parasitism of Naturally Infected Lambs

Authors: Ayobami Adeyemo, Michael Chimonyo, Munyaradzi Marufu

Abstract:

Gastrointestinal nematode (GNT) infection significantly hinder sustainable and profitable sheep production on rangelands. While vitamin E and protein supplementation have individually proven to improve host immunity to parasitism in lambs, to our knowledge, there is no information on the interaction of dietary vitamin E and protein supplementation on lamb growth and GIN faecal egg counts in naturally infected lambs. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation on faecal egg counts (FEC) and growth performance of lambs. Twenty four Dohne Merino lambs aged 12 months were allocated equally to each of four treatment combinations, with six lambs in each treatment group for a period of eight weeks. Treatment one lambs received dietary protein and vitamin E (PE), treatment two lambs received dietary protein and no vitamin E (PNE), treatment three received dietary vitamin E and no protein (NPE), and treatment four received no dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation (NPNE). The lambs were allowed to graze on Pennisetum clandestinum contaminated with a heavy load of nematodes. Dietary protein supplementation increased (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG) and body condition scores (BCS). Dietary vitamin E supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on ADG and BCS. There was no interaction (P > 0.05) between dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation on ADG and BCS. Combined supplementation of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation significantly reduced (P < 0.01) faecal egg counts and larval counts, respectively. Also, dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation reduced GNT faecal egg counts over the exposure period. The current findings support the hypothesis that the interaction of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation reduced faecal egg counts and larval counts in lambs. This necessitates future findings on the interaction of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation on blood associated profiles.

Keywords: gastrointestinal nematodes, nematode eggs, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus

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537 The Diet Adherence in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Patients in the North of Iran Based on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence

Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahboobeh Gholipour, Moona Naghshbandi

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Background and objectives: Before any nutritional intervention, it is necessary to have the prospect of eating habits of people with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we assessed the adherence of healthy diet based on Mediterranean dietary pattern and related factors in adults in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on 550 men and women with cardiovascular risk factors that referred to Heshmat hospital in Rasht, northern Iran. Information was collected by interview and reading medical history and measuring anthropometric indexes. The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener was used for assessing dietary adherence, this screener was modified according to religious beliefs and culture of Iran. Results: The mean age of participants was 58±0.38 years. The mean of body mass index was 27±0.01 kg/m2, and the mean of waist circumference was 98±0.2 cm. The mean of dietary adherence was 5.76±0.07. 45% of participants had low adherence, and just 4% had suitable adherence. The mean of dietary adherence in men was significantly higher than women (p=0. 07). Participants in rural area and high educational participants insignificantly had an unsuitable dietary Adherence. There was no significant association between some cardiovascular disease risk factors and dietary adherence. Conclusion: Education to different group about dietary intake correction and using a Mediterranean dietary pattern that is similar to dietary intake in the north of Iran, for controlling cardiovascular disease is necessary.

Keywords: dietary adherence, Mediterranean dietary pattern, cardiovascular disease, north of Iran

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536 The Interactions of Attentional Bias for Food, Trait Self-Control, and Motivation: A Model Testing Study

Authors: Hamish Love, Navjot Bhullar, Nicola Schutte

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Self-control and related psychological constructs have been shown to have a large role in the improvement and maintenance of healthful dietary behaviour. However, self-control for diet, and related constructs such as motivation, level of conflict between tempting desires and dietary goals, and attentional bias for tempting food, have not been studied together to establish their relationships, to the author’s best knowledge. Therefore the aim of this paper was to conduct model testing on these constructs and evaluate how they relate to affect dietary outcomes. 400 Australian adult participants will be recruited via the Qualtrics platform and will be representative across age and gender. They will complete survey and reaction timing surveys to gather data on the five target constructs: Trait Self-control, Attentional Bias for Food, Dietary Goal-Desire Incongruence, Motivation for Dietary Self-control, and Satisfaction with Dietary Behaviour. A model of moderated mediation is predicted, whereby the initial predictor (Dietary Goal-Desire Incongruence) predicts the level of the outcome variable, Satisfaction with Dietary Behaviour. We hypothesise that the relationship between these two variables will be mediated by Trait Self-Control and that the extent that Trait Self-control is allowed to mediate dietary outcome is moderated by both Attentional Bias for Food and Motivation for Dietary Self-control. The analysis will be conducted using the PROCESS module in SPSS 23. The results of model testing in this current study will be valuable to direct future research and inform which constructs could be important targets for intervention to improve dietary outcomes.

Keywords: self-control, diet, model testing, attentional bias, motivation

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535 Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Fancy Carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Koi

Authors: Jin Choi, Zahra Aminikhoei, Yi-Oh Kim, Sang-Min Lee

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A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile fancy carp, Cyprinus carpio var. koi. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain four protein levels (200, 300, 400, and 500 g kg-1) with two lipid levels (70 and 140 g kg-1). Triplicate groups of fish (initial weight, 12.1±0.2 g fish-1) were hand-fed the diets to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. Weight gain, daily feed intake, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P < 0.0001) affected by dietary protein level, but not by dietary lipid level (P > 0.05). Weight gain and feed efficiency ratio tended to increase as dietary protein level increased up to 400 and 500 g kg-1, respectively. Daily feed intake of fish decreased with increasing dietary protein level and that of fish fed diet contained 500 g kg-1 protein was significantly lower than other fish groups. The protein efficiency ratio of fish fed 400 and 500 g kg-1 protein was lower than that of fish fed 200 and 300 g kg-1 protein. Moisture, crude protein and crude lipid contents of muscle and liver were significantly affected by dietary protein, but not by dietary lipid level (P > 0.05). The increase in dietary lipid level resulted in an increase in linoleic acid in liver and muscle paralleled with a decrease in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids content in muscle of fish. In considering these results, it was concluded that the diet containing 400 g kg-1 protein with 70 g kg-1 lipid level is optimal for growth and efficient feed utilization of juvenile fancy carp.

Keywords: fancy carp, dietary protein, dietary lipid, Cyprinus carpio, fatty acid

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534 Components of Arterial Pressure and Its Association with Dietary Inflammatory Potential of Older Individuals: The Multinational Medis Study

Authors: Demosthenes Panagiotakos

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The aim of the present work was to evaluate dietary habits’ inflammatory potential with various components of arterial blood pressure (hypertension, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP)) in a sample of older Mediterranean people without known cardiovascular disease. During 2005-2011, 2,813 older (aged 65-100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) were voluntarily enrolled. Standard procedures were used to determine arterial blood pressure, as well as PP and MAP, and for the evaluation of dietary habits, lifestyle, anthropometric and clinical characteristics of the participants. A dietary inflammatory index (DII) was assessed based on the participants specific dietary habits, and its calculation was based on a standard procedure. It was reported that the higher the DII level of a diet (adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet) the greater was the likelihood of having an older adult hypertension [OR=3.82 (95% CI): 1.24 to 11.71]. Moreover, the higher the level of DII (more pro-inflammatory dietary habits) the greater were the levels of MAP [b-coefficient (95% CI): 7.23 (+1.86 to +12.59)] and PP, [b-coefficient (95% CI): 10.86 (+2.70 to +19.01)]. Diet’s inflammatory potential is related with various components of arterial pressure. Adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet seems to be associated with increased arterial peripheral resistance and arterial stiffness.

Keywords: dietary inflammatory index, hypertension, mean arterial pressure, elderly

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533 Dietary Pattern and Risk of Breast Cancer Among Women:a Case Control Study

Authors: Huma Naqeeb

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Epidemiological studies have shown the robust link between breast cancer and dietary pattern. There has been no previous study conducted in Pakistan, which specifically focuses on dietary patterns among breast cancer women. This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Pakistani women. This case-control research was carried in multiple tertiary care facilities. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 408); age matched controls (n = 408) were randomly selected from the general population. Data on required parameters were systematically collected using subjective and objective tools. Factor and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) techniques were used to extract women’s dietary patterns. Four dietary patterns were identified based on eigenvalue >1; (i) veg-ovo-fish, (ii) meat-fat-sweet, (iii) mix (milk and its products, and gourds vegetables) and (iv) lentils - spices. Results of the multiple regressions were displayed as adjusted odds ratio (Adj. OR) and their respective confidence intervals (95% CI). After adjusted for potential confounders, veg-ovo-fish dietary pattern was found to be robustly associated with a lower risk of breast cancer among women (Adj. OR: 0.68, 95%CI: (0.46-0.99, p<0.01). The study findings concluded that attachment to the diets majorly composed of fresh vegetables, and high quality protein sources may contribute in lowering the risk of breast cancer among women.

Keywords: breast cancer, dietary pattern, women, principal component analysis

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532 Effects of Different Dietary Crude Fiber Levels on the Growth Performance of Finishing Su-Shan Pigs

Authors: Li Bixia, Ren Shouwen, Fu Yanfeng, Tu Feng, Xiaoming Fang, Xueming Wang

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The utilization of dietary crude fiber in different breed pigs is not the same. Su-shan pigs are a new breed formed by crossing Taihu pigs and Yorkshire pigs. In order to understand the resistance of Su-shan pigs to dietary crude fiber, 150 Su-shan pigs with 60 kg of average body weight and similar body conditions were allocated to three groups randomly, and there are 50 pigs in each group. The percentages of dietary crude fiber were 8.35%, 9.10%, and 11.39%, respectively. At the end of the experiment, 15 pigs randomly selected from each group were slaughtered. The results showed as follows: average daily gain of the 9.10% group was higher than that of the 8.35% group and the 11.39% group; there was a significant difference between the 9.10% group and the 8.35% group (p < 0.05. Levels of urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein in the 9.10% group were significantly higher than those in the 8.35% group and the 11.39% group (p < 0.05). Ratios of meat to fat in the 9.10% group and the 11.39% group were significantly higher than that in the 8.35% group (p < 0.05). Lean percentage of 9.10% group was higher than that of 8.35% group and 11.39% group, but there was no significant difference in three groups (p > 0.05). The weight of small intestine and large intestine in the 11.39% group was higher than that in the 8.35% group, and the 9.10% group and the difference reached a significant level (p < 0.05). In conclusion, increasing dietary crude fiber properly could reduce fat percentage, and improve the ratio of meat to fat of finishing Su-shan pigs. The digestion and metabolism of dietary crude fiber promoted the development of stomach and intestine of finishing Su-shan pig.

Keywords: Su-shan pigs, dietary crude fiber, growth performance, serum biochemical indexes

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531 Assessment of Nutrient Intake, Nutritional Knowledge and Dietary Habits of Omani University Student Athletes

Authors: Amanat Ali, Muhammad S. Al-Siyabi, Mostafa I. Waly, Hashem Al-Kilani

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In a cross-sectional research design, we assessed the nutrient intake, nutritional status, nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) student athletes. A total of 71 (49 male and 22 female) student athletes with a mean age of 21.0 ± 1.81 and 19.32 ± 0.72 years and body mass index (BMI) of 22.51 ± 1.98 and 20.34 ± 2.97 kg/m2 for male and female respectively, participated in this study. A study questionnaire consisting of 2 sections was distributed to the participants. Section I included 18 questions regarding the demographic information, whereas the Section II consisted of 20 questions regarding the nutrition knowledge. The dietary intake of participants was collected by using a 7-days food diary identifying the frequency as well as the variety of food consumption. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in the main sources of nutrition information used by the male and female athletes. Male athletes mainly had most of the nutrition information from friends (17%) whereas female athletes relied mainly on the family (20%). More female athletes (20%) were using TV as a source of nutrition information as compared to male athletes (15%). Both male and female athletes had the minimum nutrition information from dietitians and physicians. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were also observed in the nutritional knowledge and dietary habits scores of male and female athletes, which were 57 % and 49 %, respectively. Male athletes were classified to have fair nutritional knowledge and dietary habits, whereas the female athletes had poor nutritional knowledge and dietary habits. The average daily energy intake of male athletes was 2595 ± 358 kcal/day. Carbohydrate, fat, and protein contributed 64%, 22%, and 14%, of the total energy intake for the male athletes, respectively. The energy and macronutrients intake of male athletes was within the recommended dietary intake. The results indicated some gaps in the nutritional knowledge of SQU student athletes and suggest that there is a need for developing strategies in counseling and teaching the athletes to improve their nutritional knowledge and dietary habits.

Keywords: nutrient assessment, nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, Omani University athletes

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530 Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues by Various Physiological Groups of Population in Andhra Pradesh, South India

Authors: Padmaja R. Jonnalagadda

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Dietary exposure assessment of fifteen pesticide residues was done in Andhra Pradesh. Twelve commonly consumed foods including water, which were representative of the diet, were collected, processed as table ready and analysed for the presence of various Organochlorines, organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. All the samples were contaminated with one or more of the 15 pesticide residues and all of them were within the MRLs. DDT and its isomers, Chlorpyriphos and Cypermethrin were frequently detected in many of the food samples. The mean concentration of the pesticide residues ranged from 0.02 μg kg-1 to 5.1 μg kg-1 (fresh weight) in the analysed foods. When exposure assessments was carried out for different age, sex and physiological groups it was found that the estimates of daily dietary intakes of the analysed pesticide residues in the present study are much lower than the violative levels in all age groups that were computed.

Keywords: table ready foods, pesticide residues, dietary intake, physiological groups, risk

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529 The Effect of Aerobics Course on Fitness Ability of the University Students

Authors: Hui-Fang Lee, Hsuan-Jung Hsieh, Wen-Chi Lu, Meng-Chu Liu

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The purpose of the study was to examine abnormal BMI students of Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology, implement teaching aerobics course through elementary and advanced curriculum design, dietary education and three-day dietary record, analyze participant fitness improvement, an 10-week course as well as pre-test and post-test were carried out to evaluate the effect of the aerobics course on the fitness ability. The actual participate elementary and advanced courses each of 40 people, with low participation deduction course unfinished fitness testing, access to elementary curriculum valid samples 35 (87.5%) people, advanced courses valid samples 38(95%) people, 16 students participated in two consecutive courses. The fitness activities included sit-bending, one-minute sit-ups, standing long jump, and three minutes to board the stage. Analysis and comparison to the average three-day dietary record difference, an independent samples t-test was conducted to analyze the differences in the four activities between pre-test and post-test. The results showed that the elementary course had significant effects on females’ sit-bending and one minute sit-ups, the females also had high fat intake in three-day dietary record. The advanced course had significant effects on males’ sit-bending and on females’ BMI, sit-bending and standing long jump, males and females in three-day dietary record carbohydrate intake slightly low, slightly higher protein and fat intake. In conclusion, aerobics course teaching, dietary education and three-day, dietary record implementation can significantly enhance the physical fitness indicators, and continued to participate in advanced courses better. In the practice of sport should be the future course planning elementary and advanced courses, while introducing dietary education, achieve concrete results in improving physical fitness.

Keywords: physical fitness, aerobics course, dietary education, three-day dietary record

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528 Effect of Dietary Cellulose Levels on the Growth Parameters of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: Keri Alhadi Ighwela, Aziz Bin Ahmad, A. B. Abol-Munafi

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Three purified diets were formulated using fish meal, soya bean, wheat flour, palm oil, minerals and maltose. The carbohydrate in the diets was increased from 5 to 15% by changing the cellulose content to study the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on the growth parameters of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.The protein and the lipid contents were kept constant in all the diets. The results showed that, weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilisation and hepatosomatic index of fish fed the diet containing 15% cellulose were the lowest among all groups. Addition, the fish fed the diet containing 5% cellulose had the best specific growth rate, and food conversion ratio. While, there was no effect of the dietary cellulose levels on condition factor and survival rate. These results indicate that Nile tilapia fingerlings are able to utilize dietary cellulose does not exceed 10% in their feed for optimum growth.

Keywords: dietary cellulose, growth parameters, oreochromis niloticus, purified diets

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527 The Effect of Different Levels of Seed and Extract of Harmal (Peganum harmala L.) on Immune Responses of Broiler Chicks

Authors: M. Toghyani, A. Ghasemi, S. A. Tabeidian

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of dietary seed and extract of Harmal (Peganum harmala L.) on immunity of broiler chicks. A total of 350 one-day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates pen of 14 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of control, 1 and 2 g/kg Harmal seed in diet, 100 and 200 mg/L Harmal seed extract in water. Broilers received dietary treatments from 1 to 42 d. Two birds from each pen were randomly weighed and sacrificed at 42 d of age, the relative weight of lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabercius and spleen) to live weight were calculated. Antibody titers against Newcastle and influenza viruses and sheep red blood cell were measured at 30 d of age. Results showed that the relative weights of lymphoid organs were not affected by dietary treatments. Furthermore, antibody titer against Newcastle and influenza viruses as well as sheep red blood cell antigen were significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by feeding Harmal seed and extract. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary inclusion of Harmal seed and extract enhanced immunological responses in broiler chicks.

Keywords: broiler chicks, Harmal, immunity, Peganum harmala

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526 Dietary Habit and Anthropometric Status in Hypertensive Patients Compared to Normotensive Participants in the North of Iran

Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahbobeh Gholipour

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Hypertension is one of the important reasons of morbidity and mortality in countries, including Iran. It has been shown that hypertension is a consequence of the interaction of genetics and environment. Nutrients have important roles in the controlling of blood pressure. We assessed dietary habit and anthropometric status in patients with hypertension in the north of Iran, and that have special dietary habit and according to their culture. This study was conducted on 127 patients with newly recognized hypertension and the 120 normotensive participants. Anthropometric status was measured and demographic characteristics, and medical condition were collected by valid questionnaires and dietary habit assessment was assessed with 3-day food recall (two weekdays and one weekend). The mean age of participants was 58 ± 6.7 years. The mean level of energy intake, saturated fat, vitamin D, potassium, zinc, dietary fiber, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, copper and magnesium was significantly lower in the hypertensive group compared to the control (p < 0.05). After adjusting for energy intake, positive association was observe between hypertension and some dietary nutrients including; Cholesterol [OR: 1.1, P: 0.001, B: 0.06], fiber [OR: 1.6, P: 0.001, B: 1.8], vitamin D [OR: 2.6, P: 0.006, B: 0.9] and zinc [OR: 1.4, P: 0.006, B: 0.3] intake. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was not significant association between hypertension, weight and waist circumference. In our study, the mean intake of some nutrients was lower in the hypertensive individuals compared to the normotensive individual. Health training about suitable dietary habits and easier access to vitamin D supplementation in patients with hypertension are cost-effective tools to improve outcomes in Iran.

Keywords: hypertension, north of Iran, dietary intake, weight

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525 A Study on Household Food Security and Dietary Diversity in Urban Centers of Thrissur

Authors: Sandra Thomas

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This study tries to analyse the level of food security and dietary diversity among households of different socio-economic classes in the urban centers of Thrissur. The study revealed that there is no much difference in purchasing patterns of food articles among the socio-economic classes indicating a very high level of both physical and economic accessibility of food. On analysing the dietary diversity of the households none of the households scored below five and fifty-three per cent of the households scored eleven or twelve indicating higher diversity in diet. It was also found that income and education are the two important factors that influence the level of household food security.

Keywords: food security, dietary diversity, household level, socio-economic classes

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524 Dietary Nutrient Consumption Patterns by the Pregnant Mother in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Tasmia Tasnim

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Introduction: Pregnancy is a condition of higher nutrient requirement but in developing countries like Bangladesh most of the pregnant women can not meet their nutrient requirement and sometimes they are neglected in the family. The purpose of the study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary nutrient intake by the pregnant women, in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Methods: The study population comprised of pregnant women from urban or semi-urban, aged between 18 to 35 and free of pregnancy related complication and other diseases. Under a cross-sectional design, 30 healthy non-pregnant as well as 130 pregnant women, at 3 different trimesters of pregnancy were assessed. A questionnaire was developed to obtain demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric, drug and medical history. Three day consecutive 24-hour food recalls were used to assess food intake and then converted to nutrient intake. Results: The average BMI of the nonpregnant women was 22.89 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and that of pregnant women was 23.52 ± 3.71 kg/m2. The mean dietary nutrient intake of dietary fiber, calorie, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, Vitamin A, folate, vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 of the pregnant mothers were 4.38 g, 1619 kcal, 60.05 g, 30.38 g, 268.79 g, 537.21 mg, 21.53 mg, 1.15 mg, 0.94 mg, 97.36 mg, 647.6 µg, 153.93 µg, 1.41 mg and 4.09 µg respectively. Most of pregnant women (more than 90%) can not meet their energy, calcium and folate requirements. Conclusion: Most of the pregnant mother in Bangladesh can not meet their dietary requirements during pregnancy.

Keywords: pregnancy, dietary nutrient, nutritional status, BMI

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523 Impact of Dietary L-Threonine Supplementation on Performance and Health of Broiler Chickens, a Review

Authors: Mandana Hoseini

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During last decades, intensive selection for higher growth rate in broiler chickens has accelerated daily body weight gain, which this has changed/increased the trends and amounts of nutrient requirements in the diet. As a result, considerable studies have been focused on the better determination of protein/amino acids requirements in modern broiler diets. One approach to minimize dietary crude protein inclusion levels is substitution of some of the dietary crude protein with synthetic amino acids. In addition, using synthetic forms of limiting essential amino acids in the diet could help better coincidence of dietary protein with ideal protein concept, which this in turn, minimizes nitrogen dissipation and environmental pollution. Threonine is usually considered as the third limiting amino acid in broiler diets. Recent studies have been demonstrated that dietary supplemental threonine would optimize growth performance, immune system, intestinal morphology, as well as oxidative defense in broiler chickens. In this review, threonine metabolism and its effects in relation with different aspects of broiler performance have been discussed.

Keywords: immune system, intestine, performance, requirement, threonine

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522 Fatty Acid Profile and Dietary Fibre Contents of Some Standardized Soups and Dishes Consumed in Nigeria

Authors: Olufunke O. Obanla, Oluseye O. Onabanjo, Silifat A. Sanni, Mojisola O. Adegunwa, Wasiu A. O. Afolabi, Omolola O. Oyawoye, Atinuke Titilola Lano-Maduagu

Abstract:

Background: Dietary fat is implicated in the increasing development of chronic diseases in developing countries while dietary fibre plays a major role in the management of these diseases. Accurate nutrient composition data for composite dishes unique to a population is essential for the development of a nutrient database and the calculation of dietary intake. Methods: Representative samples of standardized Nigerian soups and dishes were analyzed for fatty acids using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) and dietary fibre using an enzymatic-gravimetric standard method of AOAC. Results: The total Saturated Fatty acids (SFAs) ranged from 0.74+0.3g/100g to 73.82+0.07g/100g. The total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ranged from 2.16+1.13g/100g for Yam pottage to 22.25+0.58g/100g for Okazi soup and eba, and from 0.42+0.10g/100g for Yam pottage to 10.22+0.1g/100g for Pounded yam with egusi ball soup, respectively. Trans fat was observed in Alapafubu and Tuwo shinkafa (2.80+0.2g/100g), Yam pottage (0.20+0.15g/100g), Steamed bean pudding (1.28+0.53g/100g) and Ikokore (5.33+0.41g/100g). The Total Dietary Fibre (TDF) contents of the dishes ranged from 12.95+2.99g/100g in Jollof rice to 62.00+0.94g/100g in Melon seed and vegetable soup, the Soluble Dietary Fibre (SDF) ranged from 2.05+0.32g/100g in Steamed bean pudding to 7.81+0.74g/100g in Ikokore while the Insoluble Dietary Fibre (IDF) ranged from 8.20+0.43g/100g in Jollof rice to 57.91+4.69g/100g in melon seed and vegetable soup. Conclusions: The study has indicated that some Nigerian dishes are characterized by high SFAs, TFAs and dietary fibre, moderate MUFAs and very low levels of PUFAs. High levels of SFAs in some soups and dishes are a major public health concern.

Keywords: healthy diet, dietary fibre, fatty acid profile, chronic diseases, Nigerian dishes

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521 Major Dietary Patterns in Relationship with Anthropometric Indices in North West of Iran

Authors: Arezou Rezazadeh, Nasrin Omidvar, Hassan Eini-Zinab, Mahmoud Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Reza Majdzadeh, Saeid Ghavamzadeh, Sakineh Nouri-Saeidlou

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Dietary pattern analysis method can reflect more information about the nutritional etiology of chronic diseases such as obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between major dietary patterns and anthropometric measures in men and women living in the city of Urmia. In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men), aged 20–64 in Urmia city were selected from all four zones of Urmia city, in the north-west of Iran. Anthropometrics (weight, height, waist and hip circumference) were measured with standard methods. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by dividing weight (in kilograms) by the square of height (in meter). Dietary intake information was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in the last year. Dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis. The relationship between dietary patterns and obesity was analyzed by logistic regression. Three major dietary patterns (DPs) were identified that were named ‘Traditional Higher SES (THS)’, ‘Traditional Low SES (TLS)’ and ‘Transitional’. THS DP was positively and Transitional DP was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference (W.C), however, after adjusting for confounding variables (age, gender, ethnicity, energy intake, physical activity and SES), the associations were not significant. The TLS was not significantly associated with BMI, but after adjusting for confounders, a significant positive association was detected with W.C and Waist to hip ratio (WHR). Findings showed that both traditional patterns were positively and the western type transitional pattern was reversely associated with anthropometric indices. But this relationship was highly affected by demographic, socioeconomic and energy input and output determinants. The results indicate the inevitable effect of environmental factors on the relationship between dietary patterns and anthropometric indices.

Keywords: anthropometric indices, dietary pattern, Iran, North-west

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520 Rheological Properties of Dough and Sensory Quality of Crackers with Dietary Fibers

Authors: Ljubica Dokić, Ivana Nikolić, Dragana Šoronja–Simović, Zita Šereš, Biljana Pajin, Nils Juul, Nikola Maravić

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The possibility of application the dietary fibers in production of crackers was observed in this work, as well as their influence on rheological and textural properties on the dough for crackers and influence on sensory properties of obtained crackers. Three different dietary fibers, oat, potato and pea fibers, replaced 10% of wheat flour. Long fermentation process and baking test method were used for crackers production. The changes of dough for crackers were observed by rheological methods of determination the viscoelastic dough properties and by textural measurements. Sensory quality of obtained crackers was described using quantity descriptive method (QDA) by trained members of descriptive panel. Additional analysis of crackers surface was performed by videometer. Based on rheological determination, viscoelastic properties of dough for crackers were reduced by application of dietary fibers. Manipulation of dough with 10% of potato fiber was disabled, thus the recipe modification included increase in water content at 35%. Dough compliance to constant stress for samples with dietary fibers decreased, due to more rigid and stiffer dough consistency compared to control sample. Also, hardness of dough for these samples increased and dough extensibility decreased. Sensory properties of final products, crackers, were reduced compared to control sample. Application of dietary fibers affected mostly hardness, structure and crispness of the crackers. Observed crackers were low marked for flavor and taste, due to influence of fibers specific aroma. The sample with 10% of potato fibers and increased water content was the most adaptable to applied stresses and to production process. Also this sample was close to control sample without dietary fibers by evaluation of sensory properties and by results of videometer method.

Keywords: crackers, dietary fibers, rheology, sensory properties

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519 Dietary Practices of Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Kitui Out Patient Clinic at Kitui County, Kenya

Authors: Alice W. Theuri, Anselimo O. Makokha, Florence M. Kyallo

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious metabolic disorder whose prevalence among adults has been increasing in the last decade. It is estimated that by 2030, the number of cases in Africa will almost double. Diet and lifestyle modifications are considered the cornerstone for the treatment and management of T2DM. Despite this, there is minimum literature assessing the dietary practices and glycemic control in a semi arid region context in Kenya. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary practices of adult T2DM patients attending Kitui out patient clinic in Kitui County. This was a cross sectional study design where every consenting second patient attending diabetic clinic was interviewed. A total of 138 T2DM patients were interviewed using a structured interview guide on socio-economic and dietary practices administered. The study was carried out in April and May 2017. There were more female (64%) than male (36%) in this study with majority being unemployed (38.4%). Forty seven percent (47.6%) had elevated HbA1c. Majority took three meals per day while DDS was 4.3 ± 1.09. The mean energy intake for men and women was 2823.8 ± 82.45 and 2766.3.30 ± 76.74 respectively. There was a non significant positive relationship (r= 131; P value = 0.124) between amount energy consumed and glycemic control. There were suboptimal dietary practices leading to poor glycemic control among T2DM patients attending diabetic clinic at Kitui District Hospital.

Keywords: adults, dietary practices, semi arid region, T2DM

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518 Relationship of Sleep Duration with Obesity and Dietary Intake

Authors: Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Makan Cheraghpour, Saeed Shirali, Roya Rafie, Matin Ghanavati, Arezoo Amjadi, Meysam Alipour

Abstract:

Background: There is a mutual relationship between sleep duration and obesity. We studied the relationship between sleep duration with obesity and dietary Intake. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 444 male students in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science. Dietary intake was analyzed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric indices were analyzed. Participants were being asked about their sleep duration and they were categorized into three groups according to their responses (less than six hours, between six and eight hours, and more than eight hours). Results: Macronutrient, micronutrient, and antioxidant intake did not show significant difference between three groups. Moreover, we did not observe any significant difference between anthropometric indices (weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat). Conclusions: Our study results show no significant relationship between sleep duration, nutrition pattern, and obesity. Further study is recommended.

Keywords: sleep duration, obesity, dietary intake, cross-sectional

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517 Effect of Dietary Spirulina Powder on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Hematological, Biological and Immunological Parameters of Oscar Fish, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin

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In this study, the changes in survival, growth, body composition, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus) have been investigated with dietary spirulina powder supplementation. Total of 300 fish with an initial weight of 8.37 ± 0.36 was distributed to three treatments and one control (0%). The fish were fed 8 weeks with diets containing different concentrations of S. powder: (control (0%), 2.5%, 5%, and 10%). Then sampling was done, and different parameters were measured by standard methods. Growth performance such as weight gain (%), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly improved in fish fed with S. powder (p < 0.5). Crude protein significantly increased in the S. powder supplemented groups (p < 0.5). However, crude lipid decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Total protein increased in fish fed with 10% S. powder. Triglycerides and cholesterol decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Immunological parameters including C3 and C4 increased significantly with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels, and lysozyme was improved in 10% S. powder. Results of this study indicated that S. powder had positive effects on Oscar fish and the best values were observed at 10 % S. powder.

Keywords: spirulina powder, growth performance, body composition, hematology, immunity, Astronotus ocellatus

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516 Development of High Fiber Biscuit with Bamboo Shoot Powder

Authors: Beatrix Inah C. Mercado

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Bamboo shoots are the immature and edible culms from bamboos which contains high amount of dietary fibers. However, in spite of these functional properties of bamboo shoots it is still underutilized. Objectives: To develop bamboo shoot powder and incorporate it to biscuits as a source of dietary fiber and antioxidant. Materials and Methods: Bamboo shoot powder (BSP) was freeze-drying and grind and was incorporated to biscuits in 20% concentration. BSP and biscuits with BSP were analyzed for its proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytonutrients and antioxidant capacity. Results: BSP has 13.1 % moisture, 18.8% protein and 8% ash, 2.4g/100g total fat and 57.7% carbohydrate. BSP and biscuits with 20% BSP were good sources of dietary fiber containing 27.8g/100g and 7.1 g/100g, respectively. BSP is high in phytonutrient contents in terms of total polyphenols (1052mg gallic/100 g) and flavonoids (4046mg catechin/100g). Biscuits with BSP contained higher source of phytonutrients and antioxidant capacity as compared to biscuits without BSP. Sensory evaluation revealed that biscuits with BSP were more acceptable than biscuits without BSP. Conclusion: Bamboo shoots may be used as a potential functional ingredient in food products for broader application.

Keywords: bamboo shoots, phytonutrients, fiber, biscuit

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515 The Control of Type 2 Diabetes with Specific References to Dietary Factors

Authors: Reham Algheshairy

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The purpose of this research study is to identify the beneficial effects of Nigella sativa seeds, cherries and Ajwah dates on blood glucose levels among people with type 2 diabetes in the KSA population and healthy people in the UK. My hypothesis questions whether or not people with type 2 diabetes can lead a healthier life using these dietary supplements.

Keywords: diabetes type 2, cherry, nigella seeds, Ajwa date

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514 The Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C against Oxidative Stress Generate by Dietary Zn-Deficiency in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid

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This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress induced by dietary Zn-deficiency in albino diabetic rats. Thirty two males alloxan-diabetic rats divided into two groups of 16 individuals each; the first group was fed a zinc adequate diet (54 mg zinc/kg). The second group had given low zinc diet (1 mg zinc/kg). Then, half of each group was treated with vitamin C (1 g/l) in drinking water. After four weeks, animals were sacrificed and different parameters were determined. The findings showed that dietary deficiency zinc intake significantly increased serum glucose. Zn-deficiency was also led to an increase in oxidative stress, which was indicated by an increase of MDA level and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Meanwhile it was result in a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px and catalase activities in liver. However, the administration of vitamin C restored all the previous parameters approximately to their normal values. In conclusion, vitamin C probably played a key role strong as antioxidant factor against oxidative stress provoked by dietary zinc inadequate. Therefore, it might be contributed in reduction diabetes complications.

Keywords: vitamin C, oxidative stress, zinc, experimental diabetes, rats

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513 Analysis of the Dietary Intake of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Rural Communities of Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Uzoamaka Nwugo Akwiwu

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among rural dwellers depletes quality of agricultural labour, and reduces quality of life. Use of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has not significantly reduced consequences of infection, as the effort is being compromised by inadequate dietary intake. This study analysed the dietary intake of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in rural communities of Imo State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 114 PLWHA randomly selected from members of two rural support groups with high prevalence of HIV in Imo State using interview schedule. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, and t-test at α0.05. Level of involvement in agriculture was (mean 12.7) and reduced to 7.0 after infection. Extent of involvement in agriculture significantly reduced after infection in Imo (t=8.1). Health status of 42.1% of PLWHA was perceived as poor. Diet diversity score (4.3±1.6) was low among majority (62.3%) of the PLWHA, with diet of 76.3% being inadequate. However, perceived health status had no significant correlation with dietary intake (r=0.09). The study concluded that diet of PLWHA in Imo State was inadequate, thus there is need for agricultural extension agents to collaborate with the health sector to develop nutritional guideline for PLWHA in rural communities.

Keywords: dietary intake, diet diversity, people living With HIV/AIDS, perceived health status

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512 Dietary Intake and the Risk of Hypertriglyceridemia in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

Authors: Parvin Mirmiran, Zahra Bahadoran, Sahar Mirzae, Fereidoun Azizi

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Background and aim: Lifestyle factors, especially dietary intakes play an important role in metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In this study, we assessed the association between dietary factors and 3-year changes of serum triglycerides (TG), HDL-C and the atherogenic index of plasma among Iranian adults. This longitudinal study was conducted on 1938 subjects, aged 19-70 years, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measurements including serum TG were assessed at baseline (2006-2008) and after a 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). Dietary data were collected by using a 168-food item, validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. The risk of hypertriglyceridemia in the quartiles of dietary factors was evaluated using logistic regression models with adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and energy intakes. Results: Mean age of the participants at baseline was 41.0±13.0 y. Mean TG and HDL-C at baseline was 143±86 and 42.2±10.0 mg/dl, respectively. Three-year change of serum TG were inversely related energy intake from phytochemical rich foods, whole grains, and legumes (P<0.05). Higher intakes compared to lower ones of dietary fiber and phytochemical-rich foods had similar impact on decreased risk of hyper-triglyceridemia (OR=0.58, 95% CI=0.34-1.00). Higher- compared to lower-dietary sodium to potassium ratios (Na/K ratio) increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia by 63% (OR=0.1.63, 95% CI= 0.34-1.00). Conclusion: Findings showed that higher intakes of fiber and phytochemical rich foods especially whole grain and legumes could have protective effects against lipid disorders; in contrast higher sodium to potassium ratio had undesirable effect on triglycerides.

Keywords: lipid disorders, hypertriglyceridemia, diet, food science

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511 The Association of Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Index with Musculoskeletal Pains in Elderlies

Authors: Mahshid Rezaei, Zahra Tajari, Zahra Esmaeily, Atefeh Eyvazkhani, Shahrzad Daei, Marjan Mansouri Dara, Mohaddesh Rezaei, Abolghassem Djazayeri, Ahmadreza Dorosti Motlagh

Abstract:

Background: Musculoskeletal pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in elderly age. Nutrition and diet are considered important underlying factors that could affect chronic musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between empirical dietary inflammatory patterns (EDII) and musculoskeletal pain. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 213 elderly individuals were selected from several health centers. The usual dietary intake was evaluated by a valid and reliable 147-items food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). To measure the intensity of pain, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used. Multiple Linear Regression was applied to assess the association between EDII and musculoskeletal pain. Results: The results of multiple linear regression analysis indicate that a higher EDII score was associated with higher musculoskeletal pain (β= 0.21: 95% CI: 0.24-1.87: P= 0.003). These results stayed significant even after adjusting for covariates such as sex, marital status, height, family number, sleep, BMI, physical activity duration, waist circumference, protector, and medication use (β= 0.16: 95% CI: 0.11-1.04: P= 0.02). Conclusion: Study findings indicated that higher inflammation of diet might have a direct association with musculoskeletal pains in elderlies. However, further investigations are required to confirm these findings.

Keywords: musculoskeletal pain, empirical dietary inflammatory pattern, elderlies, dietary pattern

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510 Effect of Dietarty Diversity on Maternal Dietary Diversity of Anemia of the Mother during Pregnancy and Prenatal Outcomes: Prospective Cohort Study in Rural Central Ethiopia

Authors: Taddese Alemu Zerfu, Melaku Umeta Deressa, Kaleab Baye

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Background: Maternal and child under-nutrition is the underlying cause of 3•5 million annual deaths, globally. Anemia during pregnancy is among the leading nutritional disorders with serious short and long term consequences to both the mother and fetus. Objective: Examine the effect of dietary diversity on maternal anemia, nutritional status and key pregnancy outcomes of pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study design, involving a total of 432 eligible pregnant women, in their second antenatal care visit was conducted between August 2014 to March, 2015. The individual dietary diversity status of mothers was used as the exposure variable to select, enroll and follow the mothers. All mothers were enrolled during second antenatal care visit and followed until delivery. Epi-data, SPSS and STATA software are used to enter and analyze the data. Chi-square test, independent 't'-test, and GLM are used to calculate risk, association and differences between key variables at P < 0.05. Results: Study participants did not differ in many of the basic characteristics (p < 0.05). The incidence of maternal anemia increased significantly from 28.6% to 32.1% between baseline and term. Pregnant mothers with inadequate dietary diversity groups had more (56% at baseline and 68% at term) risk of anemia than the comparison (adequate) groups, (RR, 1.56 and 1.68; 95% CI, 1.24 - 1.83 and 1.39 - 2.04). The overall incidence of still birth, low birth weight and pre-term birth was 4.5%, 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively. The variation of these outcomes was significant across study groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion and recommendations: Dietary diversity status of pregnant mothers has significant effect on the incidence of anemia and key pregnancy outcomes in resource limited settings, like rural Ethiopia. Therefore, apart from the ongoing routine IFA supplementation, special emphasis should be given to dietary diversity of mothers to improve related outcomes of pregnancy and maternal health.

Keywords: anemia, birth weight, dietary diversity, pregnancy, pregnancy outcome

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509 Optimization of Digestive Conditions of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten using Food-Grade Enzymes

Authors: Byung Wook Yang, Sae Kyul Kim, Seung Il Ahn, Jae Hee Choi, Heejung Jung, Yejin Choi, Byung Yong Kim, Young Tae Hahm

Abstract:

Opuntia ficus-indica is a member of the Cactaceae family that is widely grown in all the semiarid countries throughout the world. Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS), commonly known as prickly pear cactus, is commercially cultivated as a dietary foodstuffs and medicinal stuffs in Jeju Island, Korea. Owing to high viscosity of OFS’ pad, its application to the commercial field has been limited. When the low viscosity of OFS’s pad is obtained, it is useful for the manufacture of healthy food in the related field. This study was performed to obtain the optimal digestion conditions of food-grade enzymes (Pectinex, Viscozyme and Celluclast) with the powder of OFS stem. And also, the contents of water-soluble dietary fiber (WSDF) of the dried powder prepared by the extraction of OFS stem were monitored and optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM), which included 20 experimental points with 3 replicates for two independent variables (fermentation temperature and time). A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of fermentation temperature (30-90 °C, X1) and fermentation time (1-10h, X2) on dependent variables, such as viscosity (Y1), water-soluble dietary fiber (Y2) and dietary fiber yield (Y3). Estimated maximum values at predicted optimum conditions were in agreement with experimental values. Optimum temperature and duration were 50°C and 12 hours, respectively. Viscosity value reached 3.4 poise. Yield of water-soluble dietary fiber is determined in progress.

Keywords: Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten, enzymatic fermentation, response surface methodology, water-soluble dietary fiber, viscosity

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